ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0481.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: waste mineral oil; Mn additive; engine performance; emission
Online: 31 May 2018 (13:27:48 CEST)
The heat values of waste mineral oils are equal to the heat value of the fuel oil. However, heat value alone is not sufficient for the use of waste mineral oils. as fuel. However, the critical physical properties of fuels such as density and viscosity need to be adapted to the system in order to be used. In this study, the engine oils used in the first 10,000 km of the vehicles were used as waste mineral oil. An organic-based Mn additive was synthesized to improve the properties of the waste mineral oil. It was observed that mixing the Mn additive with the waste mineral oil at different doses (4, 8, 12 and 16 ppm) improves the viscosity of the waste oil and the flash point. The resulting fuel was evaluated for emission using different loads in a 5 kW capacity generator to compare the fuel with standard diesel fuel and to determine the effect of Mn addition. In the experimental study, it was observed that the emission characteristics of the fuel obtained from waste mineral oil were worse than diesel fuel, but some improvement with Mn addition. As a result, we found that the use of waste mineral oils in engines in fuel standards was not appropriate, but may be improved with additives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0273.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: heavy minerals atlas; heavy mineral maps; National Geochemical Survey of Australia; mineral network analysis; geological setting; mineral system; mineral prospectivity; critical minerals; critical elements
Online: 20 June 2022 (11:16:22 CEST)
We describe a vision for a national-scale heavy mineral (HM) map generated through automated mineralogical identification and quantification of HMs contained in floodplain sediments from large catchments covering most of Australia. The composition of the sediments reflects the dominant rock types in each catchment, with the generally resistant HMs largely preserving the mineralogical fingerprint of their host protoliths through the weathering-transport-deposition cycle. Heavy mineral presence/absence, absolute and relative abundance, and co-occurrence are metrics useful to map, discover and interpret catchment lithotype(s), geodynamic setting, magmatism, metamorphic grade, alteration or mineralization. Underpinning this vision is a pilot project, focusing on a subset of the national sediment sample archive, which is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the larger, national-scale project. We preview a bespoke, cloud-based mineral network analysis (MNA) tool to visualize, explore and discover relationships between HMs as well as between them and geological setting or mineral deposits. We envisage that the Heavy Mineral Map of Australia and MNA tool will contribute significantly to mineral prospectivity analysis and modeling here, particularly for technology critical elements and their host minerals, which are central to the global economy transitioning to a more sustainable, decarbonized paradigm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: mineral waste; bio-base waste; natural fiber; biomass; sulfur waste; copper flotation; fly ash; biochar; sustainable construction
Online: 4 May 2022 (13:12:11 CEST)
The new climate law introduces a policy of sustainable construction, the assumption of which is the reduction of CO2 by the construction industry and the use of environmentally friendly materials, such as agricultural, mineral, and recycled waste, while limiting the consumption of natural resources. The article is a literature review that analyzes selected waste materials from various sectors of the economy that can be used as additives or partial substitutes for natural resources in the production of cement and in and cement building materials, the production of which reduces CO2 emissions, producing materials with high mechanical strength and environmentally friendly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0188.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: origins of life; prebiotic chemistry; mineral catalysis; sulfide minerals; mineral diversity; density functional theory; electrocatalysis
Online: 11 September 2018 (08:39:51 CEST)
Prebiotic organic synthesis reactions catalyzed by Earth-abundant metal sulfides are key processes for understanding the evolution of biochemistry from inorganic molecules, yet the catalytic functions of sulfides have remained poorly explored in the context of the origins of life. Past studies on prebiotic chemistry have mostly focused on a few types of metal sulfide catalysts, such as FeS or NiS, which form limited types of products with inferior activity and selectivity. To explore the potential of metal sulfides on catalyzing prebiotic chemical reactions, here, the chemical diversity (variations in chemical composition and phase structure) of 304 natural metal sulfide minerals in a mineralogy database was surveyed and approaches to rationally predict the catalytic functions of metal sulfides are discussed based on advanced theories and analytical tools of electrocatalysis such as proton-coupled electron transfer, structural comparisons between enzymes and minerals, and in-situ spectroscopy. To this end, we introduce a model of geo-electrochemistry driven prebiotic synthesis for chemical evolution, as it helps us to predict kinetics and selectivity of targeted prebiotic chemistry under “chemically messy conditions”. We expect that combining the data-mining of mineral databases with experimental methods and theories developed in the field of electrocatalysis will facilitate the prediction and verification of catalytic performance under a wide range of pH and Eh conditions, and aid in the rational screening of mineral catalysts involved in the origins of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: vitamin and mineral dietary supplements; mercury
Online: 29 March 2018 (03:52:58 CEST)
Dietary supplements are more and more often used to increase daily intake of essential vitamins and minerals. These preparations are classified as special category of foods and are subject to food law, not pharmaceutical regulations. As a result the requirements to dietary supplements are much less restrictive than to medications. Also simple and inexpensive procedure of registration causes that the number of dietary supplements is widely spread every year. On every manufacturing phases of dietary supplements, there is a risk of contamination. One of the pollutions might be mercury which is classified as heavy metal. Its inorganic compounds damage kidneys and liver and methylmercury is easily absorbed from gastrointestinal system. Methylmercury is distributed in all tissues, also in nervous system. The aim of study was to determine the level of mercury in multivitamins and multiminerals preparations and to analyze the results. The study included 22 dietary supplements containing vitamins and minerals available on Polish market. Mercury was analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry using AMA 254. The concentrations of Hg was 0.22–5.85 µg/kg (the average content was 2.40 µg/kg). The highest average mercury content was 4.51 µg/kg, whereas the lowest one was 0.31 µg/kg. The results was also analyzed in individual groups depending on main component and indication for use as well as pharmaceutical formulation. Also according to manufacturer’s recommendation, the dose of mercury taken with a single medicine was estimated for time of a day, a week, a month, 3 months and also a year. The findings were compared to limits defined in regulations of European Union and PTWI set by JECFA to assess the health risk. The results presented in this study proved that the amount of mercury in tested dietary supplements is much lower than the value of valid regulations. Analyzed supplements as long as they are used with the recommendation of manufacturer, do not pose a threat to human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0062.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Aluminosilicate mineral; Dissolution; Protonated terminal oxygen; DFT
