ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0811.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Active travel; mode choice; micro-mobility; shared mobility; walking
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:09:05 CEST)
Active transportation, such as walking, cycling, and micro-mobility modes, has received a lot of attention in recent years due to its potential benefits to urban residents, such as less traffic, better air quality, more opportunities to get exercise, and an overall higher quality of life. In this study, we used Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to compare and contrast three mobility options: shared micro-mobility, individual micro-mobility, and walking. We surveyed 219 people living in Budapest, Hungary, to learn more about their travel habits and investigate the demographic elements that influence people's mode choice, such as age, gender, ownership of micro-mobility modes, education, job, and income. Results showed that ownership of personal micro-mobility modes, and age as important predictors of active travel mode choice. Males seem to prioritize cost and weather conditions when choosing shared micromobility modes, while females value safety and weather conditions. Our findings can guide policy decisions and urban planning initiatives by identifying the most significant predictors of mode choice and evaluating the possible benefits and drawbacks of each mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: sustainable cities; sustainable mobility; women-friendly cycling; spatial justice; mobility justice
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:11:16 CEST)
Cities have witnessed a booming interest in cycling in recent years. However, the implementation of cycling networks rarely followed a strategy to make them more accessible to specific social groups, such as women. To address this gap in knowledge, this paper provides a holistic perspective of women’s cycling mobility. Specifically, the study’s goal is to look into the social and environmental implications of cycling for women in Turin, Italy. Hence, this paper provides insights for ensuring a woman-friendly cycling system in a city and ensuring women’s participation as vital stakeholders in promoting a bike-friendly identity. We clarify women’s perceptions of cycling and outline the requirements for more inclusive bike infrastructures. Thus, we identify strategies to improve women’s access to bike lanes and investigate the environmental benefits of reduced air pollution by such a bike system. All this information is intended to define a more socially inclusive and environmental-friendly transport system in Turin for everyone, as depicted in Goal 11 of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0271.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: COVID-19; human mobility; spatial autocorrelation; temporal autocorrelation; Facebook mobility data
Online: 19 September 2022 (09:33:10 CEST)
COVID-19 is the most severe health crisis of the 21st century. COVID-19 presents a threat to almost all countries world-wide. The restriction of human mobility is one of the strategies used to control the transmission of COVID-19. However, it has yet to be determined how effective this restriction is in controlling the rise in COVID-19 cases, particularly in major capital cities such as Jakarta, Indonesia. Using Facebook's mobility data, our study explores the impact of restricting human mobility on COVID-19 case control in Jakarta. Our main contribution is showing how the restriction of human mobility data can give important information about how COVID-19 spreads in different places. We proposed modifying a global regression model into a local regression model by accounting for the spatial and temporal interdependence of COVID-19 transmission across space and time. We applied Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatiotemporal models with spatially varying regression coefficients. We estimated the regression parameters using an Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation. We found that the local regression model with spatially varying regression coefficients outperforms the global regression model based on DIC, WAIC, MPL, and R2 criteria for model selection. In Jakarta's 44 districts, the impact of human mobility varies significantly. The impacts of human mobility on the log relative risk of COVID-19 range from –4.445 to 2.353. The prevention strategy involving the restriction of human mobility may be beneficial in some districts but ineffective in others. Therefore, a cost-effective strategy had to be adopted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Protocol; Mobile ad hoc network; Mobility Model; Random Waypoint Mobility; throughput.
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:35:06 CET)
Mobility models are used to evaluated the network protocols of the ad hoc network using the simulation. The random waypoint model is a model for mobility which is usually used for performance evaluation of ad-hoc mobile network. Mobile nodes have the dynamic mobility in the ad hoc network so the mobility model plays an important role to evaluate the protocol performance.In this article, we developed modify random waypoint mobility (MRWM) model based on random waypoint for the mobile ad hoc network. In this article, the comparative analysis of modifying random waypoint mobility and random waypoint model on the ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol has been done for large wireless ad hoc network (100 nodes) with the random mobile environment for the 1800s simulation time. To enhance the confidence on the protocol widespread simulations were accomplished under heavy traffic (i.e. 80 nodes) condition. The proposed model protocol has been investigated with the performance metrics: throughput; packet delivery ratio; packet dropping ratio; the end to end delay and normalized routing overhead. The obtained results revealed that proposed modify random waypoint mobility model reduces the mobility as compared to the random waypoint mobility model and it is trace is more realist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0906.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: mobility; traffic; sustainable transport
Online: 14 November 2023 (11:12:20 CET)
Public transport is one of the most important functions of a city, which can have a major impact on the elements that support sustainable development: society, the environment and the economy. In order for residents and tourists of the Petrosani Basin to benefit from a predictable, systematized public transport system with well-established travel times, it is necessary to analyze some current factors and trends regarding public transport in the Petrosani Basin. This prospective study confirms that the use of the public transport system in the Petrosani Basin is decreasing, a decrease mainly associated with the lack of spatial accessibility, comfort and safety of passengers (inappropriate stations, lack of air conditioning in means of transport, lack of a modern fare system, the lack of means of information in the stations, etc.) but also with the change in people's attitude imposed by the protective measures taken as a result of the coronavirus pandemic. However, it should be noted that the public transport system in the Petrosani Basin is strongly influenced by the geographical characteristics of the Petrosani Basin, by the sharp decrease in the population (negative natural increase; reduction of the school population) but also by the increase in the number of private cars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0675.v1
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:20:32 CEST)
Urban mobility is experiencing a profound change. On the one hand, mobility patterns are becoming more complex, and typical home-work-home travel is no longer the rule, as journeys now tend to connect multiple points in a rather inconstant pattern. This has changed the approach to transport planning, in that the existing transportation planning and operation approaches have been focussed on the ability to identify typical home-work/school-home travel and subsequently plan the transport system accordingly. The traditional approach has been: forecast -> plan -> deliver, as new mobility solutions are emerging. These are characterised by greater flexibility, in that they take advantage of the “sharing concept” and simultaneously provide solutions that have lower GHG emissions. Urban mobility follows a fuzzier pattern, with even the urban transportation system behaving like an active organism, where solutions are often quickly replaced. This dynamic and evolving environment raises several new challenges at different levels. The best digital solution system is the Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) one. This system transforms the physical transportation system into a commodity and takes advantage of the internet of things (IoT). However, the onset of MaaS solutions is anything but linear. Several business models have emerged, with different partners originating from different industries (e.g., technological, transport operators, infrastructure managers, etc.) developing their own solutions, often in competition with others. It is not unusual to find different MaaS solutions in the same city, which integrate different solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; fuel cell vehicles; sustainable mobility; mobility habits; sustainable urban transportation
Online: 11 April 2018 (05:29:14 CEST)
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell vehicles (FCV) have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation. In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles (PAB) popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances. In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such vehicles, the respective utilization stages are accounted for, i.e. without considering the manufacturing process. The analysis has been carried out comparing different vehicles performance along different routes of an Italian middle-size city, Viterbo, which represents a very good pilot case as its Municipality is adopting many solutions suggested by European Union (EU) through the planning tool called Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP). The comparison is based on an ad-hoc developed mathematical procedure, which includes environmental (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), health (pollutants toxicity levels) and accessibility time (waiting times) indicators. According to this analysis, electric and fuel cell PAB exhibit interesting advantages over the other vehicles. However, the global economic efficiency of electric or fuel cell apparatus depends substantially on the exploited source of electrical energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart region; shared mobility; rural mobility; ride-sharing benches; co-creation; software development
Online: 17 August 2023 (03:15:49 CEST)
This paper explores the challenges of providing services of general interest in rural areas of Germany and proposes co-created mobility software solutions to address the specific needs of these regions. The research is part of the Smarte.Land.Regionen project, which aims to improve digital public services at the district level. Focusing on rural mobility, the paper introduces the concept of ride-sharing benches as a potential solution. Through workshops, surveys and market research, the study identifies barriers to the adoption of ride-sharing benches and investigates factors contributing to their success. The proposed software solution emphasizes user-centered development, geographic location of benches and prioritized matching of passengers. Findings highlight safety concerns, lack of reliability, and the importance of getting people who are theoretically interested in solutions to actively participate in them. The paper emphasizes the importance of collaborative development with county stakeholders. Future research should focus on sustaining and scaling digital solutions, measuring their impact on rural mobility, and ensuring their transferability to other regions. The ultimate goal is to contribute to inclusive and sustainable rural development by improving access to digital public services and promoting the adoption of tailored mobility solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: cross-cultural mobility; cultural mobility adaptation process; cross-cultural stress; acculturative stress; acculturation
Online: 8 May 2023 (02:23:07 CEST)
Cross-cultural mobility is a phenomenon that is increasingly growing, and the resulting stress has become a severe health issue. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of articles reporting research on stress measures of cross-cultural mobility or acculturative stress, emphasizing its internal structure. We adopted the PRISMA procedures for scoping reviews (e.g., searching articles in databases), resulting in the inclusion 20 articles in the final analysis that present evidence of validity based on the internal structure of 16 measures. The most common factors identified were related to cultural stressors, language stressors, and discrimination stressors. After analyzing a cross-cultural mobility stress concept implicit in the definitions used in the articles, we found that most measures of acculturative stress did not evaluate it according to the Stress and Coping Model of Lazarus and Folkman. Most measures only focused on part of the phenomena (some estimated the stressors, others the coping strategies). Few took into account the physiological and psychological responses to internal or external stressors, and even fewer considered its positive aspects (eustress). Consequently, it is pivotal to develop measures that take into account the multiple dimensions of the cross-cultural mobility stress. Other results (e.g., validity evidence of the measures) and limitations of this systematic scoping review are presented and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0389.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: human mobility; residential mobility; smart card; public transportation; opportunity cost of travel time
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:46:51 CEST)
This study attempts to investigate a method for creating an index from mobility data that not only correlates with the number of people who relocate to a place but also has causal influence on the number of such individuals. By creating an index based on human mobility data, it becomes possible to predict the influence of urban development on future residential movements. In this paper, we propose a method called the travel cost method for multiple places (TCM4MP) by extending the conventional travel cost method (TCM). We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of a neighborhood. However, conventional TCM does not assume that the opportunity cost of travel time varies according to the departure place. In this paper, TCM4MP is proposed to estimate the opportunity cost of travel time with respect to the departure place. We consider such estimation to be possible due to the use of massive mobility data. We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of the neighborhood. Therefore, we consider that the opportunity cost of travel time has a causal influence on future residential mobility. In this paper, the validity of the proposed method is tested using the smart card data of public transportation in Western Japan. Our proposed method is beneficial for urban planners in estimating the effects of urban development and detecting the shrinkage and growth of a population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0494.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: mobility; hospitalization; older adults; implementation
Online: 25 July 2018 (16:03:50 CEST)
Immobility during hospitalization is widely recognized as a contributor to deconditioning, functional loss, and increased need for institutional post-acute care. Several studies have demonstrated that inpatient walking programs can mitigate some of these negative outcomes, yet hospital mobility programs are not widely available in U.S. hospitals. STRIDE is a supervised walking program for hospitalized older adults that fills this important gap in clinical care. Herein we describe how STRIDE works and how it is being disseminated to other hospitals using the Replicating Effective Programs (REP) framework. Guided by REP, we define core components of the program and areas where the program can be tailored to better fit the needs and local conditions of its new context (hospital). We describe key adaptations made by 4 hospitals who have implemented the STRIDE program and discuss lessons learned for successful implementation of hospital mobility programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0568.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: transport policy; sustainable mobility; shared mobility services; Multi-Level Perspective; socio-technical systems; modal shift
Online: 24 September 2020 (07:55:52 CEST)
Recent years have seen a proliferation of platform-based “shared mobility services” (SMS) such as car-, bike-, and e-scootersharing in many cities in Germany and around the world. At the same time, these services have become the subject of intense debates: Are they replacing private car travel, thus contributing to sustainable mobility in cities? Or are they drawing users away from public transit and cycling while obstructing public space? From the perspective of sustainable mobility politics it seems far from clear which role these new services could play in transitioning to a less car-centric mobility system. While a number of potential effects and ensuing governance issues of shared mobility services (e.g. regarding questions of equitable access, data governance, the role of public versus private actors) have already been studied this article explores the role of shared mobility services (SMS) in triggering system dynamics and feedback loops in the context of sustainability transitions. The article connects questions regarding the sustainability effects of “shared mobility services” with the role of “push” measures to reduce private car traffic in cities. Using a theoretical framework from socio-technical transitions research and from the sociology of technology it describes the recent growth of shared mobility services in Berlin as an example of the upscaling dynamics of socio-technical niche innovations. Drawing on a series of workshops with mobility service providers and representatives of public authorities it analyses the potential for conflict as well as for coalition building between service providers and public authorities. Based on the theoretical concept of the role of feedback loops and windows of opportunity for transitions it shows how the market growth of shared mobility services added momentum to an already ongoing political debate over the legitimate use of public space in Berlin. Against this backdrop the article shows how growing numbers of car-, bike-, and e-scootersharing vehicles could open up windows of opportunity for re-distributing space away from private cars. The article concludes that supporting and regulating SMS will be key to steering their growth into the direction of sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1257.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Blockchain; Mobility; Random Selection; Encoding; Token
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:55:13 CEST)
