ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: emotional intelligence; mountain sports; life satisfaction; resilience
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:42:54 CET)
High-level performance in mountain sports would be unlikely unless different emotional factors are taken into account through the analysis of psychological characteristics such as mood, resilience or motivation, among many others. In this study, 788 people with a sports degree from the Spanish Federation of Mountain Sports and Climbing (FEDME) participated, 75.3% are men and 24.5% are women. The mean age of the participants was 49.8 years (±12.8), ranging from 18 to 76 years. The Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS-S), the RS-14 Resilience Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) instrument were used. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between the dimensions of emotional intelligence, resilience and life satisfaction. The results showed a relationship between several of the dimensions from the instruments used (p<.01). In terms of gender, higher scores were found for women than for men. The regression model shows that both the dimensions of emotional intelligence [Appraisal of own emotions (β=.104; p<.001); Use of emotions (β=.30; p<.001); Emotional Regulation (β=.103; p<.001)] and resilience [Personal competence (β=.402; p<.001)], are predictors of greater life satisfaction, with 44.1% positively explained by the regression model. Further proposals should extend the results obtained with the analysis of more sports modalities and provide evidence that would complement those extracted in this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: boreal forest; forest fire; ENSO; Altai Mountain
Online: 1 August 2020 (16:18:27 CEST)
Warming-induced drought stress and El Nino associated summer precipitation failure are responsible for increased forest fire intensities of tropical and temperate forests in Asia and Australia. However, both effects are unclear for boreal forests, the largest biome and carbon stock over land. Here we combined fire frequency, burned area and climate data in the Altai boreal forests, the southmost extension of Siberia boreal forest into China, and explored their link with ENSO (El Nino and South Oscillation). Surprisingly, both summer drought severity and fire occurrence have shown significant (P<0.05) teleconnections with La Nina events of the previous year, and therefore provide an important reference for forest fire prediction and prevention in Altai. Despite a significant warming trend, the increased moisture over Altai has largely offset the effect of warming-induced drought stress, and lead to an insignificant fire frequency trend in the last decades, and largely reduced burned area since the 1980s. The reduced burned area could also benefit from the fire suppression efforts and greatly increased investment in fire prevention since 1987.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0986.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: drought; satellite data; Sentinel-2; grassland; mountain; insurance
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:53:50 CEST)
This work estimates yield losses due to drought events in mountain grasslands in north-eastern Italy, laying the groundwork for index-based insurance. Given the high correlation between Leaf Area Index (LAI) and grassland yield, we exploit LAI as a proxy for yield. We estimate LAI by the Sentinel-2 biophysical processor and we compare different gap-filling methods, including time-series interpolation and fusion with Sentinel-1 SAR data. We derive a Forage Production Index (FPI) as the growing season cumulate of the daily product between LAI and a meteorological water stress coefficient. Finally, we calculate the drought index as the anomaly of FPI. The validation of Sentinel-2 LAI with ground measurements showed RMSE of 0.92 [m2 m-2] and R2 of 0.81, on average over all the measurement sites. The comparison between FPI and yield showed R2 of 0.56 at the pixel scale and R2 of 0.74 at the parcel scale. The developed prototype FPI index was used at the end of the growing season of the year 2022 for calculating the payments of an experimental insurance scheme that was proposed to a group of farmers in Trentino-South Tyrol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agroecological farming; discourse analysis; mountain conservation; sustainable adoption
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:03:28 CEST)
Agroecological approaches are increasingly recommended for providing context-specific and sustainable solutions to issues confronting farming communities by enabling consorting the socioeconomic and ecological constraints on the farm. This study is the first attempt to test this argument based on the issue with sustaining adoption of soil erosion control measures among smallholder farmers producing Coffea arabica on the Rwenzori Mountain in Uganda. Here, the adoption of soil erosion control measures remains a challenge despite the increasing efforts through conventional agricultural advisory services in local governments. We contrast the elements of agroecology with the local discourses to identify if it would provide a panacea for sustaining adoption of soil erosion control measures. Results indicate that the agroecology elements harmonize with the local discourses on soil erosion control adoption in contrast to the conventional approach promoted through the agricultural advisory services. Drawing conclusions on the implication of this finding, we argue that, indeed, consideration of the agroecology elements at all stages in the process of soil erosion control would foster sustained adoption of soil erosion control measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0138.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Debris-flow; Hazard; Ground Penetrating Radar; Mountain hazards
Online: 8 July 2022 (10:15:48 CEST)
Debris-flows are recurrent events on mountain- and hill- slopes, and they have been the object of numerous field investigations and sampling, however most of this work reposes on imagery and outcrop analysis, in such a way that there are still only a handful of studies investigating the internal architecture of these events’ deposits. In the present contribution, we aims at underneath the internal structure of a portion of a debris-flow deposit that was accessible in the aftermath of the 2018 heavy-rainfall debris-flows in Hiroshima Japan. Using a Ramac Pro-Ex GPR with 500 MHz and 800 MHz antenna, a set of longitudinal and transversal transects was used to characterize the deposit. The results demonstrated that a set of subhorizontal layers have filled the valley, and interacting with local terrace edges, these layers have piled up and overcome the obstacle. Across the valleys, a set of trough suggest the presence of channels that were also filled during the event. Finally, in the channel post-event, a set of radargram “cross-bedded units” shows that the final deposition in the channel was of a more dilute flow, typical of a Newtonian flow. This set of units was not to be found at the surface of the post-event pseudo-surface, suggesting that the flow ended as a debris-flow on this surface, and that it is only when the flow dug the final channel that the nature of the flow returned from debris-flow to Newtonian flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0304.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Enterococcus; QPS; GRAS; safety; milk; cheese; mountain area
