ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0110.v1
Online: 5 September 2020 (03:59:03 CEST)
The rapid growth of network services, Internet of Things devices and online users on the Internet have led to an increase in the amount of data transmitted daily. As more and more information is stored and transmitted on the Internet, cybercriminals are trying to gain access to the information to achieve their goals, whether it is to sell it on the dark web or for other malicious intent. Through thorough literature study relating to the causes and issues that are brought from the security and privacy segment of wireless networks, it is observed that there are various factors that can cause the networks to be an insecure; especially factors that revolve around cybercriminals with their growing expertise and the lack of preparation and efforts to combat them by relevant bodies. The aim of this paper is to showcase major and frequent security as well as privacy issues in wireless networks along with specialized solutions that can assist the related organizations or the public to fathom how great of an impact these challenges can bring if every related stakeholder took a step in reducing them. Through this paper it is discovered that there are many ways these challenges can be mitigated, however, the lack of implementation of privacy and security solutions is still largely present due to the absence of practical application of these solutions by responsible parties in real world scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0008.v1
Subject: Keywords: radio over fiber; nonlinearities mitigation; support vector machine method; RL-SARSA
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:09:31 CEST)
Use of Machine Learning (ML) methodologies in optical communications has paved a new pathway. In this paper, firstly, we discuss the use of ML methodologies for reducing optical fiber nonlinearities, nonlinearity compensation, fault detection and optical performance monitoring. Then we present our recent work where we compare RL-SARSA and SVM based method with conventional method. The results show that RL-SARSA and SVM methods are successful candidates in mitigating the nonlinearities in proposed system as compared to conventional optical communication system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway noise; railway vibration; squeal noise vibration; screeching noise vibration; impact noise vibration; abatement; mitigation; life cycle analysis
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:39:40 CEST)
The railway industry focus in the past years was to research, find and develop methods to mitigate noise and vibration resulted from wheel/rail contact along track infrastructure. This resulted in a wide range of abatement measures that are available for the professionals of the industry today. However, although there are many options in the market, their practical implementations depend upon general constraints that affect most technological application in the engineering world. The progression of these technologies have facilitated the selection of more adequate methods for each best case scenario, but further studies are ought to be made to proper assess if each one is fit for their purpose. Every method implementation must be analyzed through budget and timeframe limitations, which includes building, maintenance and inspection costs and time allocation, while also aiming to meet different benefits, such as environmental impact control and wear of the whole infrastructure. There are several situations and facilities in a railway project design that need noise and vibration mitigation methods and each design allocates different priorities for each one of them. Traditionally the disturbance caused by railways to the community are generated by wheel/rail contact sound radiation that expresses in different ways, depending on the movement of the rolling stock and track alignment, such as rolling noise, impact noise and curve noise. More specifically, in special trackworks such as turnouts, the main area of this study, there are two noises types that must be evaluated: impact noise and screeching noise. With respect to the second, it is similar to curve squeals and, being such, its mitigation methods are to be assigned as if it was to abate curve squeal in turnouts and crossings. The impact noise on the other hand, emerges from the sound made by the rolling stock moving through joints and discontinuities (i.e. gaps) that composes these special components of a railway track. A life cycle analysis is therefore substantial for this reality and in this case will be applied to Squeal and Impact Noise on Special Trackwork. The evaluation is based on a valid literature review and the total costs were assumed by industry reports to maintain coherency. The period for a life cycle analysis is usually of 50 years, hence it was the value assumed. As for the general parameters, an area with high density of people was considered to estimate the values for a community with very strict limits for noise and vibration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0159.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Stone quarrying; air; water; pollution; mitigation
Online: 9 December 2021 (15:41:33 CET)
The unquenchable demand for rock materials has attracted many companies within the building and construction sector to invest in stone quarrying. However, this has brought about the environmental impacts with health threats to people. There is a paucity of information about the magnitude of pollution on air and water and how it varies with quarry sites. This study therefore investigated the physical impacts of quarrying on air and water and explored the in-situ mitigations to undesirable effects due to stone quarrying. Four active quarry sites were identified. Field measurements of dust (particulate matter) was conducted within the four quarry sites and in the nearby community. Water samples were collected from quarry pits and nearby shallow wells for laboratory analysis of water quality. Statistical Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in pollution across the four studied sites. Results revealed that, amidst use of wet crushing and water sprinkling on bare surfaces, dust emission was higher than the recommended permissible standards levels with a significant variation across the quarry sites with ANOVA (P-value=0.003) for PM2.5 and (P-value=0.04366) for PM10. Water pollution was mainly contributed by the non-permissive levels of nitrates, chromium, and pH. Polluted air and water are associated with sparking off health threats to the users in the community. In conclusion, quarry companies should strengthen the already existing mitigation of dust suppression. The study recommends additional measures such as treating quarry pit water before discharging to the open environment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0275.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: liquefaction; vulnerability; earthquake; disaster mitigation; Pariaman
Online: 29 March 2019 (08:18:36 CET)
Knowledge about the liquefaction vulnerability in Pariaman city which is prone to an earthquake is very much needed in disaster mitigation based spatial planning. The liquefaction is an event of loss of the strength of the sandy soil layer caused by the vibration of the earthquake, where the liquefaction occurs in the sandy soil layer which has loose material in the form of sand that is not compact or not solid. This research was conducted by analyzing the potential of liquefaction vulnerability based on the Conus penetration to produce Microzonation of the susceptibility of subsidence due to liquefaction at 4 locations in Pariaman city, i.e., Marunggi village, Taluak village, Pauh Timur village and Padang Birik-Birik village. The Conus penetration testing is carried out using the piezocone (CPTU) method and mechanical Cunos penetration, and approach using Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed that the potential of liquefaction was found at the sandy soil layer of sand and a mixture of sand and silt, which is characterized by the value of Cunos resistance and local resistance each smaller than 15 MPa and 150 kPa at varying depths. Based on the results of the analysis using this method, the critical conditions of liquefaction found in the medium sandy soil to solid. The fine sand layer which has the potential for liquefaction is in sand units formed from coastal deposits, coastal ridges and riverbanks. This liquefaction vulnerability zones analysis is limited to a depth of 6.00 m due to the limitations of the equipment used. The results of the analysis show that the fine sand layer which has the potential for liquefaction occurs at a depth of> 1.00-6.00 m with the division of zones, i.e., 1) High liquefaction in the sandy soil layer which has a critical acceleration (a) <0.10 g with shallow groundwater surface; 2) Medium liquefaction in the sandy soil layer which has a critical acceleration (a) between 0.10–0.20 g with shallow groundwater surface; and 3) Low and very low liquefaction in the sandy soil layer which has a critical acceleration (a) between 0.20–0.30 g with an average groundwater deep enough surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Mitigation system modelling; Remote impoundment; Consequence analysis
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:32:01 CET)
After the occurrence of a hydrogen fluoride leakage accident that triggered massive losses in Gumi, South Korea in 2012, the government and companies have been interested in installing mitigation systems to minimize the loss of a leakage accident. What lacks in previous researches studying mitigation systems is an evaluation of how much a mitigation system can reduce the impact of accidents. Therefore, modeling-based simulations of mitigation systems should be urgently developed to analysis of the performance of a mitigation system. This study aims to design a mitigation system to handle a leakage accident of a storage tank and determine its design specifications through the use of modeling. The basic concept is that when leakage occurs, leakage material in a dike is drained to a remote impoundment installed under the ground, while the material in the storage vessel is transferred to a reserve tank by a pump at the same time. To evaluate the efficacy of this system. hydrogen fluoride and benzene storage vessels are tested. The simulation results indicate that the proposed mitigation system can contribute to the reduction in the dispersion area for the materials as well as a large reduction in the leakage material.
