ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: digital literacy; digital game-based assessment; ECGD; AHP; assessment model
Online: 4 December 2023 (15:12:33 CET)
This study measured secondary students’ digital literacy using a digital game-based assessment system that was designed and developed based on the Evidence-Centered Game Design (ECGD) approach. A total of 188 secondary students constituted the valid samples in this study. Fine-grained behavioral data generated from students’ gameplay processes were collected and recorded with the assessment system. The Delphi method was used to extract feature variables related to digital literacy from the process data, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used to construct the measurement model. The assessment results of the ECGD-based assessment had a high correlation with standardized test scores, which have been shown to be reliable and valid in prior large-scale assessment studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: self-adaption; wireless sensors; model-based design; control engineering
Online: 8 December 2022 (10:24:09 CET)
The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of self-adaptive capabilities in wireless sensors by applying control engineering and model-based design methodologies. It has been addressed the problem related to the changes in the flow of data packets through the network connection and the excess energy consumption that this causes in these devices. To design the solution, a systemic characterization of the scheduling and execution process of embedded tasks on the device has been carried out. This means defining cause-effect relationships in the system and its modelling theoretically and/or experimentally. In turn, these models facilitate the design of control strategies to improve the dynamic behavior of the system. As a solution, a self-adaptation strategy based on feedforward control algorithm has been designed and developed, which has been applied to improve the dynamic behavior and resource consumption. The developed solution has been satisfactorily evaluated experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Generative model; Knowledge-Based Engineering; Design automation; Conceptual design; Aerospace Engineering; Computer Aided Design
Online: 17 May 2023 (07:14:32 CEST)
This thesis presents the effects of work done on a software project for generative models and spreadsheets, allowing for a quick creation of the conceptual model of the aircraft. The subject of the work is a response to the current trends and needs prevailing in the field of computer design engineering CAD and aviation. In the initial chapters, theoretical issues related to the work being carried out were introduced and the methodology of creating software for construction and verification of the structure of aircraft along with the needs of interchange between databases of generative models was presented. In the next stages, the concepts and selected solutions for the user interface supporting the knowledge base were presented along with a set of procedures for its operation. Furthermore, the method of database integration with the methods of determining design features for the developed generative models and with the Siemens NX system. Furthermore, problems encountered in software development, as well as solution examples for model application are specified. The results obtained and the models generated on their basis were subjected to a strength analysis using Autodesk Inventor software and analysed in terms of meeting the initial assumptions. In the end, conclusions and observations resulting from the effects of the work presented in the project were formulated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1376.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: air supply optimization; double-objective optimization; surrogate-based optimization; Kriging model; genetic algorithm
Online: 21 August 2023 (03:23:07 CEST)
When using meta-heuristic optimization approaches for optimization, a large number of samples are required. In particular, when generating subgeneration, the utilization of existing samples is low and the number of individuals is high. Therefore, surrogate-based optimization has been developed, which greatly reduces the number of individuals in the subgeneration and the cost of optimization. In complex air supply scenarios, single-objective optimization results may not be comprehensive; therefore, this paper developed a double-objective air supply optimization method based on the Kriging surrogate model and Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithms-II. And proposed the infill criteria based on clustering to advance the Pareto Frontier. The method was validated by an inverse prediction case, and in particular, the problems when based on 3D steady-state simulations were analyzed. The results showed that the method can quickly achieve an approximate prediction of the boundary conditions (when prediction were made based on experimental data, the number of simulations was 82 and the average error was 6.8%). Finally, the method was used to optimize the air supply parameters of a dual-aisle, single-row cabin. The Pareto set suggested that an airflow organization with dual circulation may be optimal.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Model-based systems engineering (MBSE); Model informatics and analytics; Model-based collaboration
Online: 12 March 2021 (16:52:34 CET)
In MBSE there is yet no converged terminology. The term ’system model’ is used in different contexts in literature. In this study we elaborated the definitions and usages of the term ’system model’, to find a common definition. 104 publications have been analyzed in depth for their usage and definition as well as their meta-data e.g., the publication year and publication background to find some common patterns. While the term is gaining more interest in recent years it is used in a broad range of contexts for both analytical and synthetic use cases. Based on this three categories of system models have been defined and integrated into a more precise definition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0523.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: game-based learning; game design; project-based teaching; informatics and society, cybersecurity
Online: 26 July 2018 (16:38:48 CEST)
This article discusses the use of game design as a method for interdisciplinary project-based teaching in secondary school education to convey informatics and society topics. There is a lot of knowledge about learning games but little background on project-based teaching using game design as a method. We present the results of an analysis of student-created games and an evaluation of a student-authored database on learning contents found in commercial off-the-shelf games. We further contextualise these findings using a group discussion with teachers. Results underline the effectiveness of project-based teaching to raise awareness for informatics and society topics. We further outline informatics and society topics that are particularly interesting to students, genre preferences and potentially engaging game mechanics stemming from our analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: CFD; numerical optimization; CAD parametrization; cloud-based; design space exploration; SSIM
Online: 9 March 2020 (09:50:23 CET)
In this manuscript, an automated framework dedicated to design space exploration and design optimization studies is presented. The framework integrates a set of numerical simulation, computer-aided design, numerical optimization, and data analytics tools using scripting capabilities. The tools used are open-source and freeware, and can be deployed on any platform. The main feature of the proposed methodology is the use of a cloud-based parametrical computer-aided design application, which allows the user to change any parametric variable defined in the solid model. We demonstrate the capabilities and flexibility of the framework using computational fluid dynamics applications; however, the same workflow can be used with any numerical simulation tool (e.g., a structural solver or a spread-sheet) that is able to interact via a command line interface or using scripting languages. We conduct design space exploration and design optimization studies using quantitative and qualitative metrics, and to reduce the high computing times and computational resources intrinsic to these kinds of studies, concurrent simulations and surrogate-based optimization are used.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; drug design; covid-19; structure-based drug design; ligand-based drug design
Online: 2 March 2022 (03:00:37 CET)
The recent covid crisis has proven important lessons for academia and industry regarding digital reorganization. Among fascinating lessons from these times is the huge potential of data analytics and artificial intelligence. The crisis exponentially accelerated the adoption of analytics and artificial intelligence, and this momentum is predicted to continue into the 2020s and over. Moreover, drug development is a costly and time-consuming business, and only a minority of approved drugs return the revenue that exceeds the research and development costs. As a result, there is a huge drive to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. With modern algorithms and hardware, it is not too surprising that the new technologies of artificial intelligence and other computational simulation tools can help drug developers. In only two years of covid research, many novel molecules have been designed/identified using artificial intelligence methods with astonishing results in terms of time and effectiveness. This paper will review the most significant research on artificial intelligence in the de novo drug design for COVID-19 pharmaceutical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0463.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Design model; Interactions; Coevolution; Study of objects
Online: 27 March 2023 (13:47:04 CEST)
Design has often been interpreted as a practice of creating novel objects. However, the relationships between objects analysed upstream the process of creation have been under-studied. Here it is presented a model for enhancing the design practice by fostering a deep work on the relationships of mundane objects. The Three-dimensional Narratives (TdN) model comprises a stepwise five phases work package that facilitates a varied range of analyses to improve the creativity and innovation of any project led by any type of participants. One particular feature of the TdN model is the appropriation of concepts coming from non-design fields such physics and biology to both developing the work of the model and to improve the comprehension and outcomes of the enrolled participants. During three Case Studies with children, youngsters, and older participants the TdN model was validated, and its usability was successfully assessed. The TdN model shows that there is a need for a deeper design practice and that it is relevant to improve the lexicon of designers in order to facilitate a broader and design practice, irrespectively of the aim of the proposed project and nuances of the audience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: recommendation system; context awareness; location based services; mobile computing, cloud-based computing
Online: 18 September 2017 (08:54:04 CEST)
The ubiquity of mobile sensors (such as GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope) together with increasing computational power have enabled an easier access to contextual information, which proved its value in next generation of the recommender applications. The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers in many disciplines, such as ubiquitous and mobile computing, to filter the query results and provide recommendations based on different user status. A context-aware recommendation system (CoARS) provides a personalized service to each individual user, driven by his or her particular needs and interests at any location and anytime. Therefore, a contextual recommendation system changes in real time as a user’s circumstances changes. CoARS is one of the major applications that has been refined over the years due to the evolving geospatial techniques and big data management practices. In this paper, a CoARS is designed and implemented to combine the context information from smartphones’ sensors and user preferences to improve efficiency and usability of the recommendation. The proposed approach combines user’s context information (such as location, time, and transportation mode), personalized preferences (using individuals past behavior), and item-based recommendations (such as item’s ranking and type) to personally filter the item list. The context-aware methodology is based on preprocessing and filtering of raw data, context extraction and context reasoning. This study examined the application of such a system in recommending a suitable restaurant using both web-based and android platforms. The implemented system uses CoARS techniques to provide beneficial and accurate recommendations to the users. The capabilities of the system is evaluated successfully with recommendation experiment and usability test.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1913.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Solar PV system; Regression Model; DOE; Solar energy; Fossil fuels
Online: 9 November 2023 (10:58:47 CET)
AbstractTo overcome the negative impacts on the environment and other problems associated with fossil fuels have forced many countries to inquire into and change to environmentally friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Solar energy is one of the best renewable energy sources with the least negative impacts on the environment. Different countries have formulated solar energy policies to reduce dependence on fossil fuel and increasing domestic energy production by solar energy. According to the 2010 BP Statistical Energy Survey, the world cumulative installed solar energy capacity was 22928.9 MW in 2009, a change of 46.9% compared to 2008. In this study, a PV generation system has been modeled and installed considering uncertain whether based on the hourly wind speed data of New York City (NYC) of year 2014. Regression models has been used to forecast the hourly, weekly, and monthly wind speed of NYC year 2014. Design of experiment (DOE) has been used to determine the optimal panel size (area), the battery capacity size, and other levels of factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0220.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: diversity; fragment-based drug discovery; library design; library size
Online: 19 July 2019 (07:54:41 CEST)
Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a major strategy to derive novel lead candidates for various therapeutic targets, as it promises efficient exploration of chemical space by employing fragment-sized (MW < 300) compounds. One of the first challenges in implementing a FBDD approach is the design of a fragment library, and more specifically, the choice of its size and individual members. A diverse set of fragments is required to maximise the chances of discovering novel hit compounds. However, the exact diversity of a certain collection of fragments remains underdefined, which hinders direct comparisons among different selections of fragments. Based on structural fingerprints, we herein introduced quantitative metrics for the structural diversity of fragment libraries. Structures of commercially available fragments were retrieved from the ZINC database, from which libraries with sizes ranging from 100 to 100,000 compounds were selected. The selected libraries were evaluated and compared quantitatively, resulting in interesting size-diversity relationships. Our results demonstrated that while library size does matter for its diversity, there exists an optimal size for structural diversity. It is also suggested that such quantitative measures can guide the design of diverse fragment libraries under different circumstances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0493.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electromagnetically actuated cantilevers; nanometrology; multiobjective optimisation; active cantilevers; SOI-based prototyping
Online: 29 June 2018 (15:52:53 CEST)
In this paper we present the numerical and experimental results of a design optimization of electromagnetic cantilevers. In particular, a cost-effective technique of evolutionary computing enabling the simultaneous minimization of multiple criteria is applied. A set of optimal solutions are subsequently fabricated and measured. The designed structures are fabricated in arrays, which makes the comparison and measurements of the sensor properties reliable. The microfabrication process, based on the silicon on insulator (SOI) technology, is proposed in order to minimize parasitic phenomena and enable efficient electromagnetic actuation. Measurements on the fabricated prototypes assessed the proposed methodological approach.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive development; Secure SDLC; Evidence-based standard; ISO/SAE 21434; UNECE cybersecurity regulation
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:59:57 CET)
Although traditional automotive development has mainly focused on functional safety, as the number of automotive hacking cases has increased due to the growing Internet connectivity of automotive control systems, security is also becoming more important. Accordingly, various international organizations are preparing cybersecurity regulations or standards to ensure security in automotive development by emphasizing the concept of security-by-design(i.e. security engineering) which emphasizes trustworthiness from the beginning of development. The problem, however, is that no specific methodology has been suggested. In this paper, we propose a specific security-by-design methodology for automotive development based on Secure System Development Life Cycle (secure SDLC) standards and evidence-based standards. Our methodology could be easily used in the actual field as it is more general and detailed than existing secure SDLC standards and research. Also, since it satisfies all requirements of United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulation, automobile manufacturers could respond to the upcoming cybersecurity regulation with our methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle; electromagnetic model; optimization; silicon-iron; thermal model; Vanadium Cobalt
Online: 24 March 2022 (02:59:21 CET)
The use of cobalt-iron (VaCoFe) core is investigated as an alternative to silicon-iron (FeSi) on the design of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). A spoke-type IPMSM geometry is optimized considering FeSi and VaCoFe cores for a torque range up to 40 N.m, providing a general comparative analysis between materials, considering the application of a 4-motor competition vehicle’s powertrain. A genetic optimization algorithm is applied over a hybrid analytical/finite-element model of the motor to provide sufficiently accurate electromagnetic and thermal results within a feasible time. VaCoFe can result in an estimated increase of up to 5 % in efficiency for the same torque, or up to 64 % torque increase for the same efficiency level. After optimization, and using a detailed time-dependent model, a potential 3.2 % increase in efficiency, a core weight reduction of 4.1 %, and a decrease of 9.6 % in the motor’s core volume was found for the VaCoFe at 20 Nm. In addition, for the same motor volume, the VaCoFe allows an increase of 51.9 % of torque with an increase of 1.1 % of efficiency, when compared with FeSi.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0478.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bioinformatics; Drug Design; Small Organic Molecule; Target identification; Web-based Server
Online: 25 July 2020 (17:50:30 CEST)
Drug design is used for different applications of bioinformatics tools analyze DNA, genome, and sequence target region of a small organic molecule in order to understand the molecules of disease. Bioinformatics tools are identified a newly wide research field and minimize future risks through web servers and data mining. Clinical sample test performed with the bioinformatics tools as the biomedical detective. A particular structure and configuration of protein obliging in Drug design concluded Bioinformatics. This review bioinformatics tools and webserver will discuss functions of small organic molecules according to clinical pharmacology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: performance-based building design; PBBD; high-rise residential.