. Various elements such as evolutions in IoT services resulting from sensoring by vehicle parts and advances in small communication technology devices have significantly impacted the mass spread of mobility services that are provided to users in need of limited resources. In particular, business models are progressing away from one-off cost towards longer term cost as represented by shared services utilizing kick-boards or bicycles and subscription services for vehicle software. Advances in shared mobility services as described are calling for solutions that can enhance reliability of data aggregate by users leveraging mobility services in the next-generation mobility areas. However, mining process to renew status, ensures continued network communication and block creation demands high performance in public block chain. This thesis proposes random certificate node selection mechanism in block network that creates blocks via node that has tokens issued for block creation and lets only specific nodes selected by encrypting token information acquires token.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2053.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: electric mobility; market disruptions; competitive advantage
Online: 1 August 2023 (04:03:52 CEST)
The present study reports a critical review of NIO's business model, considering the evolving landscape of the electric vehicle market and servicing. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive framework that facilitates the identification of key elements characterizing a company's business model and highlights ongoing transformations, crucial for adaptation and survival in a rapidly changing environmental context. Focusing on the case study of NIO, a relatively young Chinese original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specializing in high-tech electric cars, the research delves into the challenging scenario of the Chinese electric vehicle market, which has recently faced a bubble in 2023. The market proliferation, supply chain disruptions, and price wars triggered by Tesla have resulted in a survival struggle for numerous automotive startups, leaving larger companies with increasing market shares. Despite facing adversities, NIO managed to secure a promising segment, catering to premium-range battery electric vehicles (BEVs), establishing a competitive advantage through differentiation. By pursuing ambitious investments, the company aims to create economies of scope and achieve cost leadership, venturing into new market sectors and vertically integrating the production chain. Given NIO's agility in adapting to market conditions, aggressive entry into new segments, and a strategic vision for the future, it serves as an excellent candidate for testing and validating the proposed framework. The research sheds light on NIO's trajectory and offers insights into its potential for sustained growth in the dynamic electric vehicle market.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: elderly study; mobility; transportation; scoping review
Online: 6 July 2022 (10:12:39 CEST)
The rapid development of transportation infrastructure in Malaysia had changed the mobility landscape of the country. While it would be a welcome advancement for many, older adults might find it difficult to keep up with their transportation uses and remain active. This study reviewed published articles on the travel behavior of older adults and its associated transportation determinants to explore how sustainable the transportation system is for this vulnerable cohort. Four databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost. Inclusion criteria were older respondents, living in a community in Malaysia, addressing any travel behavior characteristics and written in English language. Review paper, letters, book citations, comments, editorials, and experimental and animal studies were excluded from this study. All in all, this review included seven studies extending from the year 2007 to 2020. The result showed that transportation use of older adults had shifted from relying on public transports to driving their own vehicle to move around. According to the finding of this study, besides personal and health factors, transport use of older adults was affected mainly by cost, public transport availability, road traffic and safety, the complexity of the transportation system, distance to public transit, availability of parking space, road condition and signage. It is concluded that an effective strategy to improve the transportation system is lauded to prevent unmet travel needs among the older adults in Malaysia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric mobility; electric vehicle; electrification; airport
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:00:53 CEST)
Following electrification of automotive transport, studies on the penetration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) are widespread, especially in defined contexts, e.g. cities. As major transport hubs, airports fall within contexts worth of interest. In this work, a forecast of the demand for electric mobility in an Italian international airport (Rome, Fiumicino) is presented. First, a wide review of proposed sce-narios on the penetration of EVs at international and national level and available data on local automotive transport are presented, as preliminary study for the definition of reference scenarios for the local context. Then the methodology proposed is presented and applied to the specific case study. Finally, a preliminary sizing of the required charging infrastructure is reported. The proposed approach can be considered as reference for similar studies on electrical mobility in other airport areas around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1466.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Mobility as a Service (MaaS); intelligent mobility service supply chain network; hybrid synergy mechanism; urban rail transit (URT); Mobility-On-Demand (MOD) transport service; integrated multimodal journey planning
Online: 23 November 2023 (09:38:44 CET)
Smart, reliable, and connected multi-modal mobility has been a long-standing goal of transit services. This paper focuses on the smart, seamless, and multi-modal mobility service in the context of “Mobility as a Service” (MaaS). Intelligent mobility is the smarter, greener, and more efficient movement of passengers around the world. Increasingly, mobility is approached as a service. This study first conducts an extensive literature review on mobility behavior and demand pattern of MaaS end-users. It then extends the mechanism of supply chain, MaaS, synergy (i.e., vertical cooperation synergy, horizontal competition synergy), and coopetition to develop the multi-tier closed-loop intelligent mobility service supply chain network. This paper explains the intelligent mobility service supply chain network from following perspectives: (i) mobility service taxonomy of MaaS; (ii) aims of intelligent mobility service supply chain network; (iii) urban rail transit (URT)-centered alternatives for integrated multimodal journey planning, i.e. access + URT + egress, and both access and egress can be served by Mobility-On-Demand (MOD) transport; (iv) node member imperatives. From a synthesis of insights from the ‘during’ journey, this study puts forward the synergetic design of intelligent mobility service supply chain network, including: (i) multi-tier closed-loop structure; (ii) key nodes identification for the physical multimodal transport network in the supply chain; (iii) hybrid synergy mechanisms among the partners, i.e., synergy principle, temporal splitting approach for coopetition synergy; (iv) index systems and evaluation methods for synergy measurement. This study also contributes to the integrated multimodal journey planning. In concluding, the paper highlights the important implications of the proposed intelligent mobility service supply chain network for MaaS bundle design and adverse effects reduction, resulting from 1 + 1 > 2 synergy effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1706.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; charging behavior; private electric mobility.
Online: 27 November 2023 (13:21:36 CET)
Electric mobility is one of the ways to contain greenhouse gas and local pollutants emissions in urban areas. Nevertheless, the massive introduction of battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs) brings some concerns related to their energy demand. Modelling vehicle usage and charging behavior is essential for charge demand forecasting and energy consumption estimation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the charging decisions of EV owners are influenced by different factors, ranging from the charging infrastructure characteristics to the users’ profiles. This review intends to investigate the approaches used to investigate on charging behavior and highlight trends and differences between the results, remarking on any gaps worthy of further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Child Mobility; Planning with Children; Geoinformation Technologies
Online: 31 July 2023 (09:37:19 CEST)
The study proposes planning independent children's mobility through geoinformation technologies for listening to children. This research assumes that children’s values and expectations must be considered in city planning. A bibliographic review identifies 15 indicators which make spaces safe and attractive for children to circulate and play. Thematic maps of the indicators are prepared, integrated by Multicriteria Analysis by Weights of Evidence, according to the hierarchical importance of each variable. The definition of weights considers the opinion of children and technicians. Consultation with children is carried out by Mapping Volunteers (VGI), Consultation on Hierarchy, Geodesign of Ideas for the area and Artistic Workshop. In the technical study, the query applies the Delphi method. It uses the VGI – Volunteered Geographic Information – web-based platform, where children record places of topophilia and topophobia, while technicians map the presence of 15 indicators. The set of information is made available on a web-based platform of SDI – Spatial Data Infrastructure, in which there are resources for a Geodesign workshop when ideas for the area are elaborated through negotiation and co-creation. The product is a transformation design for the area through urban design and parameterisation of uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1118.v1
Online: 17 July 2023 (12:12:59 CEST)
This research focuses on the development of a foot-worn device to assist individuals with limited mobility in walking. The device aims to reduce the risk of accidents by closely moni-toring the wearer's movements and detecting potential hazards. It incorporates sensors, in-cluding the MPU6050 gyro sensor and KY-031 vibration sensor, to track the wearer's walking behavior. In case of abnormalities, such as falls, the device triggers an auditory alert and noti-fies the caregiver via LINE Notify. The system is controlled by the Node MCU ESP8266, enabling seamless integration with the Internet of Things (IoT). The objective of this study is to design an IoT system for medical assistance. The researchers created a prototype of a smart ankle device capable of detecting falls and sending notifications to the user's smartphone. The effectiveness of the notification system was evaluated using the Line Notify application. Re-sults demonstrated a successful detection of falls in 48 out of 50 trials, with two instances of false alarms during normal walking. The overall efficiency of the smart ankle device was 98%. In summary, the proposed smart ankle device demonstrates promising potential for var-ious applications in fall detection and safety alert systems. Further improvements and collab-orations with healthcare experts are recommended to enhance its performance and make it commercially viable. The device's connectivity and responsiveness to IoT systems are vital aspects to be considered. Future research should aim to develop additional features in collab-oration with physiotherapists and healthcare professionals to meet user requirements. The de-vice holds significant benefits in terms of fall detection and safety alerts, and efforts should be made to enhance its durability, robustness, and commercialization prospects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mobility as a Service (MaaS); future envision
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:07:04 CET)
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is an innovative transport concept, anticipated to provide travelers with different kinds of travel services, more sustainable than a private car, in a simpler, packaged way. It combines different transport modes to offer a tailored mobility package, like a monthly mobile phone contract. The rapid development of intelligent transportation system and the shared economy has speeded up the development of MaaS in these years. In this paper, we aim at classifying the existing research on MaaS and the characteristics of MaaS into different categories, in order to answer the following questions after reviewing the existing literature: What is MaaS? Who are the main actors in MaaS? How can MaaS be implemented? Why should it be implemented? Where will MaaS end up in this wave of disruption? When we talk about MaaS, what are we focusing on? What is the future leading frequency of MaaS? Finally, based on the existing literature, we envision the leading future of MaaS.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0271.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; African elephant; Asian elephant; captivity; housing; mobility
Online: 18 January 2021 (17:30:32 CET)
The African bush and forest elephants, Loxodonta Africana and Loxodonta cyclotis, and the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, are the largest land-dwelling animals. Elephants need to be highly mobile and active in order to find fresh food and water, and in the case of males, to locate females in estrus for breeding. Asian elephants walk up to 21 km each day and African elephants can walk up to 28 km per day. This high level of mobility in the wild is also important for maintaining an optimum musculoskeletal health. However, most zoo elephants live in restricted spaces and cold climates that require extended periods of indoor confinement are therefore unable to be as physically active. Zoo enclosures for elephants are relatively small with hard surfaces (i.e. concrete, tarmac and hard packed dirt), so they cannot exercise and are forced to stand on unnaturally hard surfaces continually. Physical inactivity in captivity makes them more prone to gaining weight and developing bone and joint diseases such as osteomyelitis, joint ankylosis and osteoarthritis (OA). Many health and welfare problems in captive elephants are likely to be caused by the lack of mobility. This perspective article focuses on the possible link between captivity, mobility, physical inactivity and the development of OA in captive elephants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0016.v1
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:20:39 CEST)
This study empirically investigates the complex interplay between the severity of the coronavirus pandemic, mobility changes in retail and recreation, transit stations, workplaces, and residential areas, and lockdown measures in 88 countries of the word. To conduct the study, data on mobility patterns, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of people, lockdown measures, and coronavirus pandemic were collected from multiple sources (e.g., Google, UNDP, UN, BBC, Oxford University, Worldometer). A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique is used to investigate the direct and indirect effects of independent variables on dependent variables considering the intervening effects of mediators. Results show that lockdown measures have significant effects to encourage people to maintain social distancing. However, pandemic severity and socioeconomic and institutional factors have limited effects to sustain social distancing practice. The results also explain that socioeconomic and institutional factors of urbanity and modernity have significant effects on pandemic severity. Countries with a higher number of elderly people, employment in the service sector, and higher globalization trend are the worst victims of the coronavirus pandemic (e.g., USA, UK, Italy, and Spain). Social distancing measures are reasonably effective at tempering the severity of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0115.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: COVID-19; Mobility; Spatial Epidemics; Exit Strategy
Online: 7 May 2020 (09:40:34 CEST)
Prior to lockdown the spread of COVID-19 in UK is found to be exponential, with an exponent α=0.207 In case of COVID-19 this spreading patterns is quantitatively better described with mobility-driven SIR-SEIR model  rather than the homogenous mixing models Lockdown has dramatically slowed down the spread of COVID-19 in UK, and even more significantly has changed the growth in the total number of infected from exponential to quadratic. This significant change is due a transition from a mobility-driven epidemic spreading to a spatial epidemic which is dominated by slow growth of spatially isolated clusters of infected population. Our results strongly indicated that, to avoid a return to exponential growth of COVID-19 (also known as “second wave”) mobility restrictions should not be prematurely lifted. Instead mobility should be kept restricted while new measures, such as wearing mask and contact tracing, get implemented in order to allow a safe exit from lockdown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0688.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart city; mobility; IOT Applications; safety critical
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:57:36 CET)
The new IoT/IoE (internet of things/everythings) paradigm and architecture permits to rethink about the way the Smart City infrastructures are designed and managed, on the other hand a number of problems have to be solved. In terms of mobility the cities that embrace the sensoring era can take advantage of this disruptive technology to improve the quality of life of their citizen, also thanks the rationalization in the use of their resources. In Sii-Mobility, a national smart city project on mobility and transportation, a flexible platform has been designed and here, in this paper, is presented. It permits to setup heterogeneous and complex scenarios that integrate sensors/actuators as IoT/IoE in an overall scenario of Big Data, Machine Learning and Data Analytics. A detailed and complex case-study has been presented to validate the solution in the context of a system that dynamically reverse the traveling direction of a road segment, with all the safety conditions in place. This case study composes several building blocks of the IoT platform, which demonstrate that a flexible and dynamic set-up is possible, supporting off-grid, security, safety, cloud and mixed solutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2107.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: solid oxide fuel cells; oxygen separation membranes; hydrogen separation membranes; oxygen mobility; hydrogen mobility; isotope exchange of oxygen
Online: 29 June 2023 (12:48:10 CEST)
