ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0601.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: ime Series Analysis; Online Optimisation; Online Model Selection
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:32:36 CEST)
We study the problem of predicting time series data using the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model in an online manner. Existing algorithms require model selection, which is time consuming and inapt for the setting of online learning. Using adaptive online learning techniques, we develop algorithms for fitting ARIMA models with fewest possible hyperparameters. We analyse the regret bound of the proposed algorithms and examine their performance using experiments on both synthetic and real world datasets
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0418.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Predictions; Machine Learning Algorithms; Correlation Matrix; Tobit Model; Fuzzy c-Means Clustering
Online: 31 May 2022 (13:51:12 CEST)
This article presents an estimation of the hypertension risk based on a dataset on 1007 individuals. The application of a Tobit Model shows that “Hypertension” is positively associated to “Age”, “BMI-Body Mass Index”, and “Heart Rate”. The data show that the element that has the greatest impact in determining inflation risk is “BMI-Body Mass Index”. An analysis was then carried out using the fuzzy c-Means algorithm optimized with the use of the Silhouette coefficient. The result shows that the optimal number of clusters is 9. A comparison was then made between eight different machine-learning algorithms for predicting the value of the Hypertension Risk. The best performing algorithm is the Gradient Boosted Trees Regression according to the analyzed dataset. The results show that there are 37 individuals who have a predicted hypertension value greater than 0.75, 35 individuals who have a predicted hypertension value between 0.5 and 0.75, while 227 individuals have a hypertension value between 0.0 and 0.5 units.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0031.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: electricity price forecasting; ensemble model; expert selection
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:52:52 CEST)
Day-ahead forecasting of electricity prices is important in deregulated electricity markets for all the stakeholders: energy wholesalers, traders, retailers, and consumers. Electricity price forecasting is an inherently difficult problem due to its special characteristic of dynamicity and non-stationarity. In this paper, we present a robust price forecasting mechanism that shows resilience towards aggregate demand response effect and provides highly accurate forecasted electricity prices to the stakeholders in a dynamic environment. We employ an ensemble prediction model in which a group of different algorithms participate in predicting the price for each hour of a day. We propose two different strategies, namely, Fixed Weight Method (FWM) and Varying Weight Method (VWM), for selecting each hour's expert algorithm from the set of participating algorithms. In addition, we utilize a carefully engineered set of features selected from a pool of features derived from information such as past electricity price data, weather data, and calendar data. The proposed ensemble model offers better results than both the Pattern Sequence-based Forecasting (PSF) method and our own previous work using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) alone do on the datasets for New York, Australian, and Spanish electricity markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0311.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus disease; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; model; prediction; machine learning
Online: 19 April 2020 (01:47:10 CEST)
Several outbreak prediction models for COVID-19 are being used by officials around the world to make informed-decisions and enforce relevant control measures. Among the standard models for COVID-19 global pandemic prediction, simple epidemiological and statistical models have received more attention by authorities, and they are popular in the media. Due to a high level of uncertainty and lack of essential data, standard models have shown low accuracy for long-term prediction. Although the literature includes several attempts to address this issue, the essential generalization and robustness abilities of existing models need to be improved. This paper presents a comparative analysis of machine learning and soft computing models to predict the COVID-19 outbreak. Among a wide range of machine learning models investigated, two models showed promising results (i.e., multi-layered perceptron, MLP, and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system, ANFIS). Based on the results reported here, and due to the highly complex nature of the COVID-19 outbreak and variation in its behavior from nation-to-nation, this study suggests machine learning as an effective tool to model the outbreak.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: COVID-19; cancer; decision; Bayesian; autoregressive model
Online: 24 April 2020 (06:28:41 CEST)
This pandemic of COVID-19 is tedious to control. The only lockdown is the way to stop the spread of this infection. Conventional health care is facing a real challenge to operate. Primarily the challenge is to provide health care support for COVID-19 patients with limited resources and continue the health care services like earlier.Perhaps, this challenge is the same but magnitude is different from different geographical locations around the globe. In this article, we presented a Bayesian algorithm with the Code to predict cancer death due to COVID-19. This code is possible to run at different time points and different geographical locations around the world. This code will help us to get the best strategy and shift the treatment option for cancer treatment. The model would provide physicians with an objective tool for counseling and decision making at different hotspots and small areas to implement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0402.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Sequence Encoder; Autoregressive Sequence; Separated Model; Statistical Test; Neural Network
Online: 23 January 2023 (08:30:48 CET)
While the language model using the stop sign as an independent token has been widely used to decide when the model should stop, it may lead to the growth of vocabulary dimensions and further problems. Similarly, present research on game algorithms usually estimate stopping point related problems based on the evaluation of the winning rate. However, information redundancy may also exist in such models, thus increasing the training difficulty. Above two types of tasks (and similar autoregressive tasks) show a common problem of stopping point prediction. In this paper, we describe a design of separated model, trying to separate the complexity of stopping point prediction from the main task model, so that the information used for estimating stopping point can be reduced. On this basis, in order to verify the rationality of using separated model, we propose a model-free test method. It judges the separability of transformed data based on point difference and sequence difference metrics. In this way, it can predict the credibility of the separated model inference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0640.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Fitts' law; information theory; index of difficulty; SQRT_MT model
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:02:07 CEST)
Fitts' law predicts the human movement response time for a specific task by a simple linear formulation, in which the intercept and the slope are estimated from the task's empirical data. This research was motivated by our pilot study, which found that the linear regression's essential assumptions are not satisfied in the literature. Furthermore, the keystone hypothesis in Fitts' law, that the movement time per response will be directly proportional to the minimum average amount of information per response demanded by the particular amplitude and target width, has never been formally tested. Therefore, this study developed an optional formulation derived from fusing the findings in psychology, physics, and physiology for fulfilling the statistical assumptions. An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis in Fitts' law and validate the proposed model. To conclude, our results indicated that movement time could be related to the index of difficulty underlying the same constant amplitude. The optional formulation accompanies the index of difficulty in Shannon form robustly performs the prediction better than the traditional model across studies. Finally, a new approach to modeling movement time prediction is deduced from our research results
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0360.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Household Disaster Preparation; Natural Hazards Mitigation; Prediction Model
Online: 2 November 2021 (12:57:04 CET)
Natural disasters are showing an increase in the magnitude, frequency, and geographic distribution. Studies have shown that individuals’ self-sufficiency, which largely depends on household preparedness, is very important for hazard mitigation in at least the first 72 hours following a disaster. However, for factors that influence a household’s disaster preparedness, though there are many studies trying to identify from different aspects, we still lack an integrative analysis on how these factors contribute to a household’s preparation. This paper aims to build a classification model to predict whether a household has prepared for a potential disaster based on their personal characteristics and the environment they located. We collect data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s National Household Survey in 2018 and train four classification models - logistic regression, decision trees, support vector machines, and multi-layer perceptron classifier models- to predict the impact of personal characteristics and the environment they located on household prepare for the potential natural disaster. Results show that the multi-layer perceptron classifier model outperforms others with the highest scoring on both recall (0.8531) and f1 measure (0.7386). In addition, feature selection results also show that among other factors, a household’s accessibility to disaster-related information is the most critical factor that impacts household disaster preparation. Though there is still room for further parameter optimization, the model gives a clue that we could support disaster management by gathering publicly accessible data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0221.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: seagrass; remote sensing; machine learning; species distribution model (SDM); hybrid model; habitat suitability; niches; meta-heuristic optimization
Online: 15 September 2022 (07:32:27 CEST)
Globally, seagrass meadows provide critical ecosystem services. However, seagrasses are globally degraded at an accelerated rate. The lack of information on seagrass spatial distribution and seagrass health status seriously hinders seagrass conservation and management. Therefore, this study proposes to combine remote sensing big data with a new hybrid machine learning model (RF-SWOA) to predict potential seagrass habitats. The multivariate remote sensing data is used to train the machine learning model, which can improve the prediction accuracy of the model. This study shows that a hybrid machine learning model (RF-SWOA) can predict potential seagrass habitats more accurately and effectively than traditional models. At the same time, it has been shown that the most important factors influencing the potential habitat of seagrass in the Hainan region were the distance from land (38.2%) and the depth of the ocean (25.9%). This paper provides a more accurate machine learning model approach for predicting the distribution of marine species, which can help develop seagrass conservation strategies to restore healthy seagrass ecosystems.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Churn 1; customer churn; customer segmentation; churn prevention; predictive churn 20 model; recommendation system engine.
Online: 3 June 2021 (12:48:22 CEST)
The strategy of any organization is based on the growth of its customer base, and one of 5 its principles is that selling a product to an existing customer is much more profitable than acquiring 6 a new customer. However, this approach has several opportunities for improvement, since it usu- 7 ally has a totally reactive approach, which does not give opportunity to the areas specialized in 8 customer experience and recovery, to give an effective response for that moment, since the customer 9 is gone at the time of the intervention. This happens because usually a diagnostic analysis of cus- 10 tomers who have stopped buying products or services in a defined period, commonly three (3) pe- 11 riods or months, is performed. This paper challenges the way to face this problem, and proposes 12 the development of a complete solution, which does not focus exclusively on the prediction of 13 churn, as is usually done in the state of the art research, but to intervene in different interactions 14 that can be carried out with customers. The above focused not only to prevent customer churn, but 15 to generate an added value of continuous improvement in sales processes, increase customer pene- 16 tration, leading to an improvement in customer experience and consequently, an increase in cus- 17 tomer loyalty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0531.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: scatterometer; sea surface wind; storm surge; atmospheric model
Online: 28 December 2022 (08:24:58 CET)
Sea surface wind forecasts in the Adriatic Sea often suffer for unadequate modelling, especially for the wind speed. This has detrimental effects on the accuracy of sea level and storm surge predictions. We present a numerical method to reduce the bias between the sea surface wind observed by the scatterometers and that supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global atmospheric model, for storm surge forecasting applications. The method, called “wind bias mitigation”, relies on scatterometer observations to determine a multiplicative factor ∆ws which modulates the standard model wind in order to decrease the bias between scatterometer and model. We compare four different mathematical approaches to this method, for a total of eight different formulations of the multiplicative factor ∆ws. Four datasets are used for the assessment of the eight different bias mitigation methods: a collection of 29 Storm Surge Events (SEVs) cases in the years 2004-2014, a collection of 48 SEVs in the years 2013-2016, a collection of 364 cases of random sea level conditions in the same period, and a collection of the seven SEVs in 2012-2016 that were worst predicted by the Centro Previsioni e Segnalazioni Maree, Comune di Venezia (Tide Forecast and Early Warning Centre of the Venice Municipality - CPSM). The statistical analysis shows that the bias mitigation procedures supplies a mean wind speed more accurate than the standard forecast, when compared with scatterometer observations, in more than 70% of the analyzed cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0613.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Gas emission prediction; grey theory; RBF neural network model; improved grey RBF neural network model
Online: 29 October 2020 (13:22:44 CET)
Effectively avoiding gas accident is vital to the security of mineral manufacture, and the coal mine gas accident is often caused by gas concentration overrun. The prediction accuracy of gas emission quantity in coal mine is the key to solve this problem. To maintain concentration of gas in a secure range，grey theory and neural network model increasingly diffusely used in forecasting gas emission quantity in coal mine critically. Nevertheless, the limitation of the grey neural network model is that researchers merely bonded the conventional neural network and grey theory. To enhance accuracy of prediction, a modified grey GM(1,1) and RBF neural network model is proposed combined amended grey GM(1,1) model and RBF neural network model. Then the proposed model was put into simulation experiment which is built based on Matlab software. Ultimately, conclusion of the simulation experiment verified that the modified grey GM(1,1) and RBF neural network model not only boosts the precision of prediction, but also restricts relative error in a minimum range. This showed that the modified grey GM(1,1) and RBF neural network model achieves effectiveness in precision of prediction much better than grey GM(1,1) model and RBF neural network model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0297.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: breast cancer; predictive model; stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN; LSTM; GRU; RNN
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:02:03 CEST)
Breast Cancer diagnosis is one of the most studied problems in the medical domain. In the medical domain, cancer diagnosis has been studied extensively which instantiates the need of early prediction of cancer disease. For obtaining advance prediction, health records are exploited and given as input to an automated system. This paper focuses on constructing an automated system by employing deep learning based recurrent neural network models. A stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN is proposed in this paper that accepts health records of a patient for determining possibility of being affected by breast cancer. Proposed model is compared against other baseline classifiers such as stacked Simple-RNN model, stacked LSTM-RNN model, stacked GRU-RNN model. Comparative results obtained in this study indicate that stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN yield better classification performance for predictions related to breast cancer disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0147.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; Machine Learning; Pandemic; Additive regression model; Dynamic Map
Online: 9 May 2020 (04:30:32 CEST)
The sudden pervasive of severe acute respiratory syndrome Covid-19 has been leading the universe into a prominent crisis. It has influenced each zone, for example, industrial area, horticultural zone, Public transportation, economic zone, and so on. So as to see how Covid-19 affected the globe, we conducted an investigation characterizing the effects of the pandemic over the world using Machine Learning (ML) method. Prediction is a typical data science exercise that helps the administration with function planning, objective setting, and anomaly detection. We propose an additive regression model with interpretable parameters that can be naturally balanced by experts with domain intuition about the time series. We focus on global data beginning from 22nd January 2020, till 26th April 2020 and performed dynamic map visualization of Covid-19 expansion globally by date wise and predicting the spread of virus on all countries and continents. The major advantages of this work include accurate analysis of country-wise as well as province/state-wise confirmed cases, recovered cases, deaths, prediction of pandemic viral attack and how far it is expanding globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1849.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Machine Learning; Regression Model; XGBoost Regression; Yield Strength
Online: 27 June 2023 (05:25:11 CEST)
