ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0025.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: macro-minerals; micro-minerals; environmental-minerals; beef quality; beef production; multivariate analysis
Online: 3 November 2019 (17:38:11 CET)
Mineral profile of beef interests human health, but also animal performance and meat quality. This study analyzes the relationships of 20 minerals in beef (ICP-OES) with 3 animal performance and 13 meat quality traits analyzed on 182 samples of Longissimus thoracis. Animals’ breed and sex showed limited effects. The major sources of variation (farm/date of slaughter, individual animal within group and side/sample within animal) differed greatly from trait to trait. Mineral contents were correlated to animal performance and meat quality being significant 52 out of the 320 correlations at the farm/date level, and 101 out of the 320 at the individual animal level. Five latent factors explained 69% of mineral co-variation. The most important, “Mineral quantity” factor correlated with age at slaughter and with the meat color traits. Two latent factors (“Na+Fe+Cu” and “Fe+Mn”) correlated with performance and meat color traits. Two other (“K-B-Pb” and “Zn”) correlated with meat chemical composition and the latter also with carcass weight and daily gain, and meat color traits. Meat cooking losses correlated with “K-B-Pb”. Latent factor analysis appears be a useful means of disentangling the very complex relationships that the minerals in meat have with animal performance and meat quality traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0362.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: phyllosilicate minerals; serpentine; chlorite; clay minerals; aggregates; physicomechanical properties
Online: 22 June 2018 (15:38:55 CEST)
This paper investigates the effect of alteration on the physicomechanical properties of igneous rocks from various areas from Greece used as aggregates. The studied lithologies include dunites, harzburgites, lherzolites, gabbros, diabases, dacites and andesites. Quantitative petrographic analysis shows that the tested samples display various percentages of secondary phyllosilicate minerals. Mineral quantification of studied rock samples was performed by using a Rietveld method on X-Ray diffraction patterns of the studied aggregates. The aggregates are also tested to assign moisture content [w (%)], total porosity [nt (%)], uniaxial compressive strength [UCS (MPa)] and Los Angeles abrasion test [LA (%)]. The influence of secondary phyllosilicate minerals on physicomechanical behavior of tested samples determined using regression analysis and their derived equations. Regression analysis shows positive relationship between the percentage of phyllosilicate minerals of rocks and moisture content as well as with the total porosity values. The relationships between phyllosilicate minerals in the ultramafic and mafic samples and their mechanical properties show that the total rates of phyllosilicate mineral products result negatively in their mechanical properties, while the low percentage of phyllosilicate minerals in volcanic rocks are not able to define set of their engineering parameters.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: ruminant; trace minerals; solubility; fermentation
Online: 16 June 2023 (13:38:15 CEST)
Dietary inclusion of trace minerals (TM), such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) is of importance to cover the ever-evolving requirements for growth, production, and reproduction in ruminants. Various sources of TM are commercially available, such as inorganic (ITM), organic (OTM) or hydroxy (HTM) forms, however their bioavailability and efficiency to improve ruminant zootechnical parameters may be highly influenced by ruminal solubility and effects on the rumen environment. The objective of this review was to compile the most up-to-date information on the ruminal solubility of ITM, OTM and HTM, and their effects on fermentation parameters and rumen microbiota, aiming to support specialists from the animal feed industry when choosing TM products for ruminant supplementation. Some commonly used ITM sources, like sulfates, have a high ruminal solubility, while oxides are less soluble. The ruminal solubility of OTM is mostly found to be high, however data on these TM forms are still lacking. Regarding HTM, ruminal solubility is reported to be low, nevertheless results are inconsistent. Considering rumen fermentation, ITM show a negative effect, OTM might improve, while HTM do not affect parameters like dry matter degradability, volatile fatty acid production, pH, or microbial protein synthesis. As to rumen microbiota, ITM do not affect microbial populations; OTM could decrease abundance of some specific bacteria, like fibrolytic microorganisms, while studies with HTM are missing or inconclusive. Further research is necessary to better understand the ruminal solubility kinetics of TM sources and the different interactions with fermentation parameters and rumen microbiota to successfully apply precision TM supplementation of ruminants, tackling deficiency occurrences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0548.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: ruminant; fermentation; solubility; trace-minerals
Online: 31 March 2023 (10:51:34 CEST)
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation of inorganic sources of manganese (MnO, MnSO4), zinc (ZnO, ZnSO4) and copper (CuSO4) at different levels (0.06%DM for Mn, 0.05%DM for Zn; and 0.01 and 0.05%DM for Cu) on in vitro rumen fermentation, solubility and bioavailability. Fermentation activity was measured by total gas production (TGP) and dry matter degradability after 70hrs of fermentation (dDM%). Trace-mineral (TM) solubility was estimated by the TM concentration in the supernatant of the final fermentation medium (SOL) and TM bioavailability by the TM concentration in a bacterial enriched fraction (BACT). Mn (regardless of source) and ZnO tended (p<0.10) to decrease, while Cu showed no significant effect on TGP. The addition of inorganic Mn and of ZnO tended (p<0.10) to decrease, ZnSO4 tended to increase (p<0.10), whilst Cu showed no effect on dDM%. Concerning solubility, Mn (MnO and MnSO4), ZnSO4 and CuSO4 significantly (p<0.05, p<0.001 and p<0.01) increased, while ZnO did not affect TM content of the SOL. These results indicate that MnSO4, ZnSO4 and CuSO4 are highly soluble, MnO is quite soluble, while ZnO has a low solubility in the rumen. Based on the TM content of BACT, MnO, MnS4 and CuSO4 have a high bioavailability, while ZnO is poorly assimilated by rumen bacteria. However, the lack of clear inhibition or improvement of fermentations suggests that the rumen microbiota has low requirement for TM supplementation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wheat; biofortification; QTLs; protein; minerals
Online: 9 August 2019 (12:54:32 CEST)
Wheat is the essential constituent of cereal-based diets and one of the most significant sources of calories. However, there is an inherently low bioavailability of proteins, mineral, and vitamins in modern wheat grains. Biofortification has earned recognition as an outstanding approach, at the same time as a cure for world hunger. The developments in the identifications of quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and understanding of the physiological and molecular basis of QTLs controlling the biofortification traits in wheat has revealed new horizons for the improvement of modern wheat varieties. Within this review, we have compiled the information from the studies carried out in wheat using QTL mapping methodologies that is among the best methods for biofortification traits. We hope this review will serve as an essential reference for the QTLs identified for the several important biofortification traits in wheat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1930.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Chondroitin; Glucosamine; Vitamins; Minerals; Glomerular Filtration Rate
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:51:19 CEST)
The causal effects of chondroitin, glucosamine, and vitamin/mineral supplement intake on kidney function remain unknown, despite being commonly used. We conducted a two-sample summary-level Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to test for causal associations between regular dietary supplement intake and kidney function. Genetic instruments for chondroitin, glucosamine, and vitamin/mineral supplement intake were obtained from genome-wide association study of European ancestry. Summary statistics for the log-transformed estimated glomerular filtration rate (log-eGFR) were provided by the CKDGen consortium. The multiplicative random-effects inverse variance-weighted method showed that genetically predicted chondroitin and glucosamine intake was causally associated with a lower eGFR (chondroitin, eGFR change beta = -0.113 %, standard error (SE) = 0.03 %, P-value = 2E-04; glucosamine, eGFR change beta = -0.240 %, SE = 0.035 %, P-value = 6E-12). However, a genetically predicted vitamin/mineral supplement intake was associated with a higher eGFR (eGFR change beta = 1.426 %, SE = 0.136 %, P-value = 1E-25). Validation analyses and pleiotropy-robust MR results for chondroitin and vitamin/mineral supplement intake supported the main results. Our MR study suggests a potential causal effect of chondroitin and glucosamine intake on kidney function. Therefore, clinicians should carefully monitor their long-term effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0395.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Aloe Vera; cake; minerals; polyphenol; antioxidant; texture.
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:04:27 CEST)
Aloe Vera leaves have a great potential as an economic supplement with an adequate nutritional profile. In this study, Aloe Vera leaf gel (AVG) powder was used to fortify plain cakes. Freeze drying of AVG was performed for the production of Aloe Vera powder (ALP) and four plain cakes were prepared with different proportions of ALP for further investigation. Analysis suggested that ALP contained significantly (p<0.05) higher amount of protein (22.23 vs 12.24), ash (19.83 vs 0.64) and iron (175 vs 3.05) content than refined wheat flour (RWF). ALP also contained significant amount of total polyphenols and antioxidant. Moisture, protein, ash, weight, and minerals (Fe, Ca) content were higher (p<0.05) in ALP-cakes; whereas fat, volume, specific volume, height, baking loss, and total carbohydrate content were higher (p<0.05) in RWF-cakes. Incorporation of 6 and 8% ALP in the formulation increased the total polyphenols and anti-oxidant activity in plain cakes. Texture analysis revealed that hardness and chewiness increased in ALP-cakes but decreased in RWF-cakes, however, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness decreased in ALP-cakes. Sensory attributes suggested that 4% ALP incorporated cake was attributed as the best formulation. In conclusion, ALP can be supplemented in cakes up to 8% to improve the nutrient value.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0240.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: clay minerals; heterogeneous catalysis; saponite; synthesis; urea
Online: 10 August 2020 (06:29:57 CEST)
Clay minerals surfaces potentially played a role in prebiotic synthesis through adsorption of organic monomers that give rise to highly concentrated systems; facilitate condensation and polymerization reactions; protection of early biomolecules from hydrolysis and photolysis; and surface-templating for specific adsorption and synthesis of organic molecules. This review presents processes of clay formation using saponite as a model clay mineral since it is shown to catalyze organic reactions, easy to synthesize in large and pure form, and has tunable properties. In particular, a method involving urea is presented as a reasonable analog of natural processes. The method involves a two-step process – 1) formation of the precursor aluminosilicate gel and 2) hydrolysis of a divalent metal (Mg, Ni, Co, Zn) by the slow release of ammonia from urea decomposition. The aluminosilicate gels in the first step forms a 4-fold-coordinated Al3+ similar to what is found in nature such as in volcanic glass. The use of urea, a compound figuring in many prebiotic model reactions, circumvents the formation of undesirable brucite, Mg(OH)2, in the final product by slowly releasing ammonia thereby controlling the hydrolysis of magnesium. In addition, the substitution of B and Ga for Si and Al in saponite is also described The saponite products from this urea-assisted synthesis were tested as catalysts for several organic reactions including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, cracking and isomerization reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0141.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: elderberry minerals; antioxidant activity; phenolic compounds; anthocyanins.