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:05:56 CET)
There is growing awareness that “Nature-based Solutions” (NbS) can help to protect us from climate change impacts whilst slowing further warming, supporting biodiversity and securing ecosystem services. However, the potential of NbS to provide the intended benefits has not been rigorously assessed. There are concerns over their reliability and cost-effectiveness compared to engineered alternatives, and their resilience to climate change. Trade-offs can arise if climate mitigation policy encourages NbS with low biodiversity value, such as afforestation with non-native monocultures. This can result in maladaptation, especially in a rapidly changing world where biodiversity-based resilience and multifunctional landscapes are key. Here we highlight the rise of NbS in climate policy—focussing on their potential for climate change adaptation as well as mitigation—and discuss barriers to their evidence-based implementation. We outline the major financial and governance challenges to implementing NbS at scale, highlighting avenues for further research. As climate policy turns increasingly towards greenhouse gas removal approaches such as afforestation, we stress the urgent need for natural and social scientists to engage with policymakers. They must ensure that NbS can achieve their potential to tackle both the climate and biodiversity crisis while also contributing to sustainable development. This will require systemic change in the way we conduct research and run our institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0157.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: acrylamide; biscuits; mitigation measures; benchmark levels; contaminant
Online: 11 July 2019 (11:05:40 CEST)
Acrylamide (AA), a molecule which potentially increases the risk of developing cancer, is easily formed in food rich in carbohydrates, such as biscuits, wafers and breakfast cereals, at temperatures above 120 °C. Thus, it is eminent the need to detect and quantify the AA content in processed foodstuffs, in order to delineate the limits and mitigation strategies. This work reports the development and validation of a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based methodology for identification and quantification of AA in specific food matrices of biscuits, by using LC-MSn with electrospray ionization and Orbitrap as mass analyser. The developed analytical method showed good repeatability (RSDr 11.1%) and 3.55 μg kg-1 and 11.8 μg kg-1 as limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ), respectively. The choice of multiplexed targeted-SIM mode (t-SIM) for AA and AA-d3 isolated ions provided enhanced detection sensitivity, as demonstrated in this work. Results for AA concentration obtained vary between 323.7 and 2056.1 μg kg-1. During baking an increase in AA concentration was observed, as well as between samples taken from different areas of the baking oven. Statistical processing of data was performed in order to compare the AA levels with several production parameters, such as time/cooking temperature, placement on the cooking conveyor belt, color and moisture for different biscuits. The composition of the raw materials was statistically the most correlated factor with the AA content when all samples are considered. The statistical treatment presented herein enables an important prediction of factors influencing AA formation in biscuits contributing for putting in place effective mitigation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: adaptation; Brazil; climate change policy; mitigation; risks
Online: 7 July 2016 (10:54:49 CEST)
Subnational governments play a key role responding to climate change risks in terms of policy strategies and instruments. This article analyzes how Brazilian municipal and state governments have developed and implemented public policies to mitigate and to adapt to climate change risks. We surveyed all cities’ and states’ climate policies within the country. The methodological approach includes five main points of analysis: 1. mitigation targets and intentions; 2. adaptation actions; 3. stakeholders’ participation; 4. policy implementation; 5. participation in networks related to climate change. Our results suggest that even though subnational climate policies in Brazil are isolated initiatives within the national context, they play an important role responding to climate change risks in different scales and levels. The strongest Brazilian policies with both mitigation and adaptation actions counted on previous mobilization for the climate issue involving different stakeholders from several segments of the society. These governments have also participated in transnational cooperation networks related to climate change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0119.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Swine barn, particulate matter, characteristics, bioaerosols, mitigation, measurement
Online: 10 January 2022 (13:56:52 CET)
Particulate matter (PM) represents an air quality management challenge for confined swine production systems. Because of the limited space and ventilation rate, PM can reach relatively high concentrations in swine barns. PM in swine barns possesses different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics than that in the atmosphere and other indoor environments. As a result, it exerts different environmental and health effects and creates some unique challenges regarding PM measurement and mitigation. Numerous research efforts have been made, generating massive data and information. However, relevant review reports are sporadic. This study aims to provide an updated comprehensive review of swine barn PM, focusing on publications since 1990. It covers various topics, including PM characteristics, sources, measurement methods, and in-barn mitigation technologies. Since PM in swine barns is of primarily biological origins, bioaerosols are reviewed in great detail. Relevant topics include bacterial/fungal counts, viruses, microbial community composition, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes, endotoxins, and (1→3)-β-D-glucans. For each topic, existing knowledge is summarized and discussed and knowledge gaps are identified. Overall, PM in swine barns is complicated in chemical and biological composition and highly variable in mass concentrations, size, and microbial abundance. Feed, feces, and skins constitute the major PM sources. Regarding in-barn PM mitigation, four technologies (oil/water sprinkling, ionization, alternation of feed and feeders, and recirculating air filtration) are dominant. However, none of them have been widely used in commercial barns. A collective discussion of major knowledge gaps and future research needs is offered at the end of the report.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0360.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Household Disaster Preparation; Natural Hazards Mitigation; Prediction Model
Online: 2 November 2021 (12:57:04 CET)
Natural disasters are showing an increase in the magnitude, frequency, and geographic distribution. Studies have shown that individuals’ self-sufficiency, which largely depends on household preparedness, is very important for hazard mitigation in at least the first 72 hours following a disaster. However, for factors that influence a household’s disaster preparedness, though there are many studies trying to identify from different aspects, we still lack an integrative analysis on how these factors contribute to a household’s preparation. This paper aims to build a classification model to predict whether a household has prepared for a potential disaster based on their personal characteristics and the environment they located. We collect data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s National Household Survey in 2018 and train four classification models - logistic regression, decision trees, support vector machines, and multi-layer perceptron classifier models- to predict the impact of personal characteristics and the environment they located on household prepare for the potential natural disaster. Results show that the multi-layer perceptron classifier model outperforms others with the highest scoring on both recall (0.8531) and f1 measure (0.7386). In addition, feature selection results also show that among other factors, a household’s accessibility to disaster-related information is the most critical factor that impacts household disaster preparation. Though there is still room for further parameter optimization, the model gives a clue that we could support disaster management by gathering publicly accessible data.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0367.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: All-Hazard; Emergency Management; Mitigation; Preparedness; Recovery; Response
Online: 13 July 2021 (10:07:16 CEST)
Emergency Management has not developed in a cohesive or comprehensive manner. Differing terms are used to name identical concepts. A standard comprehensive doctrine for the important development of emergency management is needed. In this paper I explain a doctrinal framework for emergency management. The paper states a clear identification of the five dimensions, and each of their components, necessary to the informed practice of Emergency Management. Although emergencies vary in cause and severity, the process of Emergency Management necessary for optimal handling of these emergencies varies little. The “All Hazards Approach” to emergency management establishes and reinforces commonality in processes, procedures, planning templates and organizational structure. The three types of agencies associated with emergency management activities are discussed, including the subject matter agency, coordinating agency, and supporting agency. The four critical functions of emergency management are detailed, and include mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, often all carried out concurrently. The ten activities, and seven resources of emergency management are highlighted. There are many ways to represent the integration of these five dimensions, to ensure completeness, while ensuring clarity; the two most common are described. When experts in Emergency Management follow the doctrine, they can coordinate all those involved to be sure that all aspects of any hazard are considered, and that all organizations/agencies, functions, activities, and resources of Emergency Management are coordinated and optimally active. Following this process is the only way to ensure the best outcomes from any emergency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0324.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Climate; Conservation agriculture; GHG emission; Livestock husbandry; Mitigation
Online: 14 December 2020 (11:01:49 CET)
This paper aimed to assess climate-smart agricultural practices in Ethiopia, discuss the contribution of climate-smart agricultural practices for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and examine determinant factors of climate-smart agricultural practices in mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Conservation agriculture, integrated soil fertility management, agroforestry, crop diversification, and improved livestock feed and feeding practices are among the best climate-smart agricultural practices in Ethiopia. Combination of the adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices such as no-tillage increased crop diversity and retaining crop residue on-farm have a mitigation potential of increased SOC in non-flooded crops that change in a significant ton of CO2e ha-1 year-1. In addition, a mitigation potential of CH4 in reduced irrigation of paddy rice farms was also changed in ton CO2e ha-1 year-1. It was found that productivity enhancing interventions in the tropics could reduce emission intensity in dairy systems by up to 0.9 t CO2e per milk. Agroforestry practices and the addition of organic fertilizers on the farm increased mitigation potential of 784093 t CO2e and 193050 t CO2e biomass of carbon and SOC per year respectively. Adoptions of climate-smart agricultural practices are affected by different factors such as farming factors, technology inaccessibility, environmental factors, policy design and social expertise, negative attitudes and motivations of farmers, farmers’ socio-demographic factors, and farmers' socioeconomic factors. To reverse the situation, preparation of targeted climate-smart agricultural practices to areas that are likely to provide the greatest GHG reduction potential and demonstration of these practices to other areas should be encouraged so that other farmers will learn for similar agro-ecologies.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: African swine fever virus; stability; soil; disinfection; risk mitigation
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:17:20 CET)
Understanding African swine fever virus (ASFV) transmission is essential for strategies to minimize virus spread during an outbreak. ASFV can survive for extended time periods in animal products, carcasses, and the environment. While ASFV genome was found in the environment around infected farms, data on the virus survival in soil are scarce. We investigated different soil matrices spiked with ASFV-positive blood from infected wild boar to see if ASFV can remain infectious in the soil beneath infected carcasses. As expected, ASFV genome detection was possible over the entire sampling period. Soil pH, structure, and ambient temperature played a role for the stability of infectious ASFV. Infectious ASFV was demonstrated in specimens originating from sterile sand for at least three weeks, from beach sand for up to two weeks, from yard soil for one week, and from swamp soil for three days. Virus was not recovered from two acidic forest soils. All risk mitigation experiments with citric acid or calcium hydroxide resulted in complete inactivation. In conclusion, stability of infectious ASFV is very low in acidic forest soils but rather high in sandy soils. However, given the high variability, treatment of carcass collection points with disinfectants should be considered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; asymptomaticspread; early-stage COVID-19 mitigation
Online: 20 April 2020 (06:18:33 CEST)
Background: Early-stage interventions in a potential pandemic are important tounderstand as they can make the difference between runaway exponential growththat is hard to turn back and stopping the spread before it gets that far. COVID-19 is an interesting case study because there have been very different outcomesin different localities. These variations are best studied after the fact if precisionis the goal; while a pandemic is still unfolding less precise analysis is of value inattempting to guide localities in the early stages to learn lessons of those that pre-ceded them. Methods: I examine three factors that could differentiate strategy: asymptomaticspread, differences in use of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) tuberculosis vac-cine and cloth face masks.Results:Differences in disease progression as well as the possibility of alternativestrategies to prevent COVID-19 from entering the runaway phase or damping itdown later can be elucidated by a study of asymptomatic infection. A study todemonstrate not only what fraction are asymptomatic but how contagious they arewill also inform policy on universal mask wearing. Conclusions: While a COVID-19 outbreak is at a level that makes accurate trace-and test possible, investigation of asymptomatic transmission is viable and shouldbe attempted to enhance understanding of spread and variability in the disease aswell as policy options for slowing the spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0159.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: radio over fiber; nonlinearities mitigation; reinforcement learning (RL) method
Online: 16 September 2019 (10:37:01 CEST)
We propose a 10-Gb/s 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal-based Radio over Fiber (RoF) system for 50 km of standard single mode fiber length which utilizes Reinforcement Learning (RL) SARSA based decision method to indicate an effective decision which mitigates nonlinearity. By utilizing RL-SARSA algorithm, the results demonstrate that significant reduction can be obtained in terms of bit error rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Radio over Fiber, Nonlinearities Mitigation, Support Vector Machine method
Online: 3 September 2019 (09:58:13 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) methodologies have been looked upon recently as a potential candidate for mitigating nonlinearity issues in optical communications. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a 40-Gb/s 256-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal-based Radio over Fiber (RoF) system for 50 km of standard single mode fiber length which utilizes support vector machine (SVM) decision method to indicate an effective nonlinearity mitigation. The influence of different impairments in the system is evaluated that includes the influences of Mach-Zehnder Modulator nonlinearities, in-phase and quadrature phase skew of the modulator. By utilizing SVM, the results demonstrated in terms of bit error rate and eye linearity suggest that impairments are significantly reduced and licit input signal power span of 5dBs is enlarged to 15 dBs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0355.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Orbital angular momentum; free-space optical communications; turbulence mitigation
Online: 20 August 2018 (12:34:41 CEST)
We review recent progress in high-speed orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexed free-space optical communication systems. The outdoor atmospheric turbulence is emulated by an indoor turbulence emulator, which is based on split-step beam propagation method. Adaptive optics, channel coding, Huffman coding combined with LDPC coding, and spatial offset are used for turbulence mitigation; while OAM multiplexing and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) are applied to boost aggregate capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0544.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: microplastics; nanoplastics; TiO2; crystallinity; film; photocatalysis; degradation; mitigation; microplastic pollution.