Online: 19 August 2021 (06:31:01 CEST)
The latest EU regulation on geographical indications (EU Regulation No. 1151/2012) has intro-duced a set of new tools for the protection and enhancement of food products in rural areas, under the group name of optional quality term (OQT). The Commission Delegated EU Regulation, No. 665/2014, regulated the conditions for the use of the optional quality term «mountain product» (MP), to support the implementation of a mountain value chain. This new tool is aimed at pro-moting local development, maintaining the economic activities in mountain areas and redistrib-uting wealth, whilst, at the same time, promoting the territory. Pecorino and goat cheeses are typ-ical Italian cheeses made usually with whole raw ewe's or raw goat's milk, without starter cul-ture addition. In an attempt to characterize these productions, the aim of this study was to inves-tigate the evolution of enterococci during the production and ripening of Pecorino cheese made in three different farms, located in Umbria, Italy in areas facing natural or other specific constraints as stipulated by Regulation 1305/2013 on support for rural development by the European Agri-cultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). Enterococci are enteric organisms which are commonly isolated from ewe and goat's milk production in Umbria, Italy. Counts of enterococci in raw milk ranged from 1.75 for ovine milk to 3.62 for ewe milk and a marked reduction was observed after thermization especially in ovine milk. Out of 100 isolates, 69 were E. faecium, 23 E. durans, 8 E. faecalis and 2 E. casseliflavus and the distribution of species between farms and be-tween samples showed a prevalence of E. faecium in ovine farms and E. durans in ewes farms, with an equal distribution between samples. High percentages of susceptible isolates were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulphamethoxazole, sulphameth-oxazole/trimethoprim, ticarcillin, vancomycin. A high prevalence of resistant strains (> 30%) was observed for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, kanamycin, tetracycline. A comparison of this results with those of previous works on similar dairy products revealed high levels of resistance to antimicrobials which needs to be addressed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: medicinal plants; traditional knowledge; Himalayas; mountain plants; ethnobotany
Online: 29 November 2016 (06:35:45 CET)
The Himalaya is well known for high diversity and ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants. However, not all areas of the Himalayas are well studied. In particular, studies on ethnobotanical uses of plants from the Eastern Himalayas are rare and lacking for many tribes. Past studies primarily focused on listing plants name and their traditional medicinal uses. However, studies on traditional ethnopharmacological practices on medicine preparation had not yet been reported in published literature from the Eastern Himalaya. In this study, we are reporting the first time ethnopharmacological used 24 medicines, their procedures of preparation and listed 53 plant species used for those medicines for Monpa tribe. Such documentations had not yet been done for other tribes in India. Our research demonstrates the urgent need to documents traditional medicine preparation procedures from the local healers before rapid cultural modernization forgets them in transforming country like India. This study should motivate national and international researchers to do more works on ethnopharmacology and bioprospecting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1523.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: mountain orchard transporter; vibration test; trailer; transmission box; modal
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:09:00 CEST)
In order to reduce the vibration of the transporter and improve the stability of the transporter, the vibration characteristics and key structure optimization research of the mountain orchard transporter are carried out. In this paper, the vibration of electric monorail transporters under different working conditions is tested, and the causes of vibration generated by monorail transporter during operation are explored. The three-dimensional model of the trailer and transmission box is established using Solidworks, and the modal vibration modes of the structure are analyzed theoretically. The modal test system is used for modal test analysis of trailers and transmission boxes. By comparing the results of finite element and experimental modal analysis, the second-order frequency of the trailer is close to the motor's rotating excitation frequency of 50 Hz at rated speed, which is easy to generate resonance. By optimizing the structure of the trailer, the second and third natural frequencies are increased to 54.79 Hz and 58.35 Hz respectively, which avoid the resonance of the trailer during operation and effectively reduce the vibration generated during the transportation of the trailer. Through vibration testing of the optimized electric monorail transporter, the results of vibration testing before and after structural optimization are compared and analyzed, and it is found that the vibration amplitudes of the transporter in X, Y and Z directions are reduced by 0.308m/s², 0.351m/s² and 0.334m/s² respectively, the running stability of the conveyer is improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1471.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Mountain ungulate; MHC DRB gene; genetic diversity; population fluctuation
Online: 21 July 2023 (09:13:12 CEST)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates, and their proteins play a critical role in adaptive immunity for defense against a variety of pathogens. MHC diversity was lost in many species after experiencing a decline in size. To understand the variation and evolution of MHC genes in the Siberian ibex, Capra sibirica, which has undergone a population decline, we analyzed the variation of the second exon of MHC class II DRB genes in samples collected from five geographic localities in Xinjiang, China, that belong to three diverged mitochondrial clades. Consequently, we identified a total of 26 putative functional alleles (PFAs) with 260 bp in length from 43 individuals, and found one (for 27 individuals) to three (for 5 individuals) PFAs per individual, indicating the presence of one or two DRB loci per haploid genome. The Casi-DRB1*16 was the most frequently occurring PFA, Casi-DRB1*22 came after found in only seven individuals, 14 PFAs occurred once (7 PFAs twice), implying high frequency of rare PFAs. Interestingly, more than half of the (15) PFAs were specific to clade I, only one and three PFAs were specific to clades II and III, respectively. So, we assume that the polygamy and sextual segregation nature of this species likely contributed to the allelic diversity of DRB genes. Genetic diversity indices showed that PFAs of clade II were lower in nucleotide, amino acid, and supertype diversity compared to those of the other two clades. The way of allele sharing and FST values between three clades were to some extent in agreement with pattern observed in mitochondrial DNA divergence. In addition, recombination analyses revealed no evidence for significant signatures of recombination events. Alleles shared by clades III and the other two clades diverged 6 million years ago, and systematic neighbor grids showed cross-species polymorphisms. Together with the PAML and MEME analyses, the results indicated that the DRB gene in C. sibirica evolved under balancing and positive selection. However, by comparison, it can be clearly seen that different populations were under different selective pressures. Our results are valuable in understanding the diversity and evolution of the DRB gene in a mountain living C. sibirica and in making decisions on future long-term protection strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2043.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Numerical prediction; Temperature; Mountain snowmelt; Revision algorithm; Snowmelt flood