Online: 6 May 2022 (08:23:06 CEST)
The molecular clusters ((HO)3Si-O-Si(OH)3, and (HO)3Al-O-Si(OH)3 ) representative of aluminosilicate mineral surface were employed to study the dissolution of aluminosilicate in acidic condition via density functional theory with the M06-2X+G(d,p) methodology. The surface termination sites (Si and Al) were both tetra-coordinated and the terminal oxygen was protonated in acidic condition. In the dissolution reaction, the calculated barrier height of the six-membered ring transition state complex containing two water molecules was predicted to be lower than that of four-membered ring transition state complex containing one water molecule. In addition, the calculated barrier heights for Al-terminated sites were predicted to be lower than those for the Si-terminated sites, suggesting that breaking the Al-O bond is easier than Si-O bond in the aluminosilicate mineral surface; the barrier heights of the surface termination sites with protonated terminal oxygen were lower than those without protonated terminal oxygen. With the fracture of Si-O and Al-O bonds, the Si and Al release from the aluminosilicate. These results confirm the experimental conclusions that the acidic condition facilitates the release of Si and Al from the aluminosilicate, and the concentration of Al leaching from aluminosilicate is higher than Si.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0085.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Abiotic Stress; Ethylene; Jasomic acid; Mineral solubilization; Phytostimulants
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:17:01 CET)
This review presents a comprehensive and systematic study of the field of bacterial plant biostimulants and considers the fundamental and innovative principles underlying this technology. Plant biostimulants are an important tool for modern agriculture as part of an integrated crop management (ICM) system; helping make agriculture more sustainable and resilient. Plant biostimulants contain substance(s) and/or microorganisms whose function when applied to plants or the rhizosphere, is to stimulate natural processes to enhance plant nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiency, tolerance to abiotic stress, biocontrol, and crop quality. The use of plant biostimulants has gained substantial and significant heed worldwide as an environment-friendly alternative for sustainable agricultural production. Presently, there is an increasing curiosity of industry and researchers in microbial biostimulants especially, bacterial plant biostimulants (BPBs) to improve crop growth and productivity. The BPBs that are based on PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) play plausible roles to promote/stimulate the crop plant growth through several mechanisms that include, i) nutrient acquisition by nitrogen (N2) fixation and solubilization of insoluble minerals (P, K, Zn), organic acids and siderophores, ii) antimicrobial metabolites and various lytic enzymes, iii) action of growth regulators and stress-responsive/induced phytohormones, iv) ameliorating abiotic stress like drought, high soil salinity, extreme temperatures, oxidative stress, and heavy metals by using different modes of action, and v) plant defense induction modes. Presenting here is a brief review emphasizing the applicability of BPBs as an innovative exertion to fulfill the current food crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0531.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dietary calcium intake; osteoporosis; fractures; bone mineral density
Online: 14 December 2020 (12:20:21 CET)
A low calcium intake is associated with an increased fracture risk. We assessed the dietary calcium intake in a cohort of Italian individuals evaluated for low bone mineral density (BMD). A 7-day food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 1793 individuals consecutively referred at a Centre of the Italian Society for Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism and Skeletal Diseases for low BMD. In 30.3% (544/1793) and 20.9% (374/1793) of subjects the calcium intake was inadequate ( <700 mg/day) and adequate (>1200 mg/day), respectively. Patients with calcium intake <700 mg/day showed a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, idiopathic hypercalciuria and food allergy/intolerance (8.1%, 5.1%, 7.2%, respectively) than patients with calcium intake >700 mg/day (5.3%, 3.0%, 4.1%, respectively, p<0.04 for all comparisons), also after adjusting for age, gender and BMI. In 30.3% of fractured subjects the calcium intake was <700 mg/day. In Italy, a low calcium intake is highly prevalent in individuals at risk for low BMD. Importantly, an inadequate calcium intake is highly prevalent even in patients with history of fragility fractures. Only about a fifth of patients at risk for low BMD reported an adequate calcium intake
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0110.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: partial extraction; mineral phases; uranium; disequilibrium; retardation factor
Online: 10 November 2019 (13:26:04 CET)
A partial extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of uranium in the mineral phases of rocks of an aquifer of sandy-clay deposits of the Vendian in the northwest of Russia. This work is a part of a research project to develop a method for combined radiocarbon and uranium-isotope dating of groundwater. Representative aliquots of each core sample were subjected to five "partial" extractions by treatment with: distilled water, low mineralized fresh natural groundwater, minopolycarboxylic acid chelating agent (0.05M EDTA), 0.5M HCl, 15M HNO3, and a total digestion, with U isotopes reported in this study for each procedure. The following mineral phases of core samples: adsorbed material, carbonate minerals, amorphous iron oxides, aluminosilicates partial digestion and a crystalline iron oxides, aluminosilicates total digestion and a clay/quartz resistate were characterized. Red-colored siltstones depleted in uranium in relatively readily soluble mineral phases. The concentration of adsorbed uranium was established in the amount of 15.8±2.1 - 30.5±3.9 μg/kg. Carbonate minerals contain even less of this element. In iron hydroxides and the most readily soluble aluminosilicates, its concentrations are in the range 168±24 - 212±28 μg/kg. The most insoluble fraction contains 1.65±0.21 - 4.32±0.45 mg/kg of uranium. In green-colored siltstones, the concentration of adsorbed uranium is much higher: 106±14 - 364±43 μg/kg. Carbonate minerals and amorphous iron oxides contain 1.91±0.21 - 2.34±0.26 mg/kg of uranium. In aluminosilicates and a clay/quartz resistate, uranium concentrations are 5.6±0.5 - 16.8±1.4 mg/kg. Elevated values of 234U:238U activity ratio prevail in the adsorbed material and iron hydroxides. In aluminosilicates and clay/quartz resistate, the values decrease. This indicates the replacement of primary sedimentogenic uranium by secondary hydrogenic uranium adsorbed on the surface of minerals and coprecipitated with iron hydroxides. The results obtained made it possible to carry out preliminary quantitative estimates of the retardation factor and recoil loss factor of uranium in the groundwater of siltstones of the studied Vendian aquifer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0251.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: anthropogenic mineral; recycling; circular economy; metals; urban mining