Online: 30 January 2023 (07:06:32 CET)
Microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) are distributed and transferred among the four major environmental compartments (air, water, soil, and biota) and have been already found in humans, making crucial to develop remediation technologies to tackle this kind pollution. Photocatalysis can be used to eliminate MPs present in contaminated wastewater effluents before their discharge into waterbodies. In this work, several green TiO2-based semiconductors were prepared using the extrapallial fluid (EPF) of Mytilus edulis sea water mussels as doping precursor. The semiconductors were then used as films or powders to photocatalytically degrade polystyrene (PS) NPs and MPs and polyethylene (PE) MPs. It was found that the obtention of green TiO2-based semiconductors with good characteristics for photocatalytic purposes (anatase crystalline phase, presence of porosity, activity in visible light and high surface area) seems not enough to achieve high degradation efficiency. The operational conditions of the reaction system should be also taken into account. For instance, the convenience of using semiconductors in the form of films can be overcome by their limited exposed surface area or the null adsorption of the semiconductor in the MPs particles. Additionally, crystallinity of the semiconductor can be a more determinant factor to take into account when performing photocatalysis of MPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0731.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: alcoholic beverages; spirits; methanol; risk mitigation; legal limits; quality control.
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:58:06 CEST)
Methanol is a natural ingredient with major occurrence in fruit spirits, such as apple, pear, plum or cherry spirits, but also in spirits made from coffee pulp. The compound is formed during fermentation and the following mash storage by enzymatic hydrolysis of naturally present pectins. Methanol is toxic above certain threshold levels and legal limits have been set in most jurisdictions. Therefore, the methanol content needs to be mitigated and its level must be controlled. This article will review the several factors that influence the methanol content including the pH value of the mash, the addition of various yeast and enzyme preparations, fermentation temperature, mash storage, and most importantly the raw material quality and hygiene. From all these mitigation possibilities, lowering the pH value and the use of cultured yeasts when mashing fruit substances is already common as best practice today. Also a controlled yeast fermentation at acidic pH facilitates not only reduced methanol formation, but ultimately also leads to quality benefits of the distillate. Special care has to be observed in the case of spirits made from coffee by-products which are prone to spoilage with very high methanol contents reported in past studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0596.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Climate change; Urban Heat Islands; Mosquito-borne Disease; Mitigation Strategies
Online: 26 February 2021 (08:27:16 CET)
Cities worldwide are facing ever-increasing pressure to develop mitigation strategies for all sectors to deal with the impacts of climate change. Cities are expected to house 70% of the world’s population by 2050 and developing related resilient health systems is a significant challenge. Because of their physical nature, cities’ surface temperatures are often substantially higher than that of the surrounding rural areas, generating the so-called Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Whilst considerable emphasis has been placed on strategies to mitigate against the UHI-associated negative health effects of heat and pollution, the World Health Organization estimates that one of the main consequences of global warming will be an increased burden of such vector-borne diseases. Many of the major mosquito-borne diseases are urban and thus the global population exposed to these pathogens will steadily increase. Mitigation strategies beneficial for one sector may, however, be detrimental for another. Implementation of inter-sectoral strategies that can benefit many sectors (such as water, labour and health) do exist and would enable optimal use of the meagre resources available. Discussion among inter-sectoral stakeholders should be actively encouraged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0102.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: forest carbon cycle; climate change mitigation; plantation foestry; soil carbon
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:14:53 CEST)
Forest plantations have a large potential for carbon sequestration, playing an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, despite the huge amount of research carried out worldwide, the absolute contribution of industrial forest plantations is still incomplete for some parts of the world. To contribute to bridge this gap, we calculated the amount of C stock in three fast growing forest species in Chile. Relevant C pools (above-ground and below-ground biomass, forest floor, and soil) were considered for this analysis. Across the industrial plantation forests of Chile, carbon accumulated in the above-ground biomass was 181–212 Mg · ha−1 for Pinus radiata, 147–180 Mg · ha−1 for Eucalyptus nitens, and 95–117 Mg · ha−1 for Eucalyptus globulus (age 20–24 years for P.radiata and 10–14 years for Eucalyptus). Our results agree with other studies showing that 30%–50% of the total C stock is stored in the soil. Total C stocks were for 343 Mg · ha−1 for P.radiata, 352 Mg · ha−1 for E.nitens, and 254 Mg · ha−1 for E. gloubulus, also at the end of a typical rotation. The carbon pool in the forest floor was found to be significantly lower (less than 4% of the total) when compared to the other pools and showed large spatial variability. We conclude that industrial forest plantations are a valuable tool to reduce atmospheric CO2 and mitigate climate change. Given the contribution of soils to total carbon stocks, special attention should be paid to forest management activities that affect the soil organic carbon pool.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: large scale systems; risk assessment; risk management techniques; risk mitigation
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:14:12 CET)
Risk assessment management have been a hot topic for the researchers since a very long time. Software risk management is an important part of project management as it contains the identification, analysis, estimation and monitoring of different risks present in the system. This helps developers in decision making while assessing the problems that could arise in the software systems. Risk management is very complex in large scale system as these systems have very complex development. The paper describes risk management techniques for large scale system. Furthermore we have provided a detailed comparative analysis of these techniques with commonly identified risks in software systems and have provided a systematic order for risk management process to ensure risk mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0197.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water-energy nexus; MENA region; climate change; mitigation/adaptation strategies
Online: 10 October 2018 (03:59:07 CEST)
The present paper aims to elucidate the impact of climate change on the availability and security of water and energy in the Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA Region). The region is particularly challenged by a number of factors including a large variability of bio-geographical characteristics, extreme population growth over the last few decades and substantial societal and economical transitions as well as armed conflicts in some of the countries of the region. Anticipated changes in climate conditions will exacerbate the challenges with regard to providing sufficient amounts of water and energy to the communities in the region. Impacts of climate change will materialize as an increasing number of heat waves, primarily in urban structures and the decline in water availability as a result of enhanced droughts and a growing numbers of dry spells. The interrelationships between energy and water and their mutual dependencies are addressed by the Water-Energy-Nexus concept. With regard to the challenges addressed here, Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean are a particular point in case. Mitigation and adaptation strategies include enhanced efficiency of energy and water use, integrated technology assessments regarding electricity generation and the production of potable water and electricity through concentrated solar power.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0068.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: cultural heritage; preventative conservation; climate change; mitigation; adaptation; climate modelling
Online: 4 July 2018 (10:36:51 CEST)
There is a range of local weather and climate-related factors that contribute to the degradation of cultural heritage buildings, structures and sites over time. Some of these factors are influenced by changes in climate and some of these changes manifest themselves though a speeding up of the rate of degradation. It is the intention of this paper to review this situation with special reference to the Nordic Countries, where typical trends resulting from climate change are shorter winters and increased precipitation all year round. An attempt is made to initially draw up a classification of materials and structures relevant to cultural heritage that are affected, with a proposed numeric scale for the urgency to act. The intention is to provide information on where best to concentrate cultural heritage site preservation resources in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0030.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green building; risk management; risk factors, risk mitigation measures; architect
Online: 2 May 2018 (16:55:58 CEST)
The number of green buildings has increased to address the global environmental crisis. However, green buildings face risks resulting from new materials and methods. In addition, these buildings are expected to perform at higher levels than traditional ones. The objectives of this study are to identify the possible risk factors for architects developing green building projects in South Korea and to assess risk mitigation measures. To attain this goal, fourteen risk factors and twelve mitigation measures were identified from a comprehensive literature review. A questionnaire survey was administered to architects practicing green building design. Findings revealed the ‘adoption of new technology and processes’ was the largest difference between green and traditional building projects. This study identified ‘financial risk,’ ‘design changes,’ and ‘client’s goal uncertainty’ as the top three risk factors in green building design. Additionally, the survey proposed the four most effective risk mitigation measures for green building projects: (1) ‘contract indicating each party’s roles, liabilities and limitations clearly’; (2) ‘utilizing integrated design process’; (3) ‘understanding client’s goal in green building projects’; and (4) ‘improving communication and coordination among stakeholders.’ There are a few studies focusing on the architects’ perceived risk concerning green building projects; however, this study expands the knowledge and fills the literature gap. Additionally, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of critical risks and mitigation measures that can benefit South Korea’s green building design practice through better risk management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0184.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: plastic contamination; cotton; gin; textile; round module; mitigation efforts; textile mills
Online: 19 January 2023 (08:26:21 CET)