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:46:46 CEST)
The complexity of the design in high-rise residential projects is a challenge for the construction industry in completing projects that fit the needs of users. Performance-Based Building Design (PBBD) appears as a design concept that can describe these needs into performance requirements. In this case designing a building can be considered as an iterative process of exploration, where desired functional properties can be created, the shapes are suggested, and evaluation processes is used, so as to bring together the shapes and functions of the building. This concept is a container for designers to produce high-performance buildings. This study aimed to identify the performance-based building design factors applied by architect designers and engineers in high-rise residential building in Surabaya. As part of this study, primary data was collected based on surveys conducted through observation and questionnaire distributed to designers who had or were involved in the high-rise residential design process in Surabaya. A total of sixty-eight respondents were included in this study. Descriptive analysis through a mean and standard deviation scatter plot was used to rank the application of PBBD. Meanwhile, factor analysis was used in the analysis of PBBD application factors. From the results of the analysis, four factors were obtained for the application of PBBD in high-rise residential buildings in Surabaya, namely; the interests of occupants, the sustainability of building operations, the design collaboration process, and the risk of loss. Future research is the influence relationships and measure the success model of PBBD at a higher level into BIM (Building Information Modeling) interoperability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0395.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Innovation; Up-scaling; NBS Nature-based solutions (NBS); Hydrometeorological hazards; PHUSICOS project; Flooding; Landslides; Avalanches; Rockfall; Europe
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:33:57 CET)
Impact in the form of innovation and commercialisation is an essential component of publicly funded research projects. PHUSICOS, an H2020 Innovation Action project, aims at demonstrating the use of nature-based solutions for mitigating hydrometeorological hazards in rural and mountainous areas. The work program is built around key innovation actions, and each WP leader specifically responsible for nurturing innovation processes, maintaining market focus and ensuring relevance for the intended recipients of the project results. Key success criteria for PHUSICOS include up-scaling and mainstreaming of NBS to reach broader market access. An innovation strategy and supporting tools for implementing this within PHUSICS has been developed and key concepts forming the basis for this strategy are presented in this research note.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1331.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: inclusive park; disabilities; research-based design; research through designing
Online: 23 October 2023 (05:13:53 CEST)
Public parks are a community resource with an important role in improving liveability, physical, and mental wellbeing. However, exercise facilities that are suitable for people with disabilities typically have been neglected in public park design. As such, people with disabilities often are unable to independently or safely use the park. To address this shortcoming, the objective of this paper was to employ a pragmatic research through designing process in developing the design for an inclusive park. We used a mixed-methods approach in the research that included review of previous studies, semi-structured interviews, and questionnaire surveys with stakeholders were applied as design integration. Persons with disabilities specifically were consulted to express their views on all matters of inclusive park design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0726.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Impact-centered design; sustainable design; positive experience; design model
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:11:03 CEST)
The pursuit of sustainable wellbeing is one of the research objectives of positive experience design. Driven by this goal, the purpose of this paper is to provide an impact-centered sustainable positive experience design model. Firstly, the literature review method was used to define the research status and concept of impact-centered sustainable design. Secondly, an impact-centered sustainable positive experience design model was constructed, and relevant formulas for concept generation and concept evaluation were proposed. Thirdly, design verification was conducted through a workshop. Finally, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) questionnaire was used to evaluate and discuss the design model. An impact-centered sustainable positive design model was proposed, which includes the important impact dimensions of sensory experience and meaningful experience on users’ quality of life at different levels: healthy living (pleasure index, health behavior), harmonious community (social connectivity, social contribution), and livable environment (living environment, environmental contribution). Based on positive experience related theory, this study takes long-term impacts as the starting point for sustainable positive experience design, which helps designers to generate design concepts from a systematic and long-term perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: urban; flood; calibration; model; SWMM; continuous
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:46:03 CEST)
Flood Management remains a major problem in many urban environments. Commonly, catchment models are used to generate the data needed for estimation of flood risk; event-based and continuous-based models have been used for this purpose. Use of catchment models requires calibration and validation with a calibration metric used to assess the predicted catchment response against the recorded catchment response. In this study, a continuous model based on SWMM using the Powells Creek catchment as a case study is investigated. Calibration of the model was obtained using 25 selected events from the monitored data for the catchment. Assessment of the calibration used a normalised peak flow error. Using alternative sets of parameter values to obtain estimates of the peak flow for each of the selected events and different accuracy criteria, the best datasets for each of the accuracy criteria were identified. These datasets were used with SWMM in a continuous simulation mode to predict flow sequences for extraction of Annual Maxima Series for an At-Site Flood Frequency Analysis. From analysis of these At-Site Flood Frequency Analyses, it was concluded that the normalised peak flow error needed to be less than 10% if reliable design flood quantile estimates were to be obtained.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0444.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Density functional theory; Descriptor; Carbon-based materials; Electrocatalysis; Low dimension
Online: 23 November 2022 (11:04:03 CET)
Low-dimensional carbon-based (LDC) materials have attracted extensive research attentions in electrocatalysis because of their unique advantages such as structural diversity, low cost, and chemical tolerance. They have been widely used in a broad range of electrochemical reactions to relief environmental pollution and energy crisis. Typical examples include hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR), and nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR). Traditional “trial and error” strategies seriously slowed down the rational design of electrocatalysts for these important applications. Recent studies show that the combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental research is capable of accurately predicting the structures of electrocatalysts, thus could reveal the catalytic mechanisms. Herein, current well-recognized collaboration methods of theory and practice are reviewed. The history of modern DFT, commonly used calculation methods, and basic functionals are briefly summarized. Special attention is paid to descriptors that are widely accepted as a bridge links the structure and activity, and the breakthroughs for high-volume accurate prediction of electrocatalysts. Importantly, correlating multiple descriptors are used to systematically describe the complicated interfacial electrocatalytic processes of LDC catalysts. In addition, machine learning and high-throughput simulations are crucial in assisting the discovery of new multiple descriptors and reaction mechanisms. This review will guide the further development of LDC electrocatalysts for extended applications from the aspect of DFT computations.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: alliance route network; network design; hub-and-spoke network; robust model.
Online: 9 March 2021 (12:35:45 CET)
This paper addresses the alliance route network design problem considering uncertainty of unit transportation cost. An alliance route network is constructed based on the hub-and-spoke (HS) network , in which airlines can achieve inter-area passenger transport through their international gateways. The design problem is formulated with a robust model containing a set of uncertain cost parameters. The model is established based on the three-subscript model of the HS network. A case study collected from real-world data is used to test the proposed model. The results show that the robust solution can reduce the impact of cost uncertainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2129.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: epidemiology; COVID-19; agent-based model; forecasting
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:37:07 CEST)
Background. We created agent-based model for short- and longterm forecasting of COVID-19 and for evaluation how the actions of the regulator affected the human and material resources of the healthcare system. Methods. The model was implemented in the AnyLogic software. It includes two state charts – social network and disease transmission. The COVID-19 Essential Supplies Forecasting Tool (COVID-ESFT, version 2.0) was used to determine healthcare resources needed. Results. Satisfactory results were obtained with long-term (up to 50 days) forecasting in the case of a monotonous change in total cases curve. However, if periods of relative stability are accompanied by sudden outbreaks, relatively satisfactory results were obtained with short-term forecasting, up to 10 days. Simulation of various scenarios showed that the most important place for the spread of infection are families. Wherein the maximum number of cases of COVID-19 is observed in the age group of 26-59 years. Due to a set of measures taken by government agencies, the number of cases in Karaganda city was 3.2 times less than was predicted in “no intervention” scenario. Economic effect is estimated at 40 %. Conclusion. Performed model is an attempt to consider as much as possible the peculiarities of the socio-demographic situation in the country. In the future, we will be prepared to some extent for challenges like those we have experienced in the past three years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: EMA; prognostics; PHM; model-based; metaheuristic; MEA
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:39:27 CET)
The deployment of Electro-Mechanical Actuators plays an important role towards the adoption of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) philosophy. On the other hand, a seamless substitution of EMAs in place of more traditional hydraulic solutions is still set back due to the shortage of real-life and reliability data regarding their failure modes. One way to work around this problem is providing a capillary EMA Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system, capable of recognizing failures before they actually undermine the ability of the safety-critical system to perform its functions. The authors have developed a model-based prognostic framework for PMSM based EMAs leveraging a metaheuristic algorithm: Evolutionary (Differential Evolution (DE)) and swarm intelligence (particle swarm (PSO), grey wolf (GWO)) methods are considered. Several failures (dry friction, backlash, short circuit, eccentricity and proportional gain) are simulated thanks to a Reference Model, acting as a Numerical Test Bench, then detected and identified thanks to the envisioned prognostic method, which leverages a low fidelity Monitoring Model. The employed algorithms showed good results and prove that this strategy could be executed in pre-flight checks or during the flight at specific time intervals, with positive impacts on system safety and availability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0556.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Agent-based-model; epidemiology; python; zoonotic diseases
Online: 1 December 2022 (02:09:32 CET)
Agent-based models (ABMs) are computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents in time and space. These models allow users to simulate the complex interactions between individual agents and the landscapes they inhabit and are increasingly used in epidemiology to understand complex phenomena and make predictions. However, as the complexity of the simulated systems increases, notably when disease control interventions are considered, model flexibility and processing speed can become limiting. Here we introduce SamPy, an open-source Python library for stochastic agent-based modeling of epidemics. SamPy is a modular toolkit for model development, providing adaptable modules that capture host movement, disease dynamics, and disease control interventions. Memory optimization and design provide high computational efficiency allowing modelling of large, spatially-explicit populations of agents over extensive geographical areas. In this article, we demonstrate the high flexibility and processing speed of this new library. The version of SamPy considered in this paper is available at https://github.com/sampy-project/sampy-paper .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0032.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: model based diagnosis; applications; diagnosis; physiotherapy; education
Online: 4 January 2020 (06:34:25 CET)
Many physiotherapy treatments begin with a diagnosis process. The patient describes symptoms, upon which the physiotherapist decides which tests to perform until a final diagnosis is reached. The relationships between the anatomical components are too complex to keep in mind and the possible actions are abundant. A trainee physiotherapist with little experience naively applies multiple tests to reach the root cause of the symptoms, which is a highly inefficient process. This work proposes to assist students in this challenge by presenting three main contributions: (1) A compilation of the neuromuscular system as components of a system in a Model-Based Diagnosis problem; (2) The PhysIt is an AI-based tool that enables an interactive visualization and diagnosis to assist trainee physiotherapists; and (3) An empirical evaluation that comprehends performance analysis and a user study. The performance analysis is based on evaluation of simulated cases and common scenarios taken from anatomy exams. The user study evaluates the efficacy of the system to assist students in the beginning of the clinical studies. The results show that our system significantly decreases the number of candidate diagnoses, without discarding the correct diagnosis, and that students in their clinical studies find PhysIt helpful in the diagnosis process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0771.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: scientific competence; competence-based education; educational planning; Education for Sustainable Development; evaluation of digital resources
Online: 29 November 2019 (03:17:18 CET)
Educating for Sustainability involves promoting sustainable competences in students. Not in vain, wider societal changes that ensure a balance between economic growth, respect for the environment and social justice must start with individual actions, implying knowledge, capacity and willingness to act. However, and although there is wide consensus that education should promote the development of competences for life, putting this theoretical tenet into may entail more problems. Competence is most often expressed in general terms without a specific definition of the intervening elements (knowledge, skills, values, attitudes), which may collide with the necessity of teachers – as learning planners - concrete entities on which to base their process of design. So that, in this work we propose a series of indicators that serve to characterize the four dimensions of scientific competence – contents of science, contents about science, value of science and utility of science-. Although they are primarily intended to be used to filter multimedia resources in an educational platform, this proposal of indicators can be extrapolated to the management and selection of a variety of resources and activities, and for sharing the objectives and evidences for the acquisition of competencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: project based learning; human powered vehicles; sustainable transportation design
Online: 23 October 2018 (03:42:42 CEST)
In this work, the decennial experience of Policumbent student team at Politecnico di Torino is summarized by focusing on the acquired knowledge in design of Human Powered Vehicles (HPVs) and on soft skills developed by both students and staff. Policumbent was funded by the authors at the end of 2008 in order to gather engineering students interested in design and construction of HPVs. In the last decade, the team has grown from 10 up to 50 students enrolled per year, exploring a range of HPV design for sports and mobility. Even when focusing on sport vehicles and extreme HPVs for speed record, such kind of projects allows students to familiarize with important concepts related to sustainable mobility: the amount of resistive forces and dissipated power, the role of vehicle weight and the impact of acceleration on the overall energetic balance as far as fundamental concepts about energy consumption, efficiency and emissions of the ``human engine'' in comparison with other kind of engines. By touching with hands such topics in the framework of a ``human-centred'' design project, the students have opportunity to develop awareness about the impact of design choices on sustainability of any kind of vehicle for transportation. Also, the paper retraces the team evolution path by focusing on a thorough analysis of what factors contributed to the success of this project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0043.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chalcone; cytotoxic activity; pharmacophore model
Online: 7 November 2016 (08:30:12 CET)
A series of novel isobutylchalcones (A1-A20) were prepared, evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis data. The logic behind the design is to synthesize and compare chalcones containing electron releasing lipophilic isobutyl substituent on aromatic ring A and the B ring with aromatic ring containing a range of electron releasing and electron withdrawing groups as well as heteroaromatic rings for their cytotoxic activity. The compounds were tested against HT-29 (colon cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and DU-145 (prostate cancer) cell lines using methotrexate (IC50 12 ± 1 (HT-29), 9 ±1 (MCF-7) 5 ± 1 (DU-145)) as reference standard. Compound A6 having 2,4-difluorphenyl moiety was most potent of the series against all the three cell lines and notably A6 was mainly effective against DU-145 cell lines with an IC50 value of 18 µg/mL. The critical structural features required for the activity against all the cell lines were identified through pharmacophore model using PHASETM which has recognised a 5 point AHHRR model and is consistent with the cytotoxic activity of the tested compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: model-based system engineering (MBSE); model-based systems architecting (MBSA); model-based pattern language (MBPL); system architecture; logical architecture; SysML patterns; pattern library; systems engineering (SE); pattern language; logical decomposition