Online: 14 January 2020 (12:08:35 CET)
This study compared the mineral content and bioactive properties of flowers and fruit coming from wild elderberry plants with those of flowers and fruit harvested from elderberry cultivars grown in an orchard. Elderberry fruit and flowers were analysed for the content of selected minerals, phenolic compounds and anthocyanins and for antioxidant activity. Mineral content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry method, while antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenols and anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Flowers were found to contain more total ash and to have much higher content of most of minerals, except magnesium, which was present in high concentrations in fruit. Fruit showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than flowers, whereas the total phenolic content varied depending on the growing location / cultivar. The material obtained from selected cultivars growing in an orchard had higher antioxidant activity and polyphenol and anthocyanin content than the material obtained from wild plants. Fruit of the ‘Haschberg’ cultivar and flowers of the ‘Sampo’ cultivar had the best bioactive properties of the studied samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0300.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant activity; phenolic contents; fermentation; wheat; minerals
Online: 27 October 2019 (10:34:26 CET)
High antioxidants level in food is gradually becoming popular because of the enhanced risk of oxidative stress in humans. Bread wheat is rich in vital antioxidants but its major bioactive compounds are not available for the human. This study was conducted with the aim to enhance the phytochemical constituents and antioxidative activity of wheat grains by fermenting it with the use of Bacillus subtilis KCTC 13241. The antioxidative potential was determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl- hydrazyl) and ABTS (3-ethyl-benzothiazo- line-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay as well by the concentration of amino acids, flavonoids, minerals, carbohydrates, and phenolic compounds. Different varieties showed different free radical scavenging potential on fermentation, which was significantly high with respect to their corresponding unfermented wheat varieties. The highest potential was found in a fermented wheat variety named Namhae and this combination can be used in the pharmaceutical and food industries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0183.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: Mars; minerals; biomarkers; catalysis; preservation; ionizing radiations
Online: 9 October 2018 (10:01:26 CEST)
Minerals might have played critical roles for the origin and evolution of possible life forms on Mars. The study of the interactions between “building blocks of life” and minerals relevant to Mars mineralogy under conditions mimicking the harsh Martian environment may provide key insight into possible prebiotic processes. Therefore, this contribution aims at reviewing the most important investigations carried out so far about the catalytic/protective properties of Martian minerals toward molecular biosignatures under Martian-like conditions. Overall, it turns out that the fate of molecular biosignatures on Mars depends on a delicate balance between multiple preservation and degradation mechanisms often regulated by minerals, which may take place simultaneously. Such a complexity requires more efforts in simulating realistically the Martian environment in order to better inspect plausible prebiotic pathways and shed light on the nature of the organic compounds detected both in meteorites and on the surface of Mars through in situ analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1772.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: amaranth; OMET; bioactive compounds; amino acids; minerals; PCA
Online: 27 October 2023 (10:04:12 CEST)
Organic Medium Enclosed Trough (OMET) is a new non-drainable growing technique. The study envisioned to investigate the interactive effects of OMET and Amaranth species vari-ation on some growth attributes, bioactive compounds and nutrients. Three Amaranth species: A. caudatus, A. cruentus and A. tricolor were grown in an OMET and non-OMET growing conditions. Growth attributes, irrigation water, bioactive compounds and nutri-ents were determined. Non-OMET and A. cruentus showed the highest total phenolics and flavonols followed by A. caudatus and A. tricolor, whilst tannins were predominant in A. caudatus followed by A. cruentus and A. tricolor. The use of unsupervised PCA showed major metabolic variation based on Amaranth species and the use of supervised OPLS-DA showed clear metabolic variation based on OMET and non-OMET. OMET and A. cruentus showed the highest plant height, stem diameter, biomass, and some nutrients (%protein, Ca, P, Cu, Se, Zn), followed by A. caudatus based only on growth and biomass, and A. tricol-or based only on some nutrients (Mg, K, Mn, and Fe). The use OMET system on A. cruentus and A. tricolor can be recommended to mitigate climate change effects on nutritional com-position using low irrigation water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1379.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Carbonate Minerals; calcite; aragonite, magnesite; dolomite; Raman spectroscopy
Online: 20 September 2023 (13:42:52 CEST)
This work presents a new discussion about the vibrational properties of the carbonate ion displayed in several different environments, not only the microparameters introduced by cation substitution and different crystal lattices but also the crystal aggregation, showing how their active Raman modes are affected by these changes by using data obtained with four different laser excitation sources. New Raman spectra excited at 1064 nm are reported for calcite, aragonite, and dolomite groups, also including magnesite, witherite, rhodochrosite, siderite, malachite and azurite. These new data contribute to the discussion and understanding of these materials and their spectra, bringing new observations based on the Raman modes, focusing on the internal symmetrical and asymmetrical stretching and bending modes of the carbonate ion, highlighting the differences observed in the relative intensity and width of the bands. The results indicate some evidence of the influence of the crystal habit and/or the growth of the mineral itself in the Raman spectrum. In addition, the data show the influence of the cation substitution upon the Raman band width and that small cations contribute to less rigid crystalline structures and, consequently, larger Raman bandwidths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0925.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: sorghum landraces; diversity; nutrition; minerals; phenolic compounds; antioxidants
Online: 11 August 2023 (09:56:20 CEST)
Sorghum is one of the staple food crops in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Despite this, limited research attention was given to nutritional and antinutritional profiling of sorghum. Thus, this research was investigated to profile and evaluate the variabilities in protein, starch, minerals, flavonoid, tannin, and antioxidant activities among sorghum landraces of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Protein and starch were analyzed using near infrared spectrophotometer and whereas mineral elements were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using DPPH free radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and phosphomolybdenum assays. The result revealed significant variation among the landraces for all the evaluated parameters. Protein and starch contents were ranged from 6.21 to 18% and 33.42 to 78.30%, respectively. Wider variations were observed for Fe (32-101), Zn (16.9-42.98), Cu (1.48-5.25), Mn (9.21-20.23), and Cr (0-1.5) as measured in mg/100g. The variabilities were high for total flavonoid (0-665 mgCE/g) and tannin (0.18-7.5 mgCE/100g). DPPH (EC50= 29.09-818.37 µg/ml), ferric reducing antioxidant power (17.85-334.81 mgAAE/g) and total antioxidant activity (1.71-63.88 mgBHTE/g) were also highly variable among the samples. Flavonoid and tannin were strongly correlated (r = 0.90) with antioxidant activity. The relationship between seed color and phenolics as well as antioxidant activities are discussed. Multivariate analysis revealed that the landraces were clustered in to four distinct groups. The rich genetic diversity in the nutritional and antinutritional attributes may be an opportunity for breeding for grain quality improvements of sorghum that in turn helps in addressing malnutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: micro minerals, selenium, deficiency, soil-plant relationship, Kosovo
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:17:35 CEST)
Minerals play many important functions in plant and animal metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the concentration of Se and other minerals and their relationships in soils and fodder plants in Kosovo. Seventy-three samples of each soil and fodder plants (grass, maize, and wheat) from 30 farms were collected. Both soil and plant samples, after processing and digestion, were analyzed for mineral concentration by ICP-MS. Mineral concentrations in soil and fodder crops, and the best predicting/explanatory models for micro minerals concentration, achieved by stepwise linear regression, are presented. Results showed very low concentration of Se in most of the soil and all fodder samples. In addition, the concentration of Co, Zn and Fe was not sufficient to satisfy requirements for all categories of farm animals. Plant Se concentration showed a positive relationship with Se concentration in soils. Plant Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe and Pb, in general, showed no significant relationship with their concentration in soil, while plant Co and Cd showed positive relationship only in maize, and Cu in wheat grain. Among the soil properties, pH had the highest effect on the concentrations of Co, Mo, Mn, Cd and Pb in fodder crops.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: allanite; REE; ore minerals; IOCG deposit; North Vietnam
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:58:03 CET)
Allanite minerals are the principal host of REEs in the Sin Quyen, Iron Oxide Copper Gold (IOCG) type deposit. The studied allanites have concentrations of: REE (14-27 wt%), Ca (9-16 wt%), Al (8-19 wt%), Si (26-34 wt%) and Fe (12-21 wt%). Two populations of allanite are documented, the first is texturally older probably related to the Ca-K alteration (second stage of crystallization). This population has higher REE concentrations ranging from 20 to 27 wt%, and the second population texturally younger has lower total REE concentration ranging from 14 to 19.9 wt%, which occur as a rim surrounding the older and likely arose during the K alteration with Cu-Au mineralization (third crystallization). Differences between the two allanite populations are documented by both optical properties and analysis of their chemical composition. The last parameter indicate that the studied allanites belong to the Ce-La-ferriallanite family, with low HREE with an average of 0.21 wt.%. Temperature 355ºC which was calculated using value of δ34S isotopes is interpreted as a temperature of the second crystallization stage of allanite. The pressure of crystallization solution was calculated and is ranging from 0.98 to 5.88 MPa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1546.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: osteopenia; osteoporosis; nutraceuticals; prevention; lifestyle; bone health; minerals; phytochemicals.
