ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0894.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: orchids; morphometry; vanilla; infraespecific variation
Online: 19 September 2023 (07:50:30 CEST)
Vanilla pompona is the third most important commercial species of the genus Vanilla, but its morphometric variation is little known. In orchids, infraspecific variation is expressed in the labellum. This study had the objective of analyzing the floral variation of V. pompona collections from localities in Veracruz, Puebla, Jalisco and Oaxaca, Mexico. During the flowering period, we obtained 55 collections of V. pompona flowers, and in the dissected labellum of each flower 54 lines and 7 angles were measured and portrayed with the ImageJ program. With the data obtained, we performed an analysis of variance, a principal components analysis, and a cluster analysis. The results showed significant differences among the collections and localities in the means of the lines of the basal, middle, and apical regions of the labellum. Also, six morphotypes were obtained, and we found that variation was associated with factors such as the environment, geographic barriers, and pollinator pressure. Moreover, we observed variation in flowering dates in one locality of Veracruz. We concluded that there is infraspecific variation within and between the collection localities of V pompona of the Atlantic region (Puebla and Veracruz) and the Pacific region (Jalisco and Oaxaca), Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0366.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: landslides; debris-flows; LiDAR; morphometry
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:30:09 CEST)
On the 6th September at 03:08AM local time, the Iburi-Hokkaido Earthquake, only 33 km deep triggers >5,000 co-seismic mass-movements in the hills in a 25 km radius from the epicenter. Although the majority of the mass-movements occurred in complex-geometry valley with the coalescence of deposits, a small sub-set of 59 events deposited on the semi-horizontal val-ley-floor generating separated deposits that were studied in the present contribution. The aim of the present contribution was to contribute to the existing databases of empirical relationships based on planform and vertical dataset, and to define the scalars of those relations that charac-terize the mass-movements of the Iburi-Hokkaido earthquake, with the overarching goal of generating predictors for hazard-mapping. To reach these objectives, the methodology relies on LiDAR data flown in the aftermath of the earthquake as well as aerial photographs. Using Geo-graphical Information Science (GIS) tools planform and vertical parameters were extracted to calculate the power-law relations between areas and volume, between the Fahrböschung and the volume of the deposits, as well as other geometric relationships. Results have shown that the relation S=k〖V_d〗^(2/3) where S is the surface area of a deposit and Vd the volume, and k a scalar that is function of S: k=2.1842 ln(S)-10.167 with a R2 of 0.52, and this relation is improved for the open-slope mass-movements but not the valley-confined ones, that present more varia-bility. The Fahrböschung for events that started as valley-confined mass-movements was Fc = -0.043ln(D) + 0.7082 with a R2 of 0.5m while for open-slope mass-movements, the Fo = -0.046ln(D) + 0.7088 with a R2 of 0.52. These results contribute to the growing co-seismic land-slide database and they can also be the base to understand the role of the counter-slopes and complex topography on the spread and distance travelled by the mass-movement deposits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Chironomids; taxonomy; morphometry; principal component analysis
Online: 9 December 2021 (08:39:58 CET)
The larvae of some species of the subgenus Orthocladius s. str. (Diptera, Chironomidae) are here described for the first time with corrections and additions to the descriptions of adult males and pupal exuviae. The identification of larvae is generally not possible without association with their pupal exuviae and/or adult males, so the descriptions here are based only on reared material or on pupae with the associated larval exuviae. Usually, Chironomidae larvae can be separated on the basis of morphometric characters, and the most discriminant characters ones are: 1- the ratio between the width of median tooth of mentum (Dm) and the width of the first lateral tooth (Dl) = mental ratio (DmDl), 2- the ratio between the length of the first antennal segment (A1) and the combined length of segments 2-5 (A(2-5)2-5) = antennal ratio (AR). The shape of mandible, maxilla, and other body parts are almost identical in all the species considered in this study. The larva of Orthocladius (Symposiocladius) lignicola is very characteristic and can be separated by the shape of mentum and the larvae of all the known species of Symposiocladius are characterized by the presence of large Lauterborn organs on antennae and of tufts of setae on abdominal segments. The larvae of Orthocladius (Orthocladius) oblidens and Orthocladius (Orthocladius) rhyacobius can be distinguished from other species basing on their large Dm and to each other by AR. A principal component analysis was carried out using 5 characters: 1- Dm, 2- Dl, 3- length of A1, 4- width of A1 (A1W), 5- combined length of segments 2-5 (A2-5). The most discriminant characters were Dm and A1, confirming that DmDl and AR can be used to separate species at larval stage, but the large superposition of morphometric characters in different species confirms that association with pupal exuviae is in any case needed to identify larvae. In future perspective, the development of reference DNA barcodes from specimens identified by specialists is recommended since possibly the best tool for larvae identification, but association of barcodes with morphotypes is in any case fundamental.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: computer vision; fertilizers; germination; morphometry; wheat; seedlings