Plastic contamination is a burning issue costing the global cotton and textile industries billions of dollars annually. Any time plastics from different sources end up in a cotton lint bale, the value to the textile mills plummets significantly. Various industry players have therefore made a concerted effort to find lasting solutions to the menace posed by plastic to cotton profitability and sustainability. Nevertheless, until now, there have been no up-to-date comprehensive documents detailing the numerous and ever-growing efforts committed to solving this challenge. Therefore, this article provides a detailed yet compact review of this highly dynamic subject matter. First, it puts into perspective plastic contamination in the cotton and textile industries. Then, the cotton value chain is subdivided into phases from pre-cultivation to textile mills. The root causes of plastic contamination are discussed in each stage, followed by discussions of some already developed and emerging solutions in response to the challenge by the affected industries and researchers. Concluding from the author’s perspective, the paper makes projections for the future directions of plastic mitigation efforts within the cotton and textile industries. This article also infers from the reviewed literature that research on finding alternative materials to plastic as module wrap, the development of new, effective, and all-condition plastic sensing techniques for ginning and spinning equipment, and standardized protocols for UAV in-field surveys of plastic trash are some of the areas that will be beneficial to finding a permanent solution to the challenge.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0400.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Aflatoxin contamination; Cereals; Intrinsic factors; Extrinsic factors; Climate change; Mitigation strategies
Online: 26 January 2022 (13:12:06 CET)
Aflatoxins (AFs) contamination of cereals is considered one of the greatest food safety concerns worldwide. Occurrence of AFs in maize, wheat, rice and sorghum is highly prevalent with each commodity accounting for more than 10% of world’s AF exposure. Their occurrence as food contaminants is also associated with huge economic losses. AFs are highly stable compounds that cannot be eliminated by regular processing of grains. Hence, prevention of AFs in food and feed is now considered more important than the subsequent interventions to mitigate the deleterious health effects of AFs in human and animals. However, the development of an effective preventive strategy hinges on a clear understanding of the underlying factors influencing AFs production. Therefore, the present review aims to highlight the most significant factors influencing AFs contamination of cereals at pre-and post-harvest stages. This is crucial for effective monitoring of critical control points and optimisation of preventive strategies in food and feed supply chains. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors have been reported of which nutritional composition, environmental factors (temperature, water activity and relative humidity) and climate change have been identified as primary factors, while pH of the substrate, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the gaseous environment, and agronomic and socioeconomic status are the main secondary factors promoting AFs biosynthesis in cereals. Additionally, an overview of global occurrence of AFs in cereals, with their health impacts and various preventive measures have also been highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Urban Development Plans; Climate Change; Adaptation and Mitigation Policies; Tehran Metropolis
Online: 21 May 2021 (07:53:50 CEST)
Climate change has emerged as one of the defining issues of the early 21st century. It is now more certain than ever and poses a serious threat to sustainable urban development. Climate change has many destructive effects on cities. Land subsidence, rising air pollutants, severe storms, dust and water scarcity are just some effects of this phenomenon in the urban area of Tehran. Urban management must be prepared to deal with these effects and adopt policies to mitigate and adapt to climate change. One of these tools in urban planning is urban development plans. The plans can have a great impact on controlling and counteracting with the effects of climate change. In this research, using content analysis method, 6 dimensions and 31 indicators have been used to evaluate 8 city and region development plans of Tehran from the view of reflecting the effects of climate change. Indicators were scored after studying the content of the plans. Findings indicate that among the reviewed plans, the second and third five-year development plans of Tehran with 61.9% and 61.3% as the highest rate and plan to reduce air pollution in Tehran and the transportation master plan with 20.6% and 23.2%, respectively have the least attention to the effects of climate change. Also, among the indicators, the urban transportation sector with 54.3% as the highest and the energy sector with 20.5% have the least attention to mitigation and adaptation policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0113.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Complexity Analysis & Mitigation; Software Architecture & Design, Safety; Quality; Fragility; Failure Obviation
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:45:48 CET)
Studies have found critical software malfunctions responsible for some of the worst accidents in recent times. These malfunctions are often only minor defects that snowball into large problems; a few lines of code is all it takes. Complexity, safety, quality, and resilience are among the key attributes defining a software’s operational success. There are many leading factors for complexity, such as increases in the product size, the rate of requirement changes, and the number and type of stakeholders, and failure to manage these issues efficiently always has the same consequence, i.e., massive failure and sometimes technological catastrophe. This work analyzes some of the architecture, design, and implementation guidelines used as detection and mitigation techniques. It also discusses the safety considerations, as considering how the steam industry has handled safety issues could offer some guidance for ensuring safety. Complexity in such systems also causes some of the worst side effects from the quality auditor's perspective. While failures in the software are hard to predict, one of the most significant ways of showing preparedness is practicing software resilience. New mitigation areas, such as the fragility spectrum and failure obviation, and their usage for building a safer system are analyzed. Also discussed are various architecture styles in practice and the dramatic effect human factors can have on the success of the software being developed.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Covid-19 in Italy; summer mitigation; autumn sharp worsening of epidemics
Online: 3 November 2020 (11:57:06 CET)
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic was particularly invasive in Italy during the period between March and late April 2020 then decreased in both in the number of infections and in the seriousness of the illness throughout the summer of 2020. In this discussion, we measure the severity of the disease by the ratio of Intensive Care Units (ICU) spaces occupied by COVID-19 patients and the number of Active Cases (AC) each month from April to October 2020. We also use the ratio of the number of Deaths (D) to the number of Active Cases. What clearly emerges, from rigorous statistical analysis, is a progressive decrease in both ratios until August, indicating progressive mitigation of the disease. This is particularly evident when comparing March-April with July-August; during the summer period the two ratios became roughly 18 times lower. We test such sharp decreases against possible bias in counting active cases and we confirm their statistical significance. We then interpret such evidence in terms of the well-known seasonality of the human immune system and the virus-inactivating effect of stronger UV rays in the summer. Both ratios, however, increased again in October as ICU/AC began to increase in September 2020. These ratios and the exponential growth of infections in October indicate that the virus - if not contained by strict measures - will lead to unsustainable challenges for the Italian health system in the winter of 2020-2021 .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0097.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: IoT (Internet of Things); bot; botnet; propagation; nodes; sensor; infectious; mitigation
Online: 7 December 2019 (17:03:34 CET)
Nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized particularly by their limited power and memory capabilities. Limited memory is an important parameter as it defines the size of the operating system and the processing code. As established previously, energy and memory efficiency is the most important evaluation factors of WSNs as they are directly related to data loss and network lifetime. However, based on our simulation results, memory efficiency determines the selection or abandon of nodes by the botmaster for the propagation of bots in an IoT infrastructure. Consequently, the node’s memory efficiency determined the spread of bots in the network and provides defense actors with an insight of the botmaster behavior for mitigation of the attack. Conventional botnet propagation and mitigation models did not consider the impact of node’s memory efficiency in the IoT platform. To address this gap, we build IoT-SIEF, a novel propagation model with forensic capability that will analyze command and control propagation behavior based on the perspective of the node’s memory efficiency. IoT-SIEF model used to explore the dynamics of propagation using numerical simulation with more than 50% outperform other models in mitigating the number of secondary bots. Consequently, it can serve as a basis for assisting the planning, design, and defense of such networks from the investigator's point of view.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0066.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: cyber physical systems; cybercrime; risk mitigation; risk management; industrial control systems
Online: 5 April 2018 (06:10:06 CEST)
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) is the integration of computation and physical process that makes a complete system such as the physical components, networked systems, embedded computers and software and linking together of devices and sensors for information sharing. Cyber Physical Systems are Smart Systems that comprises of the merging and integration of Industry Control Systems, Critical Infrastructures, Internet of Things (IoT) and Embedded Systems. Major industries such as the Chemical and Industrial Plants, Aviation Systems, National Grid, the Stock Exchange, Military Systems, and others depends heavily on these Cyber Physical Systems for financial and economic growth. The benefits of CPS nationally and globally are in the areas of Manufacturing, Energy, Transport, Healthcare and Communication. Cyber Physical Systems incorporates Physical systems, Digital systems and Human elements on network infrastructures to provide interactive systems. However, these three key components the Physical systems, Digital systems and Human elements may have inherent threats and vulnerabilities on them that may run the risk of being compromise, exploited, attacked or hacked. Cybercriminals in their quest to bring down these systems and may cause disruption of services either for fame, revenge, political motive, economic war, cyber terrorism and cyber war. The study seeks to review the risks that are associated with these three key components Physical systems, Digital systems and Human elements. The study considered four main risk mitigation goals for this purpose, and these are Business Value, Organizational Requirements, Threat Agent and Impact based on the review results. We used Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) to determine the relative importance of these goals that contributes to developing cybercrime and rich in CPS. For the results, the prioritized goals are then used to assess the risks using a semi-quantitative approach to determine the net threat level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle; solar power; techno-economic analysis; carbon emission mitigation; India
Online: 4 May 2017 (06:22:04 CEST)
The technologies influencing alternative ways of transportation are augmenting in recent years as the need for transportation is increasing rapidly due to urbanization and motorization. In this paper, a solar powered electric auto-rickshaw (SPEA) is designed and developed for Indian conditions. The developed vehicle is comprehensively analyzed techno-economically for its viability in the Indian market. The performance analysis of SPEA results in an optimal charging rate of 2 kWh per day with an average solar irradiance of 325 W/m2. The discharging characteristics are studied based on different loading conditions. The vehicle achieved a maximum speed of 21.69 km/h with battery discharge rate of 296W at 90kg load and also reached a maximum discharge rate of 540W at 390kg loading with a maximum speed of 12.11 km/h. The environmental analysis of SPEA displayed yearly CO2 emissions of 1,777 kg, 1,987 kg and 1,938 kg using Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and gasoline engines respectively can be mitigated using SPEA. The results of financial analysis of SPEA were welcoming as the investor gets 24.44% lesser payback duration compared to gasoline run vehicle. Socio-Economic analysis of SPEA discussed its significant advantages and showed 18.73% and 3.9% increase in yearly income over gasoline driven and battery driven vehicles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: enteric methane; ruminants; mitigation; rumen; adoption; cost effectiveness; methanogenesis inhibition; feed additives