Online: 25 August 2019 (15:15:47 CEST)
An increasingly large quantity of primary mineral resource is being converted into manufactured products and destined for solid waste disposal. This material can be reclassified as “anthropogenic mineral reserves” and be a potential source of metals for a range of manufacturing uses. China is implementing a range of policy interventions which can lead to such a classification that will raise the profile of recycling programs as a means of metal supply. China is not only a major producer of consumer products and importer of secondary metals, but also has a major urban infrastructure footprint. Here we consider three product groups, 30 products, and imports, and map the recycling potential of anthropogenic mineral and 23 types of the capsulated materials by targeting their evolution from 2010 to 2050. Total weight of anthropogenic mineral on average in China reached 39 Mt in 2010, but it will double in 2022 and quadruple in 2045. Stocks of precious metals and rare earths will increase faster than most base materials. The total economic potential in yearly-generated anthropogenic mineral is anticipated to grow markedly from 100 billion US$ in 2020 to 400 billion US$ in 2050. Anthropogenic mineral of around 20 materials will be able to meet projected consumption of three product groups by 2050, due to high availability of recycled content and gradual saturation of consumption. Durability of material usage and the concomitant stock of the anthropogenic mineral remain major challenges in determining the viability of this supply in the second half of the coming century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0069.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: mining; non-energy mineral resources; environmental impact assessment
Online: 13 January 2017 (10:56:46 CET)
The article focuses on mining of non-energy mineral resources with minimum environmental impacts. It issues from research results of a project Competence Centre for Effective and Ecological Mining of Mineral Resources implemented at the Faculty of Mining and Geology at VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Geological Survey, a company Watrad ltd., a state enterprise Diamo, a company RPS Ostrava plc and a company Sedlecký kaolin plc. The paper starts with a partial analysis of the existing legal norms related to mining and processing of mineral resources. Next, it analyses mineral resource mining options free of negative environmental impacts. The fundamental tool to assess potential environmental impacts of mining is the implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process for a given mineral resource. In the Czech Republic environmental impact assessment is carried out by course of Act 100/2001 Coll. Its important amendment is Act 39/2015 Coll. claiming, inter alia, that the environmental impact assessment is rigidly connected with other permits and procedures, such as the zoning process and building construction permits. The article describes the environmental impacts of mining of non-energy mineral resources, including the following factors: appropriation of land, impacts on surface water, ground water and soil, noise, influence on the landscape character, and air pollution. The paper also includes a case study summarizing information on the environmental factors that may play a role in potential underground mining of graphite in the deposit Český Krumlov - Městský Vrch and the deposit Lazec - Křenov.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0249.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Cervus nippon; mineral requirements; sodium; TRY Plant Traits Database
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:34:30 CET)
Deficient minerals in overabundant populations could act as an attractant to cull sika deer (Cervus nippon). Because selective culling of female deer is reported to be effective in reducing sika deer populations, it is particularly important to clarify the differences in mineral requirements between male and female. Here, using global plant trait data and a published list of sika deer food plants in Japan, we estimated whether food plants provide sika deer sufficient sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), and compared the results between male and female. An analysis of 191 food plant species suggested that food plants can provide sufficient Mg, whereas sufficient Na and Ca is not always provided, especially when the intake is small or the deer large. Na deficiency was more intense for lactating females than males, suggesting that Na can be an effective attractant for selectively culling female deer. In summary, this study demonstrated that sika deer in Japan might require extra Na and Ca sources in addition to food plants, and therefore these minerals could be useful for developing effective culling methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0199.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Prunus cerasus; ammonium nitrate; chlorophyll; TCSA; mineral content; carotenoids
Online: 11 January 2023 (10:40:29 CET)
Nitrogen fertilization ensures the proper growth of trees. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of differentiated nitrogen fertilization on selected parameters. It was assumed that such analysis is an indirect picture of the needs of cherries grown in herbicide fallow. The content of minerals in two layers of the soil, in leaves, and its influence of tree growth, and the content of chlorophyll in leaves were assessed. The experiments were carried out in three different cherry orchards. Three levels of fertilization were applied in each orchard: 0 kg, 60 kg and with 120 kg N ha- 1. As expected the fertilization resulted in an increase in the content of nitrate and ammonium forms of nitrogen in the soil, however, their content was also dependent on precipitation and temperature. Additionally a high nitrogen fertilization increased the content of phosphorus and potassium and decreased the magnesium in the topsoil layer. High nitrogen fertilization caused the decrease of content of phosphorus and potassium in the leaves. The level of calcium and magnesium in leaves increased with fertilization of 60 kg N ha–1 but decreased with the dose to 120 kg N ha–1. The use of nitrogen fertilization increased the vegetative growth of trees measured by leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. However, the chlorophyll content was not dependent on the amount of nitrogen fertilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0678.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: coal wettability; microemulsion; contact angle; functional group; clay mineral