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:52:36 CEST)
Image analysis is widely applied in plant science for phenotyping and monitoring botanic and agricultural species. Although a lot of software is available, tools integrating image analysis and statistical assessment of seedling growth in large groups of plants are limited or absent, and do not cover the needs of the researchers. In this study, we developed Morley, a free, open-source graphical user interface written in Python. Morley automates the following workflow: (1) group-wise analysis of a few thousand seedlings from multiple images; (2) recognition of seeds, shoots and roots in seedling images; (3) calculation of shoot and root lengths and surface areas, (4) evaluation of statistically significant differences between plant groups, (5) calculation of germination rates, (6) visualization and interpretation. Morley is designed for laboratory studies of biotic effects on seedling growth, when molecular mechanisms underlying morphometric changes are analyzed. Performance was tested using cultivars of T. aestivum, P. sativum on seedlings of up to 1 week old. Accuracy of the measured morphometric parameters was comparable with the ones obtained using ImageJ and manual measurements. Dose-dependent laboratory tests for germination affected by new bioactive compounds and fertilizers, assuming extraction of seedlings from a substrate and/or dissection are among the suggested applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0253.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Phlebotomus sergenti; Wing Morphometry; Wing Geomorphomery; Morocco
Online: 15 December 2021 (11:11:08 CET)
Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot, 1917, the proven vector of Leishmania tropica Wright, 1903, the causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, is widely distributed in Morocco. Previous works using molecular markers (ITS2 rDNA and Cyt b mtDNA) have hy-pothesized the existence of multiple closely related populations of sandfly species (cryptic species) that would exhibit distinct vectorial capacities. In this work, descriptive characteristics of wings (size and shape of the right and left wings) were measured in samples collected from fourteen sta-tions in central Morocco. These analyses support the existence of distinct P. sergenti populations, enlightening significant phenotypic variations of P. sergenti’s wings, regarding their size and shape, depending on geographic origin. In addition, geomorphometric analyses of wing’s length, centroid size, alpha, and beta distances allowed clear discrimination of P. sergenti sub-populations. These data pinpoint the adaptative ability of P. sergenti to local environmental conditions. Additional studies are now required to further shed light on the genetic structure of P. sergenti populations in Morocco.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0793.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Cavia porcellus L.; illumination; morphometry; acrosome; sperm nucleus; precocity
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:15:23 CEST)
Sperm morphology can predict the reproductive male fertilizing potential. This study aimed to determine the morphological and morphometric spermatozoa characteristics from guinea pigs subjected to different photoperiodic stimulation. Thirty F1 guinea pigs were randomly assigned to three photoperiodic treatments: FT1 (photoperiod with 10L/14D LED light), FT2 (photoperiod with 10L/14D sunlight), and FT0 (room without direct light source). At 107 ± 9.8 days of age, sperm concentration and motility were higher in FT0 and FT1 (p<0.05); furthermore, there were no differences in nucleus length and ellipticity between FT0 and FT1, but FT1 was higher in perimeter and nuclear area, while FT0 was higher in roughness, regularity, midpiece length and tail (p<0.01). Expanding acrosome (Type 2) was more frequent in FT2, but there was variation in head measurements between all morphological categories. Pregnancy rate, calving age and mating age were higher in FT0, meanwhile FT1 initiated successful matings earlier (p<0.01). FT0 had a higher fertility rate, and FT1 age of mating and first calving were earlier than FT0 but no pregnancies were reported for FT2. The photoperiodic stimulation can increase the morphometric dimensions of guinea pig spermatozoa, favoring the reproductive characteristics, but sunlight could reduce their size due to heat stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0471.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: fluvial networks; Chilean’s watersheds; monofractal dimension; morphometry; structural control
Online: 29 December 2021 (15:57:16 CET)
Chilean geography is highly variable, not only from a climatic and hydrological point of view, but also a morphological one, showing unpredictable natural patterns with marked contrasts throughout the country, for which sometimes it is considered as a "crazy" geography. In this paper we have investigated this apparent disorganized character by exploring the fractal properties of fluvial networks extracted from basins distributed across the continental territory. Analytical and semi-empirical methods were applied, finding striking patterns of organization in the distributions of Horton parameters and the fractal dimension of the drainage networks. Fractal dimension reveals to be quite dependent on the drainage area of each unit, showing clear groupings by tectonic and climatological factors. Such dimension reveals to be an important geomorphic parameter, if not the only one able to capture the real morphology of a fluvial network. From our results and despite the diversity of landforms, hydrological, climatic and tectonic conditions, Chilean’s geography is perhaps not as crazy and disorganized as believed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0371.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Quaternary; Holocene; alluvial sediments; Sava River; gravels; morphometry; Zagreb; Croatia