Online: 9 August 2022 (09:26:54 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to the application of the Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Model-Based Systems Architecting (MBSA) principles to develop a Model-Based Pattern Language (MBPL). It takes too long for systems engineers and architects to develop a new system from scratch, particularly new space-based systems derived from the existing space systems architectures. A pattern language is a holistic view of reusable logical model artifacts; many are interdisciplinary and introductory, if at all. The results are mostly a combination of the application-specific logical solution, which further results in the best possible overall solution. The main benefit of the pattern language is reducing the time and validation required to generate a new space-based system architecture; this approach will develop top-level requirements in the initial phase of the system development. The rationale of the methodology proposed by the paper is as follows, collect, and decompose published literature and other open-source information available on space system architectures and system models; develop SysML models for systems, subsystems, products, assembly, subassembly level, and mission-specific requirements using CAMEO SysML software. Arrange these patterns to develop a functional ontology and construct a logical architecture pattern library. This approach created, updated, and managed SysML pattern language, which evaluated the expedited new model construction. Again, our objective is to develop a logical pattern language using public domain information and evaluate patterns by constructing a new space mission concept—for example, planetary surface habitat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0052.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Strategic Foresight Model; Structural Equations; Pymes
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:36:09 CEST)
Queretaro is currently one of the states with the highest growth rate in the automotive industry. In the last five years, the number of companies has increased, reaching more than 300 small and medium-sized companies in the sector. However, they show a high degree of ignorance and lack of strategic foresight, which translates into poor planning in the short, medium and long term and low competitiveness, leading many of them to failure. This paper presents the results of a study within a strategic foresight evaluation with the development of a Structural Equation Model that allows the analysis of foresight and strategic planning within the automotive SMEs in the state of Queretaro. The study analyzes the necessary indicators to be evaluated and establishes the relationship of dependence between the variables, which is necessary to create the constructs of the model. It is confirmed that the adjustment of the model used is adequate for the evaluation of SMEs. The contributions of the research were: A theoretical contribution related to strategic foresight within SMEs and the construction of the structural equation model to evaluate strategic foresight in automotive SMEs in the state of Queretaro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0072.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: indoor positioning; access point placement; path loss model; optimization
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:34:03 CEST)
Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) are designed to provide solutions for location-based services. Wireless local area network (WLAN)-based positioning systems are the most widespread around the globe and are commonly found to have a ready-to-use infrastructure composed mostly of access points (APs). They provide useful information on signal strength to be processed by adequate location algorithms, which are not always capable of achieving the desired localization error only by themselves. In this sense, this paper proposes a new method to improve the accuracy of IPSs by optimizing some of their most relevant infrastructure components. Included are the arrangement of APs over the environment, the number of reference points (RPs), and the number of samples per location estimation test. A simulation environment is also proposed, in which the impact of key influencing factors on system accuracy is analyzed. Finally, a case study is simulated to validate an optimal combination of design parameters and its compliance with the requirements of localization error and the limited number of access points. Our simulation results clearly show that the desired localization accuracy, which is set as a goal, can be achieved while maintaining the factors already mentioned at minimal levels, which decreases both system deployment costs and computational effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: metabolic flux analysis, model misspecification, constraint-based model, stoichiometric model, Chinese hamster ovary cell culture
Online: 16 March 2017 (17:38:36 CET)
Background: Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is an indispensable tool in metabolic engineering. The simplest variant of MFA relies on an overdetermined stoichiometric model of the cell’s metabolism under the pseudo-steady state assumption, to evaluate the intracellular flux distribution. Despite its long history, the issue of model error in the overdetermined MFA, particularly misspecifications of the stoichiometric matrix, has not received much attention. Method: We evaluated the performance of statistical tests from linear least square regressions, namely Ramsey RESET test, F-test and Lagrange multiplier test, in detecting model misspecifications in the overdetermined MFA, particularly missing reactions. We further proposed an iterative procedure using the F-test to correct such an issue. Result: Using Chinese hamster ovary and random metabolic networks, we demonstrated that: (1) a statistically significant regression does not guarantee high accuracy of the flux estimates, (2) the removal of a reaction with a low flux magnitude can cause disproportionately large biases in the flux estimates, (3) the F-test could efficiently detect missing reactions, and (4) the proposed iterative procedure could robustly resolve the omission of reactions. Conclusion: Our work demonstrated that statistical analysis and tests could be used to systematically assess, detect and resolve model misspecifications in the overdetermined MFA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1625.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: biogeography-based optimization; constrained optimization; mean-variance model
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:34:58 CEST)
Portfolio optimization is a mathematical formulation whose objective is to maximize returns while minimizing risks. A lot of improvement in the model has been made, including adding practical constraints. With the growing of shares trading, the problem becomes dimensionally very large. In this paper, we propose the usage of modified Biogeography-Based Optimization to solve the large scale constrained portfolio optimization. Results indicate the effectiveness of the method used.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0116.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: DAPT; workflow; agent-based modeling; model exploration; crowdsourcing
Online: 10 May 2021 (09:47:54 CEST)
Modern agent-based models (ABM) and other simulation models require evaluation and testing of many different parameters. Managing that testing for large scale parameter sweeps (grid searches) as well as storing simulation data requires multiple, potentially customizable steps that may vary across simulations. Furthermore, parameter testing, processing, and analysis are slowed if simulation and processing jobs cannot be shared across teammates or computational resources. While high-performance computing (HPC) has become increasingly available, models can often be tested faster through the use of multiple computers and HPC resources. To address these issues, we created the Distributed Automated Parameter Testing (DAPT) Python package. By hosting parameters in an online (and often free) "database", multiple individuals can run parameter sets simultaneously in a distributed fashion, enabling ad hoc crowdsourcing of computational power. Combining this with a flexible, scriptable tool set, teams can evaluate models and assess their underlying hypotheses quickly. Here we describe DAPT and provide an example demonstrating its use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis; kinetics model; cobalt based catalyst
Online: 6 March 2017 (06:47:14 CET)
A comprehensive kinetic model of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is developed in a fixed bed reactor under operating conditions (temperature, 230–235°C, pressure, 20–25 bar, gas hourly space velocity, 4000–5000 cm3(STP)/h/gcatalyst ,H2/CO feed molar ratio, 2.1) over a Co based catalyst. Reaction rate equations based on Eley-Rideal (ER) type model for initiation step and Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) type model for propagation and termination steps of the FTS reactions have been considered and the readsorption of olefins were taken into account. The model that was reported in the literature was modified in order to explain many significant deviations from the ASF distribution. Optimum parameters have been obtained by Genetic Algorithms (GA). The calculated activation energies to produce n-paraffins and 1-olefins were in the range of 82.24 to 90.68 kJ/mol and 100.66 to 105.24 kJ/mol, respectively. The hydrocarbon distribution in FTS reactions was satisfactorily predicted particularly for paraffins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: infiltration based BMP’s; flood; infiltration; clogging; soil permeability; underdrain; soil saturation rate; drainage basin; urban drainage
Online: 3 February 2019 (03:05:39 CET)
Infiltration based stormwater best management practices bring considerable economic, social and ecological benefits. Controlling stormwater quantity and quality are primarily important to prevent urban flooding and minimizing loads of pollutants to the receiving waters. However, there have been growing concerns about how the traditional design approach contributes to the failure of infiltration based BMP’s that have caused flooding, ponding, prolonged movement of surface water, and frequent clogging, etc. Many of these problems were due to the fact that the current design approaches of stormwater BMP’s only focus on surface hydrology and give little or no attention to the underline subsoil permeability rate and other constraints during the design and sizing process. As a result, we are exhibiting many newly constructed infiltration based BMP’s are failing to function well. This paper presents and demonstrates a new paradigm shift in designing infiltration-based stormwater BMP’s by combining subsurface hydrology and undelaying native soil constraints to establish acceptable criteria for sizing infiltration based BMPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0752.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: geospatial models; model integration framework; model servicized structure; prioritization-based orchestration; heuristic scheduling
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:03:34 CET)
With the rapid development of Earth observation and information technology, people are increasingly able to access geospatial models. Geospatial models, based on principles of geography, utilize mathematical, statistical, as well as computer science methods to interpret and predict geographic phenomena. These models can be applied in the fields such as urban planning, environmental protection, traffic management to help decision-makers solve geography-related problems. However, integrating different geospatial models to collaboratively solve complex geographic problems still faces significant obstacles due to heterogeneity in model structure, dependencies, and running modes. In this study, we propose a containerized service-based integration framework for heterogeneous geospatial models (GeoCSIF). GeoCSIF consists of three main components: (1) Model encapsulation. It breaks down complicated geospatial models into independently manageable model units, and builds as unified service packages with a templated constraint method. (2) Model orchestration. It achieves an optimal combination of large-scale models with complex dependencies using a prioritization-based orchestration method. (3) Model publication. It incorporates heuristics into the model scheduling process, which can provide adaptive deployment for different model runs. Finally, a prototype system was developed to validate the effectiveness and progressiveness of GeoCSIF by the integrating process of heterogeneous flood disaster models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1362.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Omicron; Wastewater-based epidemiology; RT-qPCR; SIR model; SIRS model
Online: 20 July 2023 (11:44:24 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has inflicted significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Continuous virus mutations have led to the emergence of new variants. The Omicron BA.1 sub-lineage prevailed as the dominant variant globally at the beginning of 2022 but was subsequently replaced by BA.2 in numerous countries. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) offers an efficient tool for capturing viral shedding from infected individuals, enabling early detection of potential pandemic outbreaks without relying solely on community cooperation and clinical testing resources. This study integrated RT-qPCR assays for detecting general SARS-CoV-2 and its variants levels in wastewater into a modified triple susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model. The emergence of the Omicron-BA.1 variant was observed, replacing the presence of its predecessor, the Delta variant. Comparative analysis between the wastewater data and the modified SIRS model effectively described the BA.1 and subsequent BA.2 waves, with the decline of the Delta variant aligning with its diminished presence below the detection threshold in wastewater. This study demonstrates the potential of WBE as a valuable tool for future pandemics. Furthermore, by analyzing the sensitivity of different variants to model parameters, we are able to deduce real-life values of cross-variant immunity probabilities, emphasizing the asymmetry in their strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1631.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: waste dump design and site selection; hybrid model; optimisation; genetic algorithm
Online: 24 July 2023 (16:50:56 CEST)
Waste management is an unavoidable technological operation in the process of raw material extraction. The main characteristic of this technological operation is the handling of large quantities of waste material, which can amount to several hundred million cubic metres. Working with this amount of material usually requires high-capacity systems for excavation and loading, a large fleet of trucks for haulage, construction, and maintenance of a complex roads network, use of a significant area of land in order to achieve the required capacities, etc. At the same time, this operation must comply with all administrative and environmental standards. Therefore, optimising waste rock management (particularly haulage and dumping) has the potential to significantly improve the overall value of the project. This paper presents a hybrid model for the optimisation of waste dump design and site selection. The model is based on different mathematical methods (genetic algorithm, analytic hierarchy process and heuristic methods) adapted to different aspects of the problem. The main objective of the model is to provide a solution (in analytical and graphical form) for the draft waste dump design, on the basis of which the final waste dump design can be defined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0367.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Aerial base station; Multiple drones; Circular polarization; Two-ray model; Antennas
Online: 6 June 2023 (03:46:35 CEST)
In recent years, drones have been used in a wide range of fields such as agriculture, transportation of goods, and security. Drones equipped with communication facilities are expected to play an active role as base stations in areas where ground base stations are unavailable, such as disaster areas. In addition, asynchronous operation is being considered for local 5G in order to support all kinds of use cases. In asynchronous operation, cross-link interference between base stations is an issue. This paper attempts to reduce the interference caused by the drone network by introducing circularly polarized antennas. Numerical analyses are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed system, where SIRs (Signal-to-Interference Ratio) are shown to be improved significantly as the numerical evaluation results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0178.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: strategies; design; footwear industry; structural equation model; competitive edge
Online: 13 December 2019 (05:27:06 CET)
The potential of Thai industrial product design is still inferior to those of leading competitors in world market that give more importance on the design during their product development to increase their competitive edges on commercial scale. The product design is very important part for sustainable growth in this industry. Thus, this research aims at investigating footwear design strategies for Thai footwear industry to be excellence in world market. The research has been designed with the mixed method of both qualitative and quantitative study. The quantitative data were collected through semi-structure interview from 500 designers who presented their designs to join the award competition. The results revealed that the footwear design strategies consisted of 4 factors, i.e. 1) design, 2) market analysis, 3) innovation, and 4) information technology. This paper utilizes the method of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to establish a strategies model for competitive advantage in Thai footwear industry. The analysis results indicated that the footwear design strategies model could help make more effective policies and organization strategies for enterprises and designers to develop themselves to be excellence in world market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: wave energy; system identification; model validation; wave tank testing
Online: 8 February 2017 (17:00:08 CET)
Empirically based modeling is an essential aspect of design for a wave energy converter. These models are used in structural, mechanical and control design processes, as well as for performance prediction. The design of experiments and methods used to produce models from collected data have a strong impact on the quality of the model. This study considers the system identification and model validation process based on data collected from a wave tank test of a model-scale wave energy converter. Experimental design and data processing techniques based on general system identification procedures are discussed and compared with the practices often followed for wave tank testing. The general system identification processes are shown to have a number of advantages. The experimental data is then used to produce multiple models for the dynamics of the device. These models are validated and their performance is compared against one and other. While most models of wave energy converters use a formulation with wave elevation as an input, this study shows that a model using a hull pressure sensor to incorporate the wave excitation phenomenon has better accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1439.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: agent-based model; trade wars; scenario calculations; sanctions; industries.