Oxygen and hydrogen mobility are among the important characteristics for operation of solid oxide fuel cells, permselective membranes and many other electrochemical devices. This, along with other characteristics, enables reaching a high power density of solid oxide fuel cells and a high oxygen or hydrogen permeation fluxes for membranes. This work focuses on oxygen and hydrogen diffusion of mixed ionic (oxide ionic or/and protonic) – electronic conducting materials for these devices and its role in the performance. Ionic transport properties of conventional and state-of-the-art materials are reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1967.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: tongue frenulum; ankyloglossia; swallowing; tongue mobility; speech; occlusion
Online: 31 October 2023 (07:59:09 CET)
(1) The incidence of ankyloglossia ranges from 0.02 to 10.7%. The literature describes the effect of ankyloglossia on selected dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system, however no studies could be found reporting the influence of ankyloglossia on the occurrence of several disorders in a group of subjects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of lingual frenulum on swallowing, speech, occlusion, and periodontal status; (2) Methods: The subjects were 172 patients, 86 with ankyloglossia (study group) and 86 with normal tongue frenulum (control group). In all subjects, the length of tongue frenulum, the type of swallowing, tongue mobility, occlusion, periodontal status and speech abnormalities were assessed; (3) Results: All subjects from the control group and all those with mild ankyloglossia showed normal tongue mobility. A limited tongue mobility was found in 29.4% subject with moderate and in 70.6% subjects with severe ankyloglossia. Rhotacism was observed in 21.3% subjects with normal frenulum, in 2.1% with mild, 38.3% with moderate, and 38.3% with severe ankyloglossia. Malocclusion or crowding was diagnosed in subjects with mild, moderate and severe ankyloglossia in 7.4%, 33.9% and 20.7% subjects (total 62%), respectively, whereas in the control group - in 21.6% subjects. No abnormalities in the periodontium in the area of the lingual surfaces of the crowns of the lower central incisors were found in any of the examined persons. Among patients with infantile type of swallowing 24.4% had a normal length of the tongue frenulum, 11.1% - mild, 28.9% - moderate, and 35.6 - severe ankyloglossia. Among patients presenting a mature type of swallowing 58.7% had a normal length of the frenulum; (4) Conclusions: 1.A shortened tongue frenulum correlates with “infantile swallowing pattern”. 2. Moderate or severe ankyloglossia significantly limits tongue mobility. 3. Short tongue frenulum is related to speech disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0706.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Epidemics; Human mobility; Inference; Deterministic inversion; Bayesian inference
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:34:28 CEST)
Most studies modelling population mobility and the spread of infectious diseases, particularly using meta-population-multi-patched models, tend to focus on theoretical properties and numerical simulations of such models. There is relatively scanty literature published on fit, inference and uncertainty quantification on epidemic models with population mobility. In this research, we have used three estimation techniques to solve an inverse problem and quantify its uncertainty on a human mobility-based multi-patched epidemic model, using mobile phone sensing data and COVID-19 confirmed positive cases in Hermosillo, Mexico. First, we have utilized a Brownian bridge model using mobile phone GPS data to estimate residence and mobility parameters of the epidemic model. In the second step, we have estimated the optimal model epidemiological parameters by deterministically inverting the model using a Darwinian inspired evolutionary algorithm (EA) known as the genetic algorithm (GA). The third part of the analysis involves performing inference and uncertainty quantification on the epidemic model using two Bayesian Monte Carlo sampling methods: t-walk and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC). The results show that the estimated model parameters and incidence adequately fit the observed daily COVID-19 incidence in Hermosillo. Moreover, the estimated parameters from HMC result into large credible intervals, improving their coverage for the observed and predicted daily incidences. We also observe improved predictions when using multi-patch model with mobility against the single-patch model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1652.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Drones; Photovoltaics; Electric Mobility; Solar Energy; Spatial analysis
Online: 23 May 2023 (11:11:08 CEST)
Electric energy is one of the driving forces in every country. The supply of electrical energy continues to present various challenges, such as high costs associated with procuring raw materials for generation, sparsely populated areas that are not connected to the main grid, and the need for infrastructure to support generation and network delivery. These challenges have contributed to the growing adoption of renewable energy sources, particularly solar photovoltaics (PV).In this study, we have developed a practical method to assess the spatial PV potential in a selected urban area. The methodology combines data collected from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry, Geographic Information System (GIS), and the energy output from three remote photovoltaic systems installed at different locations. The results obtained from this approach not only provide the energy generated per square meter, per year (kWh m-2 yr-1), but also provides a base to calculate the potential distance that electric cars could travel based on the energy generated. To illustrate the application of this method, two practical cases were selected: Senglea, Malta, and Munxar, Gozo. These examples highlight the versatility and effectiveness of our approach for evaluating and harnessing solar energy through photovoltaic panels in different contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Ion separation; Mobility; Anisotropic diffusion; Ion cloud; Security
Online: 17 February 2023 (02:06:26 CET)
It is shown by numerical modelling that anisotropic diffusion can compensate and even overcome diffusion broadening - the main limiting factor of devices working at atmospheric pressure. The thickness of ion clouds coming out of the ionisation chamber is reduced ~ 1000 times in the ADMA inlet increasing the resolution. This finding has a great potential that enables construction of a device with resolution close to that of currently available desktop ion separation devices – high pressure mass spectrometers, but with much lower cost of manufacture and with smaller dimensions. Comprehensive numerical modelling along with mathematical analysis of physical concepts enables reduction of the footprint and manufacturing costs. Modelling determined that the resolving power (RP) potential of the ADMA is greater than the RP of currently available on the market devices for the airport security market. The ADMA technology enables very fast detection of threats; at least 100 times faster than currently used in Ion Mobility Spectrometers (IMS). This potentially allows an increase in passenger throughput in airports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Micro-mobility; Ride-sharing; Agent-based modelling; Crowdsourcing
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:48:39 CEST)
Substantial research is required to ensure that micro-mobility ride sharing provides a better fulfillment of user needs. This study proposes a novel crowdsourcing model for the ride-sharing system where light vehicles such as scooters and bikes are crowdsourced. The proposed model consists of three entities: suppliers, customers, and a management party responsible for receiving, renting, booking, and demand matching with offered resources. It can allow suppliers to define the location of their private e-scooters/e-bikes and the period of time they are available for rent. Using a dataset of over 9 million e-scooter trips in Austin, Texas, we ran an agent-based simulation six times using three maximum battery ranges (i.e., 35, 45, and 60 km) and different numbers of e-scooters (e.g., 50 and 100) at each origin. Computational results show that the proposed model is promising and might be advantageous to shift the charging and maintenance efforts to a crowd of suppliers.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: nanopore; translocation slowdown; mobility; polymer sequencing; bandwidth; diffusion
Online: 14 January 2021 (09:53:00 CET)
A major obstacle faced by nanopore-based polymer sequencing and analysis is the high speed of translocation of an analyte (nucleotide, DNA, amino acid (AA), peptide) through the pore; the rate currently exceeds available detector bandwidth. Except for one method that uses an enzyme ratchet to sequence DNA, attempts to resolve the problem satisfactorily have been largely unsuccessful. Here a counterintuitive method based on reversing the pore voltage, and, with some analytes, increasing their mobility, is described. A simplified Fokker-Planck model shows a significant increase in translocation times for single nucleotides and AAs (up from ~10 ns to ~1 ms). More realistic simulations show that with a bi-level positive-negative pore voltage profile all four nucleotides in DNA (dAMP, dTMP, dCMP, and dGMP) and the 20 proteinogenic amino acids can be trapped inside the pore long enough for detection with bandwidths of ~1-10 Khz.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0716.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Malaria elimination; Mathematical model; Human mobility; Intervention chemotherapy
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:42:16 CEST)
In central Senegal malaria incidences have declined from 2000 to 2010 in response to scaling-up of control measures and then remained stable, making elimination improbable. Additional control measures are needed to reduce transmission. We simulated chemoprophylaxis interventions targeting malaria hotspots, using a meta-population mathematical model based on differential equation framework and incorporating human mobility. The model was fitted to weekly malaria incidences from 45 villages. Three approaches for selecting intervention targets were compared: a) villages with malaria cases during the low transmission season of the previous year; b) villages with highest incidences during the high transmission season of the previous year; c) villages with highest connectivity with adjacent populations. Our modeling, considering human mobility, showed that the intervention strategies targeting hotspots would be effective in reducing malaria incidence in both targeted and untargeted areas. But whatever the intervention, pre-elimination stage (1-5 cases per 1,000 per year) would not be reached without simultaneously increasing vector control by more than 10%. Targeted interventions allow increasing overall malaria control and elimination potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: microcredit; social mobility; impact; socio-economic; class position
Online: 23 June 2020 (13:38:58 CEST)
In Bangladesh, microcredit program has been in function for almost half a century. Though popularly termed as a tool for poverty alleviation and women empowerment, criticism about microcredit program’s actual effectiveness isn’t new. This study attempts to evaluate the impact of such programs by measuring borrowers’ social mobility. Using a multidimensional approach, indicators like household income, economic susceptibility, living conditions, consumption pattern, children’s education, healthcare facilities, women’s participation in decision-making were taken into account for measurement. Quantitative method was used. Based on a non-probability sampling, 107 microcredit borrowers were selected for conducting interview schedules who live in a rural, a semi-urban and an urban area. Statistical analysis of data reveals that those who have been taking loans for several number of years have all managed to increase their income level to a variety of extent, but only those have gained some sort of mobility who have been taking loans for more than 4-5 years and have taken 5 times or more. Few of them have actually moved from microcredit to become a microfinance client by taking bigger amount of loans and having savings. Positive responses about the indicators being used in the study were found among the handful of those who have mobilized significantly. In true sense, most of the borrowers are stuck at the bottom end of socio-economic ladder and are struggling to manage a better living standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0994.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: mobility; mobility aid; adaptive aid; walker; 3-D printing; additive manufacturing; mechanical testing; open hardware; open source hardware; frugal innovation
Online: 26 April 2023 (13:06:50 CEST)
To improve accessibility, this article describes a static, four-legged, walker that can be constructed from materials and fasteners commonly available from hardware stores coupled by open-source 3-D printed joints. The designs are described in detail, shared under an open-source license, and fabricated with a low-cost open-source desktop 3-D printer and hand tools. The resulting device is loaded to failure to determine the maximum load that the design can safely support in both vertical and horizontal failure modes. The experimental results showed the average vertical failure load capacity was 3680±694.3N, equivalent to 375.3±70.8kg of applied weight with the fractured location at the wood dowel handlebars. The average horizontal load capacity was 315.6±49.4N, equivalent to 32.2±5.1kg. The maximum weight capacity of a user of 187.1±29.3kg was obtained, which indicates the open-source walker design can withstand the weight requirements of all genders with a 95% confidence interval that includes a safety factor of 1.8 when considering the lowest deviation weight capacity. The design has a cost at the bottom of the range of commercial walkers and reduces the mass compared to a commercial walker by 0.5kg (19% reduction). It can be concluded that this open-source walker design can aid accessibility in low-resource settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0347.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: mobile network data; call detail records; data analysis; human mobility; urban mobility; social sensing; urban geography; urban sociology; commuting; sustainability
Online: 27 June 2022 (04:04:09 CEST)
The analysis of the human movement patterns based on the mobile network data makes it possible to examine a very large population cost-effectively, and led to several discoveries about human dynamics. However, the application of this data source is still not common practice. The goal of this study was to analyze the commuting tendencies of the Budapest Metropolitan Area using mobile network data and propose an automatized alternative to the current, questionnaire-based method. Commuting is predominantly analyzed by the census, but that is performed only once in a decade in Hungary. To analyze commuting, the home and the work locations of the subscribers are determined based on their appearances during and outside the working hours. The home locations were compared to census data at a settlement level. Then, the settlement and district level commuting tendencies were identified and compared to the findings of census-based sociological studies. It has been found that commuting analysis based on mobile network data strongly correlates with the census-based findings, even though home and work locations have been estimated by statistical methods. All the examined aspects, including commuting from sectors of the agglomeration to the districts of Budapest and demographic distribution of the commuters, show that mobile network data can be an automatized, fast, cost-effective, and relatively accurate way of commuting analysis, that could provide a powerful tool to the sociologists interested in commuting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0665.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Delft3D; Object Mobility Model; Munitions Mobility and Burial; Object Shields Parameter; Sediment Shields Parameter; Equilibrium Burial Percentage; Sediment Supporting Point
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:24:25 CEST)
Coupled Delft3D-object model has been developed to predict object’s mobility and burial on sandy seafloor. The Delft3D model is used to predict seabed environment such as currents, waves (peak period, significant wave height, wave direction), water level, sediment transport, and seabed change, which are taken as the forcing term to the object model consisting of three components: (a) object‘s physical parameters such as diameter, length, mass, and rolling moment, (b) dynamics of rolling cylinder around its major axis, and (c) empirical sediment scour model with re-exposure parameterization. The model is compared with the observational data collected from a field experiment from 21 April to 23 May 2013 off the coast of Panama City, Florida funded by the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The experimental data contain both objects’ mobility using sector scanning and pencil beam sonars and simultaneous environmental time series data of the boundary layer hydrodynamics and sediment transport conditions. Comparison between modeled and observed data clearly show the model capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1950.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: broiler; welfare; mobility; YOLOv5; semi-supervised learning; neo-deepsort
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:31:34 CEST)
Mobility is a vital welfare indicator which may influence broilers’ daily activities. Classical broiler mobility assessment methods are laborious and cannot provide timely insights into their conditions. Here, we proposed a semi-supervised Deep Learning (DL) model, YOLOv5, combined with Deep Sort algorithm conjoined with our newly proposed algorithm, Neo-Deep Sort, for individual broiler mobility tracking. Initially, 1,650 labeled images from five days were employed to train the YOLOv5 model. Through semi-supervised learning (SSL), this narrowly trained model was then used for pseudo-labeling 2,160 images, of which 2,153 were successfully labeled. Thereafter, the YOLOv5 model was fine-tuned on the newly labeled images. Lastly, the trained YOLOv5 and the Neo-Deep Sort algorithm were applied to detect and track 28 broilers in two pens and categorized them in terms of hourly and daily traveled distances and speeds. SSL helped in increasing the YOLOv5 model’s mean Average Precision (mAP), in detecting birds, from 81% to 98%. As compared with the manually measured covered distances of broilers, the combined model provided individual broiler's hourly moved distances with a validation accuracy of about 80%. Eventually, individual and flock level mobilities were quantified while overcoming the occlusion, false and miss detection issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0997.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: micro-mobility; bike crashes; spatial analysis; accidents; safety; cycling
Online: 14 July 2023 (08:54:49 CEST)