Online: 5 September 2022 (10:29:25 CEST)
This paper analyzes the mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants with the use of feed additives inhibiting of rumen methanogenesis to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 °C. A mathematical simulation conducted herein predicted that pronounced inhibition of rumen methanogenesis with pure chemicals or bromoform-containing algae can contribute to limit global temperature increase by 2050 to 1.5 °C only if widely adopted at a global level and considering an efficacy higher than obtained in most studies. Currently, the most important limitations to the adoption of antimethanogenic feed additives are probably increased feeding cost without a consistent return in production efficiency, and achieving sustained delivery of inhibitors to the rumens of non-supplemented, extensively ranging animals. Economic incentives, and changes in rumen microbial metabolism caused by inhibiting methanogenesis, could potentially be used to make the methanogenesis inhibition intervention cost effective. Also, the composition of the methanogenic community, and rate of disappearance of inhibitors of methanogenesis in the rumen can influence the effective dose of the inhibitors, and hence the cost of their adoption. Possible means for sustained delivery of antimethanogenic compounds to extensively grazing animals are discussed. Limitations and knowledge gaps of these approaches, and future research directions, are examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0503.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: oily wastewater; ceramic membrane; fouling mitigation; fouling resistance; periodic feed pressure technique
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:01:08 CEST)
Fouling represents a bottleneck problem for promoting the use of membranes in filtration and separation applications. It becomes even more persistent when it comes to the filtration of fluid emulsions. In this case, a gel-like layer that combines droplets, impurities, salts, and other materials form at the membrane's surface, blocking its pores. It is, therefore, a privilege to combat fouling by minimizing the accumulation of these droplets that work as seeds for other incoming droplets to cluster and coalesce with. In this work, we explore the use of the newly developed and novel periodic feed pressure technique (PFPT) in combating the fouling of ceramic membranes upon the filtration of oily water systems. The PFPT is based on alternating the applied transmembrane pressure (TMP) between the operating one and zero. A PFPT cycle is composed of a filtration half-cycle and a cleaning half-cycle. Permeation occurs when the TMP is set at its working value, while the cleaning occurs when it is zero. Three PFPT patterns were examined over two feeds of oily water systems with oil contents of 100 and 200ppm, respectively. The results show that the PFPT is very effective in minimizing the problem of fouling compared to a non-PFPT normal filtration. Furthermore, the overall drops in permeate flux during the cleaning half cycles are compensated by appreciable enhancement due to the significant elimination of fouling development such that the overall production of filtered water is even increased. Inspection of the internal surface of the membrane post rinsing at the end of the experiment proves that all PFPT cycles maintained the ceramic membranes as clean after a 2-hours operation. This can ensure a prolonged lifespan of the ceramic membrane use and a continuous greater permeate volume production. The advantage of the PFPT is that it can be implemented on existing units with minimal modification, ease of operation, and saving energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0499.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: greenhouse gas balance; wood products; forest management; climate change mitigation; carbon storage
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:32:16 CET)
The global carbon neutrality challenge places a spotlight on forests as carbon sinks. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of wood for material and energy use often reveal GHG emission savings in comparison with a non-wood reference. Is it thus better to increase wood production and use, or to conserve and expand the carbon stock in forests? GHG balances of wood products mostly ignore the dynamics of carbon storage in forests, which can be expressed as the carbon storage balance in forests (CSBF). For Germany, a CSBF of 0.25 to 1.15 t CO2/m³ wood can be assumed. When the CSBF is integrated into the GHG balance, GHG mitigation substantially deteriorates and wood products may even turn into a GHG source, e.g. in the case of energy wood. Here, building up the forest carbon sink would be the better option. We conclude that it is vital to include the CSBF in GHG balances of wood products if the wood is extracted from forests. Only then can GHG balances provide political decision-makers and stakeholders in the wood sector with a complete picture of GHG emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban flood; river flood; hydrodynamic model; high resolution dem; flood mitigation measures
Online: 19 December 2017 (10:14:54 CET)
Mostly populous city like Chennai is subjected to frequent flooding due to its complex nature of natural and man-made activities. From the analysis of the past records of flood events of 1943,1976,1985,2005 and 2008,it has been observed Adayar watershed is subjected to cataclysmic flooding in low-lying areas of the city and its suburbs because of inoperativeness of the local drainage system, rainfall associated with cyclonic activity, topography of the terrain, encroachments along the floodplain, hugh upstream flow discharge into the river and the highly impervious area which blocked the runoff to flow into the storm water drainage. After looking into these problems of flooding, a study have been conducted on Adayar watershed to develop a 2D hydrodynamic model for the two scenarios of existing condition of storm water drainage network and revised conditions of storm water drainage network using high resolution Lidar DEM to assess the volume of runoff with respect to time and duration on flood peaks for the two flood events of 2005 and 2015.Secondly to develop a 1D flood model to predict the river stages during peak floods using MIKE 11 for the Adayar watershed. Thirdly to integrate the coupled 1D and 2D model using MIKEFLOOD for assessing the extent of inundation in the floodplain area of Adayar river. Finally results from the integrated model have been validated and the results found satisfactory. As a part of mitigation measures, two flood mitigation measures have been adopted. One measure such as revised storm water drainage system which enhances the flood carrying capacity of the drains and results in less inundated area which solves the problem of urban flooding and second measure such as regrading the river bed which reduces the floodplain inundation around the adjacent area of the river. After adopting these measures, the river is free to flow into the sea without any blockades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: transport policy; ASEAN countries; low-carbon transport; comparative analysis; climate change mitigation
Online: 25 May 2017 (08:30:52 CEST)
Emerging countries in Southeast Asia are facing considerable challenges in addressing rising motorisation and its negative impact on air quality, traffic, energy security, liveability, and greenhouse gas emissions. Indeed, even as initial policies to address these issues are being agreed and implemented, current trends are incompatible with sustainable development and long-term climate change targets. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the approach and status of sustainable, low-carbon transport policy in ASEAN countries and identifies differences and similarities, with the aim of helping assessment of feasibility of future policies and informing future studies on policy innovations and cross-country learning. The methodology is based on the taxonomy of policy components developed by Howlett and Cashore, and our data on comprehensive country studies for Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam and interviews. We find that each country has a specific set of goals, objectives and targets that support sustainable transport, and, directly or indirectly, climate change mitigation. In terms of specific instruments and calibrations, which we analyse based on the Avoid-Shift-Improve approach, there are notable differences between the countries, for example in fuel economy policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0301.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: students’ awareness; climate change; climate information; mitigation activities; Democratic Re-public of Congo
Online: 16 November 2022 (08:58:25 CET)
Students are often portrayed as future leaders. Their participation in climate change mitigation would improve when they access climate information and gain a high level of climate change awareness. This study was initiated to assess the Congolese students’ awareness of climate change by focusing on their sources of information on climate change, knowledge about the causes and impacts of climate change and activities that can raise awareness on climate change. Using a convenience sampling technique, we collected data through individual interviews conducted among 1,278 students from 13 universities across the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The interview results showed that all students irrespective of their disciplines were concerned about climate change, a phenomenon strongly driven by human activities, such as deforestation (78%), urbanisation (30%), agriculture activities (30%) and transport services (26%). The students’ perceptions of climate change impacts included increase in temperature (82%), decrease in the number of rainy days (66%), proliferation of pests (60%) and increase in the number of malaria patients (39%). The primary sources of information that significantly affected students’ awareness of climate change included environment-related university courses and television broadcasts. The awareness-raising and mitigation actions related to climate change recommended by the students included educating people about good waste management (56%), planting trees (65%) and using the taxes paid by mining companies for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. The students believed that in DRC, all layers of the society (educational institutions, civil society organisations, community members and businesses) are important in building resilience to climate change. This study can guide teachers to focus their educational efforts on shaping pro-environmental behaviour in students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0299.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: On-road emissions; Real-world assessments; Electrification; Fleet renovating; Mitigation strategies; West Midlands
Online: 15 January 2021 (14:22:04 CET)
This study reports the likely real-world effects of fleet replacement with electric vehicles (EVs) and higher efficiency EURO6 vehicles on the exhaust emissions of NOx, PM, and CO2 in the seven boroughs of the West Midlands (WM) region, UK. National fleet composition data, local EURO distributions and traffic compositions were used to project vehicle fleet compositions for different roads in each borough. A large dataset of real-world emission factors including over 90,000 remote-sensing measurements, obtained from remote sensing campaigns in five UK cities, was used to parameterise the emission profiles of the studied scenarios. Results show that adoption of the fleet electrification approach would have the highest emission reduction potential on urban roads in WM boroughs. It would result in maximum reductions ranging from 35.0-37.9%, 44.3-48.3%, 46.9-50.3% for NOx, PM, and CO2, respectively. In comparison, the EURO6 replacement fleet scenario would lead to reductions ranging from 10.0-10.4%, 4.0-4.2%, and 6.0-6.4% for NOx, PM, and CO2, respectively. The studied mitigation scenarios have higher efficacies on motorways than on rural and urban roads because of the differences in traffic fleet composition. The findings presented will help policymakers choose climate and air quality mitigation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0092.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: heat exchangers, heat transfer enhancement, acoustic fields, vibrations, thermo-fluid dynamics, fouling mitigation.