Online: 21 August 2023 (08:57:07 CEST)
In the context of growing global political tension and introduction of world trade barriers, the urgent task is to develop new tools for assessing their consequences. In the paper we present the agent-based model of trade wars, considering organizations, states and residents generated using initial statistical data. Simulation determines changes in output and supplies of organizations under trade restrictions. Results of calculations on the developed model and comparison of various model complexes forecasts with real consequences of trade wars between the USA and China in 2018 and Western countries against Russia in 2022 are presented. Within calculations four scenarios were considered: (1) baseline, (2) new restrictions between China and the USA, (3) more serious sanctions against China and Russia by the USA and the EU, (4) a global trade war. In the second scenario deviation GDP of the USA and China from the baseline scenario does not exceed 0.5%. In the third scenario, the range of countries involved is expanding, and the fall in GDP in them is expected at the level of 0.7-1%. In the fourth scenario, the entire world economy experiences a serious slowdown, and the EU are facing the most severe consequences, going into recession.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0321.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic compact model; silicon photonic integrated circuit (PIC); photonic crystal cavity refractive index sensor; tunable sensing circuit; photonic layout rules
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:39:58 CEST)
Silicon-based photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is a research focus in producing high-density photonics. One of the potential applications of silicon PIC is the sensing and measurement system. In this work, we use the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PhC) cavity design which and utilize it at the PIC level design. The 1D PhC design used as the compact model has the same characteristics as experimentally demonstrated in previous works. The compact model is made from the S-parameter extraction of the 1D-PhC device which is done by using Lumerical FDTD software. The PIC design integrates the 1D-PhC device as a sensing component with a PN-phase shifter (PN-PS) to function as a refractive index (RI) sensor calibration or tuning circuit. A custom design of PN-PS device is used by simulating and extracting the bias voltage-effective index (bias-Neff) data by using Lumerical DEVICE and MODE into the circuit simulator. The circuit-level simulation is done by using Lumerical Interconnect software. Finally, we show the GDSII layout design of the 1D-PhC based photonic sensor calibration circuit with an analysis of generic silicon PIC design rules. The designed PIC is applicable for the bio-sensing applications and photonic SOC component. This work also shows the promise of PIC design approach for further PIC development.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Model-Based Systems Engineering; Category Theory; Object-Process Methodology; Model Analytics; Concept-Model-Graph-View-Concept; Graph Data Structures; Graph Query; Decision Support Matrix; Matrix-Based Analysis
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:27:50 CET)
We introduce the Concept-Model-Graph-View Cycle (CMGVC). The CMGVC facilitates coherent architecture analysis, reasoning, insight, and decision-making based on conceptual models that are transformed into a generic, robust graph data structure (GDS). The GDS is then transformed into multiple views of the model, which inform stakeholders in various ways. This GDS-based approach decouples the view from the model and constitutes a powerful enhancement of model-based systems engineering (MBSE). The CMGVC applies the rigorous foundations of Category Theory, a mathematical framework of representations and transformations. We show that modeling languages are categories, drawing an analogy to programming languages. The CMGVC architecture is superior to direct transformations and language-coupled common representations. We demonstrate the CMGVC to transform a conceptual system architecture model built with the Object Process Modeling Language (OPM) into dual graphs and a stakeholder-informing matrix that stimulates system architecture insight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0001.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: smart attendance system; attendance monitoring system; students’ absenteeism; Bluetooth Low Energy technology; beacon-based application
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:07:13 CET)
Student attendance serves many other important purposes aside from monitoring. In certain universities, the attendance of students in a course is also used as one of the requirements for students to be allowed to sit for the final examination. Traditionally, among most Malaysian Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL), attendance recording is usually done using pen and paper, or uses simple web-based system that is time consuming and difficult for faculty periodic monitoring. To address the identified drawbacks, this research aims to develop a Smart Attendance for Faculty Monitoring System using the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology to assist faculty in recording, managing and monitoring students’ attendance and class schedules effectively. The system is developed for Android-based devices using an agile methodology consists of iteration and incremental approaches. Thus, to evaluate the effectiveness of the system, a survey was conducted on 140 respondents involving lecturers and students of Kolej Universiti Poly-Tech MARA (KUPTM). Respondents were selected using purposive sampling. The descriptive analysis showed that 87.9% of the respondents strongly agreed that the system is effective in assisting lecturers to record attendance, manage class schedules and student attendance as well as to assist faculty in monitoring students’ absenteeism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0125.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: artificial intelligence; de novo design; fragment-based drug discovery; HIV-1 inhibitors; pseudo natural products
Online: 8 November 2021 (09:23:49 CET)
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a public health problem. In 2020, 680,000 people died from HIV-related causes, and 1.5 million people were infected. Antiretrovirals are only a way to control HIV infection but not to cure AIDS. As such, effective treatment must be developed to control AIDS. Developing a drug is not an easy task, and there is an enormous amount of work and economic resources invested. For this reason, it is highly convenient to employ computer-aided drug design methods, which can help generate and identify novel molecules. Using the de novo design, new novel molecules can be developed using fragments as building blocks. In this work, we develop a virtual-focused compound library of HIV-1 viral protease inhibitors from natural product fragments. Natural products are characterized by a large diversity of functional groups, many sp3 atoms, and chiral centers. Pseudo-natural products are a combination of natural products fragments that keep the desired structural characteristics from different natural products. An interactive version of chemical space visualization of virtual compounds focused on HIV-1 viral protease inhibitors from natural product fragments is freely available at https://figshare.com/s/ceb58d58e8f5585ce67e.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0159.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Design optimization; Computer simulation; musculoskeletal model; Biomechanics; Ballet shoes; Pirouette
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:32:35 CEST)
The beautiful and stable posture is essential for ballet. Especially the pirouette which dancers balance themselves on their one leg is one of the most impressive postures. During the pirouette motion, loads from the rotation and the body weight are concentrated to the one leg. Proper ballet shoes can reduce the muscle burden and improve the stability. Four types of shoes; bare feet, running shoes, pointe shoes, and dance sneakers are analyzed. The motion capture system and SIMM are used for the analysis of muscle burden and stability during pirouette. The major 6 muscles in the leg (beceps femoris long head, beceps femoris short head, soleus, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and gastrocnemius lateralis) are analyzed, and the effect of rotating velocity is considered. Dance sneakers are outstanding for improving the stability and lessening the muscle burdens in all conditions for beginners. That comes from the design feature of the divided shoe soles and protecting the ankle of the axis leg. With the results and analysis, the direction for design optimization of ballet shoes is suggested. Consequently, this research is about the verification of sports equipment using computer simulation with the musculoskeletal model from a scientific viewpoint of biomechanics.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: heuristic model; system; complexity; method; intercultural communication studies; gregory bateson; anthropology; informational realism; Quebec
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:23:37 CEST)
This article focuses on methods for designing heuristic models within the paradigm of systems theory and in the disciplinary context of intercultural communication. The main question arises from the striking observation that the common language is insufficient to develop knowledge about human communication, especially when many factors of complexity (such as ambiguity, paradoxes, or uncertainty) are involved in the composition of an abstract research object. This epistemological, theoretical, and methodological problematic is one of the main challenges to the scientificity of anthropological theories and concepts on culture. Moreover, these questions lie at the heart of research in intercultural communication. Authors and theorists in the complexity sciences have already stressed the need, in such case, to think in terms of models or semiotic representations, since these tools of thought can mediate much more effectively than unformalized language between the heterogeneous set of perceptions arising from the field of experience, on the one hand, and the philosophical principles that organize speculative thought, on the other. This sets the scene for a reflection on the need to master the theory of heuristic models when it comes to developing scientific knowledge in the field of intercultural communication. In this essay, my first aim is to make explicit the conditions likely to ensure the heuristic value of a model, while my second aim is to clarify the operational function and required level of abstraction of certain terms such as concepts, categories, headings, models, systems, or theories that are among the most commonly used by academics in their descriptive accounts or explanatory hypotheses. To achieve this second objective, I propose to create cognitive meta-categories to identify the three (nominal, cardinal or ordinal) roles of words in the reference grids we use to classify our ideas, and to specify how to use these meta-categories in the construction of our heuristic models. Alongside the theoretical presentation, examples of application are provided, almost all of which are drawn from my own research into the increased cultural vigilance of the majority population in Quebec since the reasonable accommodation crisis in this French-speaking province of Canada. The typology I propose will perhaps help to avoid the confusions regularly committed by authors who attribute only cosmetic functions to words that nevertheless have a highly heuristic value, and who forget to consider the logical leaps of their theoretical thinking in the construction of heuristic models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0793.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: edge computing; human vocalization; emergence vehicle siren; EfficientNet-based; fuzzy rank-based ensemble model; hearing impairment.