Online: 28 June 2023 (13:40:41 CEST)
The mountains in northern Xinjiang of China were studied during the snowmelt season. Multi-source fusion live data Chinese Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS,0.05°× 0.05°,hourly data) were used as real data, and Central Meteorological Observatory guidance forecast (SCMOC,0.05°× 0.05 °,forecasting the following 10 days in 3 h intervals) was used as forecast data, both issued by the China Meteorological Administration. The dynamic linear regression and the average filter correction algorithms were selected to revise the original forecast products SCMOC.Based on conventional temperature forecast information,we designed four temperature rise prediction algorithms for essential factors affecting snowmelt.Temperature rise prediction algorithms included the daily maximum temperature algorithm, daily temperature rise range algorithm, snowmelt temperature algorithm, and daily snowmelt duration algorithm.Four temperature rise prediction algorithms values were calculated of each prediction product.Root-mean-square error algorithm and temperature prediction accuracy algorithm were used to compare and test each prediction algorithm value from the time sequence and spatial distribution.Comprehensive tests show that the forecast product revised by the average filter algorithm was superior to revised by the dynamic linear regression algorithm as well as the original forecast product.Through these algorithms, the more suitable temperature rise forecast value for each grid point in the study area can be obtained at different prediction times. The comprehensive and accurate temperature forecast value in mountainous snowmelt season can provide an accurate theoretical basis for effective prediction of the runoff in snowmelt areas and prevention of snowmelt flooding.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: snow; snowmelt; snow cover; sublimation; Indus; High Mountain Asia
Online: 23 September 2021 (10:24:05 CEST)
The Indus basin is considered as the one with the highest dependence on snowmelt runoff in High Mountain Asia. The recent High Mountain Asia snow reanalysis enables to go beyond previous studies by evaluating both snowmelt and snow sublimation at the basin scale. Over 2000-2016, basin-average snowmelt is 101 11 Gt.a-1 (121 ± 13 mm.a-1), which represents about 25-30% of basin-average annual precipitation. Snow sublimation accounts for 11% of the mean annual snow ablation, but with a large spatial variability across the basin.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Trail running; skyrunning; mountain running; modality structure; administrative bilaterality
Online: 18 January 2021 (09:17:14 CET)
The purpose of this research has been to analyze the organizational structures of the different federations and entities representing the modalities of trail-running, skyrunning and mountain running and how they have settled in the current sports landscape. The main task of these entities is to act as hosts of the legally established modalities, both internationally and nationally, applying their respective regulations and statutes unilaterally. Through an in-depth review of the different regulations, statutes and current articles of all the organizations that represent the different disciplines, we can observe how a sport modality that seems to be the same is nevertheless distant in its execution (regulations, championships, classifications, systems of points, ...) and that has led to the international level being established in different sport modalities (trail-running and skyrunning) and at the level of the Spanish territory, it has led to an administrative dispute to know who has the powers to approve the sports competitions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Tourism sustainability; Indicators; mountain tourism; route tourism; Drakensberg Mountains
Online: 15 June 2017 (18:36:11 CEST)
This paper assesses the use the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria (GSTC) indicators for monitoring tourism along a mountainous route. The study was carried out along a mountain route in the Drakensberg Mountains of South Africa. A survey was carried out among tourism businesses, local communities and local government officials located along the Maluti Route, which passes though the eastern part of the Free State Province of South Africa. This study constitutes the first assessment in which the GSTC indicators are applied in the assessment of the sustainability of route tourism in South Africa. The study first evaluated the importance of each indicator by considering the level of application in tourism business organisations before examining the perceptions of local community members and local government officials regarding the applicability of the indicators in the assessment of tourism sustainability. The results suggest that there is a general appreciation of tourism sustainability among tourism business operators although shortcomings were evident on environmental and socio-economic indicators. In conclusion, the paper suggests ways through which tourism sustainability could be enhanced among different players along the Maluti Route.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1714.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: climate change perception; farmers' agency; mountain area; resilience; rural development
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:17:13 CEST)
Mountains can be described as socio-ecological systems (SESs), a complex set of relations that involve natural aspects and human communities. Mountains provide indispensable ecosystem services, but they are affected by climate change. For this, stakeholders’ initiatives to face global warming, particularly farmers, are essential and participatory strategy are largely considered as a best solution to involve them in adopting resilience actions. Despite that, farmers are considered passive actors and their epistemology weak. Investigating mountain actors' vulnerability to climate change in the North of Molise (an Italian region), called «Alto Molise», we suggest considering farmers agency as a result of interconnections among heterogeneous elements present in the SES and their “lay” knowledge and epistemology equally relevant that experts one. Farmers’ perception of climate change impact is appropriate, although they lack a clear understanding of it. Their resilience actions or suggestions are coherent with their resources endowment (financial and knowledge) and their position in the economic system but not necessarily effective. The work contributes to the debate on climate resilience in mountain areas stressing the significance of local actors' agency, the presence of different epistemologies (lay and expert one) and the need to actively involve them in designed effective and suitable initiatives to face climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0620.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: tropical mountain forest; Podocarpus; Cedrela; Tabebuia; selective thinning; diametric growth