Online: 23 November 2023 (16:10:43 CET)
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue with increased risk of fracture. The population that is most at risk for primary osteoporosis in-cludes post-menopausal women. Among different approaches, nutraceuticals are increasingly popular in developed countries since can contribute to bone health and can delay the onset of pathological bone loss. Our review covers three main aspects. Firstly, we discuss the current state of the two con-ditions, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Secondly, we focus on the latest developments in natural Nutraceuticals and their effectiveness in reducing bone loss. Finally, we conduct a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis to examine the pros and cons of Nutraceuticals assumption. Nutraceuticals hold great promise, but we must address challenges such as regulatory control and experimental evidence to fully realize their potential. Other challenges include identifying the source of raw materials, ensuring the purity of the compound, avoiding contamination or the presence of other active compounds, maintaining product quality, and preventing interactions with other elements or drugs. By addressing these challenges, the scientific community can ensure more reliable indica-tions for the use of Nutraceuticals and help people lead healthier lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: coffea arabica; roasting degrees; scion; nutraceuticals; acrylamide; caffeine; minerals
Online: 19 September 2023 (13:23:39 CEST)
The main commercial variety of coffee is the Coffea arabica specie, however, it is very susceptible to damage caused by nematodes, for this reason scions of the C. arabica specie are used on ro-busta (Coffea canephora) rootstocks to improve tolerance to these microorganisms, because they modify the organoleptic, nutraceutical and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this work was to assess the effect of five roasting degrees on commercial beans (light, medium light, medi-um, medium, medium dark and dark) in two varieties of Coffea arabica species (Colombia and Costa Rica) and their respective scions on C. canephora of the Romex variety. The scion of the Co-lombia variety with the medium dark roast had the highest concentration of caffeine, while the coffee beans of the Costa Rica variety with the light roast grade had the highest concentration of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA), while the highest acrylamide content was found in the scion of the Co-lombia variety with the medium light roast beans and nutritional content differs considerably between varieties, however, there is similarity between roasting degrees. The degree of roasting, variety and scion of coffee influences the organoleptic, nutraceutical and nutritional content of the coffee infusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1813.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: clay minerals; sorption; humic acid; thermal stability; amphiphilicity; biodegradation
Online: 28 August 2023 (03:52:54 CEST)
This work studied sorption regularities and assessed thermal stability and resistance to microbial degradation of humic acid as a result of 3 sorption cycles on bentonite clay, kaolinite, and muscovite using TGA/DSC, XRD, hydrophobic chromatography, light and electron microscopy, etc. The experiment revealed that kaolinite sorbed more humic acids (HAs) in terms of unit surface area (1.03 × 10-3 C, g/m2) compared to bentonite (0.35 × 10-3 C, g/m 10-3 g/m2). Sorption at pH 4.5 was accompanied by HA fractionation in amphiphilicity and chemical composition. HA was sorbed mainly due to hydrophobic components on the surface of all sorbents. HA was not intercalated into the interlayer spaces of montmorillonite during sorption. Sorption due to hydrophilic interactions was mostly performed on muscovite and bentonite than on kaolinite. Sorption was followed by a change in the chemical composition of HA and decreased C/N compared to free HA, indicating selective sorption of nitrogen-containing compounds which is most characteristic of muscovite. Only a relatively thermolabile HA fraction was adsorbed on all minerals while its thermal stability increased compared to that before the experiment. Thermal stability and ratio of the Exo2/Exo1 peak areas on the DSC curves of sorbed HA increased with each subsequent sorption cycle. Thermal stability and resistance to microbial oxidation of sorbed HA showed the following relationship: the higher the thermal stability, the less available is sorbed HA for utilization by microorganisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0019.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fermentation; vitamins; minerals; bioactive compounds; prebiotics; conjugated fatty acids
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:27:55 CEST)
Microorganisms present in fermented foods and beverages play a vital role in enhancing both nutritive and non-nutritive components. During the fermentation, microorganisms can either naturally occur in the food through spontaneous fermentation or be intentionally added as starter cultures with a variety of species and strains. In this review, the focus is placed on micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, and three major macromolecules – prebiotics, bioactive peptides, and functional fatty acids. During fermentation, non-digestible carbohydrates like fructooligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides are synthesized, imparting prebiotic properties that support gut health. Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins by microorganisms yields bioactive peptides with diverse health benefits. Furthermore, fermentation facilitates the formation of fatty acids, including short-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid, potentially exerting physiological effects. By harnessing the power of microbial fermentation, nutrient-rich and bioactive compounds can be enhanced, offering a promising approach to address global malnutrition concerns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0073.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: minerals; sedimentary basin; pegmatite; brine lakes; economic geology; lithium exploration
Online: 4 December 2023 (02:27:35 CET)
Lithium is a critical metal required for several green technology applications such as electric and hybrid vehicles, energy storage systems, lubricants, polymers, pharmaceuticals, and the preparation of a lot of other industrial chemicals, and its demand is rapidly increasing worldwide. The three most important resources of lithium are pegmatite deposits, salt brine deposits, and sedimentary deposits, and a minor component of unconventional lithium deposits such as geothermal waste, lithium in borate deposits, lithium-enriched coal deposits, lithium-rich industrial wastes such as red mud, acid mine drainage, and recycling. Several studies indicated that marine mineral deposits such as ferromanganese nodules and ferromanganese crusts also contain significant lithium concentrations, and can provide a new solution to the looming shortage of lithium. Currently, sedimentary deposits both on the land and deep oceans are receiving increasing attention, due to their large size and their potential for future lithium resources. While land sedimentary deposits showed a high value of lithium up to 7250 μg/g, the marine sedimentary deposits recorded a high of 781 µg/g. Here, an attempt is made to provide a summary of lithium sedimentary deposits world over and their potential for large-scale and long-term production of lithium. In addition to the descriptions of the importance of mineral deposits of lithium, a brief outline of different types of lithium deposits such as brine deposits including continental and geothermal, petroleum brine, pegmatites, and related magmatic deposits are also presented. Similarly, exploration studies based on geological, geophysical, mineralogical, geochemical, and remote sensing techniques in sedimentary basins are also briefly discussed. This cumulative information on sedimentary lithium deposits can possibly trigger many future studies in unexplored and underexplored terrains around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0404.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: columbite group minerals; pyrochlore; cassiterite; pegmatite; lithium; beryllium; NW Russia
Online: 7 November 2023 (06:34:15 CET)
In this paper we present textural and compositional data for columbite group minerals (CGM) and associated Nb-Ta-Sn oxides from lithium-beryllium-tantalum pegmatite deposits of the Kolmozero-Voronja belt, NW Russia, with the aim of deciphering the above mentioned features for minerals from deposits with different mineral signatures and lithium ore grade. Minerals from four deposits, including two of world-class (Kolmozero and Polmostundra), are examined. It is shown that the main controlling factors are the diversity and rate of magmatic fractionation, hydrothermal overprint and mineral paragenesis followed from the specific geochemical signature of the different pegmatite deposits. CGM from Kolmozero include several mineral species (columbite-(Fe), columbite-(Mn), tantalite-(Fe), tantalite-(Mn)) showing large compositional variations, mainly controlled by Nb-Ta fractionation (Ta/(Ta+Nb) = 0.16-0.70; Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.45-0.63). Textural patterns are extremely various (oscillatory, homogeneous, patchy, spongy, somewhere with over-growing Ta-rich rims) and indicate the involvement of numerous magmatic and hydrothermal processes. The Polmostundra CGM are represented by columbite-(Fe) with Ta/(Ta+Nb) ranging from 0.05 to 0.39 with homogeneous, mottled, oscillatory, patchy and irregular reverse textures. The Okhmylk CGM are irregular normal, patchy and homogeneous columbite-(Fe) and columbite-(Mn) with Ta/(Ta+Nb) = 0.09-0.24 and Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.29-0.92, indicating the suppressed magmatic fractionation and iron drop due to precipitation of Fe minerals. Columbite-(Fe) and columbite-(Mn) from the Be-Ta Shongui deposit are less evolved with Ta/(Ta+Nb) = 0.07-0.23 and Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.31-0.55. The minerals are characterized by progressive normal, oscillatory, homogeneous and ir-regular reverse patterns. Associated pyrochlore minerals occur both as early magmatic (Kolmozero) and late hydrothermal (Polmostundra, Okhmylk). Cassiterite is found only in the Okhmylk dykes and is apparently of hydrothermal origin. CGM from Li pegmatites have impurities of Ti (0.01-0.05 apfu) and W (up to 0.02 apfu), whereas CGM from Be pegmatites contains elevated Ti (up to 0.09 apfu). The mineral systems analysis presented here is relevant for exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1288.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: biocompatible minerals; calcium silicate sodium phosphate; enamel; Erosion; hydroxyapatite; remineralization
Online: 18 August 2023 (08:12:54 CEST)