This manuscript presents a study on the spatial relationships between bike accidents, the built environment, land use, and transportation network characteristics in Budapest, Hungary using Geographic Weighted Regression (GWR). The sample period included bike crash data between 2017 and 2022. The findings provide insights into the spatial distribution of bike crashes and their severity, which can be useful for designing targeted interventions to improve bike safety in Budapest and be useful for policymakers and city planners in developing effective strategies to reduce the severity of bike crashes in urban areas. The study reveals that the built environment features, such as traffic signals, road crossings, and bus stops, are positively correlated with the bike crashes index, particularly in the inner areas of the city. However, traffic signals have a negative correlation with the bike crash index in the suburbs, where they may contribute to making roads safer for cyclists. The study also shows that commercial activity and PT stops have a higher impact on bike crashes in the northern and western districts. The GWR analysis further suggests that one-way roads and higher speed limits are associated with more severe bike crashes, while green and recreational areas are generally safer for cyclists. Future research should be focused on the traffic volume and bikes trips’ effects on the severity index.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0205.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: world of experience; micromobility; MaaS; sustainable mobility paradigm; imagineering
Online: 23 November 2021 (18:01:56 CET)
With its sights set on sustainable development, transport policy finds itself confronted with the challenge of convincing people to abandon the current path of growth and instead use small, slower vehicles with a reduced range in the future. The problem with this goal is that people's mental structures are shaped by the car ensconced in their heads. Thinking in other terms hardly seems possible; moreover, many of the products classified as vehicles, but smaller in scale than the "car" and that already exist, remain unknown, nor can they be tried out - they are quite literally nowhere to be seen. In light of this situation, the German Federal Environmental Foundation has commissioned a feasibility study to explore the establishment of a World of Experience (Erlebniswelt) of sustainable urban mobility - the EcoMobileum®. Here, the aim is to open up the horizons of a new culture of mobility in order to get people excited about the transformation of mobility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0029.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: electric mobility; paratransit; informality; Sustainability transitions; East-Africa; transport
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:23:46 CET)
Electric mobility begins to enter East-African markets. This paper aims to investigate what policy level solutions and stakeholder constellations are established in the context of e-mobility in Dar es Salaam, Kigali, Kisumu and Nairobi and in which ways they attempt to tackle implementation of electric mobility solutions. The study employs two key methods including content analysis of policy and programmatic documents as well as interviews based on purposive sampling ap-proach with stakeholders involved in mobility transitions. The study findings point out that transport operators and their representative associations are less recognized as major players in the transition, far behind new e-mobility players (start-ups) and public authorities. The study further indicates that a set of financial and technical barriers persist such as high upfront invest-ment costs in vehicles and infrastructure, or anxieties regarding competitiveness with fossil fuel vehicles, that constrain the uptake of such private e-mobility initiatives. This study concludes by identifying current gaps that need to be tackled by policy makers and stakeholders in order to implement inclusive electric mobility in East-African cities, considering modalities that include transport providers and address their financial constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0530.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic impact; Population mobility data; Prediction; Assess; Covid-19
Online: 21 December 2020 (14:28:50 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 poses a devastating threat to human society in terms of health, economy and lifestyle. Establishing accurate and real-time models to predict and assess the impact of the epidemic on the economy is instructive. We have designed a new model to quantitatively assess the impact of the COVID-19 on the economy of China’s mainland. The nominal GDP in the Q1 of 2020 that we predicted for China’s mainland with the Baidu Mi-gration Data is RMB 20,785.7 billion, which is less by 3.59% than that in 2019. The estimated val-ue is confirmed roughly by the official report released in April 17, 2020 (RMB 20,650 billion, 6.8% year-on-year declined). Strict control measures during the epidemic have greatly reduced Chi-na's economic activity and had a serious impact on the country's economy. Orderly promotion of population mobility plays a decisive role in economic recovery.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mobility impairments; Neuromusculoskeletal models; Rehabilitation; optimal control theory; frailty; redundancy
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:04:44 CET)
The prevention, mitigation and treatment of movement impairments, ideally, requires early diagnosis or identification. As the human movement system has physiological and functional redundancy, movement limitations do not promptly arise at the onset of physical decline. A such, prediction of movement limitations is complex: it is unclear how much decline can be tolerated before movement limitations start. Currently, the term ‘homeostatic reserve’ or ‘physiological reserve’ is used to refer to the redundancy of the human biological system, but these terms do not describe the redundancy in the muscle architecture of the human body. The result of functional redundancy is compensation. Although compensation is an early predictor of movement limitations, clear definitions are lacking and the topic is underexposed in literature. The aim of this article is to provide a definition of compensation and emphasize its importance. Compensation is defined as an alteration in the movement trajectory and/or altering muscle recruitment to complete a movement task. Compensation for capacity is the result of a lack in neuromusculoskeletal reserve, where reserve is defined as the difference between the capacity (physiological abilities of the neuromusculoskeletal system) and the task demand. Compensation for movement objectives is a result of a shift in weighting of movement objectives, reflecting changing priorities. Studying compensation in biomechanics requires altered protocols in experimental set-ups, musculoskeletal models that are not reliant on prescribed movement, and inclusion of alternative movement objectives in optimal control theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; physical fitness; body composition; functional mobility; physiotherapy
Online: 27 September 2019 (03:03:10 CEST)
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have the potential impact on the functional mobility and basic motor skills improvement after physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the functional mobility and basic motor skills in patients with MS and to correlate them with disability and anthropometrical status and body composition parameters. Materials and Methods: Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed in 36 patients with MS before and after 4 weeks of physiotherapy. Body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (W/HtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed in this group. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and fat mass (FAT), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were expressed as percentage of body mass. Clinical status was assessed by EDSS and AI scales. Results: After physiotherapy, there was a significant improvement in functional mobility and basic motor skills assessed by total distance in 6MWT (p<0.001) and in TUG trials (p<0.001). Positive significant correlations were found between the results obtained in both tests (either before and after physiotherapy) vs. FFM, TBW and PMM, whilst worse results in functional mobility and basic motor skills correlated significantly with higher WHtR, WHR and FAT (p<0.05). Clinical status (EDSS) were significantly related to the WHtR and body composition parameters with the same manner as the results in the either 6MWT and TUG. However, there were no significant relationships between BMI vs. either clinical status (EDSS, AI) and functional mobility tests results in patients with MS. Conclusions: Functional mobility and basic motor skills may be significantly improved during the physiotherapy, but they are related to the anthropometrical status and body composition of MS patients. Moreover, disability status is also significantly related to this parameters. Body composition deterioration seems to be the important target for the therapeutic intervention in MS patients. For proper nutritional status assessment in patients with MS, body composition analysis or WHtR instead BMI should to be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0536.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: playable city; age-friendly environments; games; mobility; active ageing
Online: 23 October 2018 (10:11:15 CEST)
A key concern in an ageing society is citizens’ mobility. As populations age, disability impairments can affect active ageing, health-related wellbeing and quality of life. In this paper, we present the on-going research project SeriousGiggle—Game-based learning for triggering active ageing. Its goal is to assess the potential of game-based learning for active ageing and contribute to a sense of wellbeing and quality of life. It also seeks to improve the mobility of older adults by creating a set of journey plans with route guidance that are rated in terms of safety, community support, environment and age-friendliness. Drawn on our field work with 33 co-designers, 40 end users and 10 semi-structured interviews with Subject Matter Experts, we identify a set of necessary design requirements to an Age-friendly Playable City. This study recommends the use of gamification and playful techniques to engage the end-users to provide information about local traffic signs, pavement conditions, wayfinding and, therefore, help to create route guidance and walking assistance that are personalized to older adults’ context in terms of location, travel fitness, mobility impairments and motivations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: EOR; graphene oxide; CO2 foam; aquifer storage; mobility control
Online: 11 June 2018 (11:10:46 CEST)
Graphene oxide (GO), nanographene oxide (nGO) and partially reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been studied as possible foam stabilizing agents for CO2 based enhanced oil recovery (EOR). GO was able to stabilize CO2/synthetic sea water foams. rGO was not able to stabilize foams likely due to the high reduction degree of the material. Particle size had a strong influence on foamability and stability. GO hydrophilicity increased as the particle size decreased and no foams were created when particle size was below 1 µm (nGO). GO brine dispersions showed immediate gel formation, which improved foam stability. Particle growth due to layer stacking was also observed. This mechanism was detrimental for foam formation and stabilization. nGO dispersed in synthetic sea water rapidly formed hydrogels and was not filterable. This work indicates that the particles studied are not suitable for CO2 EOR purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: active ageing; social participation; mobility; assistive technologies; service delivery
Online: 23 August 2016 (14:53:52 CEST)
Active ageing is defined as the process of optimizing opportunities for physical, social and mental health to enable older people to take an active part in society without discrimination and to enjoy an independent and good quality of life. The World Health Organization assumed this as a process for increasing and maintaining an individual’s participation in activities to enhance his/her quality of life. In this survey, the authors addressed the following question: “Is assistive technology (AT) for mobility contributing to enhancement of lifelong capacity and performance?”. From June 2015 until February 2016, 96 community dwelling adults, AT users for mobility (powered wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, lower limb prostheses, walkers, crutches and canes), aged 45-97, mean 67.02 +/- 14.24 years old, 56.3% female, were interviewed using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (P-PIADS), the Activities and Participation Profile related to Mobility (APPM) and demographics, clinical and questions about AT use and training. The participants’ profiles revealed moderate limitation and restrictions in participation, measured by the APPM (2.03). Most participants showed positive impact of AT; average scores obtained from the P-PIADS subscales were: Self-esteem 0.62, Competency 1.11 and Adaptability 1.10. P-PIADS total was 0.96, with the powered wheelchair users scoring the highest (1.53) and the walker users scoring the lowest (0.73). All subscales and P-PIADS total were positively correlated with the activities and participation profile. There was no relation between age and the psychosocial impact of AT or activities and participation profile. These results encourage the authors to follow these participants up for a lifelong intervention. To accomplish that aim, currently, the protocol is implemented at the AT prescribing centers in Coimbra, Portugal in order to assess the impact of AT on participation in society, one of the domains of the Active Ageing Index, a new analytical tool to help policy makers in developing policies for active and healthy ageing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0856.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: air mobility; efuel; hydrogen; battery electric; CO2
Online: 14 November 2023 (16:54:19 CET)
Despite significant technical progress, the aviation industry carbon footprint keeps growing. Recent articles demonstrate that the decarbonization of air mobility will almost exclusively rely on the decarbonization of its energy. While biofuels will play an important role in the near and long-term, low carbon electricity is now considered, either with direct electrification, or using energy vectors such as hydrogen or efuels. In this study we compare each energy vector using the well to rotor methodology applied to a standard air mobility mission to capture the different conversions losses and the integration effects on the carrier. The energy required is first expressed in the unit of the energy vector before being translated into kWh at the well, the electricity grid in our central scenario. The results are than translated in CO2 emissions and direct energy cost. Based on the assumptions in this study, the electricity carbon intensity and price can significantly impact the results. While liquid H2 has the highest cost and CO2 emissions in most scenarios, the results indicate that when electricity carbon intensity is below 35 gCO2/kWh, efuel can have lower CO2 emissions than battery electrification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1883.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: high mobility; thin film transistors; SnON; SnO2; density functional theory
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:54:32 CEST)
This work reports the first nanocrystalline SnON (7.6 % Nitrogen content) n-type nanosheet Field-Effect Transistor (nFET) with transistor’s effective mobility (µeff) as high as 357 and 325 cm2/V-s at electron density (Qe) of 5×1012 cm-2 and ultra-thin body thickness (Tbody) of 7 and 5 nm, respectively. At the same Tbody and Qe, these µeff values are significantly higher than single crystalline Si, InGaAs, thin-body Si-on-Insulator (SOI), two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 and WS2. New discovery of slower µeff decay rate at high Qe than SiO2/bulk-Si universal curve was found, owing to one order of magnitude lower effective field (Eeff) by more than 10 times higher dielectric constant () in channel material, which keeps the electron wave-function away from the gate-oxide/semiconductor interface and lowers the gate-oxide surface scattering. In addition, the high µeff is also due to the overlapped large radius s-orbitals, low 0.29 mo effective mass (me*) and low polar optical phonon scattering. SnON nFETs with record-breaking µeff and quasi-2D thickness enable potential monolithic three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) and embedded memory for 3D biological brain-mimicking structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0225.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: OLED; charge mobility; DFT; hopping transport; transfer integrals; reorganization energy
Online: 13 December 2022 (03:25:26 CET)
Luminophores featuring thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF luminophores) are the workhorse of the third- and fourth-generation OLEDs. While these compounds had usually been used as dopants embedded in the host, non-doped TADF OLEDs have recently shown significant progress as well reaching the performance comparable to the host-dopant ones. For efficient operation of the non-doped OLEDs, charge transport in neat films and single crystals of TADF luminophores is important; however, this issue was nearly unexplored theoretically. In the current study, we calculated charge mobilities in four TADF single crystals, which have different molecular packing motifs. Specifically, in one of them both donor and acceptor moieties form uniform π-stacks, while in the others donors (acceptors) show alternating lateral shifts along the stacks; the difference in molecular packing results in the difference of transfer integral between the molecules. Reorganization energies differ as well up to four times for the studied crystals. As a result, charge mobilities vary from 0.001 to ~0.3 cm2/(V∙s), the largest being predicted for the crystal of the luminophore consisting of rigid donor and acceptor. We anticipate that the results obtained can be useful for the design of TADF luminophores for non-doped OLEDs, OLETs and other organic light-emitting devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0448.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: automated vehicles; land use; potential implication; urban mobility; use cases
Online: 29 July 2022 (04:31:50 CEST)
Automated vehicles (AVs), which are expected to enter the market within the near future, represent the current frontiers in mobility and urban planning. AVs are assumed to bring substantial benefits to cities in many aspects. The present study attempts to investigate this broad assumption by conducting a literature review on the possible implications of AVs in cities as well as synthesizing the current state of practice of AV pilots to detect trends in their deployment. In this paper, literature findings on AVs’ implication on vehicle ownership, mobility, land use as well thirteen uses cases were synthesized to capture the big picture of them in cities. The findings showed that, in the AV pilots, the operation of AVs is limited to routes stretching less than 3.5km and an operation speed of less than 18km/h; low speed has been one of the main concerns of the participating passengers to use them for daily trips. The results also revealed that although shared AVs are expected in urban mobility, private ownership will stay competitive since vehicle ownership has been a socio-cultural identity in the history of automobiles. The findings also underlined that the potential influence of AVs on active mobility is still unclear as the AVs have not been introduced on a larger scale. Regarding AVs’ impact on land use, their introduction results in the effective use of space, but they will cause suburbanization in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0221.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: urban mobility; dynamic risk perception; data-driven model; policy analysis