Online: 26 October 2018 (06:32:36 CEST)
Research Highlights: The study determined that selective thinning causes different responses, the initial size of the tree released is an influential factor in the growth of species. The temporality of climate and physiological conditions of each species are influential in the growth. It is evident that the defoliation of certain species is an important factor that limits the growth of the species causing thinning to have a negative response. Background and Objectives: The objective is to analyze the behavior of nine timber species, respective to diametric growth after their liberation. This research aims to answer the following questions: (i) How do the selected tree species react to the liberation? (ii) Can the productivity of the trees (diametric growth) be enhanced by liberation? (iii) Are there other factors that influence the diametric growth of the released trees? Materials and Methods: The study was executed in the “Reserva Biológica San Francisco” were 488 trees were monitored, including nine timber species. Therefore, 197 trees were released (removal of competitors) and 251 trees served as reference. To check whether the initial DBH or other factors, like the selective thinning or climate conditions, determine the diameter growth a linear mixed model GLMM was applied. To adjust the linear mixed model a one-way Anova test was executed. Results: Timber species responded differently to the thinning in comparing to reference trees. Therefore, the species analyzed were separated into three groups (positive, negative, and no response to liberation). Conclusions: Liberation potentiates the growth of certain timber species that do not defoliate and considered semi-tolerant to shade. Precipitation and temperature affect all species, but in the defoliate species, it would not be convenient to release them or at least the evidence of these first three years does not show clear differences with control trees. Increase in trees released are higher in trees of the first two diametric classes in all species, this means that larger trees (i.e., older) release does not affect them in a positive way so release should occur in the youngest trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: albumin; oxidative stress; exercise; ultra-marathon mountain race; protein oxidation
Online: 17 February 2017 (15:02:03 CET)
The aim of this study was to examine the oxidation of human serum albumin (HSA) caused by oxidative stress after an exhaustive exercise such as ultra-marathon race. Thus, blood samples from 12 adult runners who underwent a 103 km mountain ultra-marathon race were collected pre- and 24, 48 and 72 h post race. HSA was partially purified using affinity chromatography and then was subjected to Western blot analysis for disulfide dimers determination, indicating oxidation. The results were correlated with those from a previous study in which the same samples were analyzed using different oxidative stress markers and a good correlation with protein carbonyls (PC) at all time points was observed. Moreover there was a significant correlation with static oxidation-reduction potential (sORP) at 24 h, and a negative correlation with capacity oxidation-reduction potential (cORP) at 24 and 48 h. In addition, an individual analysis of albumin dimers exhibited great inter-individual differences. This inter-individual variability in the oxidation of HSA may suggest different interventions (e.g. through diet) in order to confront the effects on athletes’ organism after a strenuous exercise. In conclusion, this study supported the importance of the assessment of albumin dimers as a predictive marker for exercise-induced oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0186.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biodiversity; connectivity; ecological integrity; Mountain Treasures; protected areas; Southern Appalachian Mountains
Online: 29 May 2017 (10:58:00 CEST)
Conservation scientists recognize that additional protected areas are needed to maintain biological diversity and ecological processes. As regional conservation planners embark on recommending additional areas for protection in formal conservation reserves, it is important to evaluate candidate lands for their role in building a resilient protected areas system of the future. Here, we evaluate North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures with respect to their (i) ecological integrity, (ii) role in connecting existing core protected areas, (iii) potential to diversify the ecosystem representation of reserves, and (iv) role in maintaining hotspots of biologically-rich areas not well protected. Mountain Treasures represent a citizen inventory of roadless areas and serve as candidates for elevated levels of conservation protection on U.S. federal lands. We compared Mountain Treasures to other candidate lands throughout the country to evaluate their potential national significance. While the Mountain Treasures tended to be more impacted by human modifications than other roadless areas, they are as important as other roadless areas with respect to their role in connecting existing protected areas and diversifying representation of ecosystems in conservation reserves. However, Mountain Treasures tended to have a much higher biodiversity priority index than other roadless areas leading to an overall higher composite score compared to other roadless areas. Our analysis serves as an example of how using broad-scale datasets can help conservation planners assess the national significance of local areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: mountain forests; regional succession; palynology; paleoclimate; response lags; human impact; last centuries
Online: 15 March 2022 (15:34:19 CET)
Anticipating future successional forest trends in the face of ongoing global change is an essential conservation target. Mountain forests are especially sensitive to environmental shifts, and their past responses to climatic and anthropogenic (external) drivers may provide a basis for improving predictions of future developments. This paper uses independent high-resolution palynological and paleoclimatic reconstructions to statistically analyze the long-term effects of external drivers on regional forest succession in the central Iberian Pyrenees during the last 500 years. The dominant taxa of these forests (Quercus, Betula, Pinus) showed significant relationships with summer temperature, summer drought and autumn precipitation. Immediate and delayed (by two or more decades) responses of these trees to climatic drivers were identified. Regional succession showed a closed path, starting at the end points around the attraction domain of pine-dominated forests. This trajectory was determined by a trend toward anthropogenic forest clearing (16th to 18th centuries) and a reverse trend of natural forest recovery (18th to 20th centuries). Forest clearing was due to burning, facilitated by drought, and was followed by the expansion of cropping and grazing lands. Forest recovery was fostered by reduced human pressure and rising temperatures. The statistical approach used in this work has unraveled ecological relationships that remained unnoticed in previous works and would be important for predicting future successional trends under changing climates. The reported response lags of individual taxa to climatic drivers may complicate the establishment of reliable ecological relationships and should be addressed in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0218.v3