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:34:51 CEST)
To improve water injection effect, microemulsions (MEs) were used to wet coal seam compared with water and sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (SDS). Wetting effects were characterized by contact angle, X-ray diffraction, Fourier infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the microemulsion has better spreadability on coal surface and has stronger wettability for coals of different ranks and different particle sizes than traditional wetting agents. The W/O type microemulsion is more affinity to coal than the O/W type and the bicontinuous type.Oxygen and hydrogen contents contributed to wetting. Different wetting agents have the greatest impact on the oxygen-containing functional group absorption zone of coal, but have little impact on the change of clay mineral composition.As the content of quartz increased, the content of montmorillonite was decreased, and the hydrophilicity of coal was increased. This research proposes new ideas for solving coal dust problems and reducing coal mine disasters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; water intake; mineral water; magnesium; bicarbonate; review; prevention
Online: 6 July 2017 (18:12:04 CEST)
To address the question whether there is evidence that drinking water in general or mineral water in particular is effective in preventing diabetes; we performed a literature search of randomized controlled trials (PubMed). The search resulted in very few trials (N = 9) investigating this topic: one trial investigates the effect of increasing water consumption on glycemic control in diabetic patients; two trials investigate the effect of drinking water with a meal in diabetic patients; while six trials compare the effect of mineral rich water with that of low mineralized water on glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. There is evidence that increasing water consumption can improve glucose metabolism and randomized controlled trials with mineral water suggest that waters containing relevant amounts of magnesium can exert an additional effect. The role of bicarbonate; which is present in all the mineral waters used in the trials; will be discussed. Future research needs to investigate the effect of mineral water in prediabetic individuals or individuals with impaired glycemic control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: coltan; niobium; tantalum; critical raw materials; technological metals; mineral processing.
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:02:04 CEST)
Demand for niobium and tantalum is increasing exponentially as these are essential ingredients for the manufacture of, among others, capacitors in technological devices and ferroniobium. Mine tailings rich in such elements could constitute an important source of Nb and Ta in the future and so alleviate potential supply risks. This paper evaluates the possibility of recovering niobium and tantalum from the slags generated during the tin beneficiation process of mine tailings from the old Penouta mine, located in Spain. To do so, a simulation of the processes that would be required to beneficiate and refine both elements is carried out. After tin carbothermic reduction, the slags are sent to a hydrometallurgical process where at the end niobium oxide and tantalum oxide are obtained. Reagents, water and energy consumption, in addition to emissions, effluents and product yields are assessed. Certain factors were identified as critical, and recirculation was encouraged in the model to maximize production and minimize reagents use and wastes. With this simulation, considering 3000 production hours per year, the metal output from the tailings of the old mine could cover around 1% and 7.4% of the world annual Nb and Ta demand, respectively.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: mineral identification; deep learning; convolutional neural network; image; Mohs hardness
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:14:18 CEST)
Mineral identification is an important part of geological analysis. Traditional identification methods rely on either the experiences of the appraisers or the various measuring instruments and the methods are either easily influenced by the experiences or need too much work. To solve the above problems, there have been studies using image recognition and intelligent algorithms to identify minerals. But the current studies can not identify many minerals, and the accuracy is low. To increase the number of identified mineral categories and the accuracy, we proposed the method that uses both the mineral images and the Mohs hardness in the deep neural networks to identify the minerals. The experimental results showed that the method can reach 94.0% Top-1 accuracy and 99.9% Top-5 accuracy for 28 common minerals. The model that combines image and Mohs hardness together can identify more minerals and increase the accuracy using less training data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0007.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: natural mineral water; free living protozoa; Nontuberculous mycobacteria; Legionella; qPCR
Online: 3 August 2017 (09:11:03 CEST)
Italian Directives recommends the good quality of natural mineral waters but literature data assert a potential risk from several microorganisms colonizing wellsprings and mineral water bottling plants. Aim of study is the identification of microorganisms from spring waters (SW) and bottled mineral waters (BMW) samples. Methods: Routine microbiological indicators, Legionella spp., Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), protozoa (FLA) and physical-chemical parameters were assessed in 24 SW and 10 BMW samples performing culture methods and molecular tests as PCR and qPCR. Results: In 33 out of 34 samples no cultivable bacteria were isolated with the exception of 83 CFU/L of Mycobacterium gilvum, detected in one warm rich-mineralized SW. qPCR showed the presence of Legionella genomic units in 24% of samples (mean 2,9x102±1,7x102 GU/L) and NTM genomic units in 18% of samples (mean 5,7x103±4,1x103 GU/L). Vermamoeba vermiformis and Acanthamoeba polyphaga were recovered respectively in 70% of BMW samples (counts from 1,3x103 to 1,2x105) and 42% of SW samples (counts from 1,1x103 to 1,3x104). Vahlkampfia spp. was detected in 42% of SW and 70% of BMW samples (mean 1,3x104 ±2,9x103 GU/L). Conclusion: The study highlights a low rate of microbial risk and the importance of risk assessment in natural mineral waters.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0332.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Origins of Life; RNA World; Uracil; Ribosylation; Metal Cation; Clay Mineral
Online: 18 November 2021 (14:35:29 CET)
We report a prebiotically relevant solution to the N1-ribosylation of pyrimidine nucleobases, a well-known challenge in the RNA World hypothesis. It is found that the presence of metal cations and clay mineral enables the previously unachievable direct ribosylation of uracil, providing by far the highest yield. Spectroscopy and chromatography analyses confirmed the formation of ribosylated uracil. The method can also be extended to the ribosylation of 2-pyrimidinone. These findings are also compatible with the metal-doped-clay model developed by our lab for the unified route of the selection of ribose and subsequent syntheses of nucleotide and RNA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0582.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Actinidia arguta; Actinidia kolomikta; colour; firmness; fruit quality; mineral content; polyphenols