Online: 15 March 2022 (15:56:15 CET)
In many countries, governments have implemented non-pharmaceutical techniques to limit COVID-19 transmission. Restricting human mobility is one of the most common interventions, including lockdown, travel restrictions, working from home, etc. However, due to the strong transmission ability of the virus variants, further rounds of interventions, including a strict lockdown, are not considered as effective as expected. The paper aims to understand how the lockdown policy and pandemics changed human mobility in the real scenario. Here we focus on understanding the mobility changes caused by compliance with restrictions and risk perceptions, using the mobility index from the Google report during three strict lockdown periods in Leeds, the largest city in the county of West Yorkshire, England from March 2020 to March 2021. The research proposed the time-varying z-scores and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to simulate how local people dynamically process and perceive health risk based on multi-dimensional daily COVID-19 reports first. Further modelling highlights exponentially increasing policy non-compliance through the duration of lockdown, probably attributable to factors such as mental anxiety and economic pressures. Finally, the proposed nonlinear regression model examines the mobility changes caused by the population's dynamic risk perceptions and lockdown duration. The case study at Leeds fits data well and shows that the third lockdown policy took effect much slower than the first. At the same time, the negative impact of the epidemic on population mobility decayed 40% in the third lockdown period in contrast with the first lockdown. The risk perception estimation methods could reflect that the local population became increasingly accustomed to the COVID-19 situation, and local people rationally evaluated the risks of COVID in the third lockdown period. The results prove that simulated risk perceptions and policy decay could explain urban mobility behaviour during the mobility well during lockdown periods, which could be a reference for future decision-making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0689.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; mobility patterns; Rt; changepoint; modeling; Portugal; Longitudinal Study
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:31:54 CEST)
This study analyzes the relationship between the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) and the mobility patterns of the Portuguese population. By reducing mobility, the idea is that contacts are reduced, countering the spread of the virus in the community. As an indicator of the spread of the virus, the reproduction number (Rt) was used. Data from Google's Community Mobility Reports was used to evaluate changes in mobility patterns. This report uses location data from Android mobile phone users. The locations are divided into retail and recreation, grocery and pharmacy, parks, transit stations, workplaces and residential. In this year of the COVID-19 crisis in Portugal, population mobility patterns have changed over the various phases of the pandemic. At first, all mobility was affected uniformly, with the population avoiding much of the activity outside the home. In a second phase, there was some adaptation, and the areas considered to be of lower risk had less impact, emphasizing the changes in the relationship between daily life and the workplace.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0421.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Human mobility; literature review; bibliometric analysis; network visualisation; CiteSpace; VOSviewer
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:17:51 CET)
Studies on human mobility have a long history with increasingly strong connections to multi-disciplines across social science, environmental science, information and technology, computer science, engineering, and health science. However, what is lacking in the current research is a summary of studies on human mobility to identify the evolutional pathway and future research directions. To address this gap, we conduct a systematic review of human mobility-related studies published from 1990 to 2020. Drawing on the selected publications retrieved from the Web of Science, we conduct a bibliometric analysis and network visualisation by CiteSpace and VOSviewer on publication years and numbers, authors and their countries and afflictions, citations, topics, abstracts, keyword, and journals. Our findings show that human mobility-related studies have become increasingly interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional, enhanced by the involvement of multi-source big data, the development of technologies, the innovation of modelling approaches, and the novel applications in various areas. We also summarise four future research directions proposed by top cited authors and mobility studies, in terms of data sources, modelling methods, applications, and technologies. We advocate in-depth research on human mobility to address real-world problems and contribute to social good as promising future orientations through integrating multi-source big data and advanced modelling methods facilitated by artificial intelligence, and machine and deep learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0095.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; Commute; Mobility practice; Low carbon travel; Transport sector
Online: 2 February 2021 (16:26:50 CET)
This chapter is written for the welfare of the society, questioning and enlightening the effects of the increment or decrement in the percentage of quality of air causing pollution due to the rise in the traffic post-lockdown due to COVID-19 in metro cities, specifically in Delhi. In this chapter, we address the question about people's preference in moving in the shared taxis to their workplaces or their reluctance and denial of the idea of moving in the shared vehicle because of the fear of getting infected. The sensitivity of the situation will compel the people to move in a single occupied vehicle (SOV). The rise in the number of vehicles on the roads will result in traffic jams and different kinds of pollution where people battling with the pandemic will inevitably get exposed to other health-related issues. We use a BPR (Bureau of Public Roads) model to combat this issue endangering the environment and public health. We exploit the BPR function to relate average travel time to the estimated number of commuters travelling by car. We collect mode share data from the NITI Ayog, the State Resource Centre and other authentic sources, which gives unique figures of the impact of shared mobility in India and how, in its absence, various sectors will get affected. Using the given data and the BPR, we evaluate increased vehicle volumes on the road if different portions of transit and carpool users switch to single-occupancy vehicles and its effect on multiple other factors. Based on the study of densely populated city, Delhi, we predict that cities with significant transit ridership are at risk for extreme traffic and pollution unless transit systems can resume safe with effective protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0593.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social work; families with children; child welfare services; social mobility
Online: 27 August 2020 (06:05:09 CEST)
Abstract The aim of our study is to analyse the perception of the families and concerned social workers. The research was conducted in an underprivileged and disadvantaged microregion in North Hungary. The main focus was the perception on the available health, educational, child welfare and social services and supports. The starting point was to enquire the target group’s knowledge of these services. The study examines the extent to which social work is able to provide support to disadvantaged, marginalized families with children, and the way how the dysfunctional operation of the system contributes to the perpetuation of the clients’ life conditions. Analysing the quality of these services and supports is crucial to understand the social mobility chance of the children living in this microregion. The results show that without capability and talent development for the children and given the lack of welfare services, the mobility chance and opportunities of these families are extremely low in Hungary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0184.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: covid-19 lockdown; mobility and transport; environmental data; smart city
Online: 11 May 2020 (03:24:26 CEST)
According to the changed operative conditions due to lockdown and successive reopening a number of facts can be analysed. The main effects have been detected on: mobility, environment, social media and people flows. While in this first report only mobility, transport and environment are reported. The analysis performed identified a strong reduction of the mobility and transport activities, and in the pollutants. The mobility reduction has been assessed to be quite coherent with respect to what has been described by Google Global mobility report. On the other hand, in this paper a number of additional aspects have been put in evidence providing detailed aspects on mobility and parking that allowed us to better analyze the impact of the reopening on an eventual revamping of the infection. To this end, the collected data from the field have been compared from those of google and some considerations with respect to the Imperial college Report 20 have been derived. For the pollutant aspects, a relevant reduction on most of them has been measured and rationales are reported.
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: demographic growth; displacement; remote sensing; forced migration; urban sprawl; mobility
Online: 27 March 2020 (04:08:12 CET)
Anthropogenic change is associated with population growth, land use change, and changing economies. However, internal migration patterns and armed conflicts are also key drivers behind anthropogenic and demographic processes. To better understand this sort of change, we explore the spatial relationship between forced migration due to armed conflict and changing demographic factors in Colombia, a country which has a recent history of 7 million internal migrants. In addition, we use remote sensing, Google Earth Engine, as well as spatial statistical analyses of demographic data in order to measure anthropogenic change between 1984 and 2008; and we look into spatiotemporal relationships between both demographic and anthropogenic changes, which are caused by forced migration. We find, thus, that the latter is significantly and positively related to an increasing rural-urban kind of migration which originates in armed conflict, and results show that it is also negatively associated with interregional expulsion. Indeed, anthropogenic prints (term hereafter used to denote changes in nighttime satellite imagery) pertaining to different regions have had different sensitivities towards forced migration, and across different time periods. Finally we discuss how social and political phenomena such as Colombia’s armed conflict can have significant effects on the dynamics and motions of humans and territories in countries of the Global South.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0212.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: prison; criminal law; mobility; mobilitarian ideal; activity; activation; participation; adaptation
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:20:52 CET)
In our paper, we develop the hypothesis of a general call for high mobility and discuss the consequences of it. First, we examine the contemporary social representations of mobility, looking for a definition of what is seen as being properly mobile. We will then show how intertwined social representations of space and time result in the prevalent vision of an inevitable and constant mobility. Next, we will thus discuss the importance of seeing mobility as much more than its material facet. Our third step will be to propose a formalisation of the contemporary requisite for mobility. Through four imperatives (activity, activation, participation, adaptation), the mobilitarian ideal requires each person and organisation to be constantly active, mobile, flexible, networking, etc. We argue that, today, we are all meant to be highly mobile. We will illustrate this point with the example of the parliamentary documents of the Belgian Prison Act (2005) in which prison is open and porous, good inmates are described as dynamic individuals on the move and the legitimate penitentiary system is a paradoxical mobilisation system. We will conclude by discussing the need to reshape our vision of the prison, considering its apparently paradoxical relation with mobility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: mixed reality headset; mobility assessment; wearable sensor; fall risk; aging
Online: 10 April 2019 (08:33:16 CEST)
Functional mobility assessments (i.e., Timed Up and Go) are commonly used clinical tools for mobility and fall risk screening in the aging population. In this work, we proposed a new Mixed Reality (MR)-based assessment that utilized a Microsoft HoloLensTM headset to automatically lead and track the performance of functional mobility tests, and subsequently evaluated its validity in comparison with reference inertial sensors. Twenty-two healthy adults (10 older, 12 young) participated in this study. An automated functional mobility assessment app was developed based on the HoloLens platform. Mobility performance was recorded with the headset built-in sensor and validated with reference inertial sensor (Opal, APDM) taped on the headset and lower back. Results indicate vertical kinematic measures by HoloLens was in good agreement with the reference sensor (Normalized RMSE ~ 10%). Additionally, the HoloLens-based test completion time was in perfect agreement with clinical standard stopwatch measure. Overall, our preliminary investigation indicates that it is possible to use an MR headset to automatically guide users to complete common mobility tests with good measurement accuracy, thus it has great potential to provide objective and efficient sensor-based mobility assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0093.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: drift current; diffusion current; mobility; nano-node; model; ALD technology
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:15:49 CET)
A novel drive current model covering the effects of source/drain voltage (VDS) and gate voltage (VGS) and incorporating drift and diffusion current on the surface channel at the nano-node level, especially beyond 28nm node is presented. The effect of the diffusion current added is more satisfactory to describe the behavior of the drive current in nano-node MOSFETs, fabricated with the atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) technology. This breakthrough in model establishment can expose the long and short channel devices together. Introducing the variables of VDS and VGS, the mixed current model more effectively and meaningfully demonstrates the drive current of MOSFETs under the operation of horizontal, vertical, or mixed electrical field. In comparison between the simulation and experimental consequences, the electrical performance is impressive. The error between both is less than 1%, better than the empirical adjustment to issue a set of drive current models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0083.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: mobile network data; call detail records; geospatial data; data analysis; human mobility; urban mobility; large social event; social sensing; socioeconomic status; machine learning; clustering
Online: 17 January 2023 (12:12:07 CET)
Mobile phones have become an integral part of our lives in the last two decades, leaving a digital trace of our activities and communication. This study aims to develop a data processing framework to evaluate human mobility and socioeconomic status based on call detail records. The methodology proposed first calculates radius of gyration and entropy for each user, then estimates the socioeconomic status by the price and age of the subscribers' phones. Finally, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm was used to group the cells into clusters based on their mobility and socioeconomic metrics. The research showed differences between Buda and Pest during a large scale social event using mobile phone ages and prices. Additionally, the clustering results revealed homogenous groups of cells around Budapest, with similar mobility and socioeconomic metrics. The main conclusion is that mobile network data combined with mobile phone properties offer a useful tool for characterising urban mobility and socioeconomic status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric Moped Scooter Sharing; E-Moped; Shared Mobility; Urban Mobility; Life Cycle Assessment; Sustainability; Total Cost Of Ownership; Multi-Agent Transport Simulation; MATSim; Berlin
Online: 9 June 2021 (15:30:13 CEST)
Electric moped scooter sharing services have recently experienced strong growth rates, particularly in Europe. Due to their compactness, environmental-friendliness and convenience, shared e-mopeds are suitable modes of transport in urban mobility to help reduce the environmental impact. However, its traffic-related, economic and environmental effects are merely represented in academic research. We used passenger car traffic data in Berlin generated by the multi-agent transport simulation framework MATSim to develop a python-based simulation, resembling an e-moped sharing system. Based on the results, a total cost of ownership and a life cycle assessment for fleet sizes of 2,500, 10,000 and 50,000 vehicles were conducted. The results indicate that a substantial part of all passenger car trips in Berlin can be substituted. The larger the fleet, the more and longer trips are replaced. Simultaneously, the efficiency in terms of fleet utilization decreases. The scenario with 10,000 e-mopeds offers the lowest total distance-based costs for sharing operators, whereas a fleet consisting of 2,500 vehicles exhibits the lowest environmental emissions per kilometer driven over the expected lifespan of a shared e-moped. Based on the renewable energy potential for 2050 forecasted by the German Federal Environment Agency, a significant overall decline in environmental impacts can be achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: spatial interaction network; community partitioning; bike-sharing; urban mobility; Walktrap method
Online: 1 September 2023 (12:52:31 CEST)