Enamel erosion is a process which happens every time we eat and it may be accelerated by some particular acid foods, drinks or other agents. Dental enamel when damaged by low pH substances becomes chalky, rough, opaque, yellowed and it can be related to dentinal hypersensitivity. To the present day, several possible solutions are available, therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a biocompatible minerals serum based on calcium silicate, sodium phosphate and fluoride (Regenerate™) on the damaged enamel by four different acid liquids. 135 ovine teeth were equally divided into 5 groups and submerged for one week into lemon juice, energy drink, coffee, tea and physiologic solution for the negative control. The first 4 groups were evaluated for their color with an analogical color scale (Vita® Scale) and for their surface assigning a qualitative aspect among opaque, rough, chalky or smooth. Then they were treated with hydroxyapatite gels and re-evaluated for the same parameters. Data were checked for the normal distribution with Shapiro-Wilk test and analyzed with dependent t-test or Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, every test with a p≤0.05. Both color and surface aspect showed a strongly significant improvement after the treatment. Biocompatible minerals serum based on hydroxyapatite is able to reverse teeth erosion, improve the color and restore the smoothness of the dental enamel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0223.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum L.; chemical, organic and biological fertilization; antioxidants; minerals
Online: 11 April 2023 (10:42:00 CEST)
Tomato is considered the most important vegetable crop worldwide. Improving the nutritional value of fruits must be based on sustainable production in terms of varieties and fertilization management. This study aimed to improve the nutritional value (total soluble solids, acidity, lycopene, β-carotene, polyphenols, macro and microelements) of two tomato varieties (‘Cristal’ and ‘Siriana’) under three fertilization types (NPK chemical fertilizer, chicken manure and biological fertilizer with microorganisms) for the greenhouse. Primary metabolism compounds do not vary significantly according to the type of fertilizer used. The results for the antioxidant compounds showed a better effect of biological fertilization compared to chemical fertilizer and control unfertilized. The tomato fruits from the local cultivar (‘Siriana’) are richer in nutritional compounds such as rutin, regardless of the type of fertilization, which denotes a good ability to adapt to crop conditions. Tomato cultivars reacted positively to microbiological fertilization compare to chemical, thus producing nutritious fruits under sustainable management. Tomato fruits were richer in the quality of microelement contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0631.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Acidity attributes; fruit minerals; grapevine physiology; phenolic compounds; volatile compounds
Online: 28 August 2020 (10:20:31 CEST)
Kaolin protective effect was assessed in a white grapevine cultivar ‘Cerceal’ in ‘Alentejo’ Region (southeast Portugal) where plants face extreme conditions during summer season. We addressed the hypothesis that kaolin effects lead to several changes in leaves, fruits and wine characteristics on the primary and secondary metabolism. Results showed that kaolin reduces leaf temperature which provoke an improvement in physiological parameters such as net photosynthesis and water use efficiency. This protection interferes with berries colour, leaving them more yellowish, and an increase in phenolic compounds were observed in all fruit tissues (skin, seed and pulp). Also, both berry and wine characteristics were strongly affected, with an increase of tartaric and malic acid and consequently high total acidity, while the sugar concentration decreased 8.9% in berries provoking a low wine alcohol level. Results also showed that kaolin induces high potassium, magnesium and iron, and low copper and aluminum concentrations. Moreover, the control wine showed higher content of esters related with hostile notes whereas wine from kaolin treated vines presented higher content of esters associated with fruity notes. Overall, the results strengthen the promising nature of kaolin application as summer stress mitigation strategy protecting grapevine plants and improving fruits quality and more balanced wines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0423.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: DFT; periodic simulations; amorphous minerals; physico-chemical properties; super-cell
Online: 26 June 2018 (13:10:49 CEST)
Silicates are among the most abundant and important inorganic materials, not only in the Earth’s crust but also in the interstellar medium in the form of micro-/nano-particles or embedded in the matrices of comets, meteorites and other asteroidal bodies. Although the crystalline phases of silicates are indeed present in Nature, amorphous forms are also highly abundant. Here we report a theoretical investigation of the structural, dielectric and vibrational properties of the amorphous bulk for forsterite (Mg2SiO4) as a silicate test case by a combined approach of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for structure evolution, and periodic quantum mechanical DFT calculations for electronic structure analysis. Using classical MD based on an empirical partial charge rigid ionic model within a melt-quenching scheme at different temperatures performed with the GULP 4.0 code amorphous bulk structures for Mg2SiO4 were generated using as initial guess the crystalline phase. This has been done for bulks with three different unit cell sizes adopting a super-cell approach; i.e., 1×1×2, 2×1×2 and 2×2×2. The radial distribution functions indicated a good degree of amorphisation of the structures. Periodic B3LYP-geometry optimizations performed with the CRYSTAL14 code on the generated amorphous systems were used to analyze their structure, to calculate their high frequency dielectric constants (ε∞), and to simulate the IR, Raman and reflectance spectra, which were compared with the experimental and theoretical crystalline Mg2SiO4. The most significant changes of the physico-chemical properties of the amorphous systems compared to the crystalline ones are presented and discussed (e.g., larger deviations in the bond distances and angles, broadening of the IR bands, etc.), which are consistent with their disordered nature. It is also shown that by increasing the unit cell size the bulk structures present larger degree of amorphisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0273.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: heavy minerals atlas; heavy mineral maps; National Geochemical Survey of Australia; mineral network analysis; geological setting; mineral system; mineral prospectivity; critical minerals; critical elements
Online: 20 June 2022 (11:16:22 CEST)
We describe a vision for a national-scale heavy mineral (HM) map generated through automated mineralogical identification and quantification of HMs contained in floodplain sediments from large catchments covering most of Australia. The composition of the sediments reflects the dominant rock types in each catchment, with the generally resistant HMs largely preserving the mineralogical fingerprint of their host protoliths through the weathering-transport-deposition cycle. Heavy mineral presence/absence, absolute and relative abundance, and co-occurrence are metrics useful to map, discover and interpret catchment lithotype(s), geodynamic setting, magmatism, metamorphic grade, alteration or mineralization. Underpinning this vision is a pilot project, focusing on a subset of the national sediment sample archive, which is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the larger, national-scale project. We preview a bespoke, cloud-based mineral network analysis (MNA) tool to visualize, explore and discover relationships between HMs as well as between them and geological setting or mineral deposits. We envisage that the Heavy Mineral Map of Australia and MNA tool will contribute significantly to mineral prospectivity analysis and modeling here, particularly for technology critical elements and their host minerals, which are central to the global economy transitioning to a more sustainable, decarbonized paradigm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1901.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Euglena; immunostimulation; antiviral activity; b-1,3-glucan; paramylon; minerals; influenza virus
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:29:09 CET)
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by influenza virus infection, which is managed using vaccines and antiviral drugs. Recently, the antiviral effects of plants and foods have gained attention. This review summarizes the therapeutic properties of Euglena against influenza from a functional food viewpoint. While it has been reported that Euglena contributes to suppressing blood sugar levels and ameliorates symptoms caused by stress by acting on the autonomic nervous system, the immunostimulatory and antiviral activities of Euglena have also been reported. In this review, I focused on the immunostimulation of antiviral activity via the intestinal environment and the suppression of viral replication in infected cells. The functions of specific components of Euglena, which also serve as a source of a wide range of nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and β-1,3-glucan (paramylon), are also reviewed. Euglena has animal and plant properties and natural compounds with a wide range of functions, providing crucial information for improved antiviral strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Aquatic weeds; Edible paper; Proximate composition; Biofunctional compounds; Minerals; Amino acids
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:03:39 CEST)
Three edible aquatic weeds, helencha (Enhydra fluctuans), malancha (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and kalmi (Ipomoea aquatica), were used to produce edible paper sheets. The composition of the raw and paper sheet samples was analyzed, including proximate composition, amino acid content, minerals and heavy metal contents, and bioactive compounds. The dried raw and paper sheets showed similar proximate composition, with carbohydrates being the highest (50.38-64.63%), followed by crude protein (15.25-19.13%), ash (9.30-15.88%), and lipid (1.549-3.43%). The weeds and paper sheets were rich in essential minerals like Na, Ca, Zn, and Fe. Acceptable levels of heavy metals, including Ni, Pb, and Cu, were found. The paper sheets contained seven essential and eight non-essential amino acids. A. philoxeroides sheets showed the highest amino acid content (16146.81mg/100g), while I. aquatica showed the lowest (13118.67 mg/100g). The aquatic weeds paper sheets were rich in containing bioactive compounds and the number in E. fluctuans, A. philoxeroides, and I. aquatica paper sheets were 31, 33, and 40, respectively. There were no significant changes in the nutritional content of aquatic weeds in paper sheet form compared to the raw weeds which suggests promising prospects for the production and consumption as a source of nutrition and bioactive compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0369.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: carbamazepine; adsorption; clay minerals; organoclays; advanced oxidation processes; photocatalysis; water reuse