Magnesium matrix composites have attracted significant attention due to their lightweight nature and impressive mechanical properties. However, the fabrication process for these alloy compo-sites is often time-consuming, expensive, and labor-intensive. To overcome these challenges, this study employed machine learning (ML) techniques to predict the mechanical properties of magnesium matrix composites. Regression models were utilized to forecast the yield strength of magnesium alloy composites reinforced with various materials. The study incorporated previous research on matrix type, reinforcement type, heat treatment, and mechanical working. The re-gression models employed in this study included decision tree regression, random forest re-gression, extra tree regression, and XGBoost regression. Model performance was assessed using metrics such as RMSE and R2. The XGBoost Regression model out-performed others, exhibiting an R2 value of 0.94 and the lowest error rate. Feature importance analysis indicated that the rein-forcement particle form had the greatest influence on the mechanical properties. The study iden-tified the optimized parameters for achieving the highest yield strength, which was 186.99 MPa. Overall, this study successfully demonstrates the effectiveness of ML as a valuable tool for opti-mizing the production parameters of magnesium matrix composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0628.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Food production; machine learning; agricultural production; prediction model
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:20:09 CEST)
Advancing models for accurate estimation of food production is essential for policymaking and managing national plans of action for food security. This research proposes two machine learning models for the prediction of food production. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) methods are used to advance the prediction models. In the present study, two variables of livestock production and agricultural production were considered as the source of food production. Three variables were used to evaluate livestock production, namely livestock yield, live animals, and animal slaughtered, and two variables were used to assess agricultural production, namely agricultural production yields and losses. Iran was selected as the case study of the current study. Therefore, time-series data related to livestock and agricultural productions in Iran from 1961 to 2017 have been collected from the FAOSTAT database. First, 70% of this data was used to train ANFIS and MLP, and the remaining 30% of the data was used to test the models. The results disclosed that the ANFIS model with Generalized bell-shaped (Gbell) built-in membership functions has the lowest error level in predicting food production. The findings of this study provide a suitable tool for policymakers who can use this model and predict the future of food production to provide a proper plan for the future of food security and food supply for the next generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0652.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; alcohol dehydrogenase; erythrocyte-bioreactor; ethanol; glycolysis; mathematical model; NAD; oscillations
Online: 9 May 2023 (12:31:49 CEST)
A mathematical model of energy metabolism in erythrocyte-bioreactors loaded with alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was constructed and analyzed. Such erythrocytes can convert ethanol to acetate using intracellular NAD and, thus, can be used to treat an alcohol intoxication. Analysis of the model reveals that the rate of ethanol consumption by the erythrocyte-bioreactors increases proportionally to activity of incorporated ethanol-consuming enzymes until their activity reaches a specific threshold level. When the ethanol-consuming enzyme activity exceeds this threshold, the steady state in the model becomes unstable and the model switches to an oscillation mode caused by a competition of glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and ethanol-consuming enzymes for NAD. An amplitude and period of metabolite oscillations first increase with the increase in the activity of e encapsulated enzymes. A further increase in these activities leads to a loss of the glycolysis steady state, and a permanent accumulation of glycolytic intermediates. The oscillation mode and the loss of the steady state can lead to osmotic destruction of erythrocyte-bioreactors due to an accumulation of intracellular metabolites. Our results demonstrate that the interaction of enzymes encapsulated into erythrocyte-bioreactors with erythrocyte metabolism should be taken into account in order to obtain an optimal efficacy of these bioreactors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: autoregressive models; entropy power; linear prediction model; CELP voice codecs; mutual information
Online: 16 April 2019 (11:08:04 CEST)
We write the mutual information between an input speech utterance and its reconstruction by a Code-Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) codec in terms of the mutual information between the input speech and the contributions due to the short term predictor, the adaptive codebook, and the fixed codebook. We then show that a recently introduced quantity, the log ratio of entropy powers, can be used to estimate these mutual informations in terms of bits/sample. A key result is that for many common distributions and for Gaussian autoregressive processes, the entropy powers in the ratio can be replaced by the corresponding minimum mean squared errors. We provide examples of estimating CELP codec performance using the new results and compare to the performance of the AMR codec and other CELP codecs. Similar to rate distortion theory, this method only needs the input source model and the appropriate distortion measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: similarity method; cooling load prediction; neural network prediction model; entropy weight method; grey correlation method
Online: 7 November 2023 (02:49:30 CET)
Artificial intelligence algorithms have gained widespread adoption in the field of air conditioning load prediction. However, their prediction accuracy is substantially influenced by the quality of training samples. Training samples that lack relevance to the predicted moments can introduce interference into the neural network's learning process, potentially leading to a state of local convergence during its iterative process. This, in turn, diminishes the robustness and generalization capabilities of the prediction model. To enhance the prediction accuracy of air conditioning load prediction models based on artificial intelligence algorithms, this study presents an artificial intelligence algorithm prediction model based on the method of sample similarity sample screening. Initially, the comprehensive similarity coefficient between samples is computed using the gray correlation analysis method, enriched with enhancements in information entropy. Subsequently, a subset of closely related samples is extracted from the original dataset and employed as the training dataset for the artificial intelligence prediction model. Finally, the trained artificial intelligence algorithm prediction model is deployed for air conditioning load prediction. The results illustrate that the method of screening training samples based on sample similarity effectively improves the prediction accuracy of BP neural network (BPNN) and extreme learning machine (ELM) prediction models. However, it is important to note that this approach may not be suitable for genetic algorithm BPNN (GABPNN) and support vector regression (SVR) models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0020.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: the free-energy principle; internal model hypothesis; unconscious inference; infomax principle; predictive information; independent component analysis; principal component analysis
Online: 11 May 2018 (06:24:06 CEST)
The mutual information between the state of a neural network and the state of the external world represents the amount of information stored in the neural network that is associated with the external world. In contrast, the surprise of the sensory input indicates the unpredictability of the current input. In other words, this is a measure of inference ability, and an upper bound of the surprise is known as the variational free energy. According to the free-energy principle (FEP), a neural network continuously minimizes the free energy to perceive the external world. For the survival of animals, inference ability is considered to be more important than simply memorized information. In this study, the free energy is shown to represent the gap between the amount of information stored in the neural network and that available for inference. This concept involves both the FEP and the infomax principle, and will be a useful measure for quantifying the amount of information available for inference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0214.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: COVID-19; Prediction model; Pandemic bell curve; India; Different scenarios
Online: 17 June 2020 (09:40:23 CEST)
This paper is an attempt to present a COVID-19 prediction model for India. Lockdown plays an important role in the arrest of community spread of the disease. This was evident from the study of other countries such as Russia, Belgium and Germany, where peak cases were recorded within a month of the imposition of lockdown, that it showed an immediate positive effect. However, in India, even after 65 days of lockdown, there is no decrease in the number of daily new cases reported. There were many models prepared for India and almost all of them were proven wrong by the increase in the number of cases. The model in this paper is prepared using the COVID-19 trend in other countries, population density and the pandemic bell curve. Based on the available data until 24th May 2020, two scenarios have been presented. In one, the peak shall be obtained when the number of daily new cases per million reaches 190 and in the second when the daily new cases per million reach 724. One model predicts the number of cases to reach 1 million by mid-July 2020. The other model predicts the number of cases to peak by mid-July with the total cases reaching 20 million. The predicted cases were compared with the actual cases recorded for the period 25th May to 11th June 2020. It was observed that the actual values matched quite reasonably with the predicted values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0031.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus disease; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; model; prediction; machine learning
Online: 3 May 2020 (07:44:03 CEST)
Several epidemiological models are being used around the world to project the number of infected individuals and the mortality rates of the COVID-19 outbreak. Advancing accurate prediction models is of utmost importance to take proper actions. Due to a high level of uncertainty or even lack of essential data, the standard epidemiological models have been challenged regarding the delivery of higher accuracy for long-term prediction. As an alternative to the susceptible-infected-resistant (SIR)-based models, this study proposes a hybrid machine learning approach to predict the COVID-19 and we exemplify its potential using data from Hungary. The hybrid machine learning methods of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multi-layered perceptron-imperialist competitive algorithm (MLP-ICA) are used to predict time series of infected individuals and mortality rate. The models predict that by late May, the outbreak and the total morality will drop substantially. The validation is performed for nine days with promising results, which confirms the model accuracy. It is expected that the model maintains its accuracy as long as no significant interruption occurs. Based on the results reported here, and due to the complex nature of the COVID-19 outbreak and variation in its behavior from nation-to-nation, this study suggests machine learning as an effective tool to model the outbreak. This paper provides an initial benchmarking to demonstrate the potential of machine learning for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1744.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Macroeconomic Forecasting Model; Scheduling Algorithm; Enterprise Benefit Optimization; Resource Management
Online: 26 June 2023 (05:34:15 CEST)
For an enterprise, the most critical aspect of development is resource management, which has a significant impact on all aspects of the enterprise. Therefore, enterprises must pay attention to resource management allocation, which can better promote the sustainable development of the enterprise and obtain optimal benefits. In the production and development of modern enterprises, the acquisition of benefits also involves the allocation of resources in enterprise management. This paper proposed a benefit optimization scheduling algorithm based on a macroeconomic prediction model under auction mechanism and a grid resource scheduling algorithm driven by a benefit function to allocate resources reasonably. This article used macroeconomic forecasting models to fully understand the resource needs of various departments and the resources held by enterprises, and rationally allocate various resources in various departments. This can improve the work efficiency of various departments, thereby reducing the cost of the enterprise, and achieving optimal benefits for the enterprise. The experimental results in this paper showed that the cost of resource management allocation for the benefit optimization scheduling algorithm and the grid resource scheduling algorithm based on the benefit function driven under the auction mechanism was 105.6 yuan and 46.8 yuan respectively when the task volume was 125 under the multi user environment. The time allocated for resource management was 36.6s and 18.9s respectively. It can be seen that the efficiency function driven grid resource scheduling algorithm had a lower cost and time for resource management allocation, so the efficiency function driven grid resource scheduling algorithm can achieve enterprise efficiency optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0340.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: big data; sales prediction; online word-of-mouth; dynamic topic model; dimension heat; dimension sentiment
Online: 29 December 2018 (05:28:21 CET)
The accuracy of sales prediction models based on the big data of online word-of-mouth (eWOM) is still not satisfied. We argue that eWOM contains heat and sentiments of different product dimensions, which can improve the accuracy of these models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic topic analysis (DTA) framework in order to extract heat and sentiments of product dimensions from the big data of eWOM. Finally, we propose an autoregressive-heat-sentiment (ARHS) model, which integrates heat and sentiments of dimensions into the baseline predictive model. The empirical study in movie industry confirms that heat and sentiments of dimensions can improve the accuracy of sales prediction model. ARHS model is better for movie box-office revenue prediction than other models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0534.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: community-dwelling older individuals; comorbidity; deep learning; frailty; survival prediction model
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:30:19 CEST)
In a super-aged society, maintaining healthy aging, preventing death, and enabling a continua-tion of economic activities are crucial. This study sought to develop a model for predicting the survival time in community-dwelling older individuals by using a deep learning method, and to identify the level of influence of various risk factors on the survival period, so that older in-dividuals can manage their own health. This study used the Korean National Health Insurance Service claims data. We observed community-dwelling older people, aged 66 years, for 11 years and developed a survival time prediction model. Of the 189,697 individuals enrolled at baseline, 180,235 (95.0%) survived from 2009 to 2019, while 9,462 (5.0%) died. Using deep learning based models (C statistics = 0.7011), we identified Charlson’s comorbidity index; the frailty index; long-term care benefit grade; disability grade; income level; a combination of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia; sex; smoking status; and alcohol consumption habit as factors impacting survival. In particular, Charlson’s comorbidity index (SHAP value: 0.0445) and frailty index (SHAP value: 0.0443) were strong predictors of survival time. Older individuals should rec-ognize modifiable risk factors that affect survival period in order to manage their own health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1372.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Tourism; HIV; AIDS; Malaysia, mathematical model; reproduction number; sensitivity analysis
Online: 21 August 2023 (02:30:00 CEST)
To assess the impact of tourism on the incidence of HIV and AIDS using Malaysian epidemiological data over the period of 1986-2011 with additional consideration for newborns infected with HIV. A population-level mathematical model was used to investigate: i) the role of tourism in the spread of HIV and measures used to reduce HIV spread in Malaysia; ii) whether the stability of infectious disease transmission is dependent on the flow of visiting tourists. We first derived an equation for the reproduction number (R0) threshold to quantify the contagiousness of HIV in Malaysia. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the effect of various parameters on HIV transmission with respect to the increase in tourism. Our findings suggest that a stable disease-free state is sustainable based on the low value of R0 was 0.0017. This result is encouraging from a public health perspective. Approximately 14% of outbound tourists who leave the country return infected with HIV and the difference between the rate at which tourists move to the susceptible category and the rate at which tourists leave the susceptible is category is 12%. Estimated parameters for the influx of tourist rates, δ=1.1540x10-3[1.1477x10-3 - 1.15954x10-3], δ1=7.7901x10-4[7.7867x10-4 - 7.79418x10-4], and δ2=1.4030x10-8[-7.2287x10-7-7.5096x10-7], significantly impacted the spread of HIV in Malaysia. Some significant adjustments were made to the expected parameters. The methods used are helpful to public health analyses and provide a framework for epidemiological modeling of HIV spread among tourists. The trend and magnitude of tourist inflows may be determinants in the incidence of HIV and AIDS in Malaysia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0208.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: fracture density; double-layer model; unconventional reservoirs; multicomponent seismic; shear-wave splitting
Online: 16 April 2018 (11:33:54 CEST)