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Archaeological survey; Inner Tian Shan Mountain region; Iron Age; Medieval period; agropastoralism
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:44:09 CET)
This paper discusses the preliminary results of archaeological surveys conducted in the Juuku Region of north-central Kyrgyzstan on the south side of Lake Issyk kul. Our goal was to document ancient and contemporary agropastoral systems over a four millenia time period. During the surveys about 350 loci were identified as settlements, burial mounds, graves, single artifact finds, and artifact scatters (ceramic). The areas of Juuku Valley survey included two discrete polygons: Polygon 1, Lower Juuku at 1750 to 1950 m asl in elevation and Polygon 2, Chak Juuku or Upper Eastern Branch Juuku Valley at 2060 to 2100 m asl in elevation. Three radiometric dates and preliminary archaeobotanical studies were conducted at three exposed profile cuts. The methods included here are: (1) pedestrian surveys; (2) use of digital maps (Google Earth, Encarta); (3) placing archaeological loci within known chronological time periods; (4) AMS dating of charcoal samples collected from profile deposits; and (5) preliminary identification of plant remains found from archaeobotanical samples. The results of our research represent the first step toward inventorying and interpreting archaeological data in the Juuku Valley derived from field studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0283.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: alpha diversity; beta diversity; floristic arrangement; geological landscapes; geomorphology; Ecuador; mountain forests
Online: 15 October 2018 (06:19:16 CEST)
1) Background: Neotropical montane forests represent one of the most diverse ecosystems; however, they are also the most threatened for deforestation. Our main goal is to evaluate the change in Basal Area (BA), Density and Species Composition of montane forests in the southern Ecuador and to determine the influence on some critical ecological and geomorphological factors. 2) Methods: One hundred thirty-two temporary plots of 400 m2 each were installed; we identified and measured all trees> 10 cm DBH. We modeled species diversity (Fisher’s alpha) change in relation to climatic, elevational and geomorphological gradients with GLM and Kruskall-Wallis analyses. The change in composition was determined using Cluster Analyses (BIOENV analysis followed by a LINKTREE procedure). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to analyze changes across climatic and geomorphological gradients. Finally, we used SIMPER analysis to identify the species that contributed most to the dissimilarity among the different elevations. 3) Results: Formation of floristic groups was influenced by altitude, temperature and Isothermality; physiographic province, great landscape, geological landscape and lithology. Plots located in low hills have higher alpha diversity with respect to the high hills and dissected mountains. 4) Conclusions: The elevation is first hierarchical factor responsible of the division of structural and floristic groups. Plots located on the whitish tuff have a higher alpha value diversity compared with plots in andesitic tuffs. Wettest quarter (> 839 mm) and Isothermality (> 90.5) are the climatic factors that driven de floristic divisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0092.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: mountain lake/mire complexes; diatoms; botanical composition; inundation and dry periods; monsoon; cyclogenesis
Online: 3 May 2023 (04:15:37 CEST)
There is little information about moisture changes in different altitudinal belts in mountainous regions of the Southern Russian Far East. We present ecological-taxonomic composition of the diatom flora, the botanical composition of peat of small mountain lake/mire complexes located in the Central Sikhote-Alin within large landslides on the paleovolcano slopes are identified. Frequent changes in diatom assemblages and peat-forming plants indicate unstable hydroclimatic conditions with varying degrees of watering and dry condition up to complete overgrowth of the lakes. Frequent change of sphagnum mosses with different trophic preferences was established. The chronology is based on 11 radiocarbon dates. Accumulation rates reached up to 1.9 mm/year, the temporal resolution for the reconstructions is up to 30–40 years. The tendencies of lake evolution depended on different-scale hydroclimatic changes for the last 4400 yr. The most detailed data for the last 2600 yr were obtained from the Nizhnee Lake sequence, more sensitive to climatic changes. The main reason for the change in the hydrological regime of the lakes was variations in precipitation during short-term climatic changes. The sediment record moisture fluctuations are relatively well correlated with regional patterns reflecting summer monsoon intensity and cyclogenesis activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0311.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: residential wood combustion; emission modelling; MetVed model; cabin heating; cabin development; mountain areas
Online: 16 November 2022 (12:54:16 CET)
Emissions from wood burning for heating in secondary homes or cabins is an important aspect for the development of high-resolution emission inventories in specific areas. Norway is used as case study as the national wood consumption for heating in cabins is around 20% of the total. Our study shows first a method to estimate emissions from cabins based on traffic data to derive cabin occupancy, which combined with heating need allows for the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions. The combination of residential (RWC) and cabin wood combustion (CWC) emissions shows large spatial and temporal differences, and a temporally “cabin population” can in areas be orders of magnitude larger than the registered population. While RWC emissions have been steadily reduced, CWC have kept relatively constant or even increased, which results on an increase in the cabin share to total heating emissions up to 25-35%. When comparing with regional emissions inventories, our study shows that the gradient between rural and urban areas is not well represented in regional emissions inventories, which resembles a population-based distribution and does not allocate emissions in cabin municipalities. At last, our study shows that CWC emissions may become an increasing environmental concern as higher densification trends in mountain areas are observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0050.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Gilpin-Ayala competition model; LMI approach; Mountain Pass lemma; variational methods; Markovian jumping
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:05:19 CET)