Online: 21 April 2021 (13:12:36 CEST)
Recently, there has been a trend towards healthy food. Consumers are looking for products that have health-promoting properties in addition to their taste. Actinidia fruit, apart from being tasty, contains valuable nutrients. They are high in vitamin C, polyphenols, and pectins and low in calories. These pro-health properties allow kiwiberry fruit to qualify in the group of so-called superfoods. All tested cultivars belong to two species of Actinidia, well tolerating conditions of moderate climate with negative temperatures in winter. The cultivars differed significantly in mineral content, color, firmness, weight and content of antioxidant substances. Summer pruning (lightening) increased the content of N, P, K, extract, and NO3 and resulted in darker fruit color. However, it slightly decreased the content of polyphenols. 'Sientiabrskaja' can be recommended for consumption as the cultivar richest in polyphenols and with the highest health-promoting values.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0589.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: mineral suspension; thinner; free radical polymerization; molecular weight regulator; sodium polyacrylate
Online: 23 December 2020 (13:50:07 CET)
The synthesis of additives for thinning mineral suspensions based on sodium polyacrylate was carried out. The effect of molecular weight regulators on the molecular weight characteristics of the polymer and the effect of such polymers on the rheological properties of suspensions was studied. Sodium acrylate polymers are synthesized by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution using molecular weight regulators. The molecular weight characteristics of the polymeric samples were estimated by viscometry using Mark-Houwink-Kuhn-Sakurada (MHKS) equation. Synthesized polymers were used as thinners ceramic slurries, prepared according to the recipe of the enterprises producing ceramic products. The thinning ability of polymer samples with different molecular weights was estimated using an Engler viscometer from the time of the ceramic slurry flow. The influence of the type and amount molecular weight regulator on polyacryates was revealed. It was found that molecular weight synthesized samples was in the range of 21000 - 91000. It was determined that samples with a molecular weight of 28000 - 35000 synthesized using mercaptoethanol (at a dosage of 0.5-1.5% by weight of the monomer) provide optimal fluidity to the ceramic slurry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Osteoporosis; anti-resorptive drugs; therapeutic adherence; bone mineral density; biochemical markers
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:42:15 CET)
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes RANKL, a cytokine able to interact with the RANK receptor on preosteoclasts and osteoclasts, decreasing their recruitment and differentiation, leading to a decreased bone resorption. The aim of this observational real-life study was to analyze adherence to denosumab therapy, its effectiveness in increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and in modulating biochemical skeletal markers upon previous treatments with bisphosphonates in a group of post-menopausal women affected by osteoporosis. Women were recruited in the specialized center from March 2012 to September 2019. Biochemical markers were recorded at baseline and every six months prior to subsequent drug injection. Dual X-ray Absorptiometry was requested at baseline and after 18/24 months. Comparing BMD at baseline and after denosumab therapy in naive patients and in those previously treated with bisphosphonates, a positive therapeutic effect was observed in both groups. The results of our real-life study demonstrate, as expected, that BMD values significantly increased upon denosumab treatment. Interestingly, denosumab showed an increased effectiveness in patients previously treated with bisphosphonates. Moreover, biochemical markers data indicate that osteoporotic patients, without other concomitant unstable health conditions, could be evaluated once a year, decreasing the number of specialistic center access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0153.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: antioxidant system; chilling stress; mineral homeostasis; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; rice
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:32:41 CET)
Being a chilling-sensitive staple crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is vulnerable to climate change. The competence of rice to withstand chilling stress should, therefore, be enhanced through technological tools. The present study employed chemical intervention like application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as nitric oxide (NO) donor and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of NO-mediated chilling tolerance in rice. At germination stage, germination indicators were interrupted by chilling stress (5.0 ± 1.0°C for 8 h day‒1), while pretreatment with 100 μM SNP markedly improved the indicators. At seedling stage (14-day-old), chilling stress caused stunted growth with visible toxicity along with alteration of biochemical markers, for example, increase in oxidative stress markers (superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde) and osmolytes (total soluble sugar; proline and soluble protein content, SPC), and decrease in chlorophyll (Chl), relative water content (RWC), and antioxidants. However, NO application attenuated toxicity symptoms with improving growth performance which might be attributed to enhanced activities of antioxidants, mineral contents, Chl, RWC and SPC. Furthermore, principal component analysis indicated that water imbalance and increased oxidative damage were the main contributors to chilling injury, whereas NO-mediated mineral homeostasis and antioxidant defense were the critical determinants for chilling tolerance in rice. Collectively, our findings revealed that NO protects against chilling stress through valorizing cellular defense mechanisms, suggesting that exogenous application of NO could be a potential tool to evolve cold tolerance as well as climate resilience in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: carbon capture and storage; mineral carbonation; CO2 sequestration; Greek power plants
Online: 15 October 2018 (12:21:12 CEST)
While the demand in reduction of CO2 increases, the need for CO2 sequestration processes is very high. One promising technology is the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In this paper we refer to several papers which study the three main steps in CCS chain. CO2 capture technologies, CO2 transportation to the storage sites and the very critical step the CO2 storage. Recently a novel method (mineral carbonation) for CO2 sequestration has been proposed which is based in the reaction of CO2 with calcium or magnesium oxides or hydroxides to form stable carbonate materials. Greece is a country that emits CO2 mainly from the lignite fired power plant in Western Greece. After the study of the bibliographic references about the use of mineral carbonation process while injecting CO2 in the appropriate geological forms we concluded that there are also these forms in our country and mainly in the area near to the power plant such as in sites Vourinos and Pindos. In these sites exist minerals rich in oxides and hydroxides of Ca, Mg and Fe representing the perfect materials for mineral carbonation.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Hyperthyroid; Hypothyroid; Euthyroid; Vitamin D; Bone Turn Over Markers; Bone Mineral Density