Fracture density, a critical parameter of unconventional reservoirs, can be used to evaluate potential of unconventional reservoirs and location of production wells. Many technologies, such as amplitude variation with offset and azimuth (AVOA) technology, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) technology, and multicomponent seismic technology, are generally used to predict fracture of reservoirs. they can qualitatively predict fracture by analyzing seismic attributes, including seismic wave amplitudes, seismic wave velocities, which are sensitive to fracture. However, it is important to quantitatively describe fracture of reservoirs. In this study, based on a double-layer model, the relationships between fracture density and the double-layer model’s physical parameters, such as velocity of fast shear-wave, velocity of slow shear-wave, and density, were established, and then a powerful quantitative prediction method for fracture density was proposed dramatically. Afterwards, the Hudson model for crack was used to test the applicability of the method. The result shown that the quantitative prediction method for fracture density can be applied suitable to the Hudson model for crack. Finally, the result of validation models indicated that the method can predict fracture density effective, in which absolute relative deviation (ARD) were less than 5% and root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 4.88×10-3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1334.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: PM2.5 concentration; feature selection; clustering algorithm; Adaboost integration model
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:49:34 CEST)
Determining accurate PM2.5 pollution concentrations and understanding their dynamic patterns is crucial for scientifically informed air pollution control strategies. Traditional reliance on linear correlation coefficients for ascertaining PM2.5 related factors only uncovers superficial relationships. Moreover, the invariance of conventional prediction models restricts their accuracy. To enhance the precision of PM2.5 concentration prediction, this study introduces a novel integrated model that leverages feature selection and a clustering algorithm. Comprising three components - feature selection, clustering, and integrated prediction, the model first employs the non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-III) to identify the most impactful features affecting PM2.5 concentration within air pollutants and meteorological factors. This step offers more valuable feature data for subsequent modules. The model then adopts a two-layer clustering method (SOM+K-means) to analyze the multifaceted irregularity within the dataset. Finally, the model establishes the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) weak learner for each classification, integrating multiple weak learners using the Adaboost algorithm to obtain a comprehensive prediction model. Through feature correlation enhancement, data irregularity exploration, and model adaptability improvement, the proposed model significantly enhances the overall prediction performance. Data sourced from 12 Beijing-based monitoring sites in 2016 were utilized for an empirical study, and the model's results compared with five other predictive models. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed model significantly heightens prediction accuracy, offering useful insights and potential for broadened application to multifactor correlation concentration prediction methodologies for other pollutants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1051.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: eLoran; meteorological factor; propagation delay prediction model; Back-Propagation neural network
Online: 27 April 2023 (05:52:32 CEST)
The core of eLoran ground-based timing navigation system is the accurate measurement of groundwave propagation delay. However, meteorological changes will disturb the conductive characteristic factors along the groundwave propagation path, especially for complex terrestrial propagation environment, and may even lead to microsecond-level propagation delay fluctuation, seriously affecting the timing accuracy of the system. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposes a propagation delay prediction model based on Back-Propagation neural network (BPNN) for complex meteorological environment, which realizes the function of directly mapping propaga-tion delay fluctuation through meteorological factors. Firstly, the theoretical influence of meteoro-logical factors on each component of propagation delay is analyzed based on calculation parame-ters. Then, through the correlation analysis of the measured data, the complex relationship be-tween the seven main meteorological factors and the propagation delay, as well as their regional differences are demonstrated. Finally, a BPNN prediction model considering regional changes of multiple meteorological factors is proposed, and the validity of the model is verified by long-term collected data. Experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively predict the propagation delay fluctuation in the next few days, and its overall performance is significantly improved compared with the existing linear model and simple neural network model. eLoran; meteorological factor; propagation delay prediction model; Back-Propagation neural network;
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: advanced high strength steel; yield function; hardening model; springback; deformation mode
Online: 8 March 2017 (04:51:37 CET)
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of constitutive equations on the prediction accuracy for springback in cold stamping with various deformation modes. In this study, two types of yield functions—Hill’48 and Yld2000-2d—were considered to describe yield behavior. Isotropic and kinematic hardening models based on the Yoshida–Uemori model were also adopted to describe hardening behavior. Various material tests (such as uniaxial tension, tension- compression, loading-unloading, and hydraulic bulging tests) were carried out to determine the material parameters of the models. The obtained parameters were implemented in the finite element (FE) simulation to predict springback, and the results were compared with experimental data. U-bending and T-shape drawing were employed to evaluate the springback prediction accuracy. Obviously, the springback prediction accuracy was greatly influenced by constitutive equations. Therefore, it is important to choose appropriate constitutive equations for accurate description of material behaviors in FE simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0536.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: WRF model; Moving-nest; Fani; Bay of Bengal; Wind Speed
Online: 31 August 2022 (07:48:18 CEST)
The prediction of an extremely severe cyclonic storm (ESCS) is one of the challenging issues due to increasing intensity and its life period. In this study, an ESCS Fani that developed over Bay of Bengal region during 27 April - 4May, 2019 and made landfall over Odisha coast of India is investigated to forecast the storm track, intensity and structure. Two numerical experiments (changing two air-sea flux parameterization schemes; namely FLUX-1 and FLUX-2) are conducted with the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model by using a moving nest with fine horizontal resolution about 3 km. The high resolution (25 km) NCEP operational Global Forecast System (GFS) analysis and forecast datasets are used to derive the initial and boundary conditions, the ARW model initialized at 00 UTC 29 April 2019 and forecasted for 108 hours. The forecasted track and intensity of Fani is validated with available India Meteorological Department (IMD) best-fit track datasets. Result shows that the track, landfall (position and time) and intensity in terms of minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) and maximum surface wind (MSW) of the storm is well predicted in the moving nested domain of the WRF model using FLUX-1 experiment. The track forecast errors on day-1 to day-4 are ~ 47 km, 123 km, 96 km, and 27 km in FLUX-1 and ~54 km, 142 km, 152 km and 166 km in Flux-2 respectively. The intensity is better predicted in FLUX-1 during the first 60 h followed by FLUX -2 for the remaining period. The structure in terms of relative humidity, water vapor, maximum reflectivity and temperature anomaly of the storm is also discussed and compared with available satellite and Doppler Weather Radar observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0069.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: coal; supercritical CO2; Gaussian process regression; machine learning; adsorption model
Online: 5 February 2020 (14:09:33 CET)
Deep coal beds have been suggested as possible usable underground geological locations for carbon dioxide storage. Furthermore, injecting carbon dioxide into coal beds can improve the methane recovery. Due to importance of this issue, a novel investigation has been done on adsorption of carbon dioxide on various types of coal seam. This study has proposed four types of Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) approaches with different kernel functions to estimate excess adsorption of carbon dioxide in terms of temperature, pressure and composition of coal seams. The comparison of GPR outputs and actual excess adsorption expresses that proposed models have interesting accuracy and also the Exponential GPR approach has better performance than other ones. For this structure, R2=1, MRE=0.01542, MSE=0, RMSE=0.00019 and STD=0.00014 have been determined. Additionally, the impacts of effective parameters on excess adsorption capacity have been studied for the first time in literature. According to these results, the present work has valuable and useful tools for petroleum and chemical engineers who dealing with enhancement of recovery and environment protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1650.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: ice collision force; ice material behavior; ice yield criteria; ice strain-rate dependency; crushable foam model; Drucker-Prager model
Online: 27 November 2023 (05:41:03 CET)
This study explores the application of numerical analysis and material models to predict ice impact loads on ships and offshore structures operating in polar regions. An explicit finite element analysis (FEA) approach was employed to simulate an ice and steel plate collision experiment conducted in a cold chamber. The pressure and strain history during the ice collision were calculated and compared with the experimental results. Various material model configurations were applied to the FEA to account for the versatile behavior of ice—whether ductile or brittle—its elastic-plastic yield criteria, and its dynamic strain rate dependency. In addition to the standard linear elastic perfectly plastic and linear elastic-plastic relationships, this study incorporated the crushable foam and Drucker-Prager models, based on the specific ice yield criteria. Considering the ice’s strain rate dependency, collision simulations were conducted for each yield criteria model to compute the strain and reaction force of the plate specimens. By comparing the predicted pressures for each material model combination with the pressures from ice collision experiments, our study proposes material models that consider the yielding, damage, and behavioral characteristics of ice. Lastly, our study proposes a combination of ice material properties that can accurately predict collision force.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1472.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Crash Prediction Model; Safety Performance Function; Highway Safety Manual; Negative Binomial Regression; Model Diagnostic; Context Classification System
Online: 21 August 2023 (12:01:58 CEST)
Transportation authorities aim to boost road safety by identifying risky locations and applying suitable safety measures. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) is a vital resource for US transportation professionals, aiding in the creation of Safety Performance Functions (SPFs), which are predictive models for crashes. These models rely on Negative Binomial distribution-based regression and misinterpreting them due to unmet statistical assumptions can lead to erroneous conclusions, including inaccurately assessing crash rates or missing high-risk sites. The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has introduced context classifications to HSM SPFs, complicating assumption violation identification. This study, part of an FDOT-sponsored project, investigates established statistical diagnostic tests to identify model violations and proposes a novel approach to determine optimal spatial regions for Empirical Bayes adjustment. This adjustment aligns HSM-SPFs with regression assumptions. The study employs a case study involving Florida roads. Results indicate that a 20-mile radius offers an optimal spatial sample size for modeling crashes of all injury levels, ensuring accurate assumptions. For severe injury crashes, which are less frequent and harder to predict, a 60-mile radius is suggested to fulfill statistical modeling assumptions. This methodology guides FDOT practitioners in assessing the conformity of HSM-SPFs with intended assumptions and determining appropriate region sizes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: machine learning; random forest; estrogen receptor; Tox21 data challenge 2014; QSAR prediction model
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:49:28 CET)
Many agonists for the estrogen receptor are known to disrupt endocrine functioning. We have developed a computational model that predicts agonists for the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain in an assay system. Our model was entered into the Tox21 Data Challenge 2014, a computational toxicology competition organized by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. This competition aims to find high-performance predictive models for various adverse-outcome pathways, including the estrogen receptor. Our predictive model, which is based on the random forest method, delivered the best performance in its competition category. In the current study, the predictive performance of the random forest models was improved by strictly adjusting the hyperparameters to avoid overfitting. The random forest models were optimized from 4,000 descriptors simultaneously applied to 10,000 activity assay results for the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain, which have been measured and compiled by Tox21. At this time, our model delivers the highest predictive power on estrogen receptor agonists in the world. Furthermore, analysis of the optimized model revealed some important features of the agonists, such as the number of hydroxyl groups in the molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0871.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: fiber optic gyroscope; thermal errors; prediction model; overfitting; biased regression
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:18:22 CEST)
For a fiber optic gyroscope, thermal deformation of the fiber coil can introduce additional ther-mal-induced phase errors, commonly referred to as thermal errors. Thermal error compensation techniques are effective means of addressing this issue. The principle behind these techniques involves real-time sensing of thermal errors and correcting them within the output signal. Since it is challenging to directly separate thermal errors from the output signal of the fiber optic gyro-scope, it is necessary to predict thermal errors based on temperature. To establish a mathematical model between temperature and thermal errors, this paper measured synchronized data of phase errors and angular velocity for the fiber coil under different temperature conditions and aimed to model it using data-driven methods. Due to the difficulty of conducting tests and the limited number of data samples, an algorithm called TD-model modeling is proposed to address the issue of overfitting, which can reduce the model's generalization ability. First, a theoretical analysis of the phase errors caused by thermal deformation of the fiber coil is performed. Subsequently, the critical parameters, such as the thermal expansion coefficient, are determined, and a theoretical model is established. Finally, the theoretical analysis model is incorporated as a regularization term and combined with the test data to jointly participate in the regression of model coefficients. Through experimental comparative analysis, it is shown that, relative to ordinary regression models, the TD-model effectively mitigates overfitting caused by the limited number of samples, leading to a 58% improvement in predictive accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0233.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: wind power; machine learning; hybrid model; prediction; whale optimization algorithm
Online: 17 February 2020 (02:22:05 CET)
Wind power as a renewable source of energy, has numerous economic, environmental and social benefits. In order to enhance and control the renewable wind power, it is vital to utilize models that predict wind speed with high accuracy. Due to neglecting of requirement and significance of data preprocessing and disregarding the inadequacy of using a single predicting model, many traditional models have poor performance in wind speed prediction. In the current study, for predicting wind speed at target stations in the north of Iran, the combination of a multi-layer perceptron model (MLP) with the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) used to build new method (MLP-WOA) with a limited set of data (2004-2014). Then, the MLP-WOA model was utilized at each of the ten target stations, with the nine stations for training and tenth station for testing (namely: Astara, Bandar-E-Anzali, Rasht, Manjil, Jirandeh, Talesh, Kiyashahr, Lahijan, Masuleh and Deylaman) to increase the accuracy of the subsequent hybrid model. Capability of the hybrid model in wind speed forecasting at each target station was compared with the MLP model without the WOA optimizer. To determine definite results, numerous statistical performances were utilized. For all ten target stations, the MLP-WOA model had precise outcomes than the standalone MLP model. The hybrid model had acceptable performances with lower amounts of the RMSE, SI and RE parameters and higher values of NSE, WI and KGE parameters. It was concluded that WOA optimization algorithm can improve prediction accuracy of MLP model and may be recommended for accurate wind speed prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0309.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: feature identification and extraction; Copula analysis; multi-energy loads; model fusion
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:13:57 CEST)
To improve the accuracy of short-term multi-energy load prediction models for integrated energy systems, the historical development law of the multi-energy loads must be considered. Moreover, understanding the complex coupling correlation of the different loads in the multi-energy systems and accounting for other load-influencing factors, such as weather, may further improve the forecasting performance of such models. In this study, a two-stage fuzzy optimization method is proposed for the feature selection and identification of the multi-energy loads. To enrich the information content of the prediction input feature, we introduced a copula correlation feature analysis in the proposed framework, which extracts the complex dynamic coupling correlation of multi-energy loads and applies Akaike information criterion (AIC) to evaluate the adaptability of the different copula models presented. Furthermore, we combined a NARX neural network with Bayesian optimization and an extreme learning machine model optimized using a genetic algorithm to effectively improve the feature fusion performances of the proposed multi-energy load prediction model. The effectiveness of the proposed short-term prediction model was confirmed by the experimental results obtained using the multi-energy load time-series data of an actual integrated energy system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0101.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: artificial intelligence; climate forecast; deep learning; ensemble model; multi-layer perceptron; neural network; regression; soil temperature; stacking method
Online: 17 February 2022 (09:56:27 CET)