Firstly, the author do dynamic analysis for reaction-diffusion Gilpin-Ayala competition model with Dirichlet boundary value, involved in harmful species. Existence of multiple stationary solutions is verified by way of Mountain Pass lemma, and the local stability result of the null solution is obtained by employing linear approximation principle. Secondly, the author utilize variational methods and LMI technique to deduce the LMI-based global exponential stability criterion on the null solution which becomes the unique stationary solution of the ecosystem with delayed feedback under a reasonable boundedness assumption on population densities. Particularly, LMI criterion is involved in free weight coefficient matrix, which reduces the conservatism of the algorithm. In addition, a new impulse control stabilization criterion is also derived. Finally, two numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. It is worth mentioning that the obtained stability criteria of null solution presented some useful hints on how to eliminate pests and bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Pinus albicaulis; whitebark pine; blister rust; national park; subalpine; Cascades; mountain pine beetle
Online: 23 February 2018 (11:08:42 CET)
Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) is a key component of subalpine and alpine ecosystems in the northern Cascades. The species survival is threatened by white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetles, fire exclusion, and climate change. Trees were monitored in permanent plots in two national parks three times between 2004 and 2016. The proportion of trees showing signs of blister rust infection increased in North Cascades National Park Service Complex from 32% in 2004 to 51% in 2016 and from 18% to 38% in Mount Rainier National Park. Mortality increased from 7% to 21% in North Cascades National Park Service Complex and 38% to 44% in Mount Rainier National Park. Annual mortality rates were calculated for three time periods: 2004-2009, 2009-2015/2016, and 2004-2015/2016. Mortality rates, annualized across the entire study period, were 1.47% in Mount Rainier National Park and 2.27% in North Cascades National Park Service Complex; these rates decreased between the first time period and the second, which could reflect blister rust resistance. Signs of mountain pine beetle were rare and limited to a few trees in individual plots. Although reproductive trees were found in most stands, densities were low and regeneration was dominated by subalpine fir.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0181.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Carbon; concentration; CO2; emission; rivers; lakes; biogeochemical cycle; Central Asia, Al-tai-Sayan mountain
Online: 5 September 2023 (02:52:19 CEST)
Carbon (C) cycle n inland waters, including its concentrations and carbon dioxide (CO2) emis-sions from water surfaces are at the forefront of biogeochemical studies, especially in the re-gions, strongly impacted by on-going climate change. Towards better understanding of C stor-age, transport and emission in Central Asian mountain regions, extremely poorly studied until now, here we carried out systematic measurements of dissolved C and CO2 emissions in 15 riv-ers and 5 lakes located along a macro-transect of various natural landscapes in the Sayan-Altai mountain region, from high mountains of the Western Sayan in the northwest of Tyva to arid (dry) steppe and semi-deserts in intermountain basins of the southeast of Tyva, the border with Mongolia. New data on major hydrochemical parameters, CO2 fluxes by floating chambers, dis-solved organic and inorganic carbon concentrations collected over four main hydrological sea-sons allowed to assess the current C biogeochemical status of these water bodies in order to judge possible future changes under climate warming. We further tested the impact of perma-frost, river watershed size, lake area and climate parameters as well as ‘internal’ biogeochemical drivers (pH, mineralization, organic matter quality and bacterial population) on CO2 concentra-tion and emissions in lakes and rivers of this region, and compared them with available data on other subarctic and mountain settings.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: ethnoveterinary medicines; Kinnaur; traditional knowledge; livestock; Sanctuary; shepherds; mountain people; aboriginal; tribal; herbalism; ritualism
Online: 29 January 2020 (03:57:56 CET)
The Himalayas are known for high floristic diversity and rich ethnobotanical practices. However, not all parts of the Himalayan regions are thoroughly studied. The present study aims to document the ethnoveterinary medicines used by migratory shepherds in Trans-Himalayan Rakchham-Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary,Baspa (Sangla) valley of the Kinnaur district in Himachal Pradesh. The shepherds are very close to nature as they spend most of their time in forests with their livestock. Shepherding depends more on traditional healthcare practices based on local medicinal plants. In this study, we are reporting for the first time commonly used ethnoveterinary medicines in Rakchham and Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary and their application, procedures of preparation, as well as listing 51 plant species. Such documentations are done first time in the Himachal Pradesh region of India as per our information. Our research emphasizes the urgent need to document traditional medicine preparation procedures from migratory shepherds. The required information on various ethnoveterinary medicines used by migratory shepherds was collected through personal field visits, participatory observations, interview and using a pretested questionnaire. It was observed that in all 51 species of ethnoveterinary were used by shepherds in Trans-Himalayan Rakchham-Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary in Baspa (Sangla) valley of Kinnaur district. The results of this survey show that shepherds in tribal areas are highly dependent on ethnoveterinary remedies for their livestock which evolved over generations of practices for healthcare. There is an urgent need to document this vast knowledge of migratory shepherds concerning the use of ethnoveterinary remedies for animal health care in the regions of the Himalayas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: 2nd, 3rd, 4th interosseous muscle; Dutch Konik; Bosnian mountain horse; donkey; Przewalski; zebra; atavism
Online: 9 April 2019 (11:32:50 CEST)
The 55-million-year history of equine phylogeny has been well documented from the skeletal record, however not the soft tissue structures that are now vestigial in modern horse. A recent study reported 2 ligamentous structures resembling functional 3rd and 4th interosseous muscles were evident in Dutch Konik horses. The current study investigates this finding and compares it to members of the genus Equus to identify either a breed anomaly or functional primitive trait. Distal limbs (n=571) were dissected from 4 species of Equus; E. caballus, E. asinus, E. przewalskii and E. burchelli beohmi. Breed representatives of E.caballus (n=18) included the primitive Dutch Konik. The 2nd and or 4th interosseous muscle was evident in all 4 species, but only 2 breeds of E.caballus expressed this trait - the Dutch Konik and Bosnian Mountain Horse. These 2 breeds were the only close descendants of the extinct Tarpan (Equus ferus ferus) represented in this study. In conclusion, the 2nd and 4th interosseous muscles originated from the distal nodule of respective splint bones and inserted into the corresponding branches of the 3rd interosseous muscle proximal to the sesamoids. Suggesting a functional role in medial and lateral joint stability and a primitive trait in modern equids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: sensitive analysis; variable fuzzy method; mutual entropy; stepwise regression analysis; mountain flash flood risk