Online: 30 January 2020 (14:48:11 CET)
Morphometric analysis of Holocene pebbles from the Sava River gravels, in Zagreb alluvial aquifer system (NW Croatia), revealed distribution of their shapes along 30 km long observed watercourse. Limestones, dolomites and sandstones are determined as major (> 4%), and effusive magmatics, cherts and tuffs as minor lithotypes of the pebbles (up to 4%). Their distributions indicate mainly distant Alpine provenance for carbonate (limestones and dolomites) pebbles and local input for sandstones and minor lithotypes, laterally from the Samoborska gora and Medvednica Mts. Carbonates have predominately disc and sphere shapes, implying also their mainly distant sources. Scattered distributions of pebble shapes (sphere, disc, blade and rod) for sandstones and minor lithotypes indicate multiple sources, some of them probably local. Original sedimentary environments for main pebble lithotypes are tentatively interpreted from their flatness ratios, indicating predominant lake shore environments, followed by moraine and riverbed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0462.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Bergmann’s rule; carapace morphometry; plastron scutes; Hermann’s tortoises; Testudo hermanni boettgeri
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:56:04 CET)
Testudines show phenotypic plasticity, and variation among specific populations within a species is widespread. Morphological differences between populations reflect ecological factors that drive adaptation to local conditions. In this context, gathered basic data on morphology of the Hermann’s tortoise (Testudo hermanni boettgeri) to document their variation across different geographical regions. We surveyed Hermann’s tortoises, in five different locales within Albania during April and May 2020 and measured 20 morphological characteristics, including carapace and plastron dimensions. We measured 188 tortoises (81 males, 107 females) in this study, and females were larger (P=.0001) and heavier (P=.0001) than males. Mean straight carapace length [SCL] and body mass were = 172.4 mm and 1128.8 g, respectively, for females and 151.3 mm and 735 g, respectively, for males. The overall Albanian T. h. boettgeri population were regionally diverged into 3 different populations that were situated in northern (Shkodra), central (Tirana, Berati and Ballshi) and southern (Saranda) Albania. The body size (curved carapace length; CCL) of females was positively correlated (r=0.216; P=0.025) with the latitude degree, in accordance with Bergmann's rule. However, there was no correlation between body size and degrees north latitude in males. These striking regional differences among Albanian T. h. boettgeri strongly suggest that further study of molecular variations in and reproductive output of Hermann’s tortoises is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1032.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: experimental critical size bone defect; maxillofacial area; chitosan; bone formation; morphometry; rats
Online: 6 October 2023 (08:32:17 CEST)
Abstract: A biomaterial is proposed for closing extensive bone defects in the maxillofacial region. The composition of the biomaterial includes high-molecular chitosan, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronate, heparin, alginate and inorganic nanostructured hydroxyapatite. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate morphological and histological early signs of reconstruction of a bone cavity of critical size. The studies were carried out on 84 white female rats weighing 200-250 g. The study group consisted of 84 subjects in total, 40 in the experimental group and 44 in the control group. In all animals, three-walled bone defects measuring 0.5 x 04 x 05 cm were applied subperiosteally in the region of the angle of the lower jaw and filled in experimental group using lyophilized gel mass of chitosan-alginate-hydroxyapatite (CH-SA-HA). In control animals, the bone cavities were filled with an auto-blood clot after bone trepanation and bleeding. The observation periods are 3.5.7 days, 126.96.36.199.8 and 10 weeks. The control of bone regeneration was carried out using multiple morphological and histological analyses. Results showed that following implantation the chitosan construct actively replaced early-stage defects with the formation of a full-fledged new bone tissue as compared to the control group. Already, by the 7th day morphological analysis showed that formation of spongy bone tissue could be seen. After 2 weeks there was a pronounced increase in bone volume (P<0.01), and at 6 weeks after surgical intervention the closure of the defect was 70-80%, after 8 weeks - 100% without violation of bone morphology with a high degree of mineralization. Thus, the use of modified chitosan after filling eliminates bone defects of a critical size in the maxillofacial region, reveals early signs of bone regeneration, and serves as a promising material in reconstructive dentistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, structural MRI, grey matter volume, voxel-based morphometry