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:52:34 CEST)
Thyroid hormones have a catabolic effect on bone homeostasis. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate and bone marker levels and bone mineral density (BMD) among patients with different thyroid diseases. This cross-sectional study included patients with underlying thyroid diseases (n=64, hyperthyroid; n=53 euthyroid; and n=18, hypothyroid) and healthy controls (n=64). BMD was assessed using z-score and left hip and lumbar bone density (g/cm2). Results showed that the mean serum vitamin D Levels of all groups was low (<50 nmol/L). Thyroid patients had higher serum vitamin D levels than healthy controls. All groups had normal serum calcium and phosphate levels. The bone marker levels were significantly high in the hyperthyroid group and low in the hypothyroid group. The z-score for hip and spine did not significantly differ between thyroid patients and control groups. The hip bone density was remarkably low in the hyperthyroid group. In all groups, the serum vitamin D levels were below the cutoff value. However, thyroid patients had a higher serum vitamin D level than healthy controls. The carboxy terminal collagen crosslink and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels were high in hyperthyroid patients and low in hypothyroid patients. Further, hyperthyroid patients had a low hip BMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0239.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: gold; silver; mineral raw materials; carbonaceous shales; stripping voltammetry; graphite electrode modifiers
Online: 20 December 2018 (04:55:45 CET)
Techniques of stripping voltammetry (SV) determination of silver and gold in pyrites and carbonaceous matter were developed. The problem of quantitative transfer of the sample into the solution was solved. For this purpose, the ore matrix of carbonaceous shales was decomposed by mineral acids in autoclaves at high pressures. The element to be determined from the sample matrix was separated by extraction. Ag(I) ions from the solutions were extracted in the form of dithizonate complex in CCl4. Au(III) ions were extracted by diethyl ether. The extracts were decomposed thermally. The dry residue was dissolved in the background electrolyte, and the element was determined by the SV method. The graphite electrode (GE) impregnated with polyethylene was used as a working electrode in SV–determination of silver. SV–determination of gold was carried out using GE modified by bismuth. The limits of detection (LOD) of Ag(I) and Au(III) contents were equal to 0.016 mg L-1 and 0.0086 mg L-1, respectively. The results of SV-determination of gold and silver in standard samples, pyrites and carbonaceous shales were presented. The silver content in the pyrite was 13.6 g t-1, in carbon shale—0.34 g t-1. The concentration of gold in the pyrite ore zone "Kirovsko–Kryklinskaya" was 1.15 g t-1; in carbonaceous shales—2.66 g t-1. The obtained data were consistent with the data of atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP—MS). The error of determination of elements by stripping voltammetry was calculated when determining the silver content of 10...6 g t-1 in pyrite and carbonaceous material, which was less than 12%, and when determining the gold content of 1...3 g t- 1 in pyrite and carbonaceous matter, which was less than 23%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: osteoporosis; herbal medicine; Kukoamine B; osteoblast; osteoclast; bone mineral density; ovariectomized mice
Online: 31 October 2017 (15:35:04 CET)
Osteoporosis is an abnormal bone remodeling condition characterized by decreased bone density, which leads to high risks of broken bones. Previous studies have demonstrated that Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) extract inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice by enhancing the osteoblast differentiation. A bioactive compound, Kukoamine B (KB), was identified from a fractionation of LRC extract as a candidate component responsible for an anti-osteoporotic effect. This study investigated the anti-osteoporotic effects of KB using in vitro and in vivo osteoporosis models. KB treatment significantly increased the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralized nodule formation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, while it significantly decreased the osteoclast differentiation of primary-cultured monocytes derived from mouse bone marrow. The effects of KB on osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiations under more physiological conditions were also examined. In the co-culture of MC3T3-E1 cells and monocytes, KB promoted osteoblast differentiation but did not affect osteoclast differentiation. For the in vivo experiments, KB significantly inhibited OVX-induced bone mineral density loss and restored the impaired bone structural properties in osteoporosis model mice. These results suggest that KB may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: aging; skeletal muscle; grip strength; sarcopenia; physical function; bone mineral density; magnesium
Online: 23 October 2017 (11:26:29 CEST)
Although fragility fractures, osteoporosis, sarcopenia and frailty are becoming more prevalent in our aging society the treatment options are limited and preventative strategies are needed. Despite magnesium being integral bone and muscle physiology the relationship between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle and bone health has not been investigated concurrently before. We analysed cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle mass (as fat free mass – FFM), grip strength and bone density (BMD) in 156,575 men and women aged 39-72 years from the UK Biobank cohort. FFM was measured with bioelectrical impedance and expressed as the percentage of body weight (FFM%) or divided by body mass index (FFMBMI). Adjusted mean grip strength, FFM%, FFMBMI, and BMD were calculated according quintiles of dietary magnesium, correcting for covariates. Significant inter-quintile differences across intakes of magnesium existed in men and women respectively of 1.1% and 2.4% for grip strength, 3.0% and 3.6% for FFM%, 5.1% and 5.5% for FFMBMI, and 2.9% and 0.9% for BMD. These associations are as great or greater than annual measured losses of these musculoskeletal outcomes indicating potential clinical significance. Our study suggests that dietary magnesium may play a role in musculoskeletal health and have relevance for population prevention strategies for sarcopenia, osteoporosis and fractures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0168.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: prebiotic synthesis; phosphorylation; origin of life; deep eutectic solvents; formamide; mineral catalysis
Online: 26 April 2017 (06:30:50 CEST)