Online: 21 November 2017 (09:28:07 CET)
Flash flood is one of the most significant natural disasters in China, particularly in mountainous area, causing heavy economic damage and casualties of life. Accurate risk assessment is critical to an efficient flash flood management. There are more than 530,000 small watersheds in 2058 counties in China where flash flood should be prevented. In practice, with limited fund and different risk levels, the priorities of each small watershed for flash flood prevention and control are also needed for an efficient flash flood management. This paper, take Licheng county in China as an example, aims to give out these priorities for management. First, sensitive indexes are identified among index system, which includes 9 indexes based on underlying surface characteristics of small watershed in hilly region. Second, the range of each index and the rank division of each index for evaluation are determined. Based on the rank divisions for evaluation, the flash flood risk grade eigenvalue (H) is calculated by Variable Fuzzy Method (VFM ) using 1000 samplings generated by Latin hypercube sampling method. Third, the key sensitivity factors that affect flash flood risk grade eigenvalue (H) are assessed by two different global sensitivity analysis methods -- stepwise regression analysis and mutual entropy. Both results indicate that watershed slope (S) is the most sensitive factor; the second is antecedent precipitation index (CN); while other factors are slightly different sensitive in sequence. This study shows that stepwise regression analysis and mutual information analysis are appropriate for the sensitivity analysis of mountain flash flood risk. Finally, based on watershed slope (S), the priorities of flash flood prevention and control of 119 small watersheds in Licheng county are given out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0393.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: ostracods; Carboniferous; Mississippian; Tin Mountain Limestone; Death Valley; California; Acratia; Bairdia; Ceratobairdia; Kirkbya; Rectobairdia; Silenites
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:50:33 CEST)
Silicified ostracods from the Lower Carboniferous (Lower Tin Mountain Limestone; Kinderhookian-early Osagean; 350-358.9 Ma) of Lost Burro Gap, Death Valley region, Inyo County, California, USA augment the diversity of Paleozoic ostracods of western North America. Acid maceration of pelmatozoan, micritic and silicate clay-rich micritic marine limestones yielded the following palaeocopid and podocopid ostracods: Acratia spp., Bairdia quasilecta Bushmina, 1975, Bairdia sp. cf. B. orientalis, Ceratobairdia sp., Kirkbya panamintensis sp. nov., Rectobairdia sp. cf. R. legumen, and Silenites sp. This is the first report of Ceratobairdia and Silenites from the Tin Mountain Limestone. These ostracods occupied a Panthalassan carbonate ramp environment, and represent part of a fauna that was widespread in shallow marine waters of Panthalassa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0456.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Gilpin Ayala competition model; Lyapunov function; Mountain Pass Lemma; Palais Smale condition; Dirichlet boundary value
Online: 19 September 2020 (10:07:43 CEST)
In this paper, the existence of two nontrivial stationary solutions for the nonlinear Gilpin Ayala two species competition model is given by using the mountain pass lemma, and the local stability criterion of the trivial solution is given by using Lyapunov function method. Based on the local stability criterion, we give some suggestions on how to avoid the population extinction. This is, when the population is on the verge of extinction, we should try our best to avoid the diffusion behavior and reduce the diffusion coefficient, otherwise the species are easy to go extinct. Numerical example shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: definition of agritourism; comparative studies; rural development; sustainable tourism; mountain development; alpine regions, Chinese mountains
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:25:21 CEST)
After World War II, the economic recovery of Western Europe implied a swift economic transition for all regions, including the area of the Alps, although affecting various parts at different pace and stages. The resulting out-migration led to population decline in some mountain valleys and regions already since the 1950s. A similar out-migration movement began in China after its rural reform started in the 1970s. The effect was in some cases even more significant than in the Alps, with the first village being deserted in the 1980s. Current estimations report of about 380,000 abandoned rural villages in China between 2000 and 2016, particularly in its mountain regions. While lower population densities might alleviate the pressures on ecology and contribute to environmental benefits, these movements aggravate a spiraling-down process of local economies and culture. In the Alps many regions facing challenges of out-migration and economic changes elaborated agritourism schemes that provided both economic incentives and stability to involved mountain farmers, and continuation of local land management systems. In contrast, in China hardly any comparable trends of rural tourism developed. However, in recent years China's interest for tourism-oriented farm diversification increased and a range of rural tourism and agricultural tourism initiatives emerged. This paper focuses on the analysis of successful initiatives, problems and development prospects in the Alps and China's rural areas, redefining agritourism as a systematic integrated activity. Agritourism might therefore be assessed as a core element of the future sustainable development of the Alps and the Chinese countryside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0432.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: NDVI; climatic factors; mountain grassland; time-lag effects; trends; Landsat; MODIS; BRDF; topographic and atmospheric corrections; Armenia
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:07:23 CEST)
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of links between satellite-measured vegetation vigor and climate variables in Armenian mountain grassland ecosystems in years 1984–2018. NDVI is derived from MODIS and Landsat data, temperature and precipitation data are from meteorological stations. Two study sites were selected, representing arid and semi-arid grassland vegetation types, respectively. Various trend estimators including Mann-Kendall (MK) and derivatives were combined for vegetation change analysis at different time scales. Results suggest that temperature and precipitation had negative and positive impacts on vegetation growth, respectively, in both areas. NDVI-to-precipitation correlation was significant but with an apparent time-lag effect that was further investigated. No significant general changes were observed in vegetation along the observed period. Further comparisons between results from corrected and uncorrected data led us to conclude that MODIS and Landsat data with BRDF, topographic and atmospheric corrections applied are best suited for analyzing relationships between NDVI and climatic factors for the 2000-2018 period in grassland at a very local scale, but in the absence of correction tools and information, uncorrected data can still provide meaningful results. Future refinements will include removal of anthropogenic impact, and deeper investigation of time-lag effects of climatic factors on vegetation dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0286.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: strong solution; regularity of weak Solutions; a single-species ecosystem; Lyapunov function; Mountain Pass Lemma; unique existence