Online: 8 February 2019 (09:30:12 CET)
Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine whether and to what extent mood disorders, comprising major depression and bipolar disorder, are accompanied by structural changes in the brain as measured using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: We have performed a VBM study using a 3Т MRI system (GE Discovery 750w) in patients with mood disorders (n=50), namely 39 with major depression and 11 with bipolar disorder, compared to 42 age, sex and education matched healthy controls. Results: Our results show that depression was associated with significant decreases in grey matter (GM) volume restricted to regions located in medial frontal and anterior cingulate cortex on the left side and middle frontal gyrus, medial orbital gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus (triangular and orbital parts), and middle temporal gyrus (extending to the superior temporal gyrus) on the right side. When the patient group was separated into bipolar disorder and major depression the reductions remained significant only for the patients with major depressive disorder. Conclusions: Using VBM the present study was able to replicate decreases in GM volume restricted to frontal and temporal regions in patients with mood disorders mainly major depression, as compared with healthy controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1494.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: microgravity; chemotherapy; paclitaxel; hydroxyurea; morphometry; drug response; immune dysfunction; space medicine; terrestrial medicine; fluorescence microscopy
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:34:49 CEST)
Unlike plants which have special gravity-sensing cells, such special cells in animals are yet to be discovered. However, microgravity, the condition of apparent weightlessness, causes bone, muscular and immune system dysfunctions in astronauts following spaceflights. Decades of investigations show correlations between these organ and system-level dysfunctions with changes induced at the cellular level both by simulated microgravity as well as microgravity conditions in outer space. Changes in single bone, muscle and immune cells include morphological abnormalities, altered gene expression, protein expression, metabolic pathways and signaling pathways. These suggest that human cells mount some response to microgravity. However, the implications of such adjustments on many cellular functions and responses are not clear. Here, we addressed the question whether microgravity induces alterations to drug response in cancer cells. We used both adherent cancer cells (T98G) and cancer cells in suspension (K562) to confirm known effects of microgravity and then treated the K562 cells with common cancer drugs (hydroxyurea and paclitaxel) following 48 hours of exposure to microgravity via a NASA-developed rotary cell culture system. Fluorescence-guided morphometry revealed microgravity-induced loss of the significant reduction (p < 0.0l) to the nuclear to cytoplasm ratio of cancer cells treated with hydroxyurea. Our results call for more studies on impact of microgravity on cellular drug-response, in view of the growing need for space medicine, as space exploration grows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Apis mellifera; honey bee subspecies; cryopreservation; breeding stock; honey bee selection; tRNAleu-COII (COI-COII); microsatellite markers; morphometry
Online: 1 November 2023 (07:04:12 CET)
The cryopreservation of gametes and embryos is an important element of biodiversity conservation. One species in need of conservation is the honey bee Apis mellifera L. Changing environmental factors, especially the anthropogenic factor, have led to a reduction in the numbers of this insect species. In this study, we provide an example of the creation of a biobank of honey bee drone sperm. For sperm cryopreservation, drones of the most common subspecies of honey bees common in Russia were selected. These were the dark forest bee, Apis mellifera mellifera from the Republic of Bashkortostan, with three subspecies (A. m. carnica, A. m. carpatica, and A. m. caucasica) from the southern regions of Russia, as well as two breeding stocks, the Far Eastern bee and Prioksky bee. For subspecies identification, morphometric and genetic methods were used. The subspecies of the studied samples were confirmed by the analysis of the tRNAleu-COII locus of mitochondrial DNA and nine microsatellite markers of nuclear DNA. It was shown that bees of the Prioksky breeding stock belong to the subspecies A. m. caucasica based on phylogenetic analysis, and the Far Eastern breeding stock is a stable hybrid, descending on the maternal line from the evolutionary lineage C or O. The results of the morphometric analysis are consistent with the results of the genetic analysis. For the cryopreservation of sperm, we used a honey diluent. As a result, the viability of frozen–thawed sperm decreased by 20.3% compared to fresh sperm, and overall motility decreased by 25-fold. The measurement of the sperm concentration in the spermatheca of artificially inseminated queens showed that it varied from 0.22 to 4.4 million/μL. Therefore, the use of honey in sperm cryopreservation has great potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brain morphometry; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cognition; Mild cognitive impairment; Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment; Structural Cognitive Modifiability; Mediated Learning Experience
Online: 27 October 2021 (15:21:13 CEST)