Phosphorylation reactions of glycerol were studied using different inorganic phosphates such as sodium phosphate, trimetaphosphate (a condensed phosphate), and struvite. The reactions were carried out in two non-aqueous solvents: formamide and a eutectic solvent consisting of choline chloride and glycerol in a ratio of 1:2.5. The glycerol reacted in formamide and in the eutectic solvent with phosphate to yield its phosphorylated derivatives in the presence of silicates such as quartz sand and kaolinite clay. The reactions were carried out by heating glycerol with a phosphate source at 85 °C for one week and were analyzed by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). The yield of the phosphorylated glycerol was improved by the presence of silicates, and reached 90% in some experiments. Our findings further support the proposal that non-aqueous solvents are advantageous for the prebiotic synthesis of biomolecules, and suggest that silicates may have aided in the formation of organophosphates on the prebiotic earth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0098.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: quasicrystals; aperiodic mineral structures; crystal and quasicrystal morphologies; quasicrystalline minerals; skutterudite; cobaltine
Online: 24 October 2016 (04:59:48 CEST)
In this article, we first present and discuss eighteenth-century descriptions of minerals that contributed decisively to the development of crystallography. Remarkably, these old crystallographic descriptions included morphologies with symmetries incompatible with an internal periodic order of atoms, which, however, have been recognised to be characteristics of quasicrystals. Moreover, we also review a number of studies of minerals with aperiodic crystal structures, including recently reported natural quasicrystals of extra-terrestrial origin. Finally, we discuss the current investigations addressing the search for new quasicrystalline minerals in nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0639.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: polymetallic nodules; mineral resource estimation; statistical analysis; Generalized Rayleigh Distribution; Clarion Clipperton Zone
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:00:34 CET)
An effective empirical statistical method is developed to improve the process of mineral resource estimation of seabed polymetallic nodules and is applied to analyse the abundance of seabed polymetallic nodules in the Clarion Clipperton Zone (CCZ). The newly proposed method is based on three hypotheses as the foundation for a model of “Idealized Nodules”, which was validated by analysing nodule samples collected from the seabed within the Tonga Offshore Mining Limited (TOML) exploration contract. Once validated, the “Idealized Nodule” model was used to deduce a set of empirical formulae for predicting the nodule resources, in terms of Percentage Coverage and Abundance. The formulae were then applied to analysing a total of 188 sets of nodule samples collected across the TOML areas, comprising box-core samples and towed camera images collected by one of the authors and detailed in . The analysis also relies upon detailed box-core sample measurements from other areas reported by . Numerical results for resource prediction were compared with field measurements, and reasonable agreement has been achieved. The new method has the potential to achieve more accurate mineral resource estimation with reduced sample numbers and sizes. They may also have application in improving the efficiency of design and configuration of mining equipment.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0507.v1
Subject: Keywords: neurodegeneration; protein misfolding; Western Pacific; Guam; montmorillonite; bentonite; clay; mineral; ALS; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:43:13 CEST)
Neurodegenerative diseases of protein misfolding affect humans and animals. In humans, these diseases include Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC). Mineral exposure may be important in the pathogenesis of protein misfolding cascades. The possible association of bentonite, montmorillonite, and mineral risk factors with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, and Western Pacific ALS/PDC is analyzed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0096.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: calcium diet content; mineral homeostasis; skeletal homeostasis; trabecular bone; PTH(1-34); rat
Online: 10 January 2019 (11:38:42 CET)
The present study is the second step (concerning the normal-diet restoration) of the our previous one (concerning the calcium-free diet) to determine whether the normal-diet restoration, with/without concomitant PTH(1-34) administration, can influence amounts and deposition sites of the total bone mass. Histomorphometric evaluations and immunohistochemical analysis for Sclerostin expression were conducted on the vertebral bodies and femurs in rat model. The final goals are: i) to define timing and manners of bone mass changes when calcium is restored in the diet; ii) to analyze the different involvement of the two bony architectures having different metabolism (i.e. trabecular versus cortical bone); iii) to verify the eventual role of PTH(1-34) administration. Results evidenced the greater involvement of the trabecular bone with respect to the cortical one, in answering to different calcium diet content, and the effect of PTH mostly in the recovery of trabecular bony architecture. The main findings emerged from the present study are: i) the importance of the interplay between mineral homeostasis and skeletal homeostasis in modulating and guiding bone answers to dietary/metabolic alterations and ii) the evidence that the more involved bony architecture is the trabecular one, the most susceptible to the dynamical balance of the two homeostases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0438.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: X-ray diffraction; Mineral characterization; Crystal structure; Bragg’s law; Lattice parameters; Crystallography; Unit cell
Online: 27 December 2021 (15:53:09 CET)
For many decades, X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been used for material characterization. With the recent development in material science understanding and technology, various new materials are being developed, which requires upgrading the existing analytical techniques such that intricate problems can be solved. Although, XRD is a well-established non-destructive technique, it still requires further improvements in its characterization capabilities, especially when dealing with complex mineral structures. The present review conducts comprehensive discussions on atomic crystal structure, XRD principle, its applications, uncertainty during XRD analysis, and required safety precautions, all in one place. It further discusses the future research directions, especially the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning tools for improving the effectiveness and accuracy of XRD technique for mineral characterization. It has been focused that how XRD patterns can be utilized for a thorough understanding of the crystalline structure, size, and orientation, dislocation density, phase identification, quantification, and transformation, information about lattice parameters, residual stress, and strain, and thermal expansion coefficient of materials. All these important discussions on XRD for mineral characterization are compiled in this short yet comprehensive review that would benefit specialists and engineers in the chemical, mining, iron, metallurgy, and steel industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0115.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Controlled drainage; Water content; Salinity (EC); Mineral nitrogen; Nitrogen loss; Yield of oilseed sunflower