Soil temperature is a fundamental parameter in water resources and engineering. A cost-effective model which can forecast soil temperature accurately is extensively needed. Recently, many studies have applied artificial intelligence (AI) at both surface and underground levels for soil temperature prediction. However, there is no comprehensive and detailed assessment of the performance of different AI approaches in soil temperature estimation, and primarily limited atmospheric variables are used as input data for AI models. In the present study, great varieties of various land and atmospheric variables are applied to evaluate the performance of a wide range of AI methods on soil temperature prediction. Herein, thirteen approaches, from classic regressions to well-established methods of random forest and gradient boosting to advanced AI techniques like multi-layer perceptron and deep learning are taken into account. The results show that AI is a promising approach in climate parameter forecast and deep learning demonstrates the best performance among other models. It has the highest R-squared ranging from 0.957 to 0.980, the lowest NRMSE ranging from 2.237% to 3.287% and the lowest MAE, ranging from 0.510 to 0.743 in predicting soil temperature. The prediction is repeated for different sizes of data, and prediction outcomes confirm the conclusion mentioned above.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaic panel; explicit model; spectrum splitting; I-V characteristic prediction; shape parameter
Online: 23 August 2018 (11:03:53 CEST)
Looking at different operating climatic conditions, the electrical behavior predicting photovoltaic modules gets very important. For the estimation of output power from photovoltaic (PV) plants this is a very essential and basic aspect. In this paper, the relationship between the I-V curve and the irradiation spectrum is discussed by combining the single diode model. An explicit elementary analytical model with two defined shape parameters is discussed and improved with three approximations and second order Taylor expansion. Then, the explicit elementary analytical model is investigated under varying conditions leveraging the four parameters Iph, I0, Rs and Rsh from the single diode model. The relationship between the physical parameters and the condition parameters are discussed and applied to extract the shape parameters at different scenarios. Considering the aging effect, the process of calculation to predict the I-V curve under different splitting spectra is simplified as follow: (1) two shape parameters are gotten from the I-V data at measurement reference conditions (MRC); (2) the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and shape parameters under any splitting spectrum can be calculated based on the relationship provided in article; (3) the performance of PV panel can be predicted with parameters. The validation of this model was experimentally proven leveraging monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic module with different splitting films. Results showed that the model accurately predicts the I-V characteristics for the examined PV modules at different irradiance spectra and cell temperatures. Moreover, the presented model performs superior compared to other investigated models when looking at accuracy and simplicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0646.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: artificial intelligence, deep learning, classification model, hyper-gravity machine, vibration monitoring
Online: 25 December 2020 (08:20:17 CET)
Hypergravity accelerators are a type of large machinery used for gravity training or medical research. A failure of such large equipment can be a serious problem in terms of safety or costs. This paper proposes a prediction model that can proactively prevent failures that may occur in a hy-pergravity accelerator. The method proposed in this paper was to convert vibration signals to spectograms and perform classification training using a deep learning model. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of the method proposed in this paper. A 4-channel accel-erometer was attached to the bearing housing, which is a rotor, and time-amplitude data were obtained from the measured values by sampling. The data were converted to a two-dimensional spectrogram, and classification training was performed using a deep learning model for four conditions of the equipment: Unbalance, Misalignment, Shaft Rubbing, and Normal. The ex-perimental results showed that the proposed method had a 99.5% F1-Score, which was up to 23% higher than the 76.25% for existing feature-based learning models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pathogenicity model; diagnosis; progression prediction; poikilosis
Online: 24 March 2020 (14:43:24 CET)
A novel strategy is presented for reliable diagnosis and progression prediction of diseases with special attention to COVID-19 pandemy. A plan is presented for how the model can be implemented worldwide in healthcare and how novel treatments and targets can be detected. The idea is based on poikilosis, pervasive heterogeneity and variation at all levels, systems and mechanisms. Poikilosis in diseases can be taken account in pathogenicity model, which is based on distribution of three independent condition measures – extent, modulation and severity. Pathogenicity model is a population or cohort-based description of disease components. Evidence-based thresholds can be applied to the pathogenicity model and used for diagnosis as well as for early detection of patients in risk of developing the most severe forms of the disease. Analysis of patients with differential course of disease can help in detecting biomarkers of diagnostic and prognostic significance. A practical and feasible plan is presented how the concepts can be implemented in practice. Collaboration of many actors, including the World Health Organization and national health authorities, will be essential for success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1944.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: entangled metallic wire material; vibration experiment; cyclic compressive loads; mechanical property degradation; prediction model
Online: 28 September 2023 (18:21:14 CEST)
Entangled metallic wire material (EMWM) can be utilized as a novel elastic element in vibration isolation devices for mechanical actuators. This paper presents a vibration experiment aimed at investigating the degradation behavior of mechanical performance in EMWM under cyclic compressive environment. An electric vibration testing system, coupled with an isolation structure, is employed to apply compressive loads to the EMWM specimens. Through visual observations and quasi-static compression tests, the variations in geometric morphology and mechanical properties are studied, considering different relative densities and stress amplitudes. The results incidate a significant reduction in the compressed dimension of the specimens as the number of cycles increases, without any wire fractures or wear. Moreover, the mechanical properties exhibit an increasing secant modulus and a decreasing loss factor. These variations ultimately lead to a gradual deviation of the vibration characteristics of the isolation structure from its design state. To predict the mechanical property degradation of EMWM, prediction models are proposed, incorporating dimension, modulus and damping by fitting the obtained results. This research provides valuable experimental data and presents an effective method to determine the operational lifetime of vibration isolators utilizing EMWM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ARIMA; convolutional neural network; Kalman filter; passenger flow; transportation; short-term prediction; stochastic model
Online: 10 October 2022 (03:05:34 CEST)
The passenger prediction flow is very significant to transportation sustainability. This is due to some chaos of traffic jams encountered by the road users during their movement to the offices, schools, or markets at earlier of the days and during closing periods. This problem is peculiar to the transportation system of the Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria. However, the prevailing technique of passenger flow estimation is non-parametric which depends on the fixed planning and is easily affected by noise. In this research, we proposed the development of a hybrid intelligent passenger frequency prediction model using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) linear model, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and Kalman Filter Algorithm (KFA). The passengers’ frequency of arrival at the bus terminals is obtained and enumerated through the closed-circuit television (CCTV) and demonstrated using the Markovian Queueing Systems Model (MQSM). The ARIMA model was used for learning and prediction and compared the result with the combined techniques of using CNN-KFA. The autocorrelation coefficient functions (ACF) and partial autocorrelation coefficient functions (PACF) are used to examine the stationary data with different features. The performance of the models was analyzed and evaluated in describing the short-term passenger flow frequency at each terminal using the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Mean Squared Error (MSE) values. The CNN-Kalman-filter model was fitted into the short-term series and the MAPE values are below 10%. The Mean Square Error (MSE) shows that the CNN-Kalman Filter model has the overall best performance with 83.33% of the time better than the ARIMA model and provides high accuracy in forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0513.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: horizontal well; capacity prediction; transient model; saturation pressure; two-phase seepage
Online: 19 April 2023 (10:26:05 CEST)
As development progresses, when the bottom hole flowing pressure or formation pressure is less than the saturation pressure of crude oil in the reservoir, oil and gas two-phase seepage occurs in the reservoir. Due to the characteristics of oil and gas two-phase seepage, after the oil and gas two-phase seepage occurs in the reservoir, the well production will be reduced, or even greatly reduced. Therefore, how to predict the horizontal well capacity better in this case is an important problem that needs to be solved urgently. In this paper, the method and process of establishing the transient calculation model of two-phase flow in horizontal wells are introduced in detail from three aspects: fluid physical properties, reservoir oil-gas two-phase seepage, and the coupling model of Inflow Performance and Flow in Wellbore. The model is more reliable through the verification of production data from five wells in two oilfields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: IDF curves; urban drainage; regional climate model; bias correction; climate changes
Online: 4 April 2018 (08:26:21 CEST)
Drainage systems are usually dimensioned for design storms based on intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves of extreme precipitation. For each location, different IDF curves are established based on local hydrological conditions. Recent research shows that these curves also vary with time, and should be updated with recent data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate IDF curves obtained from precipitation simulations from the Eta RCM, comparing them with IDF curves obtained from data of a rainfall station. Climate models can be a useful tool for assessing the impacts of climate changes on drainage systems, referring precipitation forecasts. In this study, the Eta RCM was forced by two global climate models: HadGEM2-ES and MIROC5. The bias of the precipitation data, generated by RCM models, was corrected using a Gamma distribution. The Juqueriquerê River Basin, in the cities of Caraguatatuba and São Sebastião, São Paulo State, Brazil, was chosen as a case study. The results show a good correlation between the IDF curves of simulated and observed rainfall for the control period (1960-2005), indicating the strong possibility of using the Eta RCM precipitation forecasts for 2007 - 2099 to establish future IDFs thereby, taking into account climate changes in urban drainage design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0383.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Building fire; Socioeconomic determinants; South East Queensland; Predictive model; Forecasting; Backward elimination; Robust final predictor error
Online: 22 February 2023 (09:37:47 CET)
Building fires are preventable incidents that have proven to be both deadly and costly. Addressing their root causes will lead to safer neighbourhoods for families and businesses to live and operate in. Multiple studies have established the effect of residents’ socioeconomic compositions on an area’s building fire rates; however, the existing model based on the classical stepwise regression procedure has several limitations. This paper aims to construct a more accurate predictive model of building fire rates based on a set of explanatory socioeconomic variables. In building the socioeconomic model, a backward elimination by Robust Final Predictor Error (RFPE) criterion is proposed to enhance the forecasting capability of the model. The proposed method has been implemented on the census data and the fire incident data of the South East Queensland region in Australia. A cross-validation was then conducted to assess the model’s accuracy. In addition, comparative analyses of other elimination criteria, such as p-value, adjusted R-squared, Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and predicted residual error sum of squared (PRESS), were conducted. The cross-validation analyses demonstrate that the proposed criterion is a more accurate predictive model based on a couple of goodness-of-fit measures. All in all, the RFPE equation was found to be a suitable criterion for the backward elimination procedure in the socioeconomic modelling of building fires.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0535.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agricultural land; remote sensing; agricultural fire; fire predicting model
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:00:53 CEST)
Agricultural land fires have been linked to various and adverse impacts on ecosystems, food security and the agriculture sector. Understanding the patterns and drivers of agricultural land fires is essential for effective agricultural land fire management. The key objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of agricultural land fires using satellite remote sensed data, (2) assess a range of environmental conditions that could drive the occurrence of agricultural land fires, (3) determine the best model for predicting agricultural land fires and (4) determine the relative contribution of each environmental condition variable on the best predictive model. We used both univariate and multivariate regressions for the fire prediction capability of four independent environmental conditions (fuel, weather, topographic and anthropogenic). Analysis of historical satellite data revealed that agricultural land fires were more frequent than forested land fires. Our analyses also revealed that fuel condition was the most important variable for predicting agricultural land fires followed by weather, topographic and anthropogenic conditions. This study provides a novel multivariate model for predicting agricultural land fires that harbors the potential to improve agricultural land fire management and reduce fire risk within the agricultural sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1767.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; tumor marker; atezolizumab plus bevacizumab; prognosis; predictive model
Online: 26 June 2023 (09:42:06 CEST)
Aim: This study was to evaluate the predictive value of tumor marker (TM) score in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab (Atez/Bev) as a first-line chemotherapy. Materials/Methods: From September 2020 to December 2022, 371 HCC patients treated with Atez/Bev, in whom alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), fucosylated AFP (AFP-L3) and des gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) were measured at introducing Atez/Bev. Elevations of AFP (≥100 ng/ml), AFP-L3 (≥10%), and DCP (≥100 mAU/ml) were treated as positive, and the number of positive tumor marker was summed up and used as the previously proposed TM score. Hepatic reserve function was assessed with modified albumin-bilirubin grade (mALBI). Predictive values for prognosis were evaluated, retrospectively. Results: TM score 0 was in 81 (21.8%), score 1 in 110 (29.6%), score 2 in 112 (29.9%), and score 3 in 68 (18.3%), respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was not applicable [NA] (95% CI NA-NA), 24.0 months (95% CI 17.8-NA), 16.7 months (95% CI 17.8-NA) and NA (95%CI 8.3-NA) for TM scores 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p<0.001). Median progression free survival (PFS) was also 16.5 months (95% CI 8.0-not applicable [NA]), 13.8 months (95% CI 10.6-21.3) and 7.7 months (95% CI 5.3-8.9), 5.8 months (95%CI 3.0-7.6), respectively (p<0.001). OS was stratified well in mALBI 1/2a as well as in mALBI 2a/2b. Whereas, PFS was well stratified in mALBI 2a/2b, while not in mALBI 1/2a. Conclusion: The TM score was a simple and useful prognostic marker in HCC patients treated with Atez/Bev.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0139.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Forest Fire; Prediction Model; Energy-Efficient; Sensors; WSN; X-MAC; Hybrid; Adaptive; Duty-Cycle; Protocol
Online: 3 September 2018 (10:09:11 CEST)
In this paper, we propose an adaptive duty-cycled hybrid X-MAC (ADX-MAC) protocol for energy-efficient forest fire prediction. The X-MAC protocol acquires the additional environmental status collected by each forest fire monitoring sensor for a certain period. And, based on these values, the length of sleep interval of duty-cycle is changed to efficiently calculate the risk of occurrence of forest fire according to the mountain environment. The performance of the proposed ADX-MAC protocol was verified through experiments the proposed ADX-MAC protocol improves throughput by 19% and was more energy-efficient by 24% compared to X-MAC protocol. As the probability of forest fires increases, the length of the duty cycle is shortened, confirming that the forest fires are detected at a faster cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0611.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: pulses; antioxidant capacity; prediction; thermal processing; flour; Bayesian model; cereals; support vector machines (SVR)
Online: 11 July 2023 (02:52:17 CEST)
During the last years, the increasing evidence of dietary antioxidant compounds and reducing chronic diseases and the relationship between diet and health have promoted an important innovation on the baked product sector, aiming at healthier formulations. This study aims to develop a tool based on mathematical models to predict baked goods total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The high variability of antioxidant properties of flours based on the aspects related to type of grains, varieties, proximal composition and processing, among others, makes very difficult to innovate on food product development without specific analysis. Using Total phenol content (TP), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) as proxies of antioxidant capacity. Three Bayesian-type models are proposed based on a double exponential parameterised curve that reflects the initial decrease and subsequent increase as a consequence of the observed processes of degradation and generation, respectively, of the antioxidant compounds. Once the values of the main parameters of each curve have been determined, support vector machines (SVR) with exponential kernel were used to predict, based on the temperature and duration of baking as well as the values of proteins and fibers of each native grain, the values of TAC during the baking time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0715.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: 3D-concrete-printing; additive manufacturing; extrusion processes simulation; regularized Bingham model; fresh concrete; particle finite element method