Online: 27 May 2022 (04:42:22 CEST)
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most common emerging contaminants released to the aquatic environment through domestic and pharmaceutical wastewater. Due to its high persistence through conventional degradation treatments, is considered a typical indicator for anthropogenic activities. This study tested the removal of CBZ through two different clay-based purification techniques: adsorption of relatively large concentrations (20-500 μmol L-1) and photocatalysis of lower concentrations (<20 μmol L-1). The sorption mechanism was examined by FTIR measurements, exchangeable cations released, and colloidal charge of the adsorbing clay materials. Photocatalysis was performed in batch experiments under various conditions. Despite the neutral charge of carbamazepine, the highest adsorption was observed on negatively charged montmorillonite-based clays. Desorption tests indicate that adsorbed CBZ is not released by washing. The adsorption/desorption processes were confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis of the clay-CBZ particles. A combination of synthetic montmorillonite or hectorite with low H2O2 concentrations under UVC irradiation exhibits efficient homo-heterogeneous photodegradation at μM CBZ levels. The two techniques presented in this study suggest solutions for both industrial and municipal wastewater, possibly enabling water reuse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0695.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: clay minerals; limestone; biochar; trace elements; bio-availability; alkaline degraded soils
Online: 28 September 2020 (17:52:02 CEST)
Ca-bentonite (CB) alone and in a mixture with limestone (L), tobacco biochar (TB) and zeolite (Z) on the fixation, geochemical fractions and absorption of Cd and Zn by Chinese cabbage in smelter heavily polluted (S-HP) and smelter low polluted (S-LP) soils were investigated. The results showed that the CB+TB and CB+L+TB treatments significantly immobilized Cd up to 22.03% and 29.68%, respectively, and reduced uptake by Chinese cabbage shoot to 35.98% with CB+Z+L and 61.35% with CB+L in S-HP and S-LP soils compared with the control. The CB+ Z+ L+TB treatment mobilized Cd up to 4.45% and increased absorption in the shoot by 9.85% in S-HP soil. The greatest immobilization of Zn was 53.18% and 58.20% with the CB+Z+L+TB treatment, which reduced Zn uptake in the plant shoot by 9.94% with CB + L and 58.04 with CB+Z+L+TB in S-HP and S-LP soils. The CB+Z+TB and CB+TB treatments mobilized Zn up to 35.40% and 4.80%, respectively, in both soils. Furthermore, the uptake of Zn in plant shoot was observed by 58.96% and 7.82% with application of CB+Z and CB+TB treatments, respectively, in S-HP and S-LP soils. Overall, our results suggest that Ca-bentonite alone and in mixtures with different amendments can be used to reduce the phyto-extraction of Cd and Zn in Zn-smelter polluted soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: infant formulae; infant foods; minerals; toxic metals; hydroxymethylfurfural; storage conditions; safety
Online: 6 May 2019 (10:38:25 CEST)
Infant foods and formulae may contain toxic substances and elements which can be neo-formed contaminants or derived from raw materials or processing. The content of minerals, toxic elements and hydroxymethylfurfural in infant foods and formulae were evaluated. The effect of storage temperature on HMF formation in infant formulae and its potential as a quality parameter was also evaluated. Prune-based foods contained the highest HMF content. HMF significantly increased when storage temperature was elevated to 30 ℃ for 21 days. All trace elements were present in adequate amounts while the concentration of nickel was higher when compared to those of other studies. The study indicates that HMF can be used as quality indicator for product shelf-life and that the concentrations of minerals and toxic elements vary greatly due to the diverse compositions of foods and formulae. Such contaminants need to be monitored as infants represent a vulnerable group compared to adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0043.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: biomineralization; halophilic bacteria; precipitation; carbonate minerals; Mg/Ca ratios; nucleation sites
Online: 26 April 2017 (12:15:58 CEST)
The mechanism underlying microbiologically induced carbonate precipitation have not been thoroughly characterized, although numerous scholars and experts have specifically investigated questions regarding minerals induced by bacteria. The study of the precipitation of carbonate minerals induced by halophilic bacteria has aroused wide concern. The present study aimed to investigate the characterization and process of biomineralization in high salt systems by a halophilic bacterium, Chromohalobacter israelensis strain LD532 (GenBank: KX766026), which was isolated from the Yinjiashan Saltern in China. Carbonate minerals induced by LD532 were investigated in several sets of comparative experiments that employed magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride as Mg resources. Magnesium calcite and aragonite were induced by LD532 bacteria, whereas these minerals did not appear in the control group. The mineral phases, micromorphologies, and crystal structures were analysed using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray detection. The carbonic anhydrase and urease secreted by strain LD532 through metabolism increased the pH value of the liquid medium and promoted the process of carbonate precipitation. Further study using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray detection and analysis of ultrathin slices showed that the nucleation sites of carbonate minerals were located on extracellular polymeric substances and the membranes of intracellular vesicles of LD532 bacteria, which provided favourable conditions for the growth of carbonate mineral crystals. The morphologies and compositions of minerals formed in solutions of MgSO4 and MgCl2 display significant differences, indicating that different sources of Mg2+ may also affect the physiological and biochemical activities of microorganisms and thus mineral deposition. This study will be of some interest for the interpretation of carbonate biomineralization in natural salt environments and has some value as a reference in understanding sedimentary carbonates in ancient marine environments, such as tidal flats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: blood; bone mineralization; minerals; monitoring; nutrition; renal tubular reabsorption; supplementation; urine
Online: 25 November 2016 (10:14:30 CET)
Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P). Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ca-P supplementation on biochemical markers as serum (s)/urinary (u) Ca and P; alkaline phosphatase (ALP); tubular reabsorption of P (TrP) and urinary ratios for Ca/creatinin and P/creatinin in Very-Low-Birth-Weight infants on postnatal day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. This observational study compared two groups with High (n = 30) and Low (n = 40) intake of Ca-P. Birth weight: median (IRQ) 948 (772-1225) vs. 939 (776-1163) grams; Gestational age: 28.2 (26.5-29.6) vs. 27.8 (26.1-29.4) weeks. Daily median concentrations of biochemical parameter were not different between the groups but linear regression mixed model analyses showed that Ca intake increased the uCa and TrP (p = 0.04) and decreased ALP (p = 0.00). Phosphorus intake increased sP, uP and uP/creat ratio and ALP (p ≤ 0.02) and caused decrease in TrP (p = 0.00). Protein intake decreased sP (p = 0.000), while low gestational age and male gender increased renal excretion of P (p < 0.03). Standardized repeated measurements showed that biochemical parameters were affected by nutritional intake, gestational age and gender.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: bronchial asthma; antioxidant; vitamins; minerals; supplements; biomarkers; oxidative stress; inflammation; smokers; nonsmokers
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:47:33 CEST)
Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Increased oxidative stress (OS) is a clinical feature of BA, which promotes the inflammatory responses in bronchial/airway epithelial cells. Smokers and nonsmokers with asthma have been shown to have increases in several OS and inflammatory biomarkers. A few studies suggest a relationship between antioxidant intake from diet/supplements and BA in smoking and nonsmoking asthmatics. Dietary carotenoids and vitamin C (VC) intake might reduce BA risk in smokers and/or non-smokers. Evidence is lacking on the protective role of antioxidant vitamin and/or mineral consumption against BA in smokers and nonsmokers with respect to inflammation and OS biomarkers. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight current knowledge regarding the relations between antioxidant intake, BA and its associated biomarkers in smokers and nonsmokers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Minerals, Trace elements, Fish, Copper, Iron, Selenium, Manganese, Zinc, Calcium, Phosphous, Magnesium
Online: 3 August 2021 (14:57:19 CEST)
Aquatic animals have unique physiological mechanisms to absorb and retain minerals from their diets and water. Research and development in the area of mineral nutrition of farmed fish and crustaceans have been relatively slow and major gaps exist in the knowledge of trace element requirements, physiological functions and bioavailability from feed ingredients. Quantitative dietary requirements have been reported for three macroelements (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and six trace minerals (zinc, iron, copper, manganese, iodine and selenium) for selected fish species. Mineral deficiency signs in fish include reduced bone mineralization, anorexia, lens cataracts (zinc), skeletal deformities (phosphorus, magnesium, zinc), fin erosion (copper, zinc), nephrocalcinosis (magnesium deficiency, selenium toxicity), thyroid hyperplasia (iodine), muscular dystrophy (selenium) and hypochromic microcytic anaemia (iron). An excessive intake of minerals from either diet or gill uptake causes toxicity and therefore a fine balance between mineral deficiency and toxicity is vital for aquatic organisms to maintain their homeostasis either through increased absorption or excretion. Release of minerals from uneaten or undigested feed and from urinary excretion can cause eutrophication of natural waters, which requires additional consideration in feed formulation. The current knowledge in mineral nutrition of fish is briefly reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0508.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Africa, armed conflict, business, corporations, environment, human rights, minerals, European Union, regulations
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:31:02 CEST)