Online: 9 August 2023 (15:18:17 CEST)
Wearable assistant devices play an important role in daily life for people with disabilities. Those who are hearing impaired may face dangers while walking or driving on the road. The major danger is their inability to hear warning sounds from cars or ambulances. Thus, the goal of this study is to develop a wearable assistant device for the hearing impaired to recognize emergency vehicle sirens on the road using edge computing. An EfficientNet-based fuzzy rank-based ensemble model was proposed to classify seven audio sounds, including human vocalizations and emergency vehicle sirens. This model was embedded in an Arduino Nano 33 BLE Sense development board. The audio files were respectively obtained from the CREMA-D dataset and Large Scale Audio dataset of emergency vehicle sirens on the road, with a total number of 8756 files. The seven audio sounds included neutral vocalization, anger vocalization, fear vocalization, happy vocalization, car horn sound, siren sound, and ambulance siren sound. The audio signal was converted into a spectrogram by the short-time Fourier transform as the feature. When one of the car horns, sirens, or ambulance sirens was detected, the wearable assistant device presented alarms through vibration and messages on the OLED panel. The performances of the EfficientNet-based fuzzy rank-based ensemble model in offline computing achieved an accuracy of 97.1%, precision of 97.79%, sensitivity of 96.8%, and specificity of 97.04%. In edge computing, the results were an accuracy of 95.2%, precision of 93.2%, sensitivity of 95.3%, and specificity of 95.1%. Thus, the proposed wearable assistant device has the potential benefit of helping the hearing impaired avoid traffic accidents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: economic sustainability; environmental sustainability; social sustainability; genome scale metabolic model; metabolic engineering; growth coupled production
Online: 3 May 2023 (04:32:50 CEST)
The sustainable metabolic engineering (SME) concept was defined by Stalidzans and Dace as an approach for the selection of most sustainable metabolic engineering designs taking the economic, environmental and social components of sustainability into account. In the centre of sustainability calculations is a genome scale metabolic model that provides full balance of all incoming and outgoing metabolic fluxes at steady state. Therefore, sustainability indicators are assigned for each exchange reaction enabling calculation of sustainability features of consumption or production of each metabolite. The further development of the SME concept depends on its implementation at the computational level to acquire applicable results – sustainable production strain designs. This study proposes for the first time a workflow and tools of SME implementation using constraint based stoichiometric modelling, genome scale metabolic models and growth coupled product synthesis approach. For SME application demonstration purposes, a relatively simple engineering task has been carried out. The most sustainable designs have been identified using Escherichia coli as chassis organism, glucose as a substrate and gene deletions as metabolic engineering tool. A growth coupled production design tool has been used to reduce the variability of sustainability. The 10 000 most sustainable designs were producing succinate as the main product with the number of deleted genes ranging from two to ten. A big number of similar designs has been identified due to the combinatorial explosion of different alternative combinations of gene deletion sets that result in interruption of the same metabolic pathways with the same impact on the metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0166.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Structure-based design; glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor; glycogen metabolism; type 2 diabetes; X-ray crystallography; N-acyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamine
Online: 15 March 2019 (14:06:06 CET)
Structure-based design and synthesis of two biphenyl-N-acyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamine derivatives as well as their assessment as inhibitors of human liver glycogen phosphorylase (hlGPa, a pharmaceutical target for type 2 diabetes) is presented. X-ray crystallography revealed the importance of structural water molecules and that the inhibitory efficacy correlates with the degree of disturbance caused by the inhibitor binding to a loop crucial for the catalytic mechanism. The in silico derived models of the binding mode generated during the design process corresponded very well with the crystallographic data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0164.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: coastal transformation; ecosystem services; transdisciplinarity; nature-based solutions; southern North Sea; Gute Küste Niedersachsen
Online: 9 February 2023 (11:17:26 CET)
Novel strategies in coastal protection are needed to cope with climate change-induced sea level rise. They aim at the sustainable development of coastal areas in light of an intensification and land use changes. A promising approach is the design of nature-based solutions (NbS), complementing the safety levels of technical infrastructures. However, NbS lack a widespread and large-scale implementation. To address this deficit, co-design concepts are needed that combine experiences from science and practice. This work presents and discusses the approach of a coast-specific real-world laboratory (RwL) addressing the inclusive design of ecosystem-based coastal protection. Strategies of RwLs are applied for the first time in a coastal context along the North Sea coastline in Germany. We found the concept of RwLs suitable for coastal transdisciplinary research, although adaptions in the spatial reference level or flexibility in location and time of experimentation are necessary. A profound actor analysis is indispensable to specify participatory processes and interaction levels. A criteria-based cooperative selection of RwL sites helps to reveal and solve conflicting interests to achieve trust between science and practice. Addressing site-specific characteristics and practitioners’ needs, our coastal RwL provides a mutual learning space to develop and test NbS to complement technical coastal protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1838.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Particle swarm optimization algorithm; Reliability-based design and optimization; Simulated annealing algorithm; Most probable point
Online: 30 October 2023 (07:14:52 CET)
With the engineering system becoming more and more complex, the uncertainty factors have a more and more profound influence on the reliability and security of the engineering system. In recent years, Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) has been studied extensively in complex engineering system design. The research on reliability optimization design considering stochastic uncertainty has been comprehensive and widely used. However, the reliability optimization design considering mixed uncertainty has the disadvantages of large computation and imprecise convergence. This study proposes an RBDO method based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Simulated Annealing (SA) to overcome this challenge. In the method, PSO is used to solve the most probable point, while SA has excellent global optimization capability to acquire the global optimal solution. Finally, three examples are given to illustrate the advantages of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1628.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Agriculture Demand; Agricultural Risk; Agent-Based Model; Standard Operating Policy
Online: 28 November 2023 (01:39:57 CET)
Modelling and presenting mathematical relationships for human behaviour is one of the most complex issues that researchers have always dealt with. In this article, a bottom-up framework for calculating agricultural needs is presented using the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers (such as education level, age, and dependence on income on agriculture) and how their lands are located concerning each other (interactions between neighbours). The objective function of this framework is to maximize the profit of individual farmers based on the amount of water received. Two scenarios, ABM1 (not considering neighbourhood effects) and ABM2 (all cases of farmers' placement and feeling neighbourhood effects), were investigated. In the first scenario (ABM1), there was a noteworthy reduction in water deficit volumes by approximately 35%, accompanied by a 20% increment in farmers' profits. Interestingly, higher risk-taking tendencies correlated with reduced profit margins. The second scenario (ABM2) underscored the significant role of neighborhood dynamics in cultivating diverse behavioral patterns among farmers, subsequently affecting their profitability. A granular examination revealed that farmers with a higher propensity for risk-taking generally accrued lower profits. Additionally, the study facilitated the calculation of total annual profits and average water consumption for each farmer, offering valuable insights for optimizing water resource management and allocation strategies. These findings are instrumental for planners and water resource managers aiming to promote sustainable agricultural practices and efficient water use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: cellular dynamics; multicellular agent-based model; computer simulation; developmental toxicity.
Online: 29 September 2023 (12:02:33 CEST)
Developmental hazard evaluation is an important part of assessing chemical risks during pregnancy. Toxicological outcomes from prenatal testing in pregnant animals result from complex chemical-biological interactions, and while New Approach Methods (NAMs) based on in vitro bioactivity profiles of human cells offer promising alternatives to animal testing, most of these assays lack cellular positional information, physical constraints, and regional organization of the intact embryo. Here, we engineered a fully computable model of the embryonic disc in the compucell3d.org modeling environment to simulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition of epiblast cells and self-organization of mesodermal domains (chordamesoderm, paraxial, lateral plate, posterior/extraembryonic). Cell fate in the model is determined by an autonomous homeobox (HOX) clock driven by morphogenetic signals (e.g., FGF, WNT, ATRA, CDX). Executing the model renders a quantitative cell-level computation of mesodermal subpopulations and consequences of perturbation based on known embryogeny. For example, synthetic perturbation of the control network rendered altered phenotypes (cybermorphs) mirroring experimental mouse embryology, with 50% reductions in FGF4, FGF8 and BMP4 signaling resulting in 86%, 98% and 59% reductions, respectively in the posterior mesodermal population, while ATRA exposure also resulted in a 78% decrease in this population. This model enables integration of in vitro chemical bioactivity data for specific molecular targets with known embryology to test mechanistic veracity and quantitative prediction of altered development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1595.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching styles; model-based practice in physical education; physical fitness
Online: 26 September 2023 (08:11:07 CEST)
In recent years the study of the teacher-student relationship in the teaching-learning processes in physical education has had great emphasis. Previous studies have shown that the use of the Spectrum of teaching Styles can enhance intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, adherence to physical activity and physical activity levels in children and adolescents. The present study aims to assess if a physical education (PE) intervention based on the variations in teaching styles, with reference to production ones, can also have positive effects on physical fitness. The sample involved 4 primary school classes (n = 124 children, mean age = 8-10 years) recruited from the SBAM (Health, Wellness, Food Education and Movement at School) Project in Apulia, Southern Italy. Classes were randomly assigned to Experimental Group (EG) and Control Group (CG). EG followed a 5months experimental intervention based on the variation of teaching styles, while CG performed regular PE lessons. Physical fitness test was assessed with Standing Long Jump (SLJ), Medicine Ball Throw 1kg (MBT), and 20m sprint (20m), while two validated questionnaires were used to evaluate physical self-perception (PSP) and enjoyment. A 2x2 (intervention group x time) ANOVA was carried out to assess significant difference and interaction effect pre (t0) and post (t1) intervention protocol. Data analysis showed a significant improvement of physical fitness in both EG and CG, while PSP and enjoyment increased only in EG. Moreover, significant interaction (p<. 05) effects were found for 20m sprint, PSP and Enjoyment with low effect size (η2 ~. 20). The results of the present study highlight the effectiveness of a PE intervention based on the variation of teaching styles in improving physical fitness, self-perception, and enjoyment. Moreover, the use of production teaching styles significantly impacts self-perception and enjoyment, that are important mediating factors for guarantee better adherence to physical activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1508.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Lunar spectral irradiances; Earth-based Moon observation geometry; Hapke model
Online: 21 July 2023 (11:02:37 CEST)
As a radiant light source within the dynamic range of most spacecraft payloads, the moon pro-vides an excellent reference for on-orbit radiometric calibration. This research hinges on the pre-cise simulation of lunar spectral irradiances and the Earth-based Moon observation geometry. The paper leverages the Hapke model to simulate the temporal changes in lunar spectral irradi-ances, utilizing datasets obtained from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). The re-search also details the transformation process from the lunar geographic coordinate system to the instantaneous projection coordinate system, thereby delineating the necessary observational geometry. The insights offered by this study have the potential to enhance future in-orbit space-craft calibration procedures, thereby boosting the fidelity of data gathered from satellite obser-vations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0750.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: forest model; radiative transfer; vegetation indices; individual based; forest reflectance
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:41:12 CEST)
To understand forest dynamics under today’s changing environmental conditions, it is important to analyze the state of forests at large scales. Forest inventories are not available for all regions, so it is important to use other additional sources of information, e.g. remote sensing observations. Increasingly, remotely sensed data based on optical instruments and airborne LIDAR are becoming widely available for forests. There is great potential in analyzing these measurements and gaining an understanding of forests state. In this work, we combine the new generation radiative transfer model mScope with the individual-based forest model FORMIND to generate reflectance spectra for forests. Combining the two models allows us to account for species diversity at different height layers in the forest. We compare the generated reflectances for forest stands in Finland, in the region of North Karelia, with Sentinel-2 measurements. We investigate which level of forest representation gives the best results. For the majority of the forest stands, we generated good reflectances with all levels forest representation compared to the measured reflectance. Good correlations were also found for the vegetation indices (especially NDVI with R²=0.62). This work provides a forward modelling tool for relating forest reflectance to forest characteristics. With this tool it is possible to generate a large set of forest stands with corresponding reflectances. This opens the possibility to understand how reflectance is related to succession and different forest conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1416.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Higher-order network; Simplicial complex; Synchronization; Neuron; Map-based model
Online: 19 May 2023 (09:39:42 CEST)
In network analysis, links depict the connections between each pair of network nodes. However, such pairwise connections fail to consider the interactions among more agents, which may be indirectly connected. Such non-pairwise or higher-order connections can be signified by involving simplicial complexes. The higher-order connections become even more noteworthy when it comes to neuronal network synchronization, an emerging phenomenon responsible for the many biological processes in real-world phenomena. However, involving higher-order interactions may considerably increase the computational costs. To confound this issue, map-based models are more suitable since they are faster, simpler, more flexible, and computationally more optimal. Therefore, this paper addresses the impact of pairwise and non-pairwise neuronal interactions on the synchronization state of 10 coupled memristive Hindmarsh-Rose neuron maps. To this aim, electrical, inner linking, and chemical synaptic functions are considered as 2- and 3-body interactions in three homogenous and two non-homogenous cases. The results show that through chemical pairwise and non-pairwise synapses, the neurons achieve synchrony with the weakest coupling strengths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0407.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: continuous intraday market; agent-based model; genetics algorithm; power system
Online: 17 April 2023 (05:33:52 CEST)
The high penetration of intermittence resources in the energy market accelerates significantly the decarbonization process but, on the other hand, the electrical system has to face the problem of unbalances. Renewable Energies Sources (RES) are hard to precisely forecast, and power plants are not able to predict the amount of energy that they can provide far from the real time delivery. In this frame, the intraday market gets a fundamental role allowing agents to adjust their position close to the delivery time. In this work we suggest an agent-based model of intraday market combined with genetics algorithms to understand what the best strategy could be adopted by players in order to optimize the market efficiency in terms of welfare and unsold quantity. In the first part we show the effect on the market prices of different scenarios in which players aim at maximizing their revenues and selling/buying all their volumes. In the second part we show the effect of a particular genetic algorithm on the model, focusing on how agents can adapt their strategy to enhance the market efficiency. Comparative analyses are also performed to investigate how the welfare of the system increases as well as the unsold quantity decrease when genetic algorithm is introduced
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0259.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Driveability; low-frequency; energy path analysis; powertrain; model-based engineering
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:21:24 CEST)