Online: 30 July 2020 (10:46:53 CEST)
To enable purposeful design and implementation of automated concrete technologies, precise assessment and prediction of the complex material flow at various stages of the process chain are necessary. This paper investigates the intermediate stage of the extrusion and deposition processes in extrusion-based 3D-concrete-printing, using a numerical model based on the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM). In PFEM, due to the Lagrangian description of motion, remeshing algorithms and the alpha shape method are used to track the free surface during large deformation scenarios. The Bingham constitutive model was used for describing the rheological behaviour of fresh concrete. This model is validated by comparing the numerically predicted layer geometries with those obtained from laboratory 3D printing experiments. Extensive parametric studies were then conducted using the numerical simulation, delineating the influence of process and material parameters on the layer geometries, the dynamic surface forces generated under the extrusion nozzle and the inter-layer interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2217.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Climate change effects; nutraceutical species; distribution; Ecological niche model; Mesoamerica
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:15:59 CEST)
Dioscorea composita is a plant native to México and Central America with a high concentration of diosgenin precursors. Currently, México is one of the two most important countries producers of this yam; however, climate change is altering the environmental conditions of its natural habits, threatening its preservation and productivity. This is why this research was focused to characterize the eco-geography of D. composita and predict its potential geographic distribution under climate change scenarios in México-Central America. A collection of 408 geo-referenced accessions was used to determine its climatic adaptation, ecological descriptors, and the current and future potential geographic distribution, which was modeled with MaxEnt model through the Kuenm R-package. For future climate scenarios, an ensemble of the GCMs HadGEM-ES and CCSM4 was used. Results showed that D. composita adapts to warm humid and very humid agro-climates and that the most contributing variables for its presence are annual and seasonal moisture availability indices, seasonal photoperiod, annual thermal range, Bio14 and Bio11. The year 2050 RCP 4.5 climate scenario would contract the potential distribution of D. composita, whilst the 2050 RCP 8.5 scenario would expand it, indicating that this species could be a good crop option under this scenario of emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0112.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: HEC-RAS model; Red River; LiDAR data; Flood mapping; Manning’s n-coefficient; Contraction Scour Depth
Online: 7 April 2023 (04:54:08 CEST)
This research is focused on two key areas. The first is mapping the 2022 flood in the Red River of the North near Grafton, North Dakota, US, and the second is evaluating the scour potential of the Grafton Bridge. Local scour of bridge piers can cause hydraulic structures such as bridge piers and abutments to fail during floods, making it a crucial area of investigation. To collect bathymetry and discharge data during low and high flow conditions, including a flood event with a 16.5-year return period in 2022, an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) incorporated with LiDAR DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data obtained from the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Map was used. Flood mapping and evaluation of local scour around the bridge pier were conducted using the HEC-RAS 6.0.0 software, which utilizes the Colorado State University method as a default equation. This research demonstrates the potential of ASVs in collecting critical data and LiDAR DEM data is an efficient method for flood mapping and determining scour potential, as it integrates bathymetry, flow velocity, and flood prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: concrete dams; prediction model; empirical modal decomposition method; wavelet threshold; sparrow search algorithm; long short-term memory
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:32:08 CEST)
The deformation monitoring information of concrete dams contains some high-frequency com-ponents, and the high-frequency components are strongly nonlinear, which reduces the accuracy of dam deformation prediction. In order to solve such problems, this paper proposes a concrete dam deformation monitoring model based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) combined with wavelet threshold noise reduction and sparrow search algorithm (SSA) optimization of long short-term memory network (LSTM). The model uses EMD combined with wavelet threshold to decompose and denoise the measured deformation data. On this basis, the LSTM model based on SSA optimization is used to mine the nonlinear function relationship between the reconstructed monitoring data and various influencing factors. The example analysis shows that the model has good calculation speed, fitting and prediction accuracy and it can effectively mine the date char-acteristics inherent in the measured deformation, and reduce the influence of noise components on the modeling accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1461.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: eastern Thailand; geochemical exploration; pathfinder elements; stream sediment, Spectrum-Area (S-A) multifractal model; pathfinder elements
Online: 21 July 2023 (12:50:57 CEST)
Conducted within the scope of geochemical exploration in Eastern Thailand, this study aims to detect geochemical anomalies and potential mineral deposits. The objective was to interpret intricate spatial dispersion patterns and concentration levels of deposit pathfinder elements, specifically arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn), using a comprehensive array of stream sediment geochemistry data. Methodologies involved integrating multifractal properties and traditional statistics, facilitated by the GeoDAS and ArcGIS platforms as instrumental analytical tools. In total, 5,376 stream sediment samples were collected and evaluated, leading to the development of an in-depth geochemical map. The results indicated distinct geological units marked by substantially elevated average values of the aforementioned elements. Identification of geochemical anomalies was achieved through the spatial distribution method and the subsequent application of the Spectrum-Area (S-A) multifractal model. An intriguing link was found between high As concentrations and gold deposits in the area, suggesting As as a viable pathfinder element for gold mineralization. The anomaly maps, generated from the stream sediment data, spotlighted potential zones of interest, offering valuable guidance for future mineral exploration and geological inquiries. Nonetheless, it is vital to recognize that the increased values noted in these maps may be influenced by regional geological factors, emphasizing the necessity for a diverse set of analytical methods for accurate interpretation. The study's significance lies in its pioneering use of the S-A multifractal model in geochemical data analysis. This innovative approach has deepened our comprehension of geochemical dispersion patterns and improved the precision of mineral exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: pharmacogenomics; immune checkpoint blockade; immunotherapy; drug response prediction; algorithm; mathematical model; precision medicine; personalized medicine
Online: 11 August 2019 (14:51:14 CEST)
Background: Accurate prediction of patients’ response to therapy is clinically indispensable, howbeit challenging. With increased understanding of the human genome and malignancies, there is the renaissance of in silico pharmacogenomics with renewed interest in drug response predictability based on gene-drug interaction. Objective: Evidence-based transcript-proteome profiling is essential for synthesizing clinically applicable algorithms for predicting response to anticancer therapy, including immune checkpoint blockade (ICBT); thus, saving physicians’ time, reducing polypharmacy, and curtailing unnecessary treatment expense. In this study, we tested and validated the hypothesis that a selected proteomic signature in ICBT-naïve patients is sufficient for the prediction of response to ICBT. Methods: Using a multimodal approach consisting of computational pharmacogenomics, transcript-proteome analytics, mathematical modeling, and machine learning systems; we delineated therapy-sensitivity and stratified patients into graduated response groups based on their proteomic profile. Protein expression levels in our cohort tissue specimens were evaluated based on T cell- and non-T cell- inflamed phenotypes by immunohistochemistry. Results: We established β-catenin, PDL1, CD3 and CD8 expression-based ICBT response model. Statistical regression models validated the predictive association between our predefined algorithms and therapeutic outcome. Interestingly, our 4-gene prediction classifier was constitutively independent of tumor tissue origin, correctly stratified patients into high-, low-, and non- responders pre-treatment, with high prediction accuracy, and exhibited good association with patients’ performance status and prognosis (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the possibility of accurate proteomics based ICBT response prediction and provide a putative basis for drug response prediction based on selective proteome profile in untreated cancer patients.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: In vitro–In vivo Correlation; Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model; BCS Class II; Rivaroxaban; Xarelto; Food Effect; Population Kinetics
Online: 25 January 2021 (09:41:41 CET)
The present work evaluates the food effect on the absorption of rivaroxaban (Riva), a BCS II drug, from the orally administered commercial immediate-release tablet (Xarelto IR) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and conventional in vitro- in vivo correlation (IVIVC) models. The bioavailability of Riva upon oral administration of Xarelto IR tablet is reported to exhibit a positive food effect. The PBPK model for Riva was developed and verified using the previously reported in vivo data for oral solution (5 and 10 mg) and Xarelto IR tablet (5 and 10 mg dose strength). Once the PBPK model was established, the in vivo performance of the tablet formulation with the higher dose strength (Xarelto IR tablet 20 mg in fasted and fed state) was predicted using the experimentally obtained data of in vitro permeability, biorelevant solubility and in vitro dynamic dissolution data using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) IV flow-through cell apparatus. In addition, the mathematical IVIVC model was developed using the in vitro dissolution and in vivo profile of 20 mg strength Xarelto IR tablet in fasted condition. Using the developed IVIVC model, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the Xarelto IR tablet in fed condition was predicted and compared with the PK parameters obtained via the PBPK model. A virtual in vivo PK study was designed using a single-dose, 3-treatment cross-over trial in 50 subjects to predict the PK profile of the Xarelto® IR tablet in the fed state. Overall, the results obtained from the IVIVC model were found to be comparable with that from the PBPK model. The outcome from both the model pointed to the positive food effect on the in vivo profile of the Riva. The developed models thus can be effectively extended to establish bioequivalence for the marketed and novel complex formulations of Riva such as amorphous solid dispersions.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water resource management; water consumption prediction; Markov chain; autoregressive moving average model; error correction
Online: 10 January 2020 (07:09:20 CET)
Water resource is considered as a significant factor in development of regional environment and society. Water consumption prediction can provide important decision basis for the regional water supply scheduling optimisations. According to the periodicity and randomness nature of the daily water consumption data, a Markov modified autoregressive moving average (ARIMA) model is proposed in this study. The proposed model, combined with the Markov chain, can correct the prediction error, reduce the continuous superposition of prediction error, and improve the prediction accuracy of future daily water consumption data. The daily water consumption data of different monitoring points are used to verify the effectiveness of the model, and the future water consumption is predicted, in the study area. The results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the prediction error compared to the ARIMA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0327.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Melanoma; Core regulatory network; in silico perturbationSystems pharmacology; Boolean model; Small molecule inhibitors; Virtual screening; ADME; E2F1
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:22:29 CEST)
Skin melanoma presents increasing prevalence and poor outcomes. Progression to aggressive stages is characterized by overexpression of the transcription factor E2F1 and activation of downstream prometastatic gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Appropriate therapeutic manipulation of the E2F1-governed GRNs holds the potential to prevent metastasis however, these networks entail complex feedback and feedforward regulatory motifs among various regulatory layers, which make it difficult to identify druggable components. To this end, computational approaches such as mathematical modeling and virtual screening are important tools to unveil the dynamics of these signaling networks and identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Herein, we integrated a well-established E2F1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) map with transcriptomics data from E2F1-expressing melanoma cells to reconstruct a core regulatory network underlying aggressive melanoma. Using logic-based in silico perturbation experiments of a core regulatory network, we identified that simultaneous perturbation of Protein kinase B (AKT1) and oncoprotein murine double minute 2 (MDM2) drastically reduces EMT in melanoma. Using the structures of the two protein signatures, virtual screening strategies were performed with the FDA-approved drug library. Thus, by combining drug repurposing and computer-aided drug design techniques, followed by molecular dynamics simulation analysis identified two potent drugs (Cialis and Finasteride) that can efficiently inhibit AKT1 and MDM2 protein signatures respectively, and with better therapeutic properties. We proposed that these two drugs could be considered for the development of therapeutic strategies for the management of aggressive melanoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0227.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: transportation; mobility; prediction model; pavement management; pavement condition index; falling weight deflectometer; multilayer perceptron; radial basis function; artificial neural network; intelligent machine system committee
Online: 20 January 2020 (11:08:32 CET)
Prediction models in mobility and transportation maintenance systems have been dramatically improved through using machine learning methods. This paper proposes novel machine learning models for an intelligent road inspection. The traditional road inspection systems based on the pavement condition index (PCI) are often associated with the critical safety, energy and cost issues. Alternatively, the proposed models utilize surface deflection data from falling weight deflectometer (FWD) tests to predict the PCI. Machine learning methods are the single multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks as well their hybrids, i.e., Levenberg-Marquardt (MLP-LM), scaled conjugate gradient (MLP-SCG), imperialist competitive (RBF-ICA), and genetic algorithms (RBF-GA). Furthermore, the committee machine intelligent systems (CMIS) method was adopted to combine the results and improve the accuracy of the modeling. The results of the analysis have been verified through using four criteria of average percent relative error (APRE), average absolute percent relative error (AAPRE), root mean square error (RMSE), and standard error (SD). The CMIS model outperforms other models with the promising results of APRE=2.3303, AAPRE=11.6768, RMSE=12.0056, and SD=0.0210.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Evolutionary model, gene-expression programming (GEP), prediction, soil compression index, estimation, soil engineering, soil informatics, civil engineering, machine learning, data science, big data, soft computing, deep learning, forecasting, subject classification codes, construction informatics, computational intelligence (CI), artificial intelligence (AI), estimation
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:21:45 CET)
Appropriate estimation of soil settlement is of significant importance since it directly influences the performance of building and infrastructures that are built on soil. In particular, the settlement of fine-grained soils is critical because of low permeability and continuous settlement with time. Coefficient of consolidation (Cc) is a key parameter to estimate settlement of fine-grained soil layers. However, estimation of this parameter is time consuming, needs skilled technicians, and specific equipment. In this study, Cc was estimated using several soil parameters such as liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), and initial void ratio (e0). Estimating such parameters in laboratory is straight forward and needs substantially less time and cost compared to conventional tests to estimate Cc such as oedometer test. This study presents a novel prediction model for Cc of fine-grained soils using gene-expression programming (GEP). GEP is a biologically inspired technique capable of offering closed-form solution for the optimal solution. A database consisted of 108 different data points was used to develop the model. A closed-form equation solution was derived to estimate Cc based on LL, PL, and e0. The performance of developed GEP-based model was evaluated through coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE), and mean average error (MAE). High R2 and low error values indicated the descent performance of the model. Furthermore, the model was evaluated using the additional performance measures and met all the suggested criteria. Furthermore, the model had a better performance in terms of R2, RMSE, and MAE compared to most of existing models. It is expected that the developed model will decrease the time and cost associate with determining Cc of fine-grained soils.Keywords: evolutionary model, gene-expression programming (GEP), prediction, soil compression index, estimation, soil engineering, soil informatics, civil engineering, machine learning, data science, big data, soft computing, deep learning, forecasting, subject classification codes, construction informatics, computational intelligence (CI), artificial intelligence (AI), estimation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: machine learning, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), hybrid model, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial intelligence, big data, prediction, forecasting, optimization, hydrodynamics, fluid dynamics, soft computing, computational intelligence, computational fluid mechanics