Competition over environmental and natural resources characteristically lies at the heart of armed conflicts in Africa. It is also common knowledge that some companies dealing in products such as laptops, smart phones and jewellery; import minerals from conflict-affected areas, thereby indirectly fuelling conflicts in these areas or undermining human rights. For a continent endowed with natural resources including minerals, Africa has suffered the brunt of this predicament. This state of affairs has lent impetus to the adoption of several regulations geared towards curbing irresponsible business practices by companies relying on such minerals, the goal being, amongst others, to guarantee the protection of human rights. In May 2017, the European Union adopted Regulations intended to stop the importation of conflict minerals in Europe, debatably making giant strides in the direction of protection of human rights. These Regulations are to come into force in 2021. However, can these regulations advance the much-desired goal of protection of human rights in Africa on issues pertaining to conflict minerals? By analyzing the 2017 EU Regulations in light of previous regulations of a similar nature, the paper concludes that the said regulations constitute a weak normative framework and could in fact have unintended consequences on the fundamental rights of civilians in natural resource-rich conflict areas of Africa.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: pyrochlore-group minerals; fluornatropyrochlore; alkaline granites; Katugin rare-metal deposit; East Transbaikalia
Online: 30 June 2019 (11:53:45 CEST)
Pyrochlore group minerals are the main raw phases in granitic rocks of the Katugin complex-ore deposit that stores Nb, Ta, Y, REE, U, Th, Zr, and cryolite. They are of three main generations: primary magmatic (I), early postmagmatic (II), and supergene (III) pyrochlores. The primary magmatic phase (generation I) is fluornatropyrochlore with high concentrations of Na2O (to 10.5 wt.%), F (to 5.4 wt.%) and REE2O3 (to 17.1 wt.%) but low CaO (0.6-4.3 wt.%), UO2 (to 2.6 wt.%), ThO2 (to 1.8 wt.%), and PbO (to 1.4 wt.%). Pyrochlore of this type is very rare in nature and limited to a few occurrences, such as rare-metal deposits of Nechalacho in syenite and nepheline syenite (Canada) and Mariupol in nepheline syenite (Ukraine). It may have crystallized synchronously with or slightly later than melanocratic minerals (aegirine, biotite, and arfvedsonite) at the late magmatic stage when Fe from the melt became bound making impossible the formation of columbite. Second generation pyrochlore formed at the early postmagmatic stage of the Katugin deposit. It differs from that of first generation in lower Na2O concentrations (2.8 wt.%), relatively low F (4 wt.%), and les occupancy of the A and Y sites at similar contents of other components. Generation III pyrochlore is a product of supergene alteration processes. It is compositionally heterogeneous and contains K, Ba, Pb, Fe, and significant Si concentrations but low Na and F. Its compositions mostly fall within the filed of hydro- and kenopyrochlore.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0282.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fly ash, process mineralogy, minerals, rare and precious metals, separation and enrichment
Online: 25 April 2019 (11:24:23 CEST)
The separation and enrichment can be targeted to enrich the rare and precious metals in fly ash and reduce the cost of leaching and recovering of fly ash. Regarding their different properties, the single-component separation was used to obtain uncompleted burned carbon, glass microbeads, minerals, and other characteristic components from the ash. Also, the mineral composition of each component was analyzed by electron microscopy. The metal minerals were mainly concentrated in the mineral components. Besides, the electron probe micro-analysis shows that the Pt content in the minerals of fly ash was significantly correlated with the metal contents of Ni and Cu. After the obtainment of the characteristics of fly ash metal enrichment, the heavy minerals with Cu, Ni, Pt, Pd, and other target metal elements were enriched by gravity separation and flotation. The enrichment coefficients of Cu, Ni, Pt, and Pd were 1.45, 1.33, 1.90 and 1.60, respectively, and the recovery rates were 77%, 81%, 97% and 88% respectively. Since the yield of heavy minerals obtained by separation was 62.24%, it indicated the physical separation method could significantly reduce the cost of leaching and recovering of fly ash metal resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: quasicrystals; aperiodic mineral structures; crystal and quasicrystal morphologies; quasicrystalline minerals; skutterudite; cobaltine
Online: 24 October 2016 (04:59:48 CEST)
In this article, we first present and discuss eighteenth-century descriptions of minerals that contributed decisively to the development of crystallography. Remarkably, these old crystallographic descriptions included morphologies with symmetries incompatible with an internal periodic order of atoms, which, however, have been recognised to be characteristics of quasicrystals. Moreover, we also review a number of studies of minerals with aperiodic crystal structures, including recently reported natural quasicrystals of extra-terrestrial origin. Finally, we discuss the current investigations addressing the search for new quasicrystalline minerals in nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0551.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: : silicocarbonatite; melteigite; calcite; nepheline; zeolite group minerals; garnet; crystal fractionation; Breivikbotn; Northern Norway
Online: 27 September 2018 (17:37:30 CEST)
The present work reports new mineralogical and whole rock geochemical data from the Breivikbotn silicocarbonatite (Seiland igneous province, North Norway), allowing conclusions to be drawn concerning its origin and the role of late fluid alteration. The rock shows a rare mineral association: calcite + pyroxene + amphibole + zeolite group minerals + garnet + titanite, with apatite, allanite, magnetite and zircon as minor and accessory minerals, and it is classified as silicocarbonatite. Calcite, titanite and pyroxene (Di36-46 Acm22-37 Hd14-21) are primarily magmatic minerals. Amphibole of hastingsitic composition has formed after pyroxene at a late-magmatic stage. Zeolite group minerals (natrolite, gonnardite, Sr-rich thomsonite-(Ca)) were formed during hydrothermal alteration of primary nepheline by fluids/solutions with high Si-Al-Ca activities. Poikilitic garnet (Ti-bearing andradite) has inclusions of all primary minerals, amphibole and zeolites, and presumably crystallized metasomatically during a late metamorphic event (Caledonian orogeny). Whole rock chemical compositions of the silicocarbonatite differs from the global average of calciocarbonatites by elevated silica, aluminium, sodium and iron, but show comparable contents of trace elements (REE, Sr, Ba). Trace element distributions indicate within-plate tectonic setting of the carbonatite. The spatial proximity of carbonatite and alkaline ultramafic rock (melteigite), the presence of “primary nepheline” in carbonatite together with the trace element distributions indicate that the carbonatite was derived from crystal fractionation of a parental carbonated foidite magma. The main prerequisites for the extensive formation of zeolite group minerals in silicocarbonatite are revealed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0134.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Triticum aestivum; carbon dioxide; minerals; protein; starch; baking properties; crop quality; food security
Online: 31 January 2017 (11:49:41 CET)
Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) stimulates wheat grain yield, but simultaneously reduces protein (N) concentration. Also other essential nutrients are subject to change. This study is a comprehensive synthesis of wheat experiments with eCO2, estimating effects on N, minerals (B, Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Zn), and starch. Analysis was made by i) deriving response functions for the relative effect on element concentration in relation to CO2 concentration, ii) meta-analysis to test the magnitude and significance of observed effects, and iii) relating CO2 effects on minerals to effects on N and grain yield. Responses range from zero to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration, with largest reductions for the nutritionally important elements N, Fe, S, Zn and Mg. Together with the positive but small and non-significant effect on starch concentration, the large variation in effects suggests that CO2-induced responses cannot be explained by a simple dilution model. To explain the observed pattern, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered, along with the link of different elements to N uptake. Our study shows that eCO2 has a significant effect on wheat grain stoichiometry, with implications for human nutrition in a world of rising CO2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0732.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: animal feed; annual legumes; perennial legumes; nutritional value; minerals; in vitro fermentation; methane production
Online: 12 October 2023 (05:04:01 CEST)
This study evaluated five annual and eleven perennial Indian pasture legumes species for their nutritive value, dry matter, mineral contents and in vitro fermentation parameters, aiming to boost their potential as animal feed. Legume species significantly differed (p<0.05) in organic matter, crud protein (CP), ether extracts, fibres, and protein fractions. Clitoria ternatea (CT) a perennial had higher (p<0.05) buffer soluble protein (477), while neutral detergent soluble protein was highest in annually grown Lablab purpureus (420 g/kg CP). Atylosia scarabaeoides (AS) had higher NSC (392 g/kg DM) than SC (367 g/kg DM). Rapidly degradable fraction (51.7 g/kg tCHO) was lower (p<0.05) than other fractions of carbohydrate. Total digestible nutrients, digestible energy and metabolisable energy varied and values were higher for Desmenthus virgatus and lowest for Stylosanthas seabrana (SSe). The NE values for lactation (NEL), maintenance (NEM) and gain (NEG) were also higher for DV (6.6, 7.95 and 4.28) and lowest for SSe (3.54, 4.24 and 0.58 kJ/g DM), respectively. dry matter intake, digestible DM (DDM) and relative feed value of legumes differed (p<0.05) with mean values of 2.22% body weight, 592 g/kg DM and 102%, respectively. Annual grasses like Dolichos biflorus, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Rhynchosia minima (RM) were found better with micro minerals compared to other perennials. In vitro dry matter degradability, partition factor, short chain fatty acids and microbial protein production of legumes varied (P<0.05) and mean values were 578 g/kg DM, 5.61 mg DDM/mL, 2.42 mm/g and 352 mg/g, respectively. Gas and CH4 production (mL/g and mL/g DDM) varied (p<0.05) being lowest gas from AS (55.5) and highest from CT-blue (141), while CH4 production was lower (p<0.05) from CT-white and AS (8.24 and 9.14) and higher from Arachis glabrata (AG) and Arachis hagenbackii (AH) (15.2 and 15.1). Methane in total gas was low for DV, RM and CT-w (8.99, 9.72 and 9.51%) and loss of DE and ME as CH4 varied (P<0.05) amongst the legumes with mean values of 4.62 and 7.86%, respectively. Based on these findings, each legume offers unique benefits, allowing for tailored combinations of annual and perennial legumes to optimize rumen feed efficiency.