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:14:51 CET)
The aim of this paper is to expose the main involved physical phenomena underlying the alteration of convective heat transfer in a heat exchanger subjected to imposed vibrations. This technique seems to have interesting features and industrial applications, such as efficiency increase, heat transfer rate control and cleanliness action. However, a clear description and comprehension of how vibrations may alter the convective heat transfer coefficient in a heat exchanger is no still reached due to the complexity of the involved physical mechanisms. For this reason, after a presentation and a schematisation of the analyzed thermodynamic system, the fundamental alterations of the thermo-fluid dynamics fields are described. Then, the main involved physical phenomena are exposed for the three cases of gaseous, monophasic liquid and boiling liquid mediums. Finally, on the basis of the characteristics of these described phenomena, some considerations and indications of general validity are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: convex programming; wind power, hydropower; risk mitigation; CVaR; short-run marginal cost curve
Online: 23 April 2018 (17:35:32 CEST)
This study analyses the short-run hydro generation scheduling for the wind power differences from the contracted schedule. The approach for construction of the joint short-run marginal cost curve for the hydro-wind coordinated generation is proposed and applied on the real example. This joint short-run marginal cost (SRMC) curve is important for its participation in the energy markets and for economic feasibility assessment of such coordination. The approach credibly describes the short-run marginal costs which this coordination bears in “real life”. The approach is based on the duality framework of a convex programming and as a novelty combines the shadow price of risk mitigation capability and the water shadow price. The proposed approach is formulated as a stochastic linear program and tested on the case of the Vinodol hydropower system and the wind farm Vrataruša in Croatia. The result of the case study is a family of 24 joint short-run marginal cost curves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0129.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: emissivity; land cover; land surface temperature; surface urban heat island; thermal environment; mitigation
Online: 29 January 2017 (10:38:44 CET)
In urban area, one of the great problem is the rise of temperature, which leads to form the urban heat island effect. This paper refers to the trend of the urban surface temperature extracted from the Landsat images from which to consider changes in the formation of surface urban heat island for the north of Ho Chi Minh city in period 1995-2015. Research has identified land surface temperature from thermal infrared band, according to the ability of the surface emission based on characteristics of normalized difference vegetation index NDVI. The results showed that temperature fluctuated over the city with a growing trend and the gradual expansion of the area of the high-temperature zone towards the suburbs. Within 20 years, the trend of the formation of surface urban heat island with two typical locations showed a clear difference between the surface temperature of urban areas and rural areas with space expansion of heat island in 4 times in 2015 compared to 1995. An extreme heat island located in the inner city has an area of approximately 18% compared to the total area of the region. Since then, the solution to reduce the impact of urban heat island has been proposed, in order to protect the urban environment and the lives of residents in Ho Chi Minh City becoming better
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0054.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Brazil's climate pledges; net-zero emissions; nature-based solutions; mitigation potentials; integrated assessment modelling
Online: 2 November 2022 (10:55:25 CET)
Over 130 countries have committed to reaching net-zero CO2 or GHG emissions by 2050, yet this ambition is rarely underpinned by robust policies. By applying a detailed integrated assessment modelling approach for Brazil, we assess, for the first time, the extent to which the existing and planned local policies could put Brazil on the path to its net zero pledge. This includes quantifying the role of nature-based solutions, such as protection and restoration, and engineered solutions, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). We show protection is the single most important climate mitigation measure at relatively low costs, whereas relying heavily on engineered solutions would jeopardise Brazil’s chances of achieving its net zero pledge. We also show that the mismatch between Brazil's short- and long-term climate targets reflects current weak environmental governance. Our analysis reinforces the urgent need for Brazil to eliminate illegal deforestation and go beyond to help fight climate change whilst curbing biodiversity loss.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0198.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: forest carbon; carbon stock; roundwood harvest; climate change mitigation; life cycle assessment; scenarios; modelling
Online: 15 March 2022 (07:23:46 CET)
Fossil-based emissions can be avoided through using wood in place of non-renewable raw materials as energy and materials. However, increasing wood harvest influences forest carbon stocks. This effect may reduce the overall climate benefit of wood use significantly but is widely overlooked. We carried out a systematic review of simulation studies and compared differences in forest carbon and amount of wood harvested between more and less intensive wood harvest scenarios for three different time perspectives; short (1-30 years), mid (31-70 years) and long (71-100 years). Out of more than 450 reviewed studies 44 provided adequate data. Our results show that increased harvesting reduced carbon stocks over 100 years in temperate and boreal forests roughly 1.6 (stdev 0.9) tC per tC harvested. The value proved to be robust when outliers explicitly influenced by other factors than change in harvest rate, such as increase in fertilization or forest area, were removed. Interestingly, no significant difference in carbon impacts was found for average values of boreal and temperate forests or between short and long time-horizons. However, impacts tend to be greatest in the mid-term. This carbon balance indicator that we estimated can be interpreted as carbon debit of wood harvest in forests. It is significant compared with the typical GHG credits in technosphere generated by avoiding fossil emissions in substitution and increase in carbon storage in harvested wood products, and should not be ignored. Our estimates provide default values that can directly be included in GHG balances of products or assessment of mitigation policies and measures related to wood use. However, more systematic scenarios and transparent data in which different factors influencing forest carbon stocks are separately studied are clearly required to provide better constrained estimates for specific forest types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0310.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gelatinous zooplankton; Scyphozoa; Pelagia noctiluca; Rhizostoma pulmo; Forecasting system; Mitigation tool; Coastal zone management
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:57:35 CET)
Science is addressing global societal challenges and, due to limitations in research financing, scientists are turning to public at large to jointly tackle specific environmental issues. Citizens are therefore increasingly involved in monitoring programs, appointed as citizen scientists with potential to delivering key data at near no cost to address environmental challenges, so fostering scientific knowledge and advise policy- and decision-makers. One of the first and most successful example of marine citizen science in the Mediterranean is represented by the integrative and collaborative implementation of several jellyfish spotting campaigns in Italy, Spain, Malta, Tunisia started in 2009. Altogether, in terms of time coverage, geographic extent, and number of citizen records, these represent the most effective marine citizen science campaign so far implemented in the Mediterranean Sea. Here we analyzed a collective database merging records over the above four Countries, featuring more than 100,000 records containing almost 25,000 observations of jellyfish specimens, collected over a period of 3 to 7 years (from 2009 to 2015) by citizen scientists participating in any of the national citizen science programs included in this analysis. Such a wide citizen science exercise demonstrates to be one of the so far available most valuable and cost-effective tools to understanding ecological drivers of jellyfish proliferations over the Western and Central Mediterranean basins, and a powerful contribute to develop tailored adaptation and management strategies, mitigate jellyfish impacts on human activities in coastal zones, and support implementation of marine spatial planning, Blue Growth and conservation strategies.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: climate change; mitigation measures; biophysical processes; cost-efficiency; abatement costs; transaction costs; policy scenarios
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:51:03 CET)
Climate change from anthropogenic activities represents a serious threat to life in earth. Agriculture releases significant emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), but also offers low-cost opportunities to mitigate GHG emissions. This paper assesses agricultural GHG emissions in Aragon, one important and representative region for agriculture in Spain. The Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC) approach is used to analyze the abatement potential and cost-efficiency of mitigation measures under several scenarios, with and without taking into account the interaction among measures and their transaction costs. The assessment identifies the environmental and economic outcomes of different combinations of measures. Moreover, we develop future mitigation scenarios for agriculture toward the year 2050, in order to assess the impacts on GHG emissions. Results highlight the importance of assessing biophysical processes in mitigation measures, and the significant effects of interactions between measures that reduce the abatement potential and worsen the cost-efficiency. The inclusion of transaction costs provides a better ranking of measures and a more accurate estimation of implementation costs. The scenario analysis shows how the combinations of measures could reduce emissions and promote sustainable agriculture in the future. Keywords: Climate change; mitigation measures; biophysical processes; cost-efficiency; abatement costs; transaction costs; policy scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0478.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Antarctica; coronavirus; COVID-19; mitigation measures; reverse zoonoses; risk assessment; SARS-CoV-2; wildlife
Online: 21 August 2020 (09:21:25 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly to most parts of the world, causing high numbers of deaths and significant social and economic impacts. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus with a suggested zoonotic origin and with the potential for cross-species transmission among animals. Antarctica can be considered the only continent free of SARS-CoV-2 although at the end of the 2019-2020 tourist season, at least one SARS-CoV-2 positive tourist visited the Antarctic Peninsula. Therefore, concerns have been expressed regarding the potential human introduction of this virus to the continent through the activities of research or tourism with potential effects including those related to human health, but also the potential for virus transmission to Antarctic wildlife. This reverse-zoonotic transmission risk to Antarctic wildlife is assessed considering the available information on host susceptibility, dynamics of the infection in humans, and contact interactions between humans and Antarctic wildlife. Measures to reduce the risk are proposed as well as the identification of knowledge gaps related to this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0066.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: mitigation strategy; COVID-19; epidemics; health policy; public and global health; demographics; social distancing
Online: 6 April 2020 (15:20:55 CEST)
COVID-19 severity is heterogeneously distributed over age strata, but current mitigation strategies are homogeneously applied to all population. Social-distancing and stay-home are effective conservative approaches but lack economic sustainability on long term. Conversely, herd-immunity is a nonrestrictive strategy which can cost remarkable number of human lives and can melt the healthcare system down. Here I propose an Age Adaptive Social Distancing (AASD) engineering strategy to mitigate COVID-19 outbreak. AASD is based on the scientific evidence that the fatality rate grows nonlinearly with age, hence also the containing strategy should adapt nonlinearly. Essentially, AASD suggests that ‘silent spreaders’ (age 0-39) should avoid/minimize direct and indirect contacts with individuals in ‘dangerous zone’ (age 40+). The rationale is: 0-19 should follow parents strategy, healthy 20-39 (low fatality rate) might conduct screened life under active surveillance, to sustain economy and acquire rational immunity; 40-59 should respect social distancing (waiting a therapy); 60+ should stay at home (waiting a vaccine). This might save human lives, reduce healthcare demand and improve economic sustainability. The final take-home message is that future studies should design precision and personalized strategies for specific contagious diseases that integrate different social constrains, active surveillance and contact tracing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0154.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Above ground biomass; allometric equation; forest conservation; climate change mitigation; Biomass; carbon dioxide; carbon Sequestration
Online: 10 June 2022 (08:15:38 CEST)