Vehicle driveability is one of the important vehicle attributes in range-extender electric vehicles due to the electric motor torque characteristics at low-speed events. The process of validating and rectifying vehicle driveability attributes is typically utilised by a physical vehicle prototype that can be expensive and required several design iterations. In this paper, a model-based energy method to assess vehicle driveability is presented based on a high-fidelity 49 degree-of-freedom powertrain and vehicle systems. Multibody dynamics components were built according to their true centre of gravity relative to the vehicle datum for providing an accurate system interaction. The work covered a frequency at less than 20 Hz. The results that consisted of the component frequency domination are structured and examined to identify the low-frequency sensitivity based on different operating parameters such as a road surface coefficient. An energy path technique was also implemented on the dominant component by decoupling its compliances to study the effect on the vehicle driveability and low-frequency response. The outcomes of the research provided a good understanding of the interaction across the sub-systems levels. The powertrain rubber mounts were the dominant components that controlled the low-frequency contents (< 15.33 Hz) and can change the vehicle driveability quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0080.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: left ventricle; myofibre; myocardium structure; rule-based model; mathematical anatomy
Online: 20 October 2016 (08:22:39 CEST)
Computer simulation of normal and diseased human heart activity requires a 3D anatomical model of the myocardium, including myofibres. For clinical applications, such a model has to be constructed based on routine methods of cardiac visualisation such as sonography. Symmetrical models are shown to be too rigid, so an analytical non-symmetrical model with enough flexibility is necessary. Based on previously made anatomical models of the left ventricle, we propose a new, much more flexible spline-based analytical model. The model is fully described and verified against DT-MRI data. We show a way to construct it on the basis of sonography data. To use this model in further physiological simulations, we propose a numerical method to utilise finite differences in solving the reaction-diffusion problem together with an example of scroll wave dynamics simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0273.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: linguistic knowledge; neural machine translation model; machine translation tasks; knowledge-based encoder; model representation ability
Online: 19 February 2020 (10:51:41 CET)
Incorporating source-side linguistic knowledge into the neural machine translation (NMT) model has recently achieved impressive performance on machine translation tasks. One popular method is to generalize the word embedding layer of the encoder to encode each word and its linguistic features. The other method is to change the architecture of the encoder to encode syntactic information. However, the former cannot explicitly balance the contribution from the word and its linguistic features. The latter cannot flexibly utilize various types of linguistic information. Focusing on the above issues, this paper proposes a novel NMT approach that models the words in parallel to the linguistic knowledge by using two separate encoders. Compared with the single encoder based NMT model, the proposed approach additionally employs the knowledge-based encoder to specially encode linguistic features. Moreover, it shares parameters across encoders to enhance the model representation ability of the source-side language. Extensive experiments show that the approach achieves significant improvements of up to 2.4 and 1.1 BLEU points on Turkish→English and English→Turkish machine translation tasks, respectively, which indicates that it is capable of better utilizing the external linguistic knowledge and effective improving the machine translation quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0326.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: complex systems modeling; systems architecture; system’s model complexity; visualization; agent-based systems; system’s model evolution
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:15:20 CEST)
This work presents some characteristics of MoNet, a computerized platform for the modeling and visualization of complex systems. Emphasis is on the ideas that allowed the successful progressive development of this modeling platform, which goes along with the implementation of applications to the modeling of several studied systems. The platform has the capacity to represent different aspects of systems modeled at different observation scales. This tool offers advantages in the sense of favoring the perception of the phenomenon of the emergence of information, associated with changes of scale. Some criteria used for the construction of this modeling platform are included. The power of current computers has made practical representing graphic resources such as shapes, line thickness, overlaying-text tags, colors and transparencies, in the graphical modeling of systems made up of many elements. By visualizing diagrams conveniently designed to highlight contrasts, these modeling platforms allow the recognition of patterns that drive our understanding of systems and their structure. Graphs that reflect the benefits of the tool regarding the visualization of systems at different scales of observation are presented to illustrate the application of the platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0156.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: rule-based system; reservoir management model; land management model; SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool)
Online: 10 May 2018 (06:27:38 CEST)
Decision tables have been used for many years in data processing and business applications to simulate complex rule sets. Several computer languages have been developed based on rule systems and they are easily programmed in several current languages. Land management and river-reservoir models simulate complex land management operations and reservoir management in highly regulated river systems. Decision tables are a precise yet compact way to model the rule sets and corresponding actions found in these models. In this study, we discuss the suitability of decision tables to simulate management in the river basin scale Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+) model. Decision tables are developed to simulate automated irrigation and reservoir releases. A simple auto irrigation application of decision tables was developed using plant water stress as a condition for irrigating corn in Texas. Sensitivity of the water stress trigger and irrigation application amounts were shown on soil moisture and corn yields. In addition, the Grapevine Reservoir near Dallas, Texas was used to illustrate the use of decision tables to simulate reservoir releases. The releases were conditioned on reservoir volumes and flood season. The release rules as implemented by the decision table realistically simulated flood releases as evidenced by a daily NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency) of 0.52 and a percent bias of -1.1%. Using decision tables to simulate management in land, river and reservoir models was shown to have several advantages over current approaches including: 1) mature technology with considerable literature and applications, 2) ability to accurately represent complex, real world decision making, 3) code that is efficient, modular and easy to maintain, and 4) tables that are easy to maintain, support, and modify.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protein structure and dynamics; Molecular structure and modeling; Protein and macromolecules; Computational methods and bioinformatics; Computer-based teaching tools; Learning materials and teaching tools; Multimedia teaching tools
Online: 7 February 2020 (11:42:09 CET)
Biomolecular structure drives function, and computational capabilities have progressed such that the prediction and computational design of biomolecular structures is increasingly feasible. Because computational biophysics attracts students from many different backgrounds and with different levels of resources, teaching the subject can be challenging. One strategy to teach diverse learners is with interactive multimedia material that promotes self-paced, active learning. We have created a hands-on education strategy with a set of fifteen modules that teach topics in biomolecular structure and design, from fundamentals of conformational sampling and energy evaluation to applications like protein docking, antibody design, and RNA structure prediction. Our modules are based on PyRosetta, a Python library that encapsulates all computational modules and methods in the Rosetta software package. The workshop-style modules are implemented as Jupyter Notebooks that can be executed in the Google Colaboratory, allowing learners access with just a web browser. The digital format of Jupyter Notebooks allows us to embed images, molecular visualization movies, and interactive coding exercises. This multimodal approach may better reach students from different disciplines and experience levels as well as attract more researchers from smaller labs and cognate backgrounds to leverage PyRosetta in their science and engineering research. All materials are freely available at https://github.com/RosettaCommons/PyRosetta.notebooks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SBRT; SABR; Abscopal; vascular-normalization; immunotherapy; phenotypic; antiangiogenics; immunoadjuvants; VIP-model; High-LET
Online: 7 June 2021 (09:32:33 CEST)
This review highlights normal and tumor tissue vasculature, immunological changes, and phenotypic alterations (VIP model) as fundamental in abscopal interaction. In the stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and immunotherapy era, we are moving toward “immunological radiation planning,” i.e., radiation scheduling with abscopal effect as a vital endpoint as well. Towards this end, this manuscript presents specific diagrammatic tumor models to optimize the outcome of abscopal response in SBRT, based on the principle of the four R’s - Repair, Redistribution, Repopulation, and Reoxygenation of radiotherapy. The article highlights the importance of restricting the dose of SBRT to < 10 Gy per fraction, appropriate use of dose painting, and concomitant/delayed SBRT boost potential. Current literature indicates that immunotherapy should not precede but follow SBRT within seven days. Included is the review of integrating “cyclical” antiangiogenics, immune adjuvants/immune-metabolites as abscopal effect enhancers with SBRT. The importance of proton, carbon-ion SBRT is dealt with briefly. Proposed six fundamental requirements for augmentation of the abscopal cascade are listed. The existing exploratory results need to develop a definitive strategy amidst complex interactions in SBRT, immunotherapy, immune-adjuvants, & abscopal effects. We now have enough literature evidence to convert “abscopal by chance” to “abscopal by design” by harmonized combinatorial approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0418.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: large sized lithium-ion battery; physic-based model; life prediction; scale-up model; reduced order cell model; electric vehicles
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:29:49 CEST)
Large lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles and energy storage systems demonstrate different performance and lifetime compared to small LIB cells, owing to the size effects generated by the electrical configuration and property imbalance. However, the calculation time for performing life predictions with three-dimensional (3D) cell models is undesirably long. In this paper, a lumped cell model with equivalent resistances (LER cell model) is proposed as a reduced order model of the 3D cell model, which enables accurate and fast life predictions of large LIBs. The developed LER cell model is validated via the comparisons with results of the 3D cell models by simulating a 20-Ah commercial pouch cell (NCM/graphite) and the experimental values. In addition, the LER cell models are applied to different cell types and sizes, such as a 20-Ah cylindrical cell and a 60-Ah pouch cell.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Refrigerated transport; Photovoltaic panels; Electrical batteries; Thermal model; Cold chain; Carbon emissions
Online: 6 June 2022 (13:14:34 CEST)
The path towards decarbonization requires a progressive adaptation of all refrigeration systems, but only stationary ones have been intensely studied to improve their environmental performance. However, refrigerated transport is a vital piece of the cold chain, and it must be considered in the green transition. In this paper, we propose a model for a hybrid refrigerated van that includes photovoltaic panels and electric batteries to decrease total greenhouse gas emissions from the engine. Thermal, electrical, and battery sub-models are considered and integrated into the comprehensive hybrid solar-powered refrigerated van model. Different technologies are compared in economic terms, including Lithium and Lead-acid batteries and three different types of photovoltaic panels. The model was validated regarding van fuel consumption, showing a 4% deviation. Single and multiple delivery scenarios are considered to assess the energetic, economic, and environmental benefits. Monthly CO2,e emissions could be reduced to 20% compared to a standard refrigerated van. Despite the environmental benefits provided by this sustainable solution, the payback period is still too long (above 20 years) because of the necessary investment to adapt the vehicle and considering fuel and electricity prices currently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0771.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Solder Alloys; Mechanical Properties; Alloy Design; Sn-based Alloys; Data Science; Predictive models; Machine Learning
Online: 12 June 2023 (05:23:12 CEST)
In this study, an extensive data set was based on existing literature records in order to enable the suitability of several predictive models, from Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) to Neural Networks (NN). The main objective was to, through regression analyses, generate model computations to correlate tensile properties (UTS- Ultimate Tensile Strength, YTS – Yield Tensile Strength and EF – Elongation-to-Fracture) to a given alloy composition and microstructural spacing. This investigation led to positive results, as the highest accuracies of the trained modules (in 80% of the database) were found to be above ~82% (UTS and EF) and a maximum of ~98% (YTS), when analyzing the results to a test data set. Later, these models were used to define trends for possible next solder alloy commercial compositions. Overall, using the standard model’s setup, the Random Forest and Decision Tree models showed the highest accuracy results, with 0.958 for YTS as opposed to 0.907 for MLR. Moreover, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP)-optimized models yielded the best results for each variable, with the highest increases in accuracy associated with the YTS and EF. The present contribution might imply an important milestone towards alloy design research based on data science guidelines to unlock the full potential of former experiments and their extensive set of results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: roof; insulation; granary; carbon emission; economic analysis model
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:53:15 CEST)
The optimization design of buildings is very important the energy consumption, carbon emissions ,and sustainable development of buildings. The low-temperature granary has low grain storage temperature and high energy consumption indexes. The design scheme of roof insulation for low-temperature granary should be determined in actual building design processes by considering economy, carbon emissions, and outdoor climate, comprehensively. In this paper, the low-temperature granary roof insulation for different ecological grain storage zones in China are optimized by using a new low-carbon optimization design method. The low-carbon optimization design method can response to the economical issue, emission reduction issue, and outdoor climate issue, simultaneously. The application results of the optimization design method in ecological grain storage zones in China indicate that outdoor climate has significant impacts on the economic performance and carbon reduction effect of roof insulation. The considering of carbon emission cost can apparently increase economic efficiency of roof insulation. The optimal economic thickness of expanded polystyrene (EPS) in Urumqi, Harbin, Zhengzhou, Changsha, Guiyang and Haikou cities is 0.025 m, 0.037 m, 0.085 m, 0.097 m, 0.072 m and 0.148 m, respectively. The different outdoor climates of seven ecological grain storage areas in China have important influences on the comprehensive economic performances of low-temperature granary roof insulation. The design of low-temperature granary roof insulation in Haikou city has the best economic performances among the seven ecological grain storage zones in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Inverter-based resources; Measure-based method; Model identification; Non-linear dynamics; Power system; SINDy; Synchronous generators; System-level nonlinearity; Volterra-based nonlinearity index
Online: 1 November 2023 (17:22:36 CET)
The complexity of modern power grids, exacerbated by integrating diverse energy sources, espe-cially inverter-based resources (IBRs), presents a significant challenge to grid operation and plan-ning since linear models fail to capture the intricate IBR dynamics. This study employs the Sparse Identification of Nonlinear Dynamics (SINDy) method to bridge the gap between theoretical un-derstanding and practical implementation in power system analysis. It introduces the novel Volterra-based Nonlinearity Index (VNI) to examine system-level nonlinearity comprehensively. The distinction of dynamics into first-order linearizable terms, second-order nonlinear dynamics, and third-order noise elucidates the intricacy of power systems. The findings demonstrate a fundamental shift in system dynamics as power sources transit to IBRs, revealing system-level nonlinearity compared to module-level nonlinearity in conventional syn-chronous generators. The VNI quantifies nonlinear-to-linear relationships, enriching our comprehension of power system behavior and offering a versatile tool for distinguishing between different nonlinearities and visualizing their distinct patterns through the proposed VIN profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0063.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Double Diamond Model; Future Studies; Future Cone; IDEO Method Cards; age-appropriate design
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:41:17 CEST)
As the global aging trend continues to intensify, there will inevitably be more complex and diverse aging problems in the future. There is no doubt that designers have the responsibility to explore the possibilities of the future and solve the problems that will be faced in the future. Based on the Future Cone, the Double Diamond Model and the IDEO Method Cards, this study proposes a new model to guide the design practice of future aging issues in the context of aging. With the aim of validating and refining the framework, an ageing designer workshop was held where participants were asked to imagine, explore and express ideas about future ageing issues. The workshop was used to refine the proposed model. More specifically, the model includes a future concept, a design guidance process based on the Double Diamond Model, and tools that can be applied at all stages of design, which can help designers generate ideas and solutions for future aging problems, and collectively lead society to a more desirable future. Moreover, this study also explores broader directions for the development of the model and provides a reference for continued research on this topic in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1683.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Spatial model; Urban Green Space; Human health; Ecosystem services; Ecosystem disservices; Participatory design, GIS; Quantitative assessment