Examining the clustering characteristics and fluctuations within urban areas during peak hours through the lens of bike-sharing is of utmost importance in the optimization of bike-sharing systems and urban transportation planning. This investigation adopts the principles of urban spatial interaction network construction and employs streets as the fundamental units of analysis to model bike-sharing activities during morning and evening peak hours within Beijing's six central districts. Subsequent to this, a comprehensive analysis of the network's structural attributes was carried out. A walktrap method rooted in modularity analysis was introduced to discern and scrutinize the clustering patterns and characteristics of communities within the network across different temporal intervals. Empirical findings reveal a predominant usage pattern of shared bicycles for short-distance travel during both morning and evening peak hours. Notably, distinctive community structures manifest during these periods, characterized by two large communities and multiple smaller ones during the morning peak, while the evening peak showcases a single large community alongside several medium-sized and smaller ones. Moreover, the extended interaction radius points to an expanded geographic range of interactions among streets. These findings bear significant implications for the management of urban transportation, bike-sharing enterprises, and urban residents, proffering valuable insights for the optimization of bike-sharing schemes and transportation strategies.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: foot drop; walking; rehabilitation; ankle-foot orthosis; mobility; Functional Electrical Stimulation
Online: 28 April 2022 (08:45:35 CEST)
Foot drop is a common disability in post-stroke patients and represents a challenge for the clinician. To date, Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) combined with conventional rehabilitation is the gold standard of rehabilitation management. AFO has a palliative mechanical action without actively restoring the associated neural function. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), consisting in stimulation of the peroneal nerve pathway, represents an alternative approach. By providing a FES device (Bioness L-300, BIONESS, USA) for 6 months to a post-stroke 22-year-old woman with a foot drop, our goal was to quantify its potential benefit on walking capacity. Gait parameters and the temporal evolution of the speed were collected with a specific connected sole device (Feet Me®) during the 10-meter walking, the Time Up and Go, and the 6-minute walking tests with AFO, FES or without any device (NO). As a result, the walking speed changes on 10-meters were clinically significant with an increase from baseline to 6 months in AFO and FES conditions (+0.14m-1 and +0.36m-1), without any changes in NO condition. In addition, speed decreased at about 4-minutes of the 6-minute walking test in NO and AFO conditions, while speed increased in FES conditions at baseline and after 1, 3 and 6 months. Monitoring gait speed in an endurance test after an ecological rehabilitation training program helps to examine walking performance in post-stroke patients and to propose a specific rehabilitation program depending on a fatigue threshold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0412.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Walkability; Central Kolkata; Accessibility, Universal Mobility; Architectural Planning Research; Accessibility Audit
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:22:11 CET)
In this research, the accessibility in the footpath-level walkability condition of old core cities of India has been assessed, considering Central Kolkata, India as a case. Post-2015, after the implementation of Goal Number 11 of United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (i.e. Sustainable Cities and Communities), the significance of universal mobility has globally manifolded in the walkability sector. This research has been done in theoretical, ideological, and methodological patterns using Architectural Planning Research for promoting Universal Mobility in old Indian cities. The variables (categorical) used in this research are related to pedestrian infrastructure. The categorical variables are: 1) Building Typology of Stretch, 2) Footpath Dimensions, 3) Temporary Encroachment, 4) Permanent Encroachment, 5) Bus Stop, 6) Metro Rail Entrance, 7) Railings, 8) Storm Water Drains, 9) Public Toilet, 10) Trash Bins, 11) Street Lights, 12) Flooring, 13) Manholes, 14) Kerb, 15) Pedestrian Crossing, 16) Street Furniture, 17) Safety and Security, and 18) Additional Inclusive Features like signage. This research shows that the footpath stretches in Central Kolkata, India are inadequate in terms of ideal accessibility. In addition to this, the result of this research portrays complexities in the adaptability of accessible walkability-related considerations; thereby suggesting a new accessibility audit format for old core Indian cities for achieving Universal Mobility standards in the future. The authors also propose quantitative methods to conduct future research in the same domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Universal Design; Mobility; Old Core Cities; Walkability; Central Kolkata; Architectural Planning
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:26:00 CET)
In this research, users’ perception towards Universal Mobility in old core cities of India has been critically analyzed. Despite Universal Design guidelines from the United Nations and Union Government of India, old cities in India are seldom having Universal Mobility, in effect endangering the lifestyle of senior citizens and differently-abled people. The core of Kolkata Municipal Corporation in Kolkata, India has been considered as a case example for this research. This research has considered three types of data sets for analysis. First, the authors interviewed 310 respondents from the Indian design fraternity, with the objective of understanding their opinion on the concept of Universal Design. In the next investigative study of 125 respondents from different wards of Kolkata Municipal Corporation, the purpose was to comprehend people’s perception about walkability and mobility in an old Indian city. In the last visual survey of a stretch in Central Kolkata, the focus was identifying the hindrance in Universal Mobility in an old city core of Indian origin. Significant dissatisfaction was found in walkability amongst all user groups; which is linked to poor infrastructural conditions. Furthermore, accessing public transportation is difficult due to improper waiting facilities. However, the design fraternity in India suggests the need of separate accessibility guidelines for old and new cities in India. The design fraternity also recommends a customized rating system for accessing Universal Design. The result of this study indicates a need of recognizing the difficulty in imparting Universal Mobility in old core cities in India. This information can be used for preparing an Access Audit Checklist through Architectural Planning, which is the first step in proposing a framework for Universal Mobility in old core cities in India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: human mobility; COVID-19 spread; global pandemic; social restriction policy; Australia
Online: 8 September 2020 (11:31:16 CEST)
Policy induced decline of human mobility has been recognised to be effective in controlling the COVID-19 spread especially in the initial stage of the outbreak, although the relationship among mobility, policy implementation, and virus spread remains contentious. Coupling data of confirmed COVID-19 cases with Google mobility data in Australia, we present a state-level empirical study to: 1) inspect the temporal variation of COVID-19 spread and the change of mobility adherent to social restriction policies; 2) examine the extent that different types of mobility are associated with the COVID-19 spread in eight Australian states/territories; and 3) analyse the time-lag effect of mobility restriction on the COVID-19 spread. We find that social restriction policies implemented in the early stage of the pandemic controlled the COVID-19 spread effectively; the restriction of human mobility has a time-lag effect on growth rates, and the strength of the mobility-spread correlation increases up to seven days after policy implementation but decreases afterwards. The association between mobility and COVID-19 spread varies across space and time, and subjects to the types of mobility. Thus, it is important for governments to consider the degree to which lockdown conditions can be eased by accounting for this dynamic mobility-spread relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0289.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: reproduction number; infectious disease epidemiology; COVID-19; epidemic modelling; mobility index
Online: 24 June 2020 (09:03:44 CEST)
Real-time estimation of the parameters characterising infectious disease transmission is important for optimization quarantine interventions during outbreaks. One of the most significant parameters is the effective reproduction number - number of secondary cases produced by a single infection. The current study presents an approach for estimating the effective reproduction number and its application to COVID-19 outbreak. The method is based on fitting SIR epidemic model to observation data in a sliding time window and allows to show real-time dynamics of reproduction number at any phase of epidemic for countries globally. Online data on COVID-19 daily cases of infections, recoveries, deaths are used.Finally, time-dependent reproduction number is explored in connection with dynamics of peoples mobility. The method allows to assess the disease transmission potential and understand the effect of interventions on epidemics spread. It also can be easily adapted to future outbreaks of different pathogens. The tool is available online as Python code from the Github repository.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0391.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: acoustic communication; energy consumption; smart routing protocols; UWSN MAC; underwater mobility
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:02:31 CEST)
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSN) have recently been proposed as a way to monitor and explore the water depths' environments. Efficiently delivering the data is still a challenging problem in these networks because of the weaknesses in the acoustic transmission. To tackle such a problem, we propose a novel algorithm provides controlling mechanisms for critical long-term data forwarding underwater sensor networks, called Hop by Hop Power-Efficient Routing Protocol (Hn-PERP). The proposed Hn-PERP is a centralized full-control model that enhances the network's throughput and energy efficiency by a set of solutions depend on power monitoring in UWSN nodes. In particular, the model provides a guaranteed mechanism for scheduling and processing data transmission based on number of nodes, hops between the nodes, energy level and congestion within each node to minimize energy levels or power consumption by avoiding disconnected probability for any node, which in turn maximizing the network lifetime. Simulation results show that our proposed model is consistent with energy level and congestion, and is more accurate for enabling routing and data transmission. Therefore, the data packet delivery ratio and overall throughput also achieves robust scenarios of very sparse or/and weak networks, to keep on Performance stability in UWSN via adjusting hop-by-hop delay and energy consumption during packages delivery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: urban mobility; traffic safety; cooperative intelligent transport systems; traffic control
Online: 22 November 2023 (11:31:27 CET)
Enhancing traffic safety is one of the fundamental objectives of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), and it aligns closely with the principles of sustainable transport. Due to specific differences in infrastructure, vehicles, and users’ behaviour, places where different modes of traffic intersect are recognized as critical points of the traffic system, making them crucial aspects of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) implementation. The SUMPs aim to create urban mobility that is not only environmentally friendly and efficient but also safe for all users. The continuous development and widespread adoption of innovative ITS technologies have paved the way for a system that could provide drivers with real-time information about both immediate and potential dangers at these critical points. This paper provides an overview of previous research in the field, investigating the impact of information systems on drivers’ behaviour, various detection and communication solutions that can be effectively integrated into such a system, as well as a brief overview of models and solutions that have been developed to warn drivers in a similar context. The reviewed literature offered valuable insights on which a novel driver information system architecture framework is proposed. This framework can contribute to the ongoing safety improvement in multimodal transport networks within the context of sustainable transport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: public transport; sustainable mobility; satisfaction with travel; service experience; travel mode reasons
Online: 22 September 2023 (11:42:13 CEST)
Knowing the reasons for mobility choices, how users evaluate the characteristics of public transport and how satisfied they are with the travel experience is essential to promote the use of LTP (Local Public Transport), especially in rural or suburban areas where the use of private car is often prevalent. The present study aimed to investigate the mobility experience and the reasons for use and non-use of the LPT in a suburban area by the people travelling to a large Hospital Centre in a Province of the North-east of Italy. An anonymous questionnaire was completed by people from different categories travelling to the hospital (students, employees, clients), user and non-users of the LPT. The results showed that insufficient hourly coverage and accessibility of the service are the primary reasons for opting not to use LPT and together with reliability and comfort, these factors contribute to user satisfaction with their travel experience. Perceived sustainability of LPT contributes to overall travel satisfaction. However perceived sustainability alone does not appear to influence the choice of LPT if the service lacks adequate accessibility and does not meet the needs of travelers in terms of hourly coverage
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0408.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Transit-Orientated Development (TOD); Transit Proximity; Human Mobility; Locality; Auckland, New Zealand
Online: 4 August 2023 (12:32:21 CEST)
Urban planning and transportation policies are vital to creating sustainable and liveable cities. Transit-orientated development (TOD) has emerged as a prominent approach, emphasising the establishment of neighbourhoods with convenient access to public transportation and promoting car-free lifestyles. TOD initiatives aim to improve public transit efficiency, reduce dependence on private vehicles, and encourage walkability and connectivity within communities. By prioritising TOD, cities can effectively address transportation challenges, alleviate congestion, mitigate carbon emissions, and improve residents' overall quality of life. This research paper investigates the connection between proximity to transit stations and local living habits. Specifically, it examines the human mobility of residents living within a 15-minute walk distance of transit stations in Auckland, New Zealand, a car-dependent city striving to transition into a sustainable TOD model. The objective is to determine whether people living near transit stations are more inclined to participate in local activities and exhibit a higher proportion of trips within a radius of 15 minutes. The results illustrate that approximately 54% of the residents show dominant local mobility patterns. However, only about 16 stations out of 34 show their local residents have prominent collective 'local' travel patterns. By understanding the connection between proximity to transit stations and local mobility patterns, urban planners and designers can make informed decisions to improve the built environment and optimise the land use mix. This research offers insights to support the creation of vibrant and people-centric urban environments, facilitating the development of sustainable and liveable cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Crassostrea gigas; Gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry (GC–IMS); Ploidy; Volatile; Flavor
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:48:01 CEST)
In this study, GC–IMS was used to analyze the volatile component and flavor profiles of Crassostrea gigas individuals of different ploidy and gender. Principal component analysis was used to explore overall differences in flavor profiles and a total of 54 volatile compounds were identified. The total volatile flavor contents in edible parts of tetraploid oysters were significantly higher than in diploid and triploid oysters. The concentrations of ethyl (E)-2-butenoate and 1-penten-3-ol were significantly higher of triploid oysters than in diploid and tetraploid oysters. In addition, the volatile compounds propanoic acid, ethyl propanoate, 1-butanol, butanal, and 2-ethyl furan were significantly higher in females than in males. The volatile compounds p-methyl anisole, 3-octanone, 3-octanone, and (E)-2-heptenal were present in higher levels in male than in female oysters. Overall, different ploidy and gender of oysters were being presented with different sensory characteristics, providing new insights for understanding the flavor characteristics of oysters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1184.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs); Mobility Model; Mobile Sink; Bipartite Graph; Path Planning.
Online: 28 April 2023 (12:59:04 CEST)
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a critical research area with numerous practical applications. WSNs are utilized in real-life scenarios, including environmental monitoring, healthcare, industrial automation, smart homes, and agriculture. As WSNs advance and become more sophisticated, they offer limitless opportunities for innovative solutions in various fields. However, due to their unattended nature, it is essential to develop strategies to improve their performance without draining the battery power of the sensor nodes, which is their most valuable resource. This paper proposes a novel sink mobility model based on constructing a bipartite graph from a deployed wireless sensor network. Using the bipartite graph’s properties, the mobile sink node can visit stationary sensor nodes in an optimal way to collect data and transmit it to the base station. We evaluated the proposed approach through simulations using the NS-2 simulator to investigate the performance of wireless sensor networks when adopting this mobility model. Our results show that using the proposed approach can significantly enhance the performance of wireless sensor networks while conserving the energy of the sensor nodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Aboriginal; Indigenous; contact patterns; household structure; disease transmission; household model, human mobility.