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: mine rock drainage; sulfide oxidation; neutralization by silicates; secondary iron minerals; toxic element scavenging
Online: 15 October 2021 (12:22:41 CEST)
Mine waste rock and drainage pose lasting environmental, social, and economic threats to the mining industry, regulatory agencies, and society as a whole. Mine drainage can be alkaline, neutral, moderately or extremely acidic and contains significant levels of sulfate, dissolved iron, and frequently a variety of heavy metals and metalloids, such as cadmium, lead, arsenic, and selenium. In acid neutralization by carbonate and silicate minerals, a range of secondary minerals can form and possibly scavenge these potentially harmful elements. Apart from the extensively-studied microbial-facilitated sulfide oxidation, the diverse microbial communities present in mine rock and drainage may also participate in the formation, dissolution, and transformation of secondary minerals influencing the mobilization of these metals and metalloids. This article reviews major microbial-mediated geochemical processes occurring in mine rock piles that affect drainage chemistry, with a focus on the role of microorganisms in the formation, dissolution and transformation of secondary minerals. Understanding this is crucial for developing biologically-based measures to deal with contaminant release at the source, i.e., source control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2185.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: geothermal reservoirs; cap-rocks; exploration; clay minerals; quartz; carbonates; fluid inclusions; chlorite geothermometers; flow pathways
Online: 31 August 2023 (15:03:50 CEST)
Geothermal energy aims at harnessing the heat of the Earth to produce energy, from the near-surface to great depths. Emphasis is put on geothermal reservoirs in crystalline rocks, hence vol-canic islands and crystalline basements of sedimentary basins based on three examples world-wide. Hot brines circulate in those rocks and are responsible for their hydrothermal alteration because of fluid-rock interactions. This includes dissolution of preexisting minerals and crystal-lization of newly formed ones which provide many information of crucial importance for a better exploration of those reservoirs. For example, the crystallization of clay minerals results from the dissolution of preexisting minerals (feldspar and ferro-magnesian minerals in plutonic, volcanic or metamorphic rocks) or from the direct precipitation from geothermal brines, in specific condi-tions. Clay minerals are found in both the geothermal reservoirs and in the clay-cap found above them. Other newly formed minerals such as quartz, carbonates or sulfates have also recorded the conditions of temperature and salinity encountered by fossil reservoirs which can be evaluated thanks to the study of fluid inclusions trapped during their crystallization. This paper presents results from several geothermal deep sites and surface analogues to pinpoint the role played by newly-formed minerals in the characterization of geothermal reservoirs and their cap-rock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0395.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Punica granatum L.; Bio-agronomic traits; Antioxidant activity; Total phenolic content; Carbohydrates; Minerals; genetic diversity
Online: 23 December 2021 (14:12:35 CET)
The nutraceutical value of pomegranate in the treatment of many neoplastic, cardiovascular, viral, inflammatory, metabolic, microbial, intestinal, reproductive and skin diseases is well-documented and is linked to its richness in phenolic compounds. This study aims to evaluate nutraceutical and genetic diversity of novel pomegranate genotypes (G1-G5) in comparison to leading commercial pomegranate varieties i.e. ‘Wonderful’, ‘Primosole’, ‘Dente di Cavallo’ and ‘Valenciana’. Morphometric measurements were carried out on fruits, accompanied by chemical characterization and the development of four new polymorphic SSR markers involved in the flavonoid pathway. The cultivars displayed a marked variability in the weight and shape of fruits, as well as in the weight of arils and juice yield. The highest level of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was found in ‘Wonderful’ and G4, while the lowest was in ‘Dente di Cavallo’. Furthermore, the results showed that the pomegranate juice, is an excellent source of minerals, especially potassium, which plays a key role in organ functioning. The new flavonoid-related markers effectively differentiated the cultivars with the same diversity pattern as morpho-chemical characterization, so the SSRs developed in the present study can be used as a rapid tool for the identification of pomegranate cultivars with relevant nutraceutical traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0090.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium head blight; Fusarium species; soil minerals; ergosterol; mycotoxins; organic farming; sowing value; winter wheat
Online: 9 October 2019 (05:38:12 CEST)
Growing acreage and changing consumer preferences cause increasing interest in the cereal products originating from organic farming. Lack of results of objective test, however, does not allow drawing conclusions about the effects of cultivation in the organic system and comparison to currently preferred conventional system. Field experiment was conducted in organic and conventional fields. Thirty modern cultivars of winter wheat were sown. They were characterized for disease infection including Fusarium head blight, seed sowing value, the amount of DNA of the six species of Fusarium fungi as well as concentration of ergosterol and trichothecenes in grain. The intensity Fusarium head blight was at a similar level in both systems. However, Fusarium colonization of kernels expressed as ergosterol level or DNA concentration was higher for the organic system. It did not reflect in an increased accumulation of trichothecenes in grain, which was similar in both systems, but sowing value of organically produced seeds was lower. Significant differences between analyzed cropping systems and experimental variants were found. The selection of the individual cultivars for organic growing in terms of resistance to diseases and contamination of grain with Fusarium toxins was possible. Effects of organic growing differ significantly from the conventional and grain obtained such way can be recommended to consumers. There are indications for use of particular cultivars bred for conventional agriculture in the case of organic farming, and the growing organic decreases plant stress resulting from intense fertilization and chemical plant protection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0188.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: origins of life; prebiotic chemistry; mineral catalysis; sulfide minerals; mineral diversity; density functional theory; electrocatalysis
Online: 11 September 2018 (08:39:51 CEST)
Prebiotic organic synthesis reactions catalyzed by Earth-abundant metal sulfides are key processes for understanding the evolution of biochemistry from inorganic molecules, yet the catalytic functions of sulfides have remained poorly explored in the context of the origins of life. Past studies on prebiotic chemistry have mostly focused on a few types of metal sulfide catalysts, such as FeS or NiS, which form limited types of products with inferior activity and selectivity. To explore the potential of metal sulfides on catalyzing prebiotic chemical reactions, here, the chemical diversity (variations in chemical composition and phase structure) of 304 natural metal sulfide minerals in a mineralogy database was surveyed and approaches to rationally predict the catalytic functions of metal sulfides are discussed based on advanced theories and analytical tools of electrocatalysis such as proton-coupled electron transfer, structural comparisons between enzymes and minerals, and in-situ spectroscopy. To this end, we introduce a model of geo-electrochemistry driven prebiotic synthesis for chemical evolution, as it helps us to predict kinetics and selectivity of targeted prebiotic chemistry under “chemically messy conditions”. We expect that combining the data-mining of mineral databases with experimental methods and theories developed in the field of electrocatalysis will facilitate the prediction and verification of catalytic performance under a wide range of pH and Eh conditions, and aid in the rational screening of mineral catalysts involved in the origins of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0887.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: semiconductor minerals; photosynthesis; photocatalysis; origin of life; protocells; self-assembly; self-organization; photoinduced processes; protometabolism; protomembranes.
Online: 13 October 2023 (11:00:22 CEST)
This work is the first part of a series of papers on a comprehensive analysis of the processes of prebiotic self-organization and protophotosynthesis on the surface of semiconductor minerals and in systems of natural dispersed semiconductors. Comprehensive analysis within the framework of the "semiconductor world" concept allows integrating a variety of models on a single physical basis - from ZnS world and FeS world (based on inorganic semiconductors) to the PAH world and aromatic world (including organic semiconductors). Thus, we do not put forward a new alternative hypothesis of chemical evolution - a new "chemical world", but only integrate the evolutionary and geochemical criteria of different "chemical worlds" into a single "physical world", which gives one the opportunity to reconstruct and predict the directions of chemical evolution according to the uniform principles of physical chemistry. In the first part of this series we consider photoinduced self-organization and "photo-controlled" evolution of the early protobiological systems performing solar energy conversion on the surface of dispersed semiconductor minerals capable of (photo)catalyzing and photosensitizing prebiological processes. The latter include a transition from the elementary cycles of photocatalytic reactions on the surface of semiconductors to protophotometabolic cycles and protophotosynthesis, from photophysical processes on the surface of mineral semiconductors to photoinduced membrane potentials, from photocontrolled sorption on the surface of such minerals to the formation of photosensitive protomembranes and selection of photosynthetic structures. The evolutionary approach to the analysis of protobiological mechanisms and protobioenergetics within the framework of the "semiconductor world" concept provides a new approach to the study of the last common point of divergence of protobiological systems, where the emergence principles of different energy supply schemes (like the energy source-specific photoautotrophy and substrate-specific chemoautotrophy) merge at the physicochemical level. The proposed integrating scheme is consistent with most biological, geological, and physicochemical concepts, which ensures its complete cross-checking and internal consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1595.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: breast milk; human milk bank; associations; donors; diet; nutritional status; lipid profile; vitamins; minerals; docosahexaenoic acid
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:24:33 CEST)
The influence of diet and nutritional status of milk donors on the nutritional composition of donor human milk (DHM) is unknown. The present study aimed to determine the nutritional profile of DHM and the associations of donors’ dietary intake and nutritional status with micronutrient and lipid composition in DHM. For this purpose, 113 donors completed a food frequency questionnaire, provided a 5-day weighed dietary record, and collected milk for 5 consecutive days. Nutrient determinations in donors’ erythrocytes, plasma, urine, and milk were performed. Multiple linear regressions were conducted for the evaluation of the associations. We highlight the following results: DHM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was positively associated with donors’ plasma DHA content and donors’ DHA intake (R2 0.45, p < 0.001). For every 1 g/day of DHA intake, the percentage of DHA in DHM increased by 0.38% (% of total fat) and the percentage of total omega-3 in DHM increased by 0.78% (R2 0.29, p < 0.001). DHM saturated fatty acids were positively associated with erythrocyte dimethyl acetals, plasma stearic acid, trans fatty acids intake, and breastfeeding duration, and negatively associated with erythrocyte margaroleic acid (R2 0.34, p < 0.01). DHM cholecalciferol was associated with plasma cholecalciferol levels and dairy intake (R2 0.57, p < 0.01). Other weaker associations were found for free thiamine, free riboflavin, pyridoxal, dehydroascorbic acid, and lipid profile in DHM. In conclusion, the diet and nutritional status of donors influences the fatty acid profile and micronutrient content of DHM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0288.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: bauxite; bauxite residue; red mud; rare earth elements; rare earth minerals; rare earth ferrotitanate; perovskite; loparite
Online: 30 January 2018 (20:42:31 CET)
The purpose of present work was to provide mineralogical insight in the rare earth element (REE) phases in bauxite residue to improve REE recovering technologies. Experimental work was performed by electron probe microanalysis with energy dispersive as well as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. REEs are found as discrete mineral particles in bauxite residue. Their sizes range from < 1 μm to about 40 μm. In bauxite residue, the most abundant REE bearing phases are light REE (LREE) ferrotitanates, that form a solid solution between the phases with major compositions (REE,Ca,Na)(Ti,Fe)O3 and (Ca,Na)(Ti,Fe)O3. These are secondary phases formed during the Bayer process by an in-situ transformation of the precursor bauxite LREE phases. Comparing to natural systems, the indicated solid solution resembles loparite-perovskite series. LREE particles often have a calcium ferrotitanate shell surrounding them, that probably hinders their solubility. Minor amount of LREE carbonate and phosphate minerals as well as manganese-associated LREE phases are also present in bauxite residue. Heavy REEs occur in the same form as in bauxites, namely as yttrium phosphates. These results show that Bayer process has an impact on the initial REE mineralogy contained in bauxite. Bauxite residue as well as selected bauxites are potentially good sources of REEs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: Scanning electron microscopy; Minerals; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Energy-dispersive spectrometer; Backscattered electron imaging; Secondary electron imaging