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:30:56 CEST)
The combination of artificial intelligence algorithms and numerical methods has recently become popular in the prediction of macroscopic and microscopic hydrodynamics parameters of bubble column reactors. The multi inputs and outputs machine learning can cover small phase interactions or large fluid behavior in industrial domains. This numerical combination can develop the smart multiphase bubble column reactor with the ability of low-cost computational time. It can also decrease case studies for the optimization process when big data is appropriately used during learning. There are still many model parameters that need to be optimized for a very accurate artificial algorithm, including data processing and initialization, the combination of inputs and outputs, number of inputs and model tuning parameters. For this study, we aim to train four inputs big data during learning process by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system or adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) method, and we consider the superficial gas velocity as one of the input variables, while for the first time, one of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) outputs named gas velocity is used as an output of the artificial algorithm. The results show that the increasing number of input variables improves the intelligence of the ANFIS method up to , and the number of rules during learning process has a significant effect on the accuracy of this type of modeling. The results also show that propper selection of model parameters results in more accuracy in prediction of the flow characteristics in the column structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1635.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: experimental study on time series prediction methods; investigation on time series model predictions; analysis of the effects of data pre-processing methods on time series prediction; long short-term memory models; stacked autoencoder; wavelet transformation
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:23:19 CEST)
Time-series analysis is a widely used technique across various fields and industries, as it helps in understanding, predicting, and forecasting the behavior of data points over time. These fields include but are not limited to finance, economics, healthcare, transportation, etc. In the case of this paper, we have focused on finance. Predicting future values of financial time series offers several benefits. Accurate forecasts can help investors make better decisions about their investments. To predict future values, deep learning algorithms are commonly used since it is an effective method with complex data. In this study, we conduct a study that investigates the use of different data pre-processing techniques on deep learning algorithms in predicting the time series values. To conduct this experimental study, we utilize an open source software, which using long short-term memory technique as the representative deep learning technique, published in github software code repository platform. With this study, we investigate the effects of autoencoder and discrete wavelet transform data pre-processing techniques in time-series prediction. We discuss the details of the experimental study and report our results. The results show that time series prediction (using backtesting methodology) without any data pre-processing leads to 12.6% for mean absolute percentage error. The results also show that, time series prediction with the data preprocessing techniques (Wavelet Transform and Stacked Autoencoder) lead to 3.4%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0238.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: hybrid machine learning model; transportation infrastructure; flexible pavement; remaining service life prediction; pavement condition index; support vector regression; fruit fly optimization algorithm (foa); gene expression programming (gep); svr-foa
Online: 20 October 2019 (17:11:10 CEST)
Remaining service life (RSL) of pavement, as a sign of future pavement performance, has always received growing attention from pavement engineers. The RSL describes the time from the moment of pavement inspection until such a time when a major repair or reconstruction is required. The conventional approach to determining RSL involves using non-destructive tests. These tests, in addition to being costly, interfere with traffic flow and compromise users' safety. In this paper, surface distresses of pavement have been used to estimate the pavement’s RSL in order to eliminate the aforementioned problems and challenges. To implement the proposed theory, 105 flexible pavement segments were taken from Shahrood-Damghan Highway (Highway 44) in Iran. For each pavement segment, the type, severity, and extent of surface damage and pavement condition index (PCI) were determined. The pavement RSL was then estimated using non-destructive tests include Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). After completing the dataset, the modeling was conducted to predict RSL using three techniques include Support Vector Regression (SVR), Support Vector Regression Optimized by Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm (SVR-FOA), and Gene Expression Programming (GEP). All three techniques estimated the RSL of the pavement by selecting the PCI as input. The Correlation Coefficient (CC), Nash-Sutcliffe efﬁciency (NSE), Scattered Index (SI), and Willmott’s Index of agreement (WI) criteria were used to examine the performance of the three techniques adopted in this study. In the end, it was found that GEP with values of 0.874, 0.598, 0.601, and 0.807 for CC, SI, NSE, and WI criteria, respectively, had the highest accuracy in predicting the RSL of pavement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Tumour microenvironment; In vivo model; In vitro model; Mathematical model; Computational model
Online: 29 June 2023 (12:32:09 CEST)
The Oxford English Dictionary includes 17 definitions for the word “model” as a noun and other 11 as a verb. Therefore, context is necessary to understand the meaning of the word model. For in-stance, “model railways” refer to replicas of railways and trains at a smaller scale and a “model student” refers to an exemplar individual. In some cases, a specific context, like cancer research, may not be sufficient to provide one specific meaning of a model. Even if the context is narrowed, specifically to the research related to the tumour microenvironment, a “model” can be understood in a wide variety of ways, from an animal model, to a mathematical expression. This paper presents a review of the different “models” of the tumour microenvironment grouped by the different def-initions of the word into four categories: model organisms, in vitro models, mathematical models, and computational models. Then, the frequency of different meanings of the word “model” related to the tumour microenvironment is measured from the number of entries in the MEDLINE database of the United States National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health. The frequency of the main components of the microenvironment and the organ-related cancers modelled are also assessed quantitatively with specific keywords. Whilst animal models, in particular xenografts and mouse models are the most common used “models”, the number of entries have been slowly de-creasing. Mathematical models, prognostic and risk models follow in frequency and these have been growing in use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0021.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Coronavirus disease; COVID-19; outbreak model; Gaussian-SIRD model; SIRD model; epidemiological model
Online: 1 December 2020 (13:11:02 CET)
The eruption of COVID-19 patients in 215 countries worldwide has urged for robust predictive methods that can detect as early as possible the size and duration of the contagious disease and also providing precision predictions. In much recent literature reported on COVID-19, one or more essential parts of such investigation were missed. One of the crucial elements for any predictive method is that such methods should fit simultaneously as much data as possible; these data could be total infected cases, daily hospitalized cases, cumulative recovered cases, and deceased cases, and so on. Other crucial elements include sensitivity and precision of such predictive methods on the amount of data as the contagious disease evolved day by day. To show the importance of these aspects, we have evaluated the standard SIRD model and a newly introduced Gaussian-SIRD model on the development of COVID-19 in Kuwait. It is observed that the SIRD model quickly picks up the main trends of COVID-19 development, but the Gaussian-SIRD model provides precise prediction a longer period of time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0028.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Software Engineering; Model; Model-Driven; Model Driven Development; MDD; MDA
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:47:55 CEST)
In Model-Driven Development (MDD), the models, their generation, and imposing changes on them (model transformation) are used for the development of software. Models provide a framework to start from the imagination and abstraction to create and accomplish the final system. Models create a slow and steady transition from whatness to howness, i.e. from the natural path of the generation of software. For supporting this path, the Logic and Functionality of software must be changeable during its evolution. Here we provide a brief introduction to the concept of Model Driven Development.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Winterberg Model, Extended Gravity Model, Gravitational Susceptibility Model, Cosmic Vacuum Model, Dark Energy, Dark Matter
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:40:55 CET)
Assuming a Winterberg model for space where the vacuum consists of a very stiff two component superfluid made up of positive and negative mass planckions, theory is the hypothesis, that Planck charge, , was created at the same time as Planck mass. Moreover, the repulsive force that like-mass planckions experience is, in reality, due to the electrostatic force of repulsion between like charges. These forces also give rise to what appears to be a gravitational force of attraction between two like planckions, but this is an illusion. In reality, gravity is electrostatic in origin if our model is correct. We determine the spring constant associated with planckion masses, and find that, , where equals Apery's constant, , and, , is the relaxed, i.e., , number density of the positive and negative mass planckions. In the present epoch, we estimate that, equals, , and the relaxed distance of separation between nearest neighbor positive, or negative, planckion pairs is, These values were determined using box quantization for the positive and negative mass planckions, and considering transitions between energy states, much like as in the hydrogen atom. For the cosmos as a whole, given a net smeared macroscopic gravitational field of, , due to all the ordinary, and bound, matter contained within the observable universe, an average displacement from equilibrium for the planckion masses is a mere , within the vacuum made up of these particles. On the surface of the earth, where, , the displacement amounts to, . All of these displacements are due to increased gravitational pressure within the vacuum, which in turn are caused by applied gravitational fields. The gravitational potential is also derived and directly related to gravitational pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0210.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: warning model, credit risk, logistics model
Online: 21 February 2019 (13:30:48 CET)
Stemming from the urgency of the actual situation, commercial banks need an effective credit risk management tool to limit risks. The authors went to survey, study and propose a set of factors affecting the ability of debt repayment of individual customers and conducting surveys. The topic uses data sets including 240 observation samples. Using the SPSS software to clean data and run the model based on Maddala's Binary logistics regression published in 1984 to find out the impact of each individual element of customers affecting their ability to repay such debts. Come on. The authors also specify the order of influence of each factor determining the ability to repay individual customers, thereby helping bank managers have a better visual view to make decisions for borrowing accurately, limiting risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0246.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: property-carrying particle model; coupled models; ecosystem simulation; biophysical modeling; Sandusky bay; great lakes
Online: 17 September 2018 (11:23:12 CEST)
Current numerical methods for simulating biophysical processes in aquatic environments are typically constructed in a grid-based Eulerian framework or as an individual-based model in a particle-based Lagrangian framework. Often, the biogeochemical processes and physical (hydrodynamic) processes occur at different time and space scales, and changes in biological processes do not affect the hydrodynamic conditions. Therefore, it is possible to develop an alternative strategy to grid-based approaches for linking hydrodynamic and biogeochemical models that can significantly improve computational efficiency for this type of linked biophysical model. In this work, we utilize a new technique which links hydrodynamic effects and biological processes through a property-carrying particle model (PCPM) in a Lagrangian/Eulerian framework. The model is tested in idealized cases and its utility is demonstrated in a practical application to Sandusky Bay. Results show the integration of Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches allows for a natural coupling of mass transport (represented by particle movements and random walk) and biological processes in water columns which is described by a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) biological model. This method is far more efficient than traditional tracer based Eulerian biophysical models for 3-D simulation, particularly for a large domain and/or ensemble simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0501.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: wind speed; ANN model; hybrid model
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:22:14 CEST)
The predictability of wind information in a given location is essential for the evaluation of a wind power project. Predicting wind speed accurately improves the planning of wind power generation, reducing costs and improving the use of resources. This paper seeks to predict the mean hourly wind speed in anemometric towers (at a height of 50 meters) at two locations: a coastal region and one with complex terrain characteristics. To this end, the Holt-Winters (HW), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Hybrid time-series models were used. Observational data evaluated by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications-Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis at the same height of the towers. The results show that the hybrid model had a better performance in relation to the others, including when compared to the evaluation with MERRA-2. For example, in terms of statistical residuals, RMSE and MAE were 0.91 and 0.62 m/s, respectively. As such, the hybrid models are a good method to forecast wind speed data for wind generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0076.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Business Process Modelling; Declarative Model; Imperative Model; Model Configuration; Constraint Programming
Online: 4 October 2018 (14:18:32 CEST)
Configuration techniques have been used in several fields, such as the design of business process models. Sometimes these models depend on the data dependencies, being easier to describe "what" has to be done instead of "how". Configuration models enable to use a declarative representation of business processes, deciding the most appropriate work-flow in each case. Unfortunately, data dependencies among the activities and how they can affect the correct execution of the process, has been overlooked in the declarative specifications and configurable systems found in the literature. In order to find the best process configuration for optimizing the execution time of processes according to data dependencies, we propose the use of Constraint Programming paradigm with the aim of obtaining an adaptable imperative model in function of the data dependencies of the activities described declarative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0550.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: expectation maximization (EM) algorithm; finite mixture model; conditional mixture model; regression model; adaptive regressive model (ARM)
Online: 28 October 2020 (11:18:04 CET)
Expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is a powerful mathematical tool for estimating statistical parameter when data sample contains hidden part and observed part. EM is applied to learn finite mixture model in which the whole distribution of observed variable is average sum of partial distributions. Coverage ratio of every partial distribution is specified by the probability of hidden variable. An application of mixture model is soft clustering in which cluster is modeled by hidden variable whereas each data point can be assigned to more than one cluster and degree of such assignment is represented by the probability of hidden variable. However, such probability in traditional mixture model is simplified as a parameter, which can cause loss of valuable information. Therefore, in this research I propose a so-called conditional mixture model (CMM) in which the probability of hidden variable is modeled as a full probabilistic density function (PDF) that owns individual parameter. CMM aims to extend mixture model. I also propose an application of CMM which is called adaptive regressive model (ARM). Traditional regression model is effective when data sample is scattered equally. If data points are grouped into clusters, regression model tries to learn a unified regression function which goes through all data points. Obviously, such unified function is not effective to evaluate response variable based on grouped data points. The concept “adaptive” of ARM means that ARM solves the ineffectiveness problem by selecting the best cluster of data points firstly and then evaluating response variable within such best cluster. In order words, ARM reduces estimation space of regression model so as to gain high accuracy in calculation.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Model-based systems engineering (MBSE); Model informatics and analytics; Model-based collaboration
Online: 12 March 2021 (16:52:34 CET)