Forests play an important role in reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, thereby mitigating the impact of climate change. Estimating the accumulated biomass in a forest ecosystem is important for assessing the productivity and sustainability of the forest. Allometric models for above ground biomass (AGB) are linear regression equations based on the relationships between biomass and diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height (H), and/or wood density. This study estimates AGB in the Colo-I-Suva Forest Park by applying the allometry of Chave et al (2005) and the diameter: height ratio derived from Payton & Weaver (2011) for height estimation in a plot of 20
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0581.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: aerial base station; average spectral efficiency; interference mitigation; particle swarm optimization and unmanned aerial vehicles
Online: 26 August 2020 (10:51:42 CEST)
Deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as aerial base stations (ABSs) has been considered to be a feasible solution to provide network coverage in scenarios where the conventional terrestrial network is overloaded or inaccessible due to an emergency situation. This article studies the problem of optimal placement of the UAVs as ABSs to enable network connectivity to the users in a coverage free zone. The main contributions of this work include two approaches to position the UAVs and to assign user equipment (UE) to each UAV, such that the sum-rate and the coverage probability of the network is maximized. An approach can be selected depending on the prevailing scenario. The first approach uses clustering algorithm to determine the 2D positioning of the UAV and a matching algorithm is used for UE assignment by considering the characteristics of the air-to-ground propagation channels as well as the impact of co-channel interference from ABSs. Then it uses exhaustive search on different altitudes to find the optimal altitude. In the second approach, 2D positioning and UE assignment are done similarly to the first approach. However, the sub-optimal altitude is estimated using particle swarm optimization (PSO). The first approach is suitable for a system which has computational resource constraints or lower probability of line of sight (LoS) links. In contrast, the second approach is suitable for data rate greedy systems or a higher probability of LoS links.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Lockstep; Reliability; Fault Tolerance; Soft Error Mitigation; Zynq APSoC; ARM Cortex-A Processor; MicroBlaze Processor
Online: 8 August 2020 (04:57:57 CEST)
An attractive option for realizing applications in radiation environments is to employ All-Programmable System-on-Chips (APSoCs) thanks to their high-performance computing and power efficiency merits. Despite APSoC's advantages, like any other electronic device, they are prone to radiation effects. Processors found in APSoCs must, therefore, be adequately hardened against ionizing-radiation to become a viable alternative for harsh environments. This paper proposes a novel triple-core lockstep (TCLS) approach to secure the Xilinx Zynq-7000 APSoC dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 processor against radiation-induced soft errors by coupling it with a MicroBlaze TMR subsystem in Zynq's programmable logic (PL) layer. The proposed strategy uses software-level checkpointing principles along with roll-back and roll-forward mechanisms (i.e. software redundancy), and hardware-level processor replication as well as checker circuits (i.e. hardware redundancy). Results of fault injection experiments show that the proposed solution achieved high soft error security by mitigating about 99% of bit-flips injected into both ARM cores' register data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0408.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: urban heat island; non-constructible parcels; cool surfaces; urban vegetation; envi met; mitigation measures; beirut
Online: 28 May 2018 (13:21:28 CEST)
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is one of the more serious consequences of urbanization resulting in impacts on thermal comfort levels, heat stress, and even mortality. For Municipal Beirut, implementation of “cool” surface materials and green spaces have been recommended to counterbalance the UHI. This paper builds on previous findings on the topic of non-constructible parcels within the district of Bachoura in Municipal Beirut and examines the possibility of implementing “cool” surface or paving materials and urban vegetation which can improve thermal conditions especially during the summer period and with the viewto project the positive findings of this case study to the entire Municipal Beirut area. A numerical analysis using ENVI-met 4.0 investigates the thermal performance of these non-constructibles further to implementation of high reflective surfaces and urban vegetation within a broad neighborhood scale in Bachoura. Results show reductions in ambient temperatures up to 1K on a summer day.. Within the framework of an integrated approach to planning, this form of urban acupuncture aims for substantial UHI reduction. Energy performance of buildings further to implementation of these mitigation measures is also recommended for future studies and to validate the findings in this paper.
OPINION | doi:10.3390/sci2030057
Subject: Keywords: blue carbon; carbon; carbon stock; carbon sequestration; climate change; CO<sub>2</sub> emissions; mangrove; mitigation
Online: 23 July 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Mangrove forests store and sequester large area-specific quantities of blue carbon (Corg). Except for tundra and peatlands, mangroves store more Corg per unit area than any other ecosystem. Mean mangrove Corg stock is 738.9 Mg Corg ha−1 and mean global stock is 6.17 Pg Corg, which equates to only 0.4–7% of terrestrial ecosystem Corg stocks but 17% of total tropical marine Corg stocks. Seagrasses sequester more Corg per unit area than mangroves (179.6 g Corg m−2·a−1) but twice the Corg sequestered by mangroves globally (15 Tg Corg a−1). Mangroves sequester only 4% (range 1.3–8%) of Corg sequestered by terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that mangroves are a minor contributor to global C storage and sequestration. CO2 emissions from mangrove losses equate to 0.036 Pg CO2-equivalents a−1 based on rates of C sequestration but 0.088 Pg CO2-equivalents a−1 based on complete destruction for conversion to aquaculture and agriculture. Mangrove CO2 emissions account for only 0.2% of total global CO2 emissions but 18% of CO2 emissions from the tropical coastal ocean. Despite significant data limitations, the role of mangrove ecosystems in climate change mitigation is globally insignificant but may be more significant and effective at the national and regional scale.
Subject: Keywords: Mitigation; Risk Reduction; Global Catastrophic Biological Risk; Epidemics; Disease X; Literature Review; Pandemics; Value of Information; Existential Risk
Online: 28 February 2020 (12:32:33 CET)
There are potentially promising mitigation activities for epidemic and pandemic scenarios that are not currently the subject of significant research effort. Large epidemics and pandemics pose risks that are important to mitigate, even if the likelihood of the events is low and uncertain. While some efforts are the subject of extensive funding and consideration, other approaches are neglected. Here, we consider such neglected interventions which could significantly reduce the impact of such an epidemic or large-scale pandemic. These are identified via a narrative literature review of extant literature reviews and overviews of mitigations in epidemic and pandemic situations, followed by consideration of the economic value of information of further study of heretofore neglected interventions and approaches.Based on that analysis, we considered several classes of mitigations, and conducted more exploratory reviews of each. Those discussed include mitigations for (1) reducing transmission, such as personal protective equipment and encouraging improved hygiene, (2) reducing exposure by changing norms and targeted changes for high-risk or critical professions and activities, (3) reducing impact for those infected, and (4) increasing large scale resilience using disaster and infrastructure continuity planning.Some proposed mitigations are found to be of low marginal value. Other mitigations are likely to be valuable, but the concepts or applications are underdeveloped. In those cases, further research, resources, or preparation are valuable for mitigating both routine and extreme disease outbreak events. Still more areas of research are identified as having uncertain value based on specific but resolvable uncertainties. In both of the latter cases, there is no guarantee that mitigations identified as worthy of further consideration will be valuable, but the argument for further research is clear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0175.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; FTIR spectroscopy; fertilizer microdosing; African leafy vegetables; greenhouse gas mitigation; sustainability; tropical agriculture; soil fertility
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:23:44 CET)
Fertility management techniques being promoted in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) seek to grow indigenous vegetables economically and sustainably. This study was conducted in a phytotron chamber and compared yield, soil carbon (C) speciation and greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)) emissions from SSA soils of two ecoregions; the dry savanna (lna, Republic of Benin) and rainforest (Ife, Nigeria) cultivated with local amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) under manure (5 t/ha) and/or urea (80 kg N/ha) fertilization. Vegetable yield ranged from 1753 kg/ac to 3198kg/ac in the rainforest, RF, soils and 1281 kg/ac to 1951 kg/ac in the dry savanna, DS, soils. Yield in the urea treatment was slightly higher compared to the manure+urea treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. Cumulative CO2 emissions over 21 days ranged from 497.06 to 579.47 g CO2 in the RF, and 322.96 to 624.97 g CO2 in the DS, while cumulative N2O emissions ranged from 60.53 to 220.86 mg N2O in the RF, and 24.78 to 99.08 mg N2O in the DS. In the RF samples, the combined use of manure and urea reduced CO2 and N2O emissions but led to an increase in the DS samples. ATR-FTIR analysis showed that the combined use of manure and urea increased the rate of microbial degradation in the soils of the DS, but no such effect was observed in soils of the RF. We conclude that combining manure and urea fertilization has different effects on soils of the two ecoregions, and that RF farmers can reduce agricultural emissions without compromising soil productivity and yield potential.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cat urine; odor mitigation; odor; volatile organic compounds; emission; indoor air quality, solid-phase microextraction; SPME; diffusion; Micrococcus luteus
Online: 13 August 2020 (08:51:58 CEST)
Urination on carpet and subflooring can develop into persistent and challenging to mitigate odor. Very little or no information is published on how these VOCs change over time when urine is deposited on the carpet covering a plywood-type subflooring. This research has investigated the VOCs emitted from carpet+subflooring (control), carpet+subflooring sprayed with water (control with moisture), and cat urine-contaminated carpet+subflooring (treatment) over time (day 0 and 15). In addition, the effect of popular cleaning products on VOCs emitted and evaluated their efficacy in eliminating those indoor odors over time (day 0 and 15). Carpet-subflooring with all treatments were also contaminated with Micrococcus luteus, nonmotile obligate aerobe commonly found in household dust, to observe the impact of the aerobe on carpet-subflooring VOCs emission. VOCs emitted from carpet+subflooring receiving different treatments were collected from headspace using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The VOCs were analyzed using a multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometer attached to an olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Many common VOCs were released from the carpet on day one and day fifteen, specifically from urine contamination. Cleaning products were effective in masking several potent odors of cat urine contaminated carpet VOCs on day one but unable to remove the odor appeared on day 15 in most cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: environmental conservation agriculture; Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems; climate change mitigation; Tokimai brand; Sado island; Japan; biodiversity conservation; sustainable agriculture
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:33:39 CEST)
Sado Island in Niigata prefecture, Japan is one of the first Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) among developed countries and has since been involved in environmental conservation agriculture (ECA). While ECA is still in its early stage in Japan, it has proven to be effective in mitigating climate change in the agricultural sector; hence, this study analyzed the factors which could contribute to the ECA continuation among Sado Island farmers. The data revealed the prevalence of farmers’ cognitive dissonance between ECA and its mitigating effects on climate change. Exploratory factor analysis and ordinal regression confirmed the importance of perceived GIAHS involvement in the continuation of ECA. In addition, other identified factors affecting ECA continuation fall either on a macro-level (i.e., farmers’ awareness of their role in improving their environment) or micro-level (i.e., farmers’ differing farm optimizations). These perspectives highlighted the altruistic nature of the Sado Island ECA farmers by valuing the improvement of their local and global environment as their main reason to continue ECA, whereas their various farm management optimizations support this observed farmer altruism by providing avenues to increase yield with only a moderate paddy land area. This study thereby highlights the need to continuously develop sustainable strategies to maintain and improve a positive farmer mindset towards ECA.
