ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0236.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: DEM; LCNS; Moonlight; Traverse; Navigation
Online: 15 July 2022 (14:51:20 CEST)
With the renewed interest for lunar surface exploration, the European Space Agency envisions to stimulate the creation of lunar communications and navigation services (LCNS) to enable, among others, autonomous navigation capabilities for lunar rovers. As the number of satellites foreseen in such a service is much smaller compared to Earth based global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), different complementary technologies are pursued to improve the attainable navigation accuracy for lunar rovers. One way to improve the position accuracy provided by the LCNS satellites is to constrain the vertical position using a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM). This article presents the results of a variance covariance analysis of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) implementation in which the LCNS ranging measurements are used together with DEM from the LRO LOLA instrument. Assuming a realistic orbit determination and time synchronization (ODTS) accuracy of the LCNS satellites, the usage of a navigation grade IMU and an oven controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO), a 3-sigma position accuracy of less than 10 meters can be obtained. Furthermore, the availability is substantially improved as the DEM aided solution enables a position solution in case of only 3 visible satellites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: snake demography; moonlight; rain; temperature; climate change in Osa
Online: 11 August 2019 (05:35:15 CEST)
Introduction: studies in the last two decades have found declining snake populations in both temperate and tropical sites, including informal reports from Drake Bay, Costa Rica. Objective: to investigate if reports of decreasing snake populations in Drake Bay had a real basis, and if environmental factors, particularly temperature, rain and light, have played a role in that decrease. Methods: we worked at Drake Bay from 2012 through 2017 and made over 4000 h of transect counts. Using head flashlights we surveyed a transect covered by lowland tropical rainforest at an altitude of 12–38 m above sea level, near the Agujas River, mostly at 1930–2200 hours. We counted all the snakes that we could see along the transect. Results: snake counts increase from August to September and then decline rapidly. The May snakes/rainfall peaks coincide, but the second snake peak occurs one month before the rain peak; we counted more snakes in dry nights, with the exception of Imantodes cenchoa which was equally common despite rain conditions. We saw less Leptodeira septentrionalis on bright nights, but all other species were unaffected. Along the six years, the number of species with each diet type remained relatively constant, but the number of individuals declined sharply for those that feed on amphibians and reptiles. We report Rhadinella godmani, a highland species, at 12–38 m of altitude. Conclusion: night field counts of snakes in Drake Bay, Costa Rica, show a strong decline from 2012 through 2017.