There is increasing interest in identifying biological and imaging markers for the early detection of neurocognitive decline. In addition, non-pharmacological strategies including physical exercise and cognitive interventions may be beneficial for those developing cognitive impairment. The Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment (FIE) Program is a cognitive intervention based on Structural Cognitive Modifiability and the Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) and aims to promote problem-solving strategies and metacognitive abilities. The FIE program uses a variety of instruments to enhance the cognitive capacity of the individual as a result of mediation. A specific version of the FIE program was developed for the cognitive enhancement of older adults, focusing on strengthening orientation skills, categorization skills, deductive reasoning and memory. We performed a prospective interventional pilot observational study on older subjects with MCI who participated in 30 mediated FIE sessions (two sessions weekly for 15 weeks). Of the 21 subjects who completed the study, there was a significant improvement in memory on the Neurotrax battery comparing pre- and post-intervention scores (pre: M=95.3, SD=12.2, post: M=101.2, SD=7.9, p<.05). Complete sets of anatomical MRI data for voxel-based morphometry, taken at the beginning and the end of the study, were obtained from 16 participants (mean age 83.5 years). Voxel-based morphometry showed an unexpected increase in grey matter (GM) in the anterolateral occipital border and the middle cingulate cortex. These initial findings of our pilot study support the design of randomized trials to evaluate the effect of cognitive training using the FIE Program on brain volumes and cognitive function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0532.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Locus Coeruleus; Reserve; Brain Age; Visual Attention; Alzheimer’s Disease; Mild Cognitive Impairment; normal Aging; Neuroimaging; Voxel Based Morphometry
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:41:40 CEST)
The noradrenergic theory of Cognitive Reserve (Robertson, 2013-2014) postulates that the upregulation of the Locus Coeruleus - Noradrenergic System (LC-NA) originating in the Brainstem might facilitate cortical networks involved in attention, and protracted activation of this system throughout the lifespan may enhance cognitive stimulation contributing to Reserve. To test the above-mentioned theory, a study was conducted on a sample of 686 participants (395 controls, 156 Mild Cognitive Impairment, 135 Alzheimer’s Disease) investigating the relationship between LC volume, attentional performance and a biological index of brain maintenance (BrainPAD – an objective measure which compares an individual’s structural brain health, reflected by their voxel-wise grey matter density, to the state typically expected at that individual’s age). Further analyses were carried out on Reserve indices including education and occupational attainment. Volumetric variation across groups was also explored along with gender differences. Control analyses on the Serotoninergic (5-HT), Dopaminergic (DA) and Cholinergic (Ach) systems were contrasted with the Noradrenergic (NA) hypothesis. The antithetic relationships were also tested across the neuromodulatory subcortical systems.Results supported by bayesian modelling showed that LC volume disproportionately predicted higher attentional performance as well as biological brain maintenance across the three groups. These findings lend support to the role of the noradrenergic system as a key mediator underpinning the neuropsychology of Reserve, and they suggest that early prevention strategies focused on the noradrenergic system (e.g. cognitive-attentive training, physical exercise, pharmacological and dietary interventions) may yield important clinical benefits to mitigate cognitive impairment with age and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: ischemic stroke; MRI; morphometry; post-stroke cognitive impairment, post-stroke depressive disorder; cortisol; α-amylase; interleukin-6; multiple hit hypothesis; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; sympathoadrenal system
Online: 9 November 2023 (10:06:30 CET)
Post-stroke depressive disorders (PSD) and post-stroke cognitive impairments (PCI) are frequent consequences of ischemic stroke (IS). The study was focused on exploring possible associations between relative volumes of cortical and limbic brain structures during the acute period of IS, and changes in biochemical indices of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, sympathoadrenal medullary and inflammatory systems, with the development of PSD or PCI after mild or moderate IS. Patients developing PSD later on had significantly smaller relative volumes of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal pole versus patients without depressive symptoms. PCI development was associated with significantly smaller volumes of temporal pole and supramarginal gyrus versus patients without cognitive changes. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed higher likelihood of developing PSD in patients with smaller temporal pole volume (β0=10.9; β=-4.27; p=0.04) and increased salivary α-amylase activity (β0=-3.55; β=2.68e-05; p=0.02,). PCI likelihood was higher in patients with smaller supramarginal gyrus volume (β0=3.41; β=-0.99; p=0.047), smaller temporal pole volume (β0=3.41; β=-3.12; p=0. 06), and increased hair cortisol concentration at admission (index of accumulated stress load within a month before IS; β0=3.41; β=-0.05; p=0.08). The data support the hypothesis suggesting predisposition to PSD and PCI and multi hit scenarios of their pathogenesis with IS providing a final hit.