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:21:00 CEST)
Cultural practices and development level can influence a population’s household structures and mixing patterns. Within some populations households can be organized across multiple dwellings. This likely affects the spread of infectious disease spreads through these communities, however, current demographic data collection tools do not record these data. Methods: Between June–October 2018, the Contact And Mobility Patterns in remote Aboriginal Australian communities (CAMP-remote) pilot study recruited Aboriginal mothers with infants in a remote northern Australian community to complete a monthly iPad-based contact survey. Results: Thirteen mother-infant pairs (participants) completed 69 study visits between recruitment and the end of May 2019. Participants reported they and their other children slept in 28 dwellings during the study. The median dwelling occupancy, defined as people sleeping in the same dwelling on the previous night, was nine (range: 3.5–25). Participants who completed at least three responses (n=8) slept in a median of three dwellings (range: 2–9). Each month a median of 28% (range: 0%–63%) of the participants travelled out of the community. Including these data in disease transmission models amplified estimates of infectious disease spread in the study community, compared to models parameterized using census data. Conclusions: The lack of data on mixing patterns in populations where households can be organized across dwellings may negatively impact the accuracy of infectious disease models for these communities and the efficacy of public health actions they inform.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0400.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human capital; educational signal; education; labour market; social mobility; social reproduction; China
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:37:08 CEST)
Exisitng studies argue life chances are, in part, vertically reproduced. Such a statement is applicable to the Chinese contexts as, but not limited to, parental hukou status, to some extent, determines the life chances their children receive. In this essay, the author would like to introduce human capital theory (HCT) and educational signalling theory (EST), and assess how the applications of each of these two models can enrich the understanding of vertical reproduction of individuals’ social mobility opportunities. The author would also present the limitations of each of these two models when addressing relevant Chinese contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0093.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: game-based learning; learning practicies; learning with mobility; oncological treatment; well-being
Online: 5 July 2021 (11:45:18 CEST)
The use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education brings up new possibilities of promoting the learning and health experiences. In this sense, education contexts of 21st century must consider these two areas of knowledge, especially their integration. This article presents learning practices developed with mobile devices and games, in order to improve learning and well-being in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment in non-formal educational setting. The methodology is based on qualitative case studies with content-based data analysis, involving informal interviews and observation methods. The study considers data from 5 patients who participated in the research between 2015 and 2019. The results demonstrate a positive influence of the practices with mobile technologies and games in terms of learning and in the well-being feeling of patients during the treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0211.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; spatial; mobility; spatial weight matrices; principal component analysis; hierarchical clustering
Online: 8 June 2021 (10:56:22 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic starting in the first half of 2020 has changed the lives of everyone across the world. Reduced mobility was essential due to it being the largest impact possible against the spread of the little understood SARS-CoV-2 virus. To understand the spread, a comprehension of human mobility patterns is needed. The use of mobility data in modelling is thus essential to capture the intrinsic spread through the population. It is necessary to determine to what extent mobility data convey the same message of mobility within a region. This paper compares different mobility data sources by constructing spatial weight matrices and further compares the results through hierarchical clustering. This provides insight for the user into which data provides what type of information and in what situations a particular source is most useful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0010.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: mobility; sustainability of air transport; digital technologies; climate policy; new business model
Online: 1 April 2021 (10:48:54 CEST)
The virtual airport hub business model is an innovative solution supported by digital technologies, the implementation of which in continental air transport may lead to a reduction in energy consumption and to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The prerequisites for the implementation of the described solution are: striving to implement the GHG emission reduction strategy laid out in the Paris Agreement (2015) and the European Green Deal (2019) as well as the EU digitalization strategy (2020). The use of predictive analitics to identify the mobility needs of population and operational capabilities of the sector, gives an opportunity to plan travel flows and to create an appropriate set of direct connections among regional airports every day. The results of the analysis of data from 2019 on the amount of energy consumption and GHG emissions indicate that in Europe, it would be possible to achieve reduce GHG emissions by 5% without reducing the number of passengers using air transport. The study was prepared after conducting literature studies, data analysis and using the method of formulating scenarios. The proposed solution has the features of an innovative business model, the implementation of which allows for obtaining more favorable effects using already available resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: organic electronics; organic semiconductors; molecular design; crystal design; π-stacking; charge mobility
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:23:32 CEST)
Chemical versatility of organic semiconductors provides nearly unlimited opportunities for tuning their electronic properties. However, despite decades of research, relationship between molecular structure, molecular packing and charge mobility in these materials remains poorly understood. This reduces the search for high-mobility organic semiconductors to the inefficient trial-and-error approach. For clarifying the abovementioned relationship, investigations of the effect of small changes in the chemical structure on OSs properties are particularly important. In this study, we address computationally the impact of substitution of C-H atom pairs by nitrogen atoms (N-substitution) on molecular properties, molecular packing and charge mobility of crystalline oligoacenes. Besides of decreasing frontier molecular orbital levels, N-substitution dramatically alters molecular electrostatic potential yielding pronounced electron-rich and electron-deficient areas. These changes in the molecular electrostatic potential strengthen face-to-face and edge-to-edge interactions in the corresponding crystals and result in the crossover from the herringbone packing motif to π-stacking. When the electron-rich and electron-deficient areas are large, sharply defined and, probably, have certain symmetry, charge mobility increases up to 3-4 cm2V-1s-1. The results obtained highlight the potential of azaacenes for application in organic electronic devices and are expected to facilitate rational design of organic semiconductors for steady improvement of organic electronics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: ad hoc networks; classification; dynamic; mobility; opportunistic routing; performance improvement; review; survey
Online: 22 July 2019 (09:54:10 CEST)
Opportunistic routing is the latest technique that uses the broadcasting nature of the wireless medium to increase the number of potential forwarding nodes in the network. This, in turn improves the delivery rate and reliability of data transmission in the network. Compared to all previous classes of routing protocols, opportunistic routing offers numerous advantages which is exploited by the latest applications for efficient communication and resource sharing in dynamic ad hoc networks. These applications provide dynamic communication in disaster recovery environments. The objective of this research work is to review and classify all the major opportunistic routing protocols proposed for dynamic ad hoc networks. Further the issues and challenges with each of these existing protocol is discussed and future research directions are put forward
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Ad Hoc networks; classification; dynamic; mobility; opportunistic routing; performance improvement; review; survey
Online: 11 March 2019 (08:02:35 CET)
Opportunistic routing uses the broadcasting nature of the wireless medium to increase the number of potential forwarding nodes in the network. This, in turn improves the delivery rate and reliability of data transmission in the network. Compared to all previous classes of protocols, opportunistic routing offers numerous advantages which is exploited by the latest applications for efficient communication and resource sharing in dynamic ad hoc networks. The objective of this research work is to review and classify all the major opportunistic routing protocols proposed for dynamic ad hoc networks. Further the issues and challenges with each of these existing protocol is discussed and future research directions are put forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Ad Hoc Networks; Highly Dynamic; Mobility; Opportunistic Routing; Performance Improvement; Transmission Inefficiency
Online: 14 February 2019 (10:29:01 CET)
Opportunistic Routing is a promising paradigm that has been proposed for efficient and reliable transfer of data packets in mobile ad hoc networks. This routing strategy takes advantage of the broadcasting nature of the wireless medium to increase the number of probable forwarding devices and improves the reliability of data transfer in the network. Opportunistic Routing utilizes the reception of the same broadcasted packet at multiple devices in the network and selects one best forwarder dynamically from the set of multiple receivers. A number of opportunistic routing protocols have been proposed over these years for effective data delivery in ad hoc networks. But as the speed and mobility of devices increases in the network, performances of the existing opportunistic routing protocols degrade considerably, leading to reduced Quality of Service and poor transmission efficiency. The exceptional potential of opportunistic routing is thus underutilized. In this research we introduce Optimized Opportunistic Routing (OOR) strategy that guarantee excellent Quality of Service and high transmission efficiency to the latest applications using opportunistic routing for communication in highly dynamic ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that our method achieve significant performance improvements compared to all other existing opportunistic routing protocols in highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0346.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: artificial immune system; cellular networks; personal communication system; location management; mobility management
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:02:14 CEST)
In this paper, we are proposing a bio-inspired location management (LM) technique for personal communication system (PSC). It is based on artificial immune system (AIS), with self-adaptation and self-updates attributes in order to perform the location management, and work helps to achieve the better quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) for the mobile users. Here, we are suggesting a modified mobile switching center (MSC) architecture, and an adaptive self-modified location management procedure. The proposed mobile switching centre architecture has an advantage of rule-based and fact-based system to store the rules and fact related to location management procedure, and it shows the intelligent behavior of system. The mobile switching centre calculates the best method for location management and rule-base system trigged the rules to perform the techniques. The system stores the result (techniques for location management) in fact-base system for future use. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed techniques been analyzed, and it observed that the proposed system has 45-50% improvement in performance over the current location management techniques. Here, we are taking the performance parameters such as signaling cost, database update cost, overhead measurement, mobility management cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1755.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Cognitive-Radio, Decision-Making, Geographic Mobility in Cognitive Radio, Location and Handover Management
Online: 24 August 2023 (14:34:50 CEST)
According to the cognitive radio (CR) paradigm, the efficient use of the radio spectrum is achieved by performing four main functions: spectral perception, spectral mobility, decision-making, and cooperation. In this work, a multivariable algorithm that considers geographic mobility (GM) is presented. The decision-making process includes a feedback mechanism for the dynamic selection of reservation channels in a wireless network with cognitive capabilities. Geographic mobility plays a crucial role in how radio takes advantage of its environment; however, it has been scarcely explored in the literature. In the present work, geographic mobility tests were carried out involving the interaction of CR and primary users (PU), where a measurement of the latency time of the proposed algorithm called: Algorithm for Decision-Making with Geographic Mobility (ATDeMoGeo) was evaluated and compared with other algorithms such as: Dijkstra's Algorithm, Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP), Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchical Process (FAHP) and Decision-Making Algorithm with Modified Dijkstra (ATDDiM). It was found that the proposed algorithm is robust and that it considerably reduces the latency time to accurately determine the best communication channels, thanks to the decision-making function implemented to establish which channels the CRs can occupy. For the selection of the best reserve channels, a series of criteria were considered, such as: signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR), bandwidth (BW), probability of channel availability (AP), estimated channel time of availability (ETA) using the random waypoint mobility model (RWPM). These criteria are evaluated for two types of service, i.e., real time (RT) and best effort (BE). For the evaluation and validation of the ATDeMoGeo algorithm, a network with cognitive characteristics in NS-3 was simulated. The simulation scenarios consisted of a base station (BS) with mobile CRs and PUs. Based on the previous criteria, i.e., BW, SINR, AP and ETA, the BS assesses the spectrum occupancy information obtained by the CRs. The results show that the proposed algorithm can be used without problem for the proposed scenarios with higher speed and accuracy for the selection of better communication channels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Intelligent archive repository; archive access robot; complex digital filtering; map matrix; navigational mobility
Online: 7 November 2022 (12:23:04 CET)
By constructing a static map, the library robot can navigate and access documents autonomously, which greatly improves efficiency; however, for libraries where shelves can be moved, map changes do not allow for direct navigation, and also sensors such as radar and camera are relatively expensive, so we propose a low-cost navigation algorithm based on real-time ranging data and map matrices, and designed a mobile archive access robot. In order to obtain real-time distance data, nine near/long range sensors were mounted on the chassis and a composite digital filtering algorithm was designed based on different moving area characteristics; then the access task matrix and map matrix were designed based on the archive access task and the location characteristics of the archive shelf placement, the robot can rely on the range data to update the map matrix during the moving process, complete its own positioning, and use the task matrix The robot can use the task matrix to complete autonomous navigation and access to multiple files. Experiments show that the filtered positioning accuracy can reach 1cm, while the robot can move to the target shelf autonomously, which is more practical and less costly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education 2030; gross enrollment ratio (GER); higher education expansion; SDG 4; student mobility
Online: 15 August 2022 (15:26:56 CEST)
Student mobility is one of the most important indicators to reflect institutional internationalization in a sustainable higher education system. While student mobility issues have been addressed persistently, the phenomenon is rarely discussed in association with higher education expansion. Since higher education sustainable development has received much scholarly attention, monitoring student mobility flows to adjust international strategies is necessary. This study explored practical approaches to detect student mobility flows in the process of higher education expansion. Targeting Taiwan’s higher education system as an example, we addressed the topic of system expansion and the core issues of student mobility. Target series data were collected from 1950 to 2021, including higher education enrollment, gross enrollment ratio (GER), and number of inbound and outbound students. The data were transformed with index formats, for example enrollment increasing ratio (IR) and net flow ratio. The cross-correlation function (CCF) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) were used to determine the correlations of the series data and their future trends. The findings suggested that the effect of system expansion, with GER and IR, might influence the mobility ratios significantly in the process of higher education expansion. This study confirmed that the time series approaches work well in detecting the phenomena of higher education expansion and their effects on student mobility flows in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0316.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: cardiac surgery; bone fracture; median sternotomy; rehabilitation; ossicication; functional mobility; assistanve device; feedback
Online: 7 December 2021 (23:36:05 CET)
Patients often need the use of their arms to assist with functional activities, but after bone disruption, pushing is frequently limited to less than 4.5 kg. No method exists to measure arm weight bearing objectively in clinical settings. This project aimed to design, construct, and test a walker for patients who need to limit arm force to prevent excessive bone stress during post-fracture (iatrogenic or traumatic) ossification. First, a qualitative study was conducted to obtain critiques of a Clinical Force Measuring (CFM) walker prototype from rehabilitation professionals. Key statements and phrases were coded that allowed “themes” to emerge from transcribed interviews, which guided device revisions. Next, a second CFM Walker prototype was designed based on the qualitative data and device criteria/constraints and finally tested. The result was fabrication of a new lightweight, streamlined, and cost-effective prototype walker with a simple visual display and auditory cue with upper limit alarms. Key features included attachments for medical equipment and thin film force-sensing resistors integrated into the walker handles that progressively activated 3 LEDs and a buzzer when arm force exceeded programmed thresholds. The innovative CFM Walker will help patients with restricted arm weight bearing, especially elderly adults, recover safer and faster in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0184.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: urban planning; COVID-19; urban mobility; sustainability; smart cities; smart growth; pandemic; resilience