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:17:02 CET)
Urban Green Space (UGS) has important impacts on human health, but an integrated participatory approach to UGS design for improved residents’ health was lacking to date. The aim of our study was to develop and evaluate such a novel approach to address this gap. The approach was developed following guiding principles from the literature, and tested with groups of children and elderly as participants in two neighborhoods of Maastricht (The Netherlands) with a low score on economic and health indicators. Novel aspects of the approach are the inclusion of both positive and negative health effects, the combination of participant self-assessment and model-based assessment of the health effects of UGS designs, and the use of maps to visualize UGS designs and health effects. The participant-generated UGS designs resulted in a considerable self-assessed increase in use of the UGS for meeting, stress reduction or leisure-based physical activity, as compared to the current situation. The model-assessed positive and negative health effects of the participant-generated UGS designs were limited. The major strength of the developed approach is that it combines active participation of residents in UGS (re)design with assessment of the health effects of these UGS designs. Whereas in other participatory approaches to UGS design it often remains unclear whether the resulting designs represent an improvement in terms of health, our combination of computer model-based assessment and a participatory process produced clear outcomes regarding the health benefits and use of UGS designs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0439.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: mechanical ventilation design; low cost mechanical ventilator; experimental ventilation curves; mechanical ventilation mathematical model; COVID-19
Online: 17 December 2020 (16:25:13 CET)
A mechanical ventilation system is a big support for breathing complications, in which an external solution is quite necessary to keep oxygen compensation in the patients. Its knowledge is well widespread and different equipment has been developed. However, they are very expensive and their quantity in medical centers is not sufficient, especially in Peru. Hence, it has been required to develop new methods to provide oxygen by a low cost equipment; Protofy, a research group from Spain, designed one of the first low cost mechanical ventilation systems which was medically validated by its government. In this sense, a redesign of the mechanical ventilation system was carried out according to the local requirements and available technology, a different airbag resuscitator with different properties and geometry, but maintaining its working concept based on a cam compression mechanism. Sensors and a display were added to improve the performance with a control algorithm for the rotation frequency and to show the ventilation curves over time to the medical staff. It was necessary to develop a mathematical model to relate the behavior between ventilation curves for a patient and physical variables of the design, especially in the epidemic COVID 19, that many countries are dealing with at the time research is being conducted. The mechanical ventilation system was redesigned, fabricated, and tested measuring its ventilation curves over time. Results indicate that this redesign provides a sturdy equipment able to work during a longer lifetime than the original. The replicability of the ventilation curves behavior is assured, while the mechanism dimensions are adapted for a particular airbag resuscitator. The mathematical model of the whole system can predict satisfactorily the ventilation curves over time and was used to provide the air pressure, volume, and flow as a function of the rotation angle measured by sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Resistograph; wood density; micro drill resistance; linear model; micro destructive measurement
Online: 30 May 2023 (09:35:40 CEST)
To improve the measurement accuracy of wood density and study the linear correlation between the drill feed resistance and wood density, a new micro drill instrument that can can simultaneously measure the rotation resistance and feed resistance of the drill needle was designed. The test wood samples included hardwood, softwood and conifer. The absolute dry density of each wood sample was measured. The drill resistance data was tested by using self-developed micro drill instrument and Resistogaph 650-SC. 4 linear models between drill resistance and the absolute dry density of wood . The results showed that: the statistical indicators of each model of the self-made micro drill resistance in-strument were better than the corresponding indicators of Resistogaph 650-SC; the coefficient of determination of the linear regression model between the feed resistance of the self-made micro drill resistance instrument and the absolute dry density of wood was 0.946; the statistical indicators of model including rotation resistance and feed resistance, were better than those of the model only including rotation resistance. Therefor, the design proposed in the article is reasonable, and increasing the feed resistance can improve the measurement accuracy of the micro drill resistance instrument for measuring wood density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0428.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: hybrid cheese; faba bean protein; insect protein; desirability-based mixture design; spreadability texture analysis; sensory analysis
Online: 27 February 2023 (01:44:30 CET)
As a result of the growing demand for foods with reduced animal protein content, many new alternative diets are now emerging. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that the Western population is unprepared for drastic changes and is disinclined to accept foods based on alternative proteins. However, hybrid products might become a good transitional offer. This study used a desirability-based mixture design to model hybrid spreadable cheese analogues (SCAs). The design combined the dairy protein (MPC), Tenebrio molitor (IF) and faba bean (FBP) flours. Nine SCAs with different MPC/FBP/IF ratios were formulated, representing 0, 50 and 100% MPC replacement (7.1% of the formula). Incorporating the IF negatively impacted the desirable texture properties. The FBP flour improved the texture (achieving increased firmness and stickiness and decreased spreadability), but only when combined with MPC. Changing the MPC/FBP/IF ratio affected the colour of SCAs. Sensory analysis showed that hybrid SCAs (≤ 50% MPC) had a more characteristic cheesy flavour than the commercial plant-based reference, and sample C2 had a texture profile similar to the dairy reference. Samples containing IF showed a better flavour profile than the products without IF. The SCAs had higher protein and lower saturated fat, starch and sugar con-tent than commercial analogues.This study demonstrates that the inclusion of alternative proteins can be effective as a strategy to reduce dairy protein content in hybrid product formulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0670.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Lushan earthquake; coseismic landslide; Newmark based model; Unloading joint; hazard mapping
Online: 11 October 2023 (04:23:12 CEST)
Coseismic landslides pose significant threats, causing widespread destruction of buildings, roads, pipelines, and leading to numerous casualties. In recent years, the frequency of earthquakes has increased, prompting a growing interest in regional-scale assessment techniques for coseismic landslides. The infinite slope model proposed by Newmark is widely used to evaluate coseismic landslide hazard. However, the infinite slope model fails to reflect the impact of rock mass structure on the stability of slopes. This paper proposes a novel approach for mapping the hazards of coseismic landslides by considering the roughness of the potential slide surfaces in the inner slope. The proposed method is validated using data from the 2013 Lushan earthquake. The datasets, including geological units, peak ground acceleration (PGA), and high-resolution digital elevation models of topography, are rasterized at a grid spacing of 30 meters. They are then combined within an infinite slope model based on Newmark permanent-deformation analysis, enabling the estimation of coseismic landslide displacement in each grid area resulting from the Lushan earthquake. The modeled displacements are compared with the inventory of landslides triggered by the Lushan earthquake, allowing the derivation of a confidence level function that relates predicted displacement to the spatial variation of coseismic landslides. Ultimately, a hazard map of coseismic landslides is generated based on the established confidence level function. This map serves as a valuable tool for predicting the hazard zone of seismic regions and offers essential insights for decision-making related to infrastructure development and post-earthquake construction.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Unsupervised anomalous sound detection; classification-based model; Outlier classifier; ID classifier
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:36:44 CEST)
The task of unsupervised anomalous sound detection (ASD) is challenging for detecting anomalous sounds from a large audio database without any annotated anomalous training data. Many unsupervised methods were proposed, but previous works have confirmed that the classification-based models far exceeds the unsupervised models in ASD. In this paper, we adopt two classification-based anomaly detection models: (1) Outlier classifier is to distinguish anomalous sounds or outliers from the normal; (2) ID classifier identifies anomalies using both the confidence of classification and the similarity of hidden embeddings. We conduct experiments in task 2 of DCASE 2020 challenge, and our ensemble method achieves an averaged area under the curve (AUC) of 95.82% and averaged partial AUC (pAUC) of 92.32%, which outperforms the state-of-the-art models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0535.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: model-based learning; mental health; physical activity; cognitive functions; active learning.
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:39:03 CEST)
This study examined the effect of an educational hybrid physical education (PE) intervention on cognitive performance and academic achievement in adolescents. A 9-month group-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 150 participants (age: 14.63 ± 1.38) allocated into control group (CG, n = 37) and experimental group (EG, n = 113). Inhibition, verbal fluency, planning and academic achievement were assessed. Significant differences were observed in the post-test for cognitive inhibition, verbal fluency in animals, and the average from verbal fluency in favour of the EG. With regard to the intervention, verbal fluency in animals, verbal fluency in vegetables, the average of verbal fluency, cognitive inhibition, language, the average of all subjects, the average of all subjects except PE, and the average from the core subjects) increased significantly in the EG. The last five variables (the academic ones and cognitive inhibition) also increased in the CG, in addition to mathematics. This study contributes to the knowledge by suggesting that both methodologies produced improvements in the measured variables, but the use of a hybrid program based on TPSR and gamification strategies produce improvements in cognitive performance, specifically through the cognitive inhibition and verbal fluency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: evidence-based practice; clinical reasoning; causal model; intervention theory; Concept Mapping
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:35:52 CET)
Significant efforts in the past decades to teach evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation has emphasized increasing knowledge of EBP and developing interventions to support adoption to practice. These efforts have resulted in only limited sustained improvements in the daily use of evidence-based interventions in clinical practice in most health professions. Many new interven-tions with limited evidence of effectiveness are readily adopted each year - indicating openness to change is not the problem. The selection of an intervention is the outcome of an elaborate and complex cognitive process which is shaped by how they represent the problem in their mind and is mostly invisible processes to others. Therefore, the complex thinking process which support appropriate adoption of interventions should be taught more explicitly. Making the process visible to clinicians increases the acquisition of the skills required to judiciously select one in-tervention over others. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the selection process and the critical analysis that is required to appropriately decide to trial or not trial new intervention strategies with patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0098.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: rule-based classification model; wetland remote sensing; SVM; TC-Wetness; China
Online: 11 May 2017 (08:03:34 CEST)
Wetlands are among the most bio-diverse and highest productivity ecosystems on earth, making their monitoring a high priority to conservation, protection and management interests. Although visual interpretation of satellite images is generally precise for monitoring wetlands, recent works have emphasized computerized classification methods because of the reduction in analyst time. However, it is difficult to automatically identify wetland solely based on spectral characteristics due to the complexity of wetland ecosystems. The ability to extract wetland information rapidly and accurately is the basis and the key to wetland mapping at a large scale. Here we propose an operational method to map China wetlands based on Landsat TM data and ancillary data. On the basis of theoretical analysis of wetland automatic classification, we developed a revised multi-layer wetland classification scheme and a rule-based classification model. In the latter, supervised classification (SVM and decision tree) and unsupervised classification (ISODATA) methods were tested. Four Landsat TM images, representing various wetland eco-regions in China (i.e. the Sanjiang Plain in the northeast China, the North China Plain, the Zoige Plateau in the southwest China and the Pearl River Estuary in southeast China), were automatically classified. The overall classification accuracies were 86.57%, 96.00%, 84.51% and 88.30%, respectively, which we considered to be satisfactory accuracy. Our results indicate that issues such as the resolution of geographic data and the understanding of wetland samples should be carefully addressed in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: history of shipbuilding; Galleon hull; Barque hull; seakeeping analysis; CFD analysis; 3D model
Online: 27 June 2022 (04:09:47 CEST)
The Galleon was considered a masterpiece of shipbuilding in the sixteenth century, but from a modern point of view, the shape of her hull looks archaic and primitive. However, how accurate is this perception? Is the hull form of Galleon primitive? What were the reasons for its unique design features? This article investigates these questions by directly analysing the hull’s features from the point of view of modern ship’s theory, as well as from a historical perspective. A careful evaluation of specific design criteria of a typical Galleon, together with analysing a 3D model of its hull on modern software, with further insight for the seakeeping behaviour of Galleon with a comparison to more modern full-rigged ship (Barque of 19 CE), showed that these features were not random, but instead had a good rationale behind it, and served specific and carefully decided functions, required at the time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0556.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Three Lines One Permit; web-based interactive analysis; online environmental planning analysis platform; EIA approval; Web-GIS; geospatial data; Guangzhou
Online: 29 December 2022 (08:56:25 CET)
Currently, an interactive environmental planning analysis system platform based on " Three Lines One Permit " (TLOP) is being developed to support environmental planning, construction project approval, and the application of TLOP outcome data in Guangzhou. The main objective is to provide governments, businesses and the public with environmental planning analysis tools to determine the site of construction projects. The platform is using the system architecture of the browser and server. Its core functions are interactive environmental planning analysis tool for construction project and the results display tool supporting map viewing. It provides users with a large number of detailed geospatial data and TLOP results data access and environmental planning analysis functions. This article describes the system architecture and implementation of the system platform and has a case study illustrating the system functionality. At present, the platform has been deployed and trial-operated. The content of the analysis framework is constantly expanding. This promotes the matching of environmental planning and analysis with local conditions. This will implement the application of TLOP and improve the efficiency of project construction and the level of ecological environment planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0606.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Design Thinking; hydrosocial contract; web-based prototype; household engagement; Product Service Systems; clustering; ICT; sustainable use of water; customization
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:27:24 CEST)
This article shows the numerical results and the analysis of households' degree of knowledge in an intermediary city such as Huelva (Andalusia, Spain) about the sustainable use of urban water. It analyzes the needs and values regarding water and the attitudes that households maintain regarding the acceptance of reclaimed water and the use of new technologies to achieve more efficient and sustainable consumption. These results are part of the stages of needfinding and synthesis of Design Thinking methodology, adopted as a framework to improve the efficiency and sustainability of urban water among households in this city. Different statistical analysis techniques of surveys sent to households and the use of clustering are the mathematical tools used to draw conclusions and recommendations that allow the design of a web-based prototype grounded on Product Service Systems methodology, as a tool to improve the engagement of households concerning water and align citizens with the sustainability of their city. Strategies of customization and technological facilitators will be the means to improve the hydrosocial contract among households in Huelva in future later stages of the project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; fragment-based drug design; 2D-QSAR; DFT calculation; Lead optimization; Induced Fit docking
Online: 20 December 2021 (09:39:42 CET)
Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDODH) is one of the enzymes currently explored in the treatment of malaria. Although there is currently no clinically approved drug targeting PfDODH, many of the compounds in clinical trials have [1, 2, 4,] triazolo [1, 5-a] pyrimidin-7-amine backbone structure. This study sought to design new compounds from the fragments of known experimental inhibitors of PfDODH. Nine experimental compounds retrieved from Drug Bank online were downloaded and broken into fragments using Schrodinger power shell; the fragments were recombined to generate new ligand structures using BREED algorithm. The new compounds were docked with PfDODH crystal structure, after which the compounds were filtered with extensive drug-likeness and toxicity parameters. A 2D-QSAR model was built using the multiple linear regression method and externally validated. The compounds electronic behaviours were studied using DFT calculations. Structural investigation of the six designed compounds, which had lower binding energies than the standard inhibitors, showed that five of them had [1, 2, 4,] triazolo [1, 5-a] pyrimidin-7-amine moieties and interacted with essential residues at the PfDODH binding site. In addition to their drug-like and pharmacokinetic properties, they also showed minimal toxicities. The externally validated 2D-QSAR model with R2 and Q2 values of 0.6852 and 0.6691, confirmed the inhibitory prowess of these compounds against PfDODH. The DFT calculations showed regions of the molecules prone to electrophilic and nucleophilic attack. The current study thus provides insight into the development of a new set of potent PfDODH inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1965.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: elderly medication reminder application; Kano model; AHP; QFD; PUGH decision matrix
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:42:27 CEST)
Poor medication adherence among older adults is a widespread problem worldwide. As the population ages, the design of smartphone medication management apps is critical to improving medication adherence among older adults. Taking the design of an elderly medication reminder APP as an example, this study proposes a sustainable design research method that integrates the KANO model, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Quality Function Deployment (QFD), and PUGH decision matrix. The method collects user demands through in-depth interviews, and applies the KANO model to classify these demands. The hierarchical structure of user needs is established by using AHP, and the priority is sorted according to the weight and importance determined by the judgment matrix. QFD is used to translate user needs into design requirements, and the house of quality matrix identifies key design requirements. Finally, design alternatives are evaluated using Pugh's concept selection method. The results of this study demonstrate that the integration of KANO-AHP-QFD-PUGH can be effective as a sustainable optimal design approach for the user experience of a medication reminder application for the elderly. This integrated method not only facilitates innovative optimization and sustainability of application design methods but also provides valuable theoretical and practical insights for future drug-assisted design for elderly users.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Supply Chain Design; Transformational Design Roadmap; IIoT Supply Chain Model; Decision Support for Information Management
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:37:35 CET)
Digital technologies have changed the way supply chain operations are structured. In this article, we conduct systematic syntheses of literature on the impact of new technologies on supply chains and the related cyber risks. A taxonomic/cladistic approach is used for the evaluations of progress in the area of supply chain integration in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0, with a specific focus on the mitigation of cyber risks. An analytical framework is presented, based on a critical assessment with respect to issues related to new types of cyber risk and the integration of supply chains with new technologies. This paper identifies a dynamic and self-adapting supply chain system supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) and real-time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. The system is integrated into a cognition engine that enables predictive cyber risk analytics with real-time intelligence from IoT networks at the edge. This enhances capacities and assist in the creation of a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when AI/ML technologies are migrated to the periphery of IoT networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: scandium; REEs; bauxite residue; selective leaching; process design aspects; thin film diffusion model; unyielding core; specific recovery
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:50:01 CET)
Aiming at the industrial scale development of a Scandium (Sc)-selective leaching process of Bauxite Residue (BR), a sufficiently numerous set of process design aspects has been investigated, by appropriate exploitation of available experimental data. The interpretation of experimental data for Sc leaching yield, with sulfuric acid as the leaching solvent, has shown significant impact from acid feed concentration, mixing residence time, liquid to solids ratio, and times of leachate re-usage onto fresh BR. The thin film diffusion model, as the fundamental theory for leaching, either with constant particle size for selective leaching, or with shrinking particle size for less-, or non-, selective leaching, interprets sufficiently well the relevant experimental data. In both cases, a concept for an unyielding core supplements the basic model. Especially for the selective leaching mild conditions, the simplest model version keeps step with the experiments, since both prove 1st order kinetics, while especially for the extreme conditions including very low solvent excess, it is proposed a combined conversion rate model with diffusion and chemical reaction inside particles. The maximization of Sc recovery per unit of consumed solvent (i.e., specific recovery) emerged as highly critical for the process economics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1811.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainability; social-ecological system; natural capital; ecosystem services; biodiversity agent-based model
Online: 29 November 2023 (02:11:36 CET)
At the Rio Conference in 1992, the sustainable development agenda promised a new era for natural resource management, where the well-being of human society would be enhanced through the sustainable use of natural capital. Several decades on, economic growth continues unabated at the expense of natural capital, as evidenced by biodiversity loss, climate change and further environmental issues. Why is this happening and what can be done about it? In this research, we present three Agent-Based Models that explore the social, economic and governance factors driving (un)sustainability in complex social-ecological systems. Our modelling results reinforce the idea that the current economic system does not protect the natural capital on which it depends. This is due to a disjunction between the economic and environmental elements upon which the sustainable development paradigm is founded. Additionally, various factors appear to enhance social-ecological system unsustainability: the role of financial entities and monetary debt; economic speculation; technological development and efficiency; lack of long-term views and late government interventions; inefficient tipping point management; and the absence of strong top-down and bottom-up conservation forces. Interestingly, alternative scenarios showed that these same factors could be redirected to enhance sustainable development. The current economic system may, therefore, not be inherently unsustainable, but rather specific economic mechanisms, agents’ decision-making, and the kinds of links between economic and natural systems could be at the root of the problem. We argue that short- and medium-term sustainability can be enhanced by implementing mechanisms that shift capitalist forces to support environmental conservation. Long-term sustainability, however, requires further paradigm change: where the economy integrates, and fully accounts for, externalities and recognises the actual value of natural capital.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1586.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Big Model; Machine learning; Baidu Easy-DL; Water depth; Satellite-based Bathymetry
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:50:15 CEST)
Water depth estimation holds paramount importance in various domains including navigation, environmental monitoring, and resource management. Traditional depth measurement methods such as bathymetry can often be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming, especially in remote or inaccessible areas. This study delves into the application of machine learning techniques, with a specific focus on the Baidu Easy DL model, for water depth estimation leveraging satellite imagery. Utilizing Sentinel-2 satellite data over Rushikonda Beach in India and processing it into remote sensing reflectance using the ACOLITE software, the research compares the performance of several machine learning algorithms, including the Stumpf Model, Log-Linear Model, and the Baidu Easy DL Model, for accurate depth estimation. The results indicate that the Easy-DL model outperforms traditional methods, particularly excelling in the 0-11 meter depth range. This study showcases the substantial potential of machine learning in the realm of remote sensing, offering robust water depth estimates, even in complex coastal environments. Furthermore, it underscores the critical role of comprehensive training datasets and ensemble learning techniques in enhancing accuracy. This research not only opens avenues for further exploration of machine learning applications in remote sensing but also highlights the promising prospects of online model APIs in streamlining remote sensing data processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0708.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ecological stability, landscape, climate change, soil erosion, ecological coefficient, physically-based model
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:50:19 CEST)
Among the main elements that contribute to climate change are degradation processes and the ecological level of the landscape. These two topics have been discussed and researched for many years and many studies have been conducted. The idea of the article is to determine the correlation between the ecological stability of the territory and the intensity of degradation processes and find out how the ecological stability affects the intensity of soil erosion and vice versa. The ecological stability was calculated based on various methods during the years analyzed, i.e., 1990, 2006, 2012, and 2018. The soil water erosion was performed for the same period in order to identify the relationship between the ecological stability and intensity of soil erosion. The investigated area is located in the Slovak Republic while each year reflects different management of the territory reflecting the current situation in the catchment according to the year evaluated. The intensity of the erosion process was conducted using a phycially-based EROSION-3D model and based on the precipitation derived using Community Land Model (the CLM model). In addition to identifying the relationship between the level of ecological stability and the intensity of erosion, this study also describes the development the ecological stability during the evaluated period together with changes in soil erosion processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0710.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Chipless RFID; Analytical Model; Clutter; Simulation; Measurement; RCS-based cross-polarized tag
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:31:33 CEST)
Chipless radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is expected to replace barcode technology due to its ability to read in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) situations, long reading range, and low cost. Currently, there is extensive research being conducted on frequency-coded (FC) co-polarized radar cross-section (RCS)-based tags, which are widely used. However, detecting co-polarized chipless RFID tags in cluttered environments is still a challenge, as confirmed by measuring two co-polarized tags in front of a perfect metal reflector (30.5cm×22.5cm). To address this challenge, a realistic mathematical model for a chipless RFID system has been developed that takes into account the characteristics of the reader and the tag, as well as reflections from cluttered objects. This model has been simulated and verified with measurement results by placing a single flat metal reflector behind two co-polarized one-bit designs: a dipole array tag and a square patch tag. The results showed that the interfering signal completely overlaps the ID of the co-polarized tag, severely limiting its detectability. To solve this issue, the proposed solution involves reading the tag in cross-polarization mode by etching a diagonal slot in the square patch tag. This proposed tag provides high immunity to the environment and can be detected in front of both dielectric and metallic objects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1787.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Carrier-based aircraft; engagement; FEM-MBD; rigid-flexible coupling model; dynamic analysis
Online: 25 May 2023 (09:49:02 CEST)
The engagement of the arresting hook with the arresting cable is a critical maneuver that is essential to the safe operation of aircraft landing on aircraft carrier. A comprehensive understanding of the engagement process dynamics is necessary to optimize landing performance and ensure the safety and efficiency of carrier operations. In this paper, an efficient and accurate simulation and analysis method is presented for studying the arresting hook engaging arresting cable process. The Finite Element Method and Multibody Dynamics (FEM-MBD) approach is employed. By establishing a rigid-flexible coupling model encompassing the aircraft frame, arresting hook, carrier deck and arresting gear system, the dynamic model for the engagement process is obtained. The model incorporates multiple coordinate systems to effectively capture the relative motion between the rigid and flexible components, enabling a thorough understanding of the dynamics characteristics. The analysis conducted in this paper takes into account various factors, including the material properties of the components, the characteristics of the arresting gear system, and the state of the aircraft during the engagement process. The analysis method is verified by comparing the simulation results with experiments of arresting hook rebound obtained from reference. Finally, simulations are performed to analyze the engagement process under different touchdown points and rolling angle of aircraft. The simulation results provide valuable insights into the distribution of stresses during the arresting hook and cable engagement, the center of gravity variations, as well as the response of the tire touch and rollover cable under specific scenarios. The proposed rigid-flexible coupling arresting dynamics model in this paper enables effective analysis of the dynamic behavior during arresting hook engaging arresting cable. The results obtained from this analysis offer valuable insights into the performance of the engagement process, which can be used to improve the design of carrier-based aircraft and techniques for carrier landing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0490.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: cardiovascular 0-D model; pulmonary arterial pressure; gradient-based optimization; automatic differentiation
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:57:18 CEST)
Reliable quantification of pulmonary arterial pressure is essential in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of a range of cardiovascular pathologies including rheumatic heart disease, yet an accurate and routinely available method for its quantification remains elusive. This work proposes an approach to infer pulmonary arterial pressure based on scientific machine learning techniques and non-invasive, clinically available measurements. A 0-D multicompartment model of the cardiovascular system was optimized using several optimization algorithms, subject to forward-mode automatic differentiation. Measurement data were synthesized from known parameters to represent the healthy, mitral regurgitant, aortic stenosed and combined valvular disease situations with and without pulmonary hypertension. Eleven model parameters were selected for optimization based on 95 % explained variation in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. A hybrid Adam and limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno optimizer yielded the best results with input data including valvular flow rates, heart chamber volume changes and systematic arterial pressure. Mean absolute percentage errors ranged from 1.8 % to 3.78 % over the simulated test cases. The model was able to capture pressure dynamics under hypertensive conditions with pulmonary arterial systole, diastole, and mean pressure average percentage errors of 1.12 %, 2.49 % and 2.14 %, respectively. The relatively low errors highlight the potential of the proposed model to recover pulmonary pressures for diseased heart valve and pulmonary hypertensive conditions.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: reinforcement learning; bitrate streaming; world-models; video streaming; model-based reinforcement learning
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:02:57 CEST)
Adaptive bitrate (ABR) algorithms optimize the quality of streaming experiences for users in client-side video players especially in unreliable or slow mobile networks. Several rule-based heuristic algorithms can achieve stable performance, but they sometimes fail to adapt properly to changing network conditions. Fluctuating bandwidth may cause algorithms to default to behavior that creates a negative experience for the user. ABR algorithms can be generated with reinforcement learning, a decision-making paradigm in which an agent learns to make optimal choices through interactions with an environment. Training reinforcement learning algorithms for bitrate streaming requires building a simulator for an agent to experience interactions quickly; training an agent in the real environment is infeasible due to the long step times in real environments. This project explores using supervised learning to construct a world-model, or a learned simulator, from recorded interactions. A reinforcement learning agent trained inside of the learned model, rather than a simulator, can outperform rule-based heuristics. Furthermore, agents trained inside the learned world-model can outperform model-free agents in low sample regimes. This work highlights the potential for world-models to quickly learn simulators, and to be used to generate optimal policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0668.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; carbon emissions; low carbon city; sustainability; strategy-based model; SLCM
Online: 29 October 2018 (09:55:25 CET)
Low carbon cities are increasingly forming a distinct strand of sustainability literature. Models have been developed to measure the performance of low carbon cities. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a strategy-based model to evaluate current performance and predict future conditions of low carbon cities. It examines the dynamic interrelationships between key performance indicators (KPIs), induces changes to city plan targets and then instantly predicts the outcome of these changes. Designed generic and flexible, the proposed model shows how low carbon targets could be used to guide the transformation of low carbon cities under four strategies: (1) passive intervention, (2) problem solving, (3) trend modifying and (4) opportunity seeking. Further, the model has been applied to 17 cities and then tested on 5 cities: London, New York, Barcelona, Dubai and Istanbul. The paper concludes with policy implications to realign city plans and support low carbon innovation.