In MBSE there is yet no converged terminology. The term ’system model’ is used in different contexts in literature. In this study we elaborated the definitions and usages of the term ’system model’, to find a common definition. 104 publications have been analyzed in depth for their usage and definition as well as their meta-data e.g., the publication year and publication background to find some common patterns. While the term is gaining more interest in recent years it is used in a broad range of contexts for both analytical and synthetic use cases. Based on this three categories of system models have been defined and integrated into a more precise definition.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV2; model; transmission model; mathematical model; lockdown; quarantine
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:46:59 CEST)
Objective: To use mathematical models to predict the epidemiological impact of lifting the lockdown in London, UK, and alternative strategies to help inform policy in the UK. Methods: A mathematical model for the transmission of SARS-CoV2 in London. The model was parametrised using data on notified cases, deaths, contacts, and mobility to analyse the epidemic in the UK capital. We investigated the impact of multiple non pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and combinations of these measures on future incidence of COVID-19. Results: Immediate action at the early stages of an epidemic in the affected districts would have tackled spread. While an extended lockdown is highly effective, other measures such as shielding older populations, universal testing and facemasks can all potentially contribute to a reduction of infections and deaths. However, based on current evidence it seems unlikely they will be as effective as continued lockdown. In order to achieve elimination and lift lockdown within 5 months, the best strategy seems to be a combination of weekly universal testing, contact tracing and use of facemasks, with concurrent lockdown. This approach could potentially reduce deaths by 48% compared with continued lockdown alone. Conclusions: A combination of NPIs such as universal testing, contact tracing and mask use while under lockdown would be associated with least deaths and infections. This approach would require high uptake and sustained local effort but it is potentially feasible as may lead to elimination in a relatively short time scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0370.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: memory model; brain model; ontology; statistical clustering
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:13:53 CEST)
This paper describes a memory model with 3 levels of information. The lower-level stores source data, is Markov-like and unweighted. Then a middle-level ontology is created from a further 3 phases of aggregating source information, by transposing from an ensemble to a hierarchy at each level. The ontology is useful for search processes and the aggregating process transposes the information from horizontal set-based sequences to more vertical typed-based clusters. The base memory is essentially neutral, where any weighted constraints or preferences should be sent by the calling module. This therefore allows different weight sets to be imposed on the same linking structure. The success of the ontology typing is open to interpretation, but the author would suggest that when clustering text, the result was types based more on use and context, for example, 'linking' with 'structure' or 'provide' with 'web,' for a document describing distributed service-based networks. This allows the system to economise over symbol use, where links to related symbols will be clustered together. The author then conjectures that a third memory substrate would be more neural in nature and would include functions or operations to be performed on the data, along with related memory information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1226.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: information model; certainty factor model; logistic regression model; geological hazard; susceptibility; Xuanwei city
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:20:00 CEST)
In China, the majority of mountainous regions are characterized by complex topography and a delicate, sensitive geological environment. Coupled with a generally underdeveloped infrastruc-ture and numerous unreasonable human engineering activities, these regions are often highly susceptible to geological disasters. Geological hazards can cause significant damage to human lives and property, impeding the development of mountainous areas. Consequently, researching the assessment of geological hazard vulnerability is crucial for disaster prevention, emergency management, and economic development in these regions. This study focuses on Xuanwei City and selects eight factors for evaluation, including elevation, gradient, slope aspect, normalized vegetation index, stratigraphic lithology, distance from faults, distance from rivers, and distance from roads. These factors are chosen based on a comprehensive analysis of the spatial and tem-poral distribution of geological hazards and disaster incubation conditions. Two paired models, the deterministic coefficient model + logistic regression model (CF+LR) and the information quan-tity model + logistic regression model (I+LR), were employed to quantitatively assess the study ar-ea. The accuracy of these models was evaluated using ROC curves and AUC values. The results indicate that: (1) The AUC values for the CF+LR and I+LR coupled models are 0.799 and 0.772, respectively, demonstrating that both models can objectively and reliably assess the vulnerability to geological hazards in the study area; (2) Based on the CF+LR model calculations, the geological hazard susceptibility of Xuanwei City can be categorized into four zones: extremely high suscepti-bility (6.09%), high susceptibility (31.08%), medium susceptibility (32.26%), and low susceptibility (30.57%); (3) The CF+LR model more accurately represents the evaluation results and offers a strong reference value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0569.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ecosystem dynamics; discrete-event model; qualitative modelling; boolean model; state-and-transition model
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:39:11 CET)
Sub-Saharan social-ecological systems are undergoing changes in environmental conditions, including modifications in rainfall pattern and biodiversity loss. Consequences of such changes depend on complex causal chains which call for integrated management strategies whose efficiency could benefit from ecosystem dynamic modelling. However, ecosystem models often require lots of quantitative information for estimating parameters, which is often unavailable. Alternatively, qualitative modelling frameworks have proved useful for explaining ecosystem response to perturbations, while requiring fewer information and providing more general predictions. However, current qualitative methods have some shortcomings which may limit their utility for specific issues. In this paper, we propose the Ecological Discrete-Event Network (EDEN), an innovative qualitative dynamic modelling framework based on "if-then" rules which generates many alternative event sequences (trajectories). Based on expert knowledge, observations and literature, we use this framework to assess the effect of permanent changes in surface water and herbivores diversity on vegetation and socio-economic transitions in an East African savanna. Results show that water availability drives changes in vegetation and socio-economic transitions, while herbivore functional groups had highly contrasted effects depending on the group. This first use of EDEN in a savanna context is promising for bridging expert knowledge and ecosystem modelling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1695.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: trajectories; reanalys data set; HYSPLIT model; WRF model
Online: 28 November 2023 (03:23:29 CET)
As the problem of air pollution becomes more urgent, the precise determination of the characteristics of air pollution and the associated mechanisms of transport of pollutants becomes an increasingly urgent task. The simulation results of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS)  were used as initial data sets. The area of the Crimean Peninsula (within coordinates 44.50 latitude, 33.50 longitude) in 23 - 26 January, 2019 was chosen for the study. That time concentrations of pollutants (aerosol particles with a diameter of 2.5 (PM2.5) and 10 micrometers (PM10)) steadily increased and reached the maximum value. Four kinds of meteorological data sets were used in the work. The first and second data sets were the global NCEP/NCAR and (ERA-5) re-analyses. The third and fourth meteorological data sets were obtained using the Weather tracking and Forecasting model (WRF) as domains on high-resolution grids: 9 km and 2 km. The analysis of meteorological data sets was carried out to analyze the nature of the air masses movement in the studied region. Using the HYSPLIT model simulation was carried out to determine area of the sources of negative impact. The emissions transfer from the supposed sources of negative impact on the Crimea region is analyzed. The sensitivity of simulation the inverse and direct trajectories of air masses transfer was studied based a set of simulation results. On the basis of HYSPLIT model the simulation was carried out separately using meteorological data sets having different spatial and temporal resolutions. In general, the simulation results allowed us to conclude that the HYSPLIT model in combination with high-resolution meteorological input data of the WRF model are good to identify the sources of possible negative effects on atmospheric air located at long distances from the study site.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable business model; sustainable development; sustainability; business model; review; survey; state-of-the-art; climate change; climate protection; global warming; research method; circular economy; sustainable mobility; mitigation; adaptation
Online: 28 March 2019 (08:49:06 CET)
During the past two decades of e-commerce growth, the concept of a business model has become increasingly popular. More recently, the research on this realm has grown rapidly, with diverse research activity covering a wide range of application areas. Considering the sustainable development goals, the innovative business models have brought a competitive advantage to improve the sustainability performance of organizations. The concept of the sustainable business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value, in economic, social, cultural, or other contexts, in a sustainable way. The process of sustainable business model construction forms an innovative part of a business strategy. Different industries and businesses have utilized sustainable business models’ concept to satisfy their economic, environmental, and social goals simultaneously. However, the success, popularity, and progress of sustainable business models in different application domains are not clear. To explore this issue, this research provides a comprehensive review of sustainable business models literature in various application areas. Notable sustainable business models are identified and further classified in fourteen unique categories, and in every category, the progress -either failure or success- has been reviewed, and the research gaps are discussed. Taxonomy of the applications includes innovation, management and marketing, entrepreneurship, energy, fashion, healthcare, agri-food, supply chain management, circular economy, developing countries, engineering, construction and real estate, mobility and transportation, and hospitality. The key contribution of this study is that it provides an insight into the state of the art of sustainable business models in various application areas and future research directions. This paper concludes that popularity and the success rate of sustainable business models in all application domains have been increased along with the increasing use of advanced technologies.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: error model; new model; NS-3; VANET; 802.11p
Online: 11 January 2019 (07:59:28 CET)
Nowadays, network simulators are very useful to model a communications system. In this technical note we will focus in the creation of a new error model in NS-3 network simulator. This note describes the main steps to create or modify an Wi-Fi error model in this network simulator. In our case, we have created a new error model to included the approach of  to compute PER (Packet Error Rate) for vehicular environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: weighted centroid; signal intensity; attenuation model; combined model
Online: 16 March 2018 (04:23:19 CET)
Aiming at the defects of low precision and time cumulative error, an external wireless signal weighted centroid localization algorithm aided inertial positioning method is designed in this paper. According to the signal strength of each anchor node received at the test point, the distance between the anchor node and the anchor node is obtained by using the attenuation model of the wireless signal. Three anchor nodes are used to measure the distance between the anchor node and the measured point. We can obtain the area to be measured according to the actual situation, the position of the measured point is obtained by the weighted centroid localization algorithm and a combined model of wireless signal aided inertial navigation system is established. The simulation results show that the method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and restrain the divergence of the longitude error and latitude error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0347.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: MXenes; Nanocomposites; Bioinspired model; Finite element method; Microscale; Micromechanical model; Kelvin-Voigt model; Damping
Online: 14 June 2021 (10:34:58 CEST)
A new two-dimensional nanomaterial – Titanium Carbide MXene (Ti3C2-MXene) – was reported in 2011. In this work, the microscale models of Ti3C2-MXene nanomaterial are considered with polymer matrix. The nanocomposites are modeled using nacre-mimetic brick-and-mortar assembly configurations due to enhanced mechanical properties and interlocking mechanism between the Ti3C2-MXene (brick) and polymer matrices (mortar). The polymer matrix material (Epoxy-resin) is modeled with elastic and viscoelastic behavior (Kelvin-Voigt Model). The Finite Element Method is used for numerical analysis of the microscale models with the multi-point constraint method to include Ti3C2-MXene fillers in the polymer matrix. Ti3C2-MXenes are considered as thick plate elements with transverse shear effects. The response of elastic and viscoelastic models of polymer matrix are studied. Finally, a tensile and compressive load is applied at the microscale and the effective load transfer due to nacre-mimetic configuration is discussed. This paper provides nacre-mimetic models to pre-design the nanocomposite for optimal performance with damage resistance and enhanced strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0034.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: factor model; 2PL model; linking; invariance alignment; Haberman linking; partial invariance; item response model; structural equation model; differential item functioning
Online: 4 June 2020 (13:25:49 CEST)
The comparison of group means in latent variable models plays a vital role in empirical research in the social sciences. The present article discusses extensions of invariance alignment and Haberman linking concerning the choice of linking functions for comparisons of many groups. Robust linking functions are proposed for invariance alignment and robust Haberman linking that are particularly suited to item response data under partial invariance. In a simulation study, it is shown that both linking approaches have comparable performance, and in some conditions, the newly proposed robust Haberman linking outperforms invariance alignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0239.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Ethical access control; Context-aware access control; Data breaches; Responsibility model; Policy model; Cost model
Online: 23 August 2019 (09:44:53 CEST)
The worldwide interconnected objects, called Internet of Things (IoTs), have been increasingly growing in the last several years. Different social media platforms and devices are continuously generating data about individuals and facilitate the technological and the social convergence of their Internet-based data and services with globalized users. These social and device-related IoTs create rooms for data breaches as such platforms provide ability to collect private and sensitive data. We assert that data breaches are fundamentally failures of access control - most users are too busy or technically ill-equipped to understand access control policy expressions and decisions. We argue that this is symptomatic of globalised societies structured by the conditions of algorithmic modernity; an era in which our data is increasingly interdependent on, and enmeshed with, ever more complex systems and processes that are vulnerable to attack. Ethically managing data breaches is now too complex for current access control systems, such as Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) and Context-Aware Access Control (CAAC). These systems do not provide an explicit mechanism to engage in decision making processes, about who should have access to what data and when, that are involved in data breaches. We argue that a policy ontology will contribute towards the development of Ethical CAAC better suited to attributing accountability for data breaches in the context of algorithmic modernity. We interrogate our proposed Ethical CAAC as a theoretical construct with implications for future policy ontology models and data breach countermeasures. An experimental study on the performance of the proposed framework is carried out with respect to a more generic CAAC framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: metabolic flux analysis, model misspecification, constraint-based model, stoichiometric model, Chinese hamster ovary cell culture
Online: 16 March 2017 (17:38:36 CET)
Background: Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is an indispensable tool in metabolic engineering. The simplest variant of MFA relies on an overdetermined stoichiometric model of the cell’s metabolism under the pseudo-steady state assumption, to evaluate the intracellular flux distribution. Despite its long history, the issue of model error in the overdetermined MFA, particularly misspecifications of the stoichiometric matrix, has not received much attention. Method: We evaluated the performance of statistical tests from linear least square regressions, namely Ramsey RESET test, F-test and Lagrange multiplier test, in detecting model misspecifications in the overdetermined MFA, particularly missing reactions. We further proposed an iterative procedure using the F-test to correct such an issue. Result: Using Chinese hamster ovary and random metabolic networks, we demonstrated that: (1) a statistically significant regression does not guarantee high accuracy of the flux estimates, (2) the removal of a reaction with a low flux magnitude can cause disproportionately large biases in the flux estimates, (3) the F-test could efficiently detect missing reactions, and (4) the proposed iterative procedure could robustly resolve the omission of reactions. Conclusion: Our work demonstrated that statistical analysis and tests could be used to systematically assess, detect and resolve model misspecifications in the overdetermined MFA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0375.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Pair Trading; Model uncertainty; Model risk; Optimal boundary; PSX
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:44:09 CET)