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:54:18 CET)
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a powerful tool in the domain of material science, mining, and geology, owing to its enormous potential to provide unique insights into the micro and nanoscale worlds. This comprehensive review discusses the background development of SEM, basic SEM operation including the specimen preparation and imaging process, and fundamental theoretical calculations underlying the SEM operation. It provides foundational understanding to the engineers and scientists, who never got a chance to dig in-depth into the SEM, to understand the working and development of this robust analytical technique. The present review covers how SEM has been serving as a crucial tool in mineral characterization, with specific discussions on the working and research fronts of SEM-EDX, SEM-AM, SEM-MLA, and QEMSCAN. With automation gaining pace in the development of all spheres of technology, the understanding of uncertainties in SEM measurements is very important. The constraints in mineral phase identification by EDS spectra and sample preparation are conferred. In the end, future research directions for SEM are analyzed with the possible incorporation of machine learning, deep learning, and artificial intelligence tools, for automating the process of mineral identification, quantification, and efficient communication with the researchers, so that the analytical process robustness and objectivity can be improved, and the analysis time and the involved costs can be brought down. This review also discusses the idea of integrating robotics with SEM, to make the equipment portable, so that further mineral characterization insights can be gained not only on earth but also on other terrestrial grounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0064.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Moderate halophile; Carbonate minerals; Mg/Ca ratios; Different magnesium, Carbonic anhydrase; pH increase; Cell density; Growth mode
Online: 2 November 2018 (14:23:37 CET)
Carbonate precipitation induced by microorganism has become a hot spot in the field of carbonate sedimentology, while the effect of different magnesium on biominerals has rarely been studied. Therefore, magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride were used to investigate the significant role played on carbonate minerals. In this study, Staphylococcus epidermidis Y2 was isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homology comparison. The ammonia, pH, carbonic anhydrase, carbonate and bicarbonate ions were investigated. The mineral phase, morphology and elemental composition were analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDS. The ultrathin slices of bacteria were analyzed by HRTEM-SAED and STEM. The result showed that this bacterium could release ammonia and carbonic anhydrase to increase pH, and elevate the supersaturation via a large number of carbonate and bicarbonate ions released through carbon dioxide hydration catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. The crystal cell density of monohydrocalcite was lower in magnesium chloride medium than that in magnesium sulfate medium. The crystal grew in a mode of spiral staircas in magnesium sulfate medium, while in a concentric circular pattern in magnesium chloride medium. There was no obvious intracellular biomineralization. This study may be helpful to further understand the biomineralization mechanism, may also provide some references for the reconstruction of paleogeological environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0361.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Paleozoic granitoids; pegmatites; age; collisional; intra-plate; magmatism; mineralogical and geochemical types; mineralization; minerals; post-collisinal; amazonite; genesis
Online: 18 January 2021 (16:14:03 CET)
The paper presents new data on mineralogical-geochemical peculiarities of the granites and pegmatites of the Baikal area (Olkhon Region) with implications for the age, generation conditions and geodynamic settings of magmatism. The early Paleozoic granitoids of the Olkhon region are syncollisional formations produced from the gneiss-schistose substratum of the Olkhon metamorphic sequences. Pegmatoid granites and pegmatites of the Region were generated within a wide age range (458-390 Ma) and include different mineralogical and geochemical types. Amongst the Early Paleozoic granitoids, pegmatoid rocks are products of the collisional magmatism evolution and are similar to granites in terms of the mineral composition and distribution patterns of rare and rare earth elements. On the Olkhon island (Baikal lake) the pegmatite of the Tashkiney vein belong to the Be-Nb-Ta mineralogical-geochemical type demonstrating high contents of W, Sn U, Th and very low concentrations of Li and volatile components (F, B). In the Pryolkhonye area, vein pegmatite Iliksin is with Li, Be, Nb, Ta mineralization (lepidolite, vorobyevite, samarskite et al). The studied pegmatite veins are similar both by the profound negative Ba, Sr, Eu, and Zr anomalies. The zircons from the Tashkiney vein (390±5.0 Ma) and of the Iliksin vein (430.1±2.2 Ma, U-Pb isotope LA ICP MS metod) indicate the formation of pegmatite at the late post-collisional stage of magmatism in the Olkhon Region. As regard to mineralogical and geochemical characteristics, vein pegmatites with amazonite (Ainsky and Ulan-Nur) belong to the Li-F type. The tantalum mineralization, represented by microlites and minerals of the columbite-tantalite group is associated with the Ainsky amazonite pegmatite. As opposed to the Early Paleozoic syncollisional granitoids and pegmatoid formations, the middle Paleozoic vein bodies of pegmatites (Tashkiney, Iliksin, Ainsky, Ulan-Nur) are regarded as rare-metal pegmatites. In terms of geochemical characteristics, they are similar to the rare-metal pegmatoid granites and pegmatites of the intra-plate setting widespread in Mongolia and Transbaikalia. The rare-metal mineralization in the Olkhon region may be genetically related to the evolution of Be-Nb-Ta and Li-F types of the post-collisional granites and pegmatites.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immune system; viral infection; influenza; COVID-19; micronutrients; vitamins; omega-3 fatty acids; minerals; vitamin C; vitamin D
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:30:45 CET)
Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, are responsible for approximately 2.65 million deaths per year. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: 1) Supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; 2) Supplementation above the RDA, but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and 3) Public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0214.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: soccer performance; supplements; diet; systematic review; high carbohydrate diet; creatine supplementation; tart cherry; betaine; bicarbonate and minerals; professional players
Online: 11 April 2023 (08:47:56 CEST)
Background: More than 270 million participants and 128,893 professional players play soccer. Research only weakly supports the impact of diets and supplements on the performance and recovery of professional soccer players. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search in Pub-Med, Scopus, Web of Science, and clinical trial registers. Inclusion criteria focused on professional or semi-professional soccer players, nutrition or diet interventions, performance improvement outcomes, and randomized clinical trial study types. We assessed quality using the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. We identified 16 eligible articles involving 310 participants. No nutritional intervention during the recovery period effectively improved recovery. However, several perfor-mance-based interventions showed positive effects, such as tart cherry supplementation, raw pistachio nut kernels, bicarbonate and mineral ingestion, creatine supplementation, betaine consumption, symbiotic supplements, and a high carbohydrate diet. These interventions influenced various aspects of soccer performance, including endurance, speed, agility, strength, power, explosiveness, and anaerobic capacity. Conclusions: Specific strategies, such as solutions with bicarbonate and minerals, high carbohydrate diets, and supplements like creatine, betaine, and tart cherry, can enhance the performance of professional soccer players. These targeted nutritional interventions may help optimize performance and provide the competitive edge required in professional soccer. We did not find any dietary interventions that could enhance recovery during recovery.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: modeling; design; optimization; multiphase; minerals processing; computational fluid dynamic; flotation; leaching; response surface methodology; artificial intelligence; hydrocyclone; global sensitivity analysis
Online: 7 November 2019 (03:56:39 CET)
Multiphase systems are important in minerals processing, and usually include solid-solid and solid-fluid systems. Examples of operations in multiphase systems include flotation, dewatering, and magnetic separation, among several other unit operations. In this paper, the current trends in the process system engineering tasks of modeling, design, and optimization, in multiphase systems, are analyzed. Different scales of size and time are included, and therefore the analysis includes modeling at the molecular level and unit operation level, and the application of optimization for the design of a plant. New strategies for the modeling and optimization of multiphase systems are also included, with a strong focus on the application of artificial intelligence (AI) and the combination of experimentation and modeling with response surface methodology (RSM). The paper finishes with tools to study the uncertainty, both epistemic and stochastic, which is present in all mineral processing operations. It is shown that all these areas are very active and can help to understand, operate, design, and optimize mineral processing that involves multiphase systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0272.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Portable instruments; indicator minerals; pathfinder elements; core scanners; pXRF; pXRD; pNIR-SWIR spectrometer; μRaman spectrometer; LIBS; mineral exploration; on-site analysis
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:24:35 CET)
Until recently, the classic approach to mineral exploration studies is to bring the field samples/drill cores collected during field studies to the laboratory followed by laborious analysis procedures to generate the analytical data. This is very expensive, time consuming and difficult for exploring vast areas. But rapid technological advances in field portable analytical instruments such as portable ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, gamma ray spectrometer, pXRF, pXRD, pLIBS, and µRaman spectrometer have changed this scenario completely and increased their on-site applications in mineral exploration studies. These instruments are currently providing direct, rapid, on-site, real-time, non-destructive, cost-effective identification, and determination of target elements, indicator minerals and pathfinder elements in rock, soil, and sediment samples. These portable analytical instruments are currently helping to obtain accurate chemical and mineralogical information directly in field with minimal or no sample preparation, and providing decision-making support during field work as well as during drilling operations in several successful mineral exploration programs. In this article, the developments in these portable devices, and their contributions in the platinum group elements (PGE), rare earth elements (REE), gold, base metals, and lithium exploration studies both on land and on ocean bed have been summarized with examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0271.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: magnesite; dolomite; semi-soluble salt-type minerals; tailings; sodium hexametaphosphate SHMP; 1-hydroxyethylene-1,1-diphosphonic acid HEDP; Dynamic Froth Analyzer; froth properties; remining; pneumatic Imhoflot; reactor-separator; FineFuture
Online: 9 April 2021 (15:58:10 CEST)
Depletion of ore deposits, increasing demand for raw materials, the need to process low-grade, complex and finely disseminated ores and the reprocessing of tailings are challenges, especially for froth flotation separation technologies. Even though capable of handling relatively fine grain sizes the flotation separation of very fine and ultrafine particles faces many problems still. Further, the flotation of low-contrast semi-soluble salt-type minerals with very similar surface properties, many complex interactions between minerals, reagents and dissolved species often result in poor selectivity. This study investigates the flotation beneficiation of ultrafine magnesite rich in dolomite from de-sliming, currently reported to the tailings. The paper especially focuses on the impact of the depressant sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) on: (i) the froth properties using dynamic froth analysis (DFA), (ii) the separation between magnesite and dolomite/calcite and (iii) its effect on the entrainment. Furthermore, the application of 1-hydroxyethylene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) is a more environmentally friendly and low-cost alternative to SHMP is presented and discussed. The paper contributes to understanding on the complexity of depressant responses in froth flotation.