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:31:01 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that was greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss the transformational impact that the pandemic brought on this specific urban domain, especially with regards to the promotion of the smart growth agenda and the acceleration towards the smart city paradigm. We collect 60 initial policy responses related to urban mobility from 86 cities around the world and analyse them based on the challenge they aim to address, the exact principles of smart growth and sustainable mobility that they encapsulate and the level of ICT penetration. Our findings suggest that emerging strategies, although mainly temporary, are transformational, in line with the principles of smart growth. As a result the pandemic becomes an opportunity for shifting towards more sustainable urban planning and mobility practices. However, most policy responses adopted during the first months of the pandemic fail to leverage advancements made in the field of smart cities, and to adopt off-the-shelf solutions such as in monitoring, alerting and operations management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0396.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Pandemic; Machine Learning; Public Health; Human Mobility; Air Quality; Review
Online: 15 March 2021 (14:50:24 CET)
The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic is affecting every facet of human lives (e.g., public health, education, economy, transportation, and the environment). This novel pandemic and citywide implemented lockdown measures are affecting virus transmission, people’s travel patterns, and air quality. Many studies have been conducted to predict the COVID-19 diffusion, assess the impacts of the pandemic on human mobility and air quality, and assess the impacts of lockdown measures on viral spread with a range of Machine Learning (ML) techniques. This review study aims to analyze results from past research to understand the interactions among the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown measures, human mobility, and air quality. The critical review of prior studies indicates that urban form, people's socioeconomic and physical conditions, social cohesion, and social distancing measures significantly affect human mobility and COVID-19 transmission. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many people are inclined to use private transportation for necessary travel purposes to mitigate coronavirus-related health problems. This review study also noticed that COVID-19 related lockdown measures significantly improve air quality by reducing the concentration of air pollutants, which in turn improves the COVID-19 situation by reducing respiratory-related sickness and deaths of the people. It is argued that ML is a powerful, effective, and robust analytic paradigm to handle complex and wicked problems such as a global pandemic. This study also discusses policy implications, which will be helpful for policymakers to take prompt actions to moderate the severity of the pandemic and improve urban environments by adopting data-driven analytic methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0389.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB-1); portal vein thrombosis (PVT); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:36:58 CET)
Background High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of thrombosis and cancer. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate its potential role as a diagnostic biomarker of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The study population included N=100 prospectively recruited patients with a novel diagnosis of HCC. We compared circulating HMGB-1 levels between 34 healthy controls, HCC patients with PVT (N=22), and HCC patients without PVT (N=78). Results HCC patients without PVT showed significantly higher median HMGB-1 serum levels (8.2 [5.5-13.1] ng/ml) than those observed in the case of HCC with PVT (5.5 [4.4-8.5] ng/ml; p=0.012) and in healthy controls (4.1 [3.1-8.2] ng/ml; p<0.001). Among HCC patients, at univariate analysis, the presence of PVT was associated with higher median age (p=0.036), larger major cancer node diameter (p<0.001), and lower HMGB-1 serum level (p=0.012). At multivariate analysis, the presence of PVT maintained a positive association with major node diameter p=0.001) and an inverse association with serum HMGB-1 levels (p=0.003). Conclusions These findings indicate that serum HMGB-1 bears an inverse association with PVT complicating HCC at the time of diagnosis and suggest that serum HMGB-1 depletion may mark PVT development in cirrhotic patients with HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hybrid - electric vehicle; emerging technology; sustainable mobility and transportation; consumer perception; consumer purchase intention
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:30:01 CEST)
Existence of hybrid electric vehicles nowadays is one of the emerging technologies worldwide. Different countries are using this technology on their transportation, and nowadays, a lot of other countries are gradually adapting on using this kind of innovation in their transport system. Philippines is among these countries which aims to have a sustainable mobility by embracing the use of hybrid - electric vehicles but still lots of consumers are lacking awareness on this technology. Lack of information on the social, environmental, and economic potential benefits are among the main issues of Philippines consumers that really affect its uptake. The goal of this study was to evaluate the consumer’s perception and purchase intention on the transition of hybrid - electric vehicles for sustainable mobility and transportation here in the Philippines. It aimed to assess consumer awareness with hybrid - electric vehicles and its potential benefits to human beings in terms of social, environmental, and economic aspects. The study also gauged the impact of this perception on consumer’s purchase intention on hybrid - electric vehicles. These objectives were attained using the Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Analysis. Using these methods, the results revealed that majority of the consumers believed on the positive benefits of transitioning to hybrid - electric vehicles in terms of social, environmental, and economic aspects. This study also showed that these benefits have high impact on the consumer’s intention of buying or having a hybrid – electric vehicle. Electric vehicle is one of the most effective measure of decarbonizing the transport system. Furthermore, government and automotive businesses must strengthen their drive in spreading awareness of hybrid – electric vehicle’s benefits to consumers to further support country’s effort for development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2184.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: patient's mobility; beds endowment; Gandy's Nomogram; healthcare management; healthcare services; hospital rehabilitation; Italian regions
Online: 30 June 2023 (09:56:30 CEST)
Background: In a Beveridgean decentralized healthcare system, like the Italian one, where regions are responsible for their own health planning and financing, the analysis of patients’ migration appears very interesting as it has economic and social implications. The study aims to analyze both patients’ migration for hospital rehabilitation and if the beds endowment is a driver for these flows; Methods: from 2011 to 2019, admissions data were collected from the Hospital Dis-charge Cards database of the Italian Ministry of Health, population data from Italian National Institute of Statistics and data of beds endowment from the Italian Ministry of Health website. To evaluate patients’ migration, we used Gandy’s Nomogram, while to assess if beds endowments are mobility drivers, we have created two matrices, one with attraction indexes (AI) and one with escape indexes (EI). The beds endowment, for each Italian region, were correlated with AI and EI. Spearman’s test was carried out through STATA software; Results: Gandy’s Nomogram showed that only some northern regions had good hospital planning for rehabilitation. A statistically significant correlation between beds endowment and AI was found for four regions, while with EI for eight regions. Conclusions: Only some northern regions appear able to satisfy the care needs of their residents, with an attraction minus escapes positive epidemiological balance. The beds endowment seems to be a driver of Patients’ migration, mainly for escapes. Certainly, the search for mobility drivers needs further investigation given the events in Molise and Basilicata.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0152.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SARS-CoV2; COVID-19; homeless people; public health; vulnerable population; Seroprevalence, cohort; residential mobility
Online: 11 January 2022 (17:20:14 CET)
Most vulnerable individuals are particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study takes place in a large city in France. The aim of this study is to describe the mobility of the homeless population at the begin-ning of the health crisis and to analyze its impact in terms of COVID-19 prevalence. From June to August 2020 and September to December 2020, 1272 homeless people were invited to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and virus in and completed questionnaires. Our data show that homeless populations are sociologically dif-ferent depending on where they live. We show that people living on the street were most likely to be relocated to emergency shelters than other inhabitants. Some neighborhoods are points of attraction for homeless peo-ple in the city while others emptied during the health crisis, which had consequences for virus circulation. People with a greater number of different dwellings reported became more infected. This first study of the mo-bility and epidemiology of homeless people in time of pandemic provides unique information about mobility mapping, sociological factors of this mobility, mobility at different scales and epidemiological consequences. We suggest that homeless policies need to be radically transformed since actual model exposes people to infection in emergency.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ADAS simulation; scenario generation; automated driving; Testing; innovation in mobility; self-driving cars; transportation
Online: 7 December 2020 (11:24:16 CET)
The increasingly used approach of combining different simulation software in testing of automated driving systems (ADS) increases the need for potential and convenient software designs. Recently developed co-simulation platforms (CSP) provide the possibility to cover the high demand on testing kilometers for ADS by combining vehicle simulation software (VSS) with traffic flow simulation software (TFSS) environments. The emphasis on the demand of testing kilometers is not enough to choose a suitable CSP. The complexity level of the used vehicle, object, sensors and environment models is essential for valid and representative simulation results. Choosing a suitable CSP raises the question of how the test procedures should be defined and constructed and what the relevant test scenarios are. Parameters of the ADS, the environments, objects, sensors in VSS as well as traffic parameters in TFSS can be used to define and generate test scenarios. In order to generate a large number of scenarios in a systematic and automated way, suitable and appropriate software designs are required. In this paper we present a software design for CSP based on the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern and implementation of a complex CSP for virtual testing of ADS. Based on this design, an implementation of a CSP is presented using the VSS from IPG Automotive called CarMaker and the TFSS from PTV Group called Vissim. The results have shown that the presented CSP design and the implementation of the co-simulation can be used to generate relevant scenarios for testing of ADS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0150.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation; amorphous; physical stability; hydrogen-bond; molecular mobility; mixing energy; molecular interactions
Online: 11 June 2018 (10:24:14 CEST)
Amorphous solid dispersions are considered a promising formulation strategy for the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. The limiting factor for the applicability of this approach is the physical (in)stability of the amorphous phase in solid samples. Minimizing the risk of reduced shelf life for a new drug by establishing a suitable excipient/polymer-type from first principles would be desirable to accelerate formulation development. Here we perform Molecular Dynamics simulations to determine properties of blends of eight different polymer-small molecule drug combinations for which stability data is available from a consistent set of literature data. We calculate thermodynamic factors (mixing energies) as well as mobilities (diffusion rates and roto-vibrational fluctuations). We find that either of the two factors, mobility and energetics, can determine the relative stability of the amorphous form for a given drug. Which factor is rate limiting depends on physico-chemical properties of the drug and the excipients/polymers. The methods outlined here can be readily employed for an in-silico pre-screening of different excipients for a given drug to establish a qualitative ranking of the expected relative stabilities, thereby accelerating and streamlining formulation development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0218.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: fascia research; connective tissue; range of motion; mobility training; shearwave elastographie; load compensation; well-being
Online: 3 November 2023 (05:06:34 CET)
The research methods were used to investigate the following questions: Does a mobility training intervention change tissue stiffness, joint range of motion, and compensate for possible imbalances? Do the interventions influence the pressure pain threshold and the overall well-being?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1886.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Walking Environment; User Satisfaction; Sustainable Urban Mobility; Urban Sustainability; Pedestrian Infrastructure; Road Safety and Walking
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:21:04 CET)
Urban mobility and sustainable transportation are fundamental for the European Union's goal of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. The EU encourages national governments to prioritize zero-emission urban transport systems that emphasize safety, accessibility, and inclusiveness. Promoting walking plays a fundamental role in sustainable urban mobility, offering advantages such as emission reduction, better air quality, and enhanced public health. Recent research underscores the importance of creating appealing and safe pedestrian environments to encourage walking. These efforts align with the United Nations' Agenda 2030 sustainability goals, particularly Objective 11, which aims to build inclusive, safe, and sustainable cities and communities. This paper explores the factors influencing pedestrians' willingness to walk and categorizes them into four main groups: Physical Characteristics, Comfort, Safety, and Attractiveness. Significantly, the study reveals that the importance of these factors varies based on demographics, mainly the age of the users. Understanding these factors and their relative significance for pedestrian satisfaction is crucial for shaping effective policies and urban planning strategies aimed at promoting sustainable mobility. By prioritizing pedestrian satisfaction and addressing the specific needs and preferences of diverse groups, cities can create more walkable and environmentally friendly urban environments. These findings offer valuable insights for policymakers and urban planners working toward EU climate-neutral objectives and enhancing the well-being of citizens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0226.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: motorised mobility; average distances; international comparison; future automobiles; automotive companies; battery autonomy (range); economic analysis
Online: 22 June 2019 (15:59:01 CEST)
This paper aims at providing a multisource data analysis, including direct data collection, focussed on daily average distances covered with motorised mobility. Its results can be used as a basis for policies involving a shift towards new propulsions, electric motors or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) for road vehicles. A number of variables influence the propensity of drivers to acquire or use electric traction, even the option of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). This paper addresses one of such variable: the compliancy of electric traction regarding both hybrid plug-in solutions and full-electric vehicles, in addition to the autonomy of batteries (range), with the daily travels by road vehicles, mainly by automobiles. We want to understand whether the constraints leading towards a greater independence from crude oil rather than constraints concerning emissions, mainly in urban contexts, might be compliant with the habitual daily trips of drivers. We also want to understand if these daily trips have varied much during recent years and the consequences they may have on operational costs of plug-in automobiles. We are well aware that the average distances do not represent the actual daily runs of vehicles; yet similar distributions of daily distances for different case studies indicate that a high percentage of trips respond to certain features. After introducing a general overview of road-motorised mobility in Italy, the paper compares data from other studies to provide an indication of average daily driving distances. This reveals how different recent analyses converge on a limited range of average road distances covered daily by Italians, which is compliant with ranges allowed by electric batteries, provided that their low energy density in comparison with that of oil-derived fuels do not imply a significant increase in vehicle mass. Subsequently, average distances in some EU Countries are taken from the literature, and the results are also compared with U.S. data. The study extends the analysis of trends on the use of automobiles and road-vehicles to the international context by also addressing average daily distances covered for freight transport in some EU Countries, thereby providing a further basis for comparison and for understanding whether the daily motorised mobility can be considered as a stable phenomenon. Finally, an analysis is provided of the economic operational advantages from using plug-in vehicles. The main aim of this paper is thereafter to investigate the average daily motorised mobility of single vehicles – so not an aggregated motorised mobility as collected by some statistics – by using private motorised vehicles in Italy, with related trends; thereafter, to compare these data with those obtained from other countries, making use of both existing research studies and directly collected data; the final aim is to understand both the compliance of daily activities based on the use of automobiles with the autonomy of batteries (range) and to calculate some economic outcomes.