Online: 13 September 2020 (12:26:12 CEST)
In this paper, the authors employ Mountain Pass Lemma, the method of weak solution regularization and Lyapunov function method to derive the unique existence of globally exponential stable positive stationary solution of a single-species model with diffusion and delayed feedback. The obtained stability criterion illuminates that under some suitable conditions, a certain internal competition is conducive to the overall stability of the population, and a certain amount of family planning is conducive to the overall stability of the population. A numerical example and three tables show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: absolute gravimetry; Mt. Zugspitze; Mt. Wank; gravity variation; superconducting gravimeter; GNSS; FG5 free-fall gravimeter; glacier retreat; Alpine mountain building
Online: 8 February 2021 (13:06:06 CET)
In 2004, first absolute gravity (AG) measurements were performed on the mountain tops of Mt. Zugspitze (2 sites) and Mt. Wank (1 site), and at the Wank foot (1 site). Wank (summit height 1780 m) and Zugspitze (2960 m) are about 20 km apart from each other and belong geologically to different parts of the Northern Limestone Alps. Bridging a time span of 15 years, the deduced gravity variations for Zugspitze are in the order of 0.30 μm/s² with a standard uncertainty of 0.04 μm/s². The Wank stations (foot and top) show no significant gravity variation. The vertical stability of Wank summit is also confirmed by results of continuous GNSS recordings. Because an Alpine mountain uplift of 1 or 2 mm/yr cannot explain the obtained gravity decline at Zugspitze, the dominating geophysical contributions are assumed to be due to the diminishing glaciers in the vicinity. The modelled gravity trend caused by glacier retreat between epochs 1999 and 2018 amounts to -0.012 μm/s²/yr at both Zugspitze AG sites. This explains more than half of the observed gravity decrease. Long-term variations on inter-annual and climate-relevant decadal scale will be investigated in the future using as a supplement superconducting gravimetry (installed in 2019) and GNSS equipment (since 2018).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0235.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: database; disaster prevention; disaster risk reduction (DRR); climate change adaptation (CCA); stakeholders; nature-based solutions (NBS); mountain; hydro-meteorological risks
Online: 9 December 2020 (16:48:34 CET)
In the context of global changes, Nature-Based Solutions (NBSs) increasingly draw attention as a possible way to reduce disaster risk associated with extreme hydro-meteorological events while providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits at the same time. The PHUSICOS platform is dedicated to gather and analyse relevant NBSs used to reduce disaster risk associated with extreme hydro-meteorological events in mountainous and hilly lands. To design the platform, an in-depth review of 11 existing platforms has been performed. The platform currently references 152 literature NBS cases and is continuously enriched with demonstrator sites through the contribution of NBS community. The platform also proposes a qualitative assessment of the NBSs collected according to 15 criteria related with five ambits: disaster risk reduction, technical and economical feasibility, environment, society and local economy. This paper presents the structure of the platform and a first analysis of its content.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; skills development; online distance learning; credentials; open badges; blockchain; sustainable livelihoods; sustainable mountain development; traditional knowledge; culture; Kyrgyzstan; Central Asia
Online: 27 March 2020 (03:07:11 CET)
Mountain and pastoralist societies around the world have for centuries sustained their livelihoods and cultures by accumulating specialist knowledge about their local and regional socio-ecological environments. Developing traditional knowledge and customary practices takes time, sometimes spanning across generations. As macro-level changes to social and natural environment are now taking place, such as globalization and climate change, local communities could potentially also benefit from complementary, suitably adapted educational opportunities for sustainable development. However, access to education has often required moving to urban centres, which can weaken community structures and cohesion, and could also foster increased dependence on external specialists, providers or decision-makers. Careful introduction of emerging Educational Technologies could alleviate and possibly reverse such trends as mobile Internet access spreads to remote areas. This paper examines the role of education in sustainable development and specifically explores the potential for two educational innovations, open badges and blockchain, to provide a new construct for transformation in sustainable development amongst mountain and pastoralist societies. These technologies could not only facilitate education through online distance learning, but also allow geographically remote populations to highlight the value of their traditional knowledge and to engage more comprehensively in their changing worlds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0020.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: thin-skinned tectonics, thick-skinned tectonics, structural geology, structure of mountain ranges, fold-and-thrust belts, décollement, nappe stacking, continent-continent collision, subduction, basin inversion
Online: 27 July 2017 (10:14:40 CEST)
This paper gives an overview of the large-scale tectonic styles encountered in orogens worldwide. Thin-skinned and thick-skinned tectonics represent two end member styles recognized in mountain ranges. Both styles are encountered in former passive margins of continental plates. Thick-skinned style including the entire crust and possibly the lithospheric mantle are associated with intracontinental contraction. Delamination of subducting continental crust and horizontal protrusion of upper plate crust into the opening gap occurs in the terminal stage of continent-continent collision. Continental crust thinned prior to contraction is likely to develop relatively thin thrust sheets of crystalline basement. A true thin-skinned type requires a detachment layer of sufficient thickness. Thickness of the décollement layer as well as the mechanical contrast between décollement layer and detached cover control the style of folding and thrusting within the detached cover units. In subduction-related orogens, thin- and thick-skinned deformation may occur several hundreds of kilometers from the plate contact zone. Basin inversion resulting from horizontal contraction may lead to the formation of basement uplifts by the combined reactivation of pre-existing normal faults and initiation of new reverse faults. In most orogens thick-skinned and thin-skinned structures both occur and evolve with a pattern where nappe stacking propagates outward and downward