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Afforestation; Climate change mitigation; Ecological Restoration; Forest landscape restoration; Large-scale tree planting; Natural regeneration; Nature-based solutions; Stakeholders participation
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:01:43 CEST)
Global climate change requires urgent solutions. Ambitious tree-planting initiatives, many already underway, aim to sequester enormous quantities of carbon, partly compensating for the anthropogenic CO2 emissions that are a major cause of rising global temperatures. However, poorly planned and executed tree-planting could actually increase CO2 emissions and have long-term, deleterious impacts on biodiversity, landscapes and livelihoods. Here, we highlight the main environmental risks of large-scale tree planting and propose ten golden rules, based on some of the most recent ecological research, to implement forest ecosystem restoration that maximizes rates of both carbon sequestration and biodiversity recovery, while simultaneously improving livelihoods. These are: i) Protect existing forest first; ii) Work together (involving all stakeholders); iii) Maximize biodiversity recovery to meet multiple goals; iv) Select appropriate areas; v) Use natural regeneration wherever possible; vi) Select species to maximise biodiversity; vii) Use resilient plant material (with appropriate genetic variability and provenance); viii) Plan ahead for infrastructure, capacity and seed supply; ix) Learn by doing (using an adaptive management approach); and x) Make it pay (ensuring the economic sustainability of the project). We focus on the design of long-term strategies to tackle the climate and biodiversity crises and support livelihood needs. We emphasize the role of local communities and their dependence on benefits from successful reforestation programmes that restore ecosystem functioning and deliver a diverse range of forest products and services. While there is no simple and universal recipe for forest restoration, it is now crucial to build on the public and private interest in this topic to ensure interventions provide effective, long-term carbon sinks and maximise benefits for biodiversity and people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Spaceborne Sail; Drag Sail; Solar Sail; Space Tug; Docking; Berthing; Debris Mitigation; (Active) Debris Removal; Space Resources (Mining); Stopover Cycler
Online: 1 March 2018 (16:51:32 CET)
The paper introduces and describes the recent and still ongoing development activities performed in Luxembourg for In-Orbit Attach Mechanisms for (Drag) Sails Modules to be operated from Space Tugs. After some preparatory work aiming at understanding the possible operational aspects, three designs have been completed for their 3D (Metal and Plastic) Printing. The Plastic-printed prototype underwent a series of automated tests where a robotic arm, equipped with an advanced force sensor, replicated four docking scenarii in ideal and degraded modes. The observation of the forces and torques behaviors at and after impact allowed to characterize the typical patterns for the various contacts but also, to identify a type of impact potentially dramatic for the safety of the docking and its equipment: in case of off-axis approach, “point” contacts shall be avoided as they instantaneously transfer the total kinetic energy in a small area that could break.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0073.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: workplace testing; economic analysis; COVID-19; asymptomatic screening; mass testing; employee population health; return to work practices; SARS-CoV-2; surveillance; workplace mitigation
Online: 6 May 2021 (11:34:57 CEST)
Background: The epidemiological situation generated by COVID-19 has cast into sharp relief the delicate balance between public health priorities and the economy, with businesses obliged to toe a line between employee health and continued production. In an effort to detect as many cases as possible, isolate contacts, cut transmission chains and limit the spread of the virus in the workplace, mass testing strategies have been implemented in both public health and industrial contexts to minimize the risk of disruption in activity. Objective: To evaluate the economic impact of mass workplace testing strategy as carried out by a large automotive company in Catalonia in terms of health and healthcare resource savings. Methodology: Analysis of health costs and impacts based on the estimation of mortality and morbidity avoided because of screening and the resulting savings in healthcare costs. Results: The economic impact of the mass workplace testing strategies (using both PCR and RAT tests) was approximately €10.44 per test performed or €5,575.49 per positive detected. 38% of this figure corresponds to savings derived from better use of health resources (hospital beds, ICU beds and follow-up of infected cases), while the remaining 62% corresponds to improved health rates due to avoided morbidity and mortality. In scenarios with higher positivity rates and a greater impact of the infection on health and the use of health resources, these results could be up to ten times higher (€130.24 per test performed or €69,565.59 per positive detected). Conclusion: In the context of COVID-19, preventive actions carried out by the private sector to safeguard industrial production also have concomitant public benefits in the form of savings in healthcare costs. Thus, governmental bodies need to recognize the value of implementing such strategies in private settings and facilitate them through, for example, subsidies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Totem-pole power factor correction; energy storage systems (ESS); digital control; Gallium Nitride (GaN) based; current harmonic distortion mitigation; efficiency and power quality improvement
Online: 1 October 2020 (09:12:36 CEST)
With the unceasing advancement in wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductor technology, the minimal reverse-recovery charge Qrr and other more powerful natures of WBG transistors enable totem-pole bridgeless PFC to become a dominant solution for energy storage systems (ESS). This paper focuses on design and implementation of a control structure for a totem-pole boost PFC with newfangled enhancement-mode Gallium Nitride (eGaN) FETs, not only to simplify the control implementation, but also to achieve high power quality and efficiency. The converter is designed to convert a 90-264-VAC input to a 385-VDC output for a 2.6-kW output power. Lastly, to validate the methodology, an experimental prototype is characterized and fabricated. The uttermost efficiency at 230 VAC attains 99.14%. The lowest total harmonic distortion in the current (ITHD) at high line condition (230 V) reaches 1.52% while the power factor gains 0.9985.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0409.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-link current; harmonic mitigation; voltage source inverters; multi-converter systems; carrier wave interleaving scheme; DC-grid; phase-shifting; capacitor current ripple; unipolar sinusoidal pulse width modulation
Online: 15 June 2021 (14:26:57 CEST)
DC-connected parallel inverter systems are gaining popularity in industrial applications. However, such parallel systems generate excess current ripple (harmonics) at the DC-link due to harmonic interactions between the inverters in addition to the harmonics from the PWM switching. These DC-link harmonics cause the failure of fragile components such as DC-link capacitors. This paper proposes an interleaving scheme to minimize the current harmonics induced in the DC-link of such a system. The results show that when the carrier waves of the two inverters are phase-shifted by 90° angle, the maximum high-frequency harmonic ripple cancellation occurs, which reduces the overall RMS value of the DC-capacitor current.The outcome of this proposed solution is a cost-effective DC-harmonics mitigating strategy for the industrial designers to practically configuring multi-inverter systems, even when most of the drives are not operating at rated power levels. Experimental and simulation results presented in this paper verify the effectiveness of the proposed carrier-based phase-shifting scheme for two different configurations of common DC connected multi-converter systems.
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: sustainable business model; sustainable development; sustainability; business model; review; survey; state-of-the-art; climate change; climate protection; global warming; research method; circular economy; sustainable mobility; mitigation; adaptation
Online: 28 March 2019 (08:49:06 CET)
During the past two decades of e-commerce growth, the concept of a business model has become increasingly popular. More recently, the research on this realm has grown rapidly, with diverse research activity covering a wide range of application areas. Considering the sustainable development goals, the innovative business models have brought a competitive advantage to improve the sustainability performance of organizations. The concept of the sustainable business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value, in economic, social, cultural, or other contexts, in a sustainable way. The process of sustainable business model construction forms an innovative part of a business strategy. Different industries and businesses have utilized sustainable business models’ concept to satisfy their economic, environmental, and social goals simultaneously. However, the success, popularity, and progress of sustainable business models in different application domains are not clear. To explore this issue, this research provides a comprehensive review of sustainable business models literature in various application areas. Notable sustainable business models are identified and further classified in fourteen unique categories, and in every category, the progress -either failure or success- has been reviewed, and the research gaps are discussed. Taxonomy of the applications includes innovation, management and marketing, entrepreneurship, energy, fashion, healthcare, agri-food, supply chain management, circular economy, developing countries, engineering, construction and real estate, mobility and transportation, and hospitality. The key contribution of this study is that it provides an insight into the state of the art of sustainable business models in various application areas and future research directions. This paper concludes that popularity and the success rate of sustainable business models in all application domains have been increased along with the increasing use of advanced technologies.