The perception in pair trading is to recognize two stocks that move together, and their prices will converge to a mean value in future. However, finding the mean-reverted point at which the value of the pair will converge, and optimal boundaries of the trade is not easy. As uncertainty and model misspecifications may lead to losses. To cater for the problems, this study employs the novel entropic approach that utilizes entropy as penalty function for the misspecification of the model. The use of entropy as a measure of risk in pair trading is a nascent idea and this study utilizes daily data for 64 companies listed on PSX for the years 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively to compute the returns based on the entropic approach. These companies cover the major sectors including Cement, Chemical, Automobile Assembler, Food and Personal Care Products, Oil and Gas Marketing Companies, Oil and Gas Exploration Companies Ltd, Power Generation and Distribution, Refinery and Pharmaceuticals. The returns to these stocks are then evaluated and compared with the Buy and Hold strategy. The results show positive and significant returns from pair trading using an entropic approach.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: metamaterial; hyperbolic metamaterial; Drude Model; Lorentz Model; Lagrangian; Hamiltonian
Online: 20 July 2020 (09:00:54 CEST)
In this work, we study the dynamical behaviors of the electromagnetic fields and material responses in the hyperbolic metamaterial consisting of periodically arranged metallic and dielectric layers. The thickness of each unit cell is assumed to be much smaller than the wavelength of the electromagnetic waves, so the effective medium concept can be applied. When electromagnetic (EM) fields are present, the responses of the medium in the directions parallel to and perpendicular to the layers are like that of Drude and Lorentz media, respectively. We derive the energy density of the EM fields and the power loss in the effective medium based on Poynting theorem and the dynamical equations of the polarization field. We also show that the Lagrangian density of the system can be constructed. The Euler-Lagrangian equations yield the correct dynamical equations of the electromagnetic fields and the polarization field in the medium. The canonical momentum conjugates to every dynamical field can be derived from the Lagrangian density via differentiation or variation with respect to that field. We apply Legendre transformation to this system, and find that the resultant Hamitonian density is identical to the energy density, up to an irrelevant divergence term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0354.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: mathematical model; water model; tundish; residence time distribution; mixing
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:08:41 CEST)
The quantified residence time distribution (RTD) provides a numerical characterization of mixing in the continue casting tundish, thus allowing the engineer to better understand the metallurgical performance of the reactor. This paper describes a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modelling study for analyzing the flow pattern and the residence time distribution in a five-strand tundish. Two passive scalar transport equations are applied to separately calculate the E-curve and F-curve in the tundish. The numerical modelling results are compared to the water modelling results for the validation of the mathematical model. The volume fraction of different flow regions (plug, mixed and dead) and the intermixing time during the ladle changeover are calculated to study the effects of the flow control device (FCD) on the tundish performance. The result shows that a combination of the U-baffle with deflector holes and the turbulence inhibitor has three major effects on the flow characteristics in the tundish: i) reduce the extent of the dead volume; ii) evenly distribute the liquid streams to each strand and iii) shorten the intermixing time during the ladle changeover operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0017.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Digital Surface Model, Digital Terrain Model, Steep edge detection
Online: 2 July 2018 (16:42:05 CEST)
In this paper we will present a simplified approach for extracting the ground level – a digital terrain model (DTM) – from the surface provided in a digital surface model (DSM). Most existing algorithms try to find the ground values in a digital surface model. Our approach works the opposite direction by detecting probable above ground areas. The main advantage of our approach is the possibility to use it with incomplete DSMs containing much no data values which can be e.g. occlusions in the calculated DSM. A smoothing or filling of such original derived DSMs will destroy much information which is very useful for deriving a ground surface from the DSM. Since the presented approach needs steep edges to detect potential high objects it will fail on smoothed and filled DSMs. After presenting the algorithm it will be applied to a test area in Salzburg and compared to a terrain model freely available from the Austrian government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0051.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: cloud computing; workload model; workload-aware resource forecasting model
Online: 9 October 2017 (12:40:34 CEST)
The primary attraction of IaaS is providing elastic resources on demand. It becomes imperative that IaaS-users have an effective methodology for learning what resources they require, how many resources and for how long they need. However, the heterogeneity of resources, the diversity resource demands of different cloud applications and the variation of application-user behaviors pose IaaS-users big challenge. In this paper, we purpose a unified resource demand forecasting model suiting for different applications, various resources and diverse time-varying workload patterns. With the model, taking input from parameterized applications, resources and workload scenarios, the corresponding resources demands during any time interval can be deduced as output. The experiments configure concrete functions and parameters to help understanding the above model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0202.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: model developement; TB– HIV integrated model; TB and HIV; model; quantitative and qualitative data
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:39:06 CEST)
Few studies have examined the pros and cons of integrated TB and HIV service delivery in public healthcare facilities, and even fewer have proposed conceptual models for improved integration. This study intends to fill that vacuum by outlining the development of a facility-based paradigm for integrating TB, HIV and patients services. The design of the proposed model were in stages that involved the evaluation of existing TB-HIV integration model and synthesis of both quantitative and qualitative data from the study sites which were selected public healthcare facilities at both rural and peri-urban settings in Oliver Reginald (O.R) Tambo District Municipality in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary data on 2009-2013 TB-HIV clinical outcomes were obtained from multiple sources for quantitative analysis. Qualitative data involved focus group discussions among patient and heath care staff, which was thematically analysed. The development of a possibly better model and validation of this model show that the district's health system was reinforced by the model's guiding principles, which placed a strong emphasis on inputs, processes, outcomes, and integration effects.The model is adaptable to different healthcare delivery systems but will require support from healthcare stakeholders and professionals to be successful.
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:51:10 CEST)
In this paper we provide an ``expository overview" of classic epidemic projection models. Starting with the simple case of an epidemic that grows exponentially we then investigate ``compartmental" models. These assume that the growth of an infected population is limited endogenously by the size of the underlying pool of susceptibles. We then describe a new family of so-called "Exo-r" statistical models, which hinge on an exogenously driven growth rate of the infected population. This family, which can be used to model both infections and deaths, captures parsimoniously both the depletion of susceptibles and the effect of interventions such as lockdowns and ``social distancing". The model is used to fit numbers of Covid-19 infections in China. It is also used to model and project deaths in the United States. Results are used to inform a discussion on i) the challenges at hand and ii) the extent to which epidemic projection models may be useful despite being wrong.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: XAJ model; Recession constant; Data adjustment parameter; Model performance; Sensitivity
Online: 1 December 2023 (07:38:00 CET)
While considering the sensitivity over the parameter optimization, it is essential to determine which parameters have the most significant implications on model performance. This study focuses on the baseflow recession constant as one of the independent basin parameters to forecast low flows, perform hydrograph analysis, and calibrate rainfall-runoff models for significant improvement. Prior studies examined that the optimization of data adjustment parameters can improve the hydrological model performance and determine the minimum acceptable data length for data scarce regions using the Xinanjaing model. However, it is essential to pay special attention to the sensitivity of the recession constant, which can also impact the model performance during the data scarcity. Therefore, this study extends the research to comprehend the recession constant sensitivity over data adjustment parameters in the shorter datasets leading to more reliable parameter estimation. In terms of that, this study explores how recession constant affects hydrological parameter estimation on annual scale while keeping data adjustment parameters constant in continuous hydrological modeling, employing the Xinanjiang (XAJ) model as a case study. This study considered two approaches of recession constant (cg); (i) assessing the relationship between cg and the data adjustment parameter (Cep), for the 28-year datasets, (ii) investigating the significant impacts of the sensitivity of cg over Cep in shorter datasets which can affect the estimation of the acceptable minimum data length in the data scarce basins. The study underscores the importance of the recession constant sensitivity for reliable continuous hydrological model predictions, especially in data-scared areas. The study’s outcomes enhance the understanding of the importance of parameter sensitivity and its relationship in conceptual hydrological modeling during the data limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1851.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: digital economy; CE efficiency; systematic GMM model; spatial Durbin model
Online: 27 July 2023 (04:50:48 CEST)
Using the Super-SBM method, this study calculates the carbon emission efficiency (CEE) of 30 provinces in mainland China from 2011 to 2019. Then, using the systematic GMM model, spatial Durbin model, and mediating effect model, it examines the direct effect, spatial effect, and influence mechanism of the digital economy (DE) on CEE. It was found that (1) the DE significantly promoted regional CEE, but had a negative effect on CEE in provinces with high economic correlation; (2) mechanism studies showed that the DE improved CEE by reducing energy intensity, promoting industrial upgrading and green technology innovation; (3) regional heterogeneity analysis found that the DE significantly improved CEE in eastern provinces, but not in central and western provinces. DE improves CEE in provinces with high level of economic development, but decreases CEE in provinces with low level of economic development.This paper provides some empirical and theoretical references for the development of DE to improve CEE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0208.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: multiplicative degradation model; time-to-failure model; hazard rate; majorization.
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:15:31 CEST)
In this paper, a novel strategy is adopted in a degradation model to affect the implied lifetime distribution. The multiplicative degradation model is utilized as a postulate in the model. It will be established that the implied lifetime distribution forms a classical mixture model. In this mixture model, time-to-failure is lying with some probabilities between two first passage times of the degradation process to reach two specified levels. Stochastic comparisons in the model under a change in the probabilities are studied. Several examples are provided to highlight the applicability of the results in the cases when typical degradation models are candidate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1979.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: glacier hydrological modeling; mHM (Mesoscale Hydrological Model); degree day model
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:39:34 CEST)
During the dry season, glaciers contribute significantly to the water supply downstream, especially in areas with seasonal rainfall. It is important to have physical-based glacier models, which are more advanced in quantifying the future dynamics of glaciers and melt distribution. Toward this purpose, an investigation of different numerical modeling tools and their approach is conducted and planned further to incorporate a glacier module into a spatially distributed model called mHM (Mesoscale Hydrological Model, mhm-ufz.org). An open-source tool called MATILDA (Modeling Water Resources in Glacierized Catchments) is used beforehand to implement the glacier entities to the application catchment Maipo Basin in Chile. Due to limited time availability and source of data, the glacier melt of the MATILDA model is integrated into the mHM model to see what the implications would be if the glacier module was implemented from scratch in mHM. The analysis of the glacier hydrology resulting from the Maipo-Glacier model was carried out by comparing the modeled glacier flows with the total observed flows. To assess the credibility of the models, the results are compared based on three goodness-fit measures, specifically r^2Coefficient of Determination), NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency), and KGE (Kling-Gupta Efficiency). Application of the mHM model in the Maipo basin in Central Chile is performed by using prepared input datasets, showing that the approach is viable as evidenced by a Kling-Gupta Efficiency of 0.80 and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.70 from the starting periods of 1950 to 2020. Overestimation by the mHM model occurs during the late summer season, particularly when temperature decreases. The MATILDA model is used on glacier melt distribution, forcing data is prepared from regional datasets, and a glacier profile is constructed from ice thickness datasets. According to the model, the average KGE result for the years 2012–14 and 2015–18 was respectively 0.44 and 0.41. Glacier melt produced by Matilda is in the range of 58-68 % of the total runoff and the glacier area decreased by 22-23% during the simulation period from 2012-14 and 2016-2018. A pilot sub-basin Olivares is used in the coupling mHM model with initializing MATILDA glacier melt. The new model is underestimated during the seasonal transition in the initial days of the simulation. A considerable portion of the ablation period might be missed as a result of the initial storage quality, true glacier extent, and height distribution being understated. As a conclusion, the mHM Model was capable of predicting runoff well in a mountainous region and could also serve as a monitoring tool for watershed management. There are differences in results between the two models because of the different spatial resolutions and methodologies. MATILDA have a glacier retreat routine that gives better result for the glacier characteristics such as. A new glacier dynamics model needs to be implemented in the future to develop intermediate complexity, bridge catchment, and glacier scales after using the mHM, MATILDA, and mHM with MATIDLA model for analysis of glacier and highlighting the model's deficiencies in the initial period of simulative assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0187.v2
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Membrane fouling; Hermia model; Fouling model; Pore blocking; Blocking mechanism
Online: 5 January 2023 (03:38:02 CET)
One of the most broadly used models for membrane fouling is the Hermia model, which separates this phenomenon into four blocking mechanisms, each with an associated parameter n. These mechanisms are complete blocking (n=2), intermediate blocking (n=1), standard blocking (n=3/2), and cake formation (n=3/2). The original model, which was obtained through experimental data, is given by an Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) dependent on n. At the time, this ODE was only solved for these four values of n, which limits the effectiveness of the model when adjusted to experimental data. This paper aims to not only mathematically prove the original Hermia model but also to broaden the scope of this model for any real number n by using the original ODE, the equations of fluid mechanics, and the properties of single and multivariable calculus. The extended Hermia model (EHM) is given by a power law for any n≠2 and is given by an exponential function at n=2. To better test the model, we have performed the model fitting of the EHM and compared its performance to the original four pore-blocking mechanisms in 6 micro- and ultrafiltration examples. In all examples, the EHM performed consistently better than the four original pore-blocking mechanisms. Changes in the blocking mechanisms concerning transmembrane pressure (TMP), crossflow rate (CFR), crossflow velocity (CFV), membrane composition, and pretreatments are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: screening model; breast cancer; explainable model; machine learning; Asian women
Online: 13 June 2022 (11:06:10 CEST)
This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the development of an over-the-counter (OTC) screening model using machine learning for breast cancer screening in the Asian women population. Data were retrospectively collected from women who came to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. Five screening models were developed based on machine learning methods; random forest, artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), elastic-net logistic regression and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). Features used for the development of the screening models were limited to information from the patients’ registration form. The model performance was assessed across the dense and non-dense groups. SVM had the best sensitivity while elastic-net logistic regression had the best specificity. In terms of precision, both random forest elastic-net logistic regression had the best performance, while, in terms of PR-AUC, XGBoost had the best performance. Additionally, SVM had a more balanced performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity across the mammographic density groups. The three most important features were age at examination, weight and number of children. In conclusion, OTC models developed from machine learning methods can improve the prognostic process of breast cancer in Asian women.