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:06:58 CEST)
Controlled drainage (CD) is an important agricultural measure for maintaining soil moisture and nutrients, controlling groundwater level, and increasing crop yield. In arid regions, CD can be used to improve the water supply in agriculture and reduce environmental pollution. In this study, we investigated the effect of CD, including a drainage depth of 40 cm (CWT1) and 70 cm (CWT2) during the plant growth period, free drainage (FD), and open ditch drainage (OD) on the migration of water, nutrients, and salts in the soil; the dynamics of groundwater level; the loss of soil nitrogen; and the growth of oilseed sunflower plants. Compared with FD, CD increased the water and nutrient content in the soil, reduced nitrogen loss, and enhanced the ability of the soil to continuously supply nitrogen to the oilseed sunflower plants, which benefited plant growth at later growth stages and reduced environmental pollution. During the period between irrigation at the budding stage and harvest stage, the average soil water content in the 0–20 cm soil layer in CWT1 increased by 3.67%, 4.78%, and 0.55%, respectively, compared with that in CWT2, FD, and OD. The soil mineral content in CWT1 was 25.17%, 35.05%, and 17.78% higher than that in CWT2, FD, and OD, respectively, indicating that higher soil salinity occurred at the later stage of plant growth in CWT1, which actually had little effect on the plants due to their enhanced salt tolerance and increased need for water and nutrients at that stage. In addition, CD delayed the decline in groundwater level, which allowed the plants to use groundwater at later growth stages, and as a result the yield and water use efficiency were improved. CWT1 significantly increased oilseed sunflower yield by 4.52–11.14% and increased water use efficiency by 1.16–10.8%. Moreover, CWT1 also increased the survival rate of the oilseed sunflower plants by 2.62–2.92%, and the plants demonstrated good growth. Therefore, under CD conditions, plants used soil water and nitrogen more efficiently and, as a result, their productivity was increased, and the water quality was improved.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0100.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALS; glacial; lake; clay; mineral; United States; Canada; Finland; Vermont; New Hampshire; Maine; Ohio; Wisconsin; Indiana; Minnesota; North Dakota; Montana, Idaho; Washington; Oregon; Colorado; Iowa; Utah
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:21:51 CET)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease clusters are found in several countries worldwide. In the United States, ALS clusters are found in many states, largely within the northern United States. The cause of the increased rates of ALS in these areas remains indefinite. It is reported here that many ALS clusters are associated with sites of current or prior glacial lakes, or regions containing an abundance of silts and clay minerals. The potential significance of these findings in ALS is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: mineral wool; basalt fibers; moisture effect; compressive strength; degradation; SEM-EDX; STEM; thermal stability; roofing
Online: 19 May 2020 (03:38:04 CEST)
Mineral wool made from basalt fibers is frequently used as an insulating material in construction systems. In this study, both unused mineral wool, and wool obtained from the softened roofing area, were comprehensively analyzed in a laboratory using different characterization techniques. Firstly, the amount of initial water content and compressive strength at 10% deformation were determined. Secondly, microstructure and surface chemical composition were analysed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). To study heterogeneities near the fiber surface and to examine cross-sectional composition, a Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) was used. Finally, to verify possible reasons for resin degradation, Thermogravimetry analysis and differential scanning colometry (TGA-DSC) were simultaneously carried out. The results show that natural aging under high humidity and thermal fluctuations greatly affects the surface morphology and chemical composition of fibrous composite. Phenol-formaldehyde and other hydrophobic compounds that protect fibers against moisture and give compressive resistance were found to be degraded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: AC dielectric strength; insulating oils; mineral oil-based nanofluids; statistical analysis; Weibull distribution; normal distribution
Online: 6 November 2018 (10:20:49 CET)
This paper deals with experimental study of the influence of conductive (Fe3O4) and insulating (Al2O3) nanostructured particles at various concentrations on the dielectric strength of transformer mineral oil. The method of preparation and characterization of these nanofluids (NFs) through the measurements of zeta potential, the real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant as well as the concentration and size of nanoparticles using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of nanoparticles powders and Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis are presented. Experimental findings reveal that these two types of nanoparticles materials significantly improve AC breakdown voltage and the magnitude of this improvement depends on the concentration, size and nature (material) of nanoparticles. For a given type of nanoparticles, the effect is more marked with the smallest nanoparticles. The conductive nanoparticles offer higher enhancement of dielectric strength compared with insulating nanoparticles based nanofluids. With Fe3O4, the breakdown voltage (BDV) can exceed twice that of mineral oil and it increases by more than 76% with Al2O3. The physicochemical mechanisms implicated in this improvement are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0099.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: stone matrix asphalt; volume parameters; Marshall Stability; flocculent lignin fiber; polyester fiber; mineral fiber; fiber content
Online: 15 March 2017 (08:25:11 CET)
Lignin fibers typically influence the mixture performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA), such as strength, stability, durability, noise level, rutting resistance, fatigue life, and water sensitivity. However, limited studies were conducted to analyze the influence of fibers on the percent voids in mineral aggregate in bituminous mixture (VMA) during the mixture design. This study analyzed the effect of different fibers and fiber contents on the VMA in SMA mixture design. A surface-dry condition method test and Marshall Stability test were applied on the SMA mixture with four different fibers (i.e., flocculent lignin fiber, mineral fiber, polyester fiber, blended fiber). The test results indicated that the bulk specific gravity of SMA mixtures and asphalt saturation decreased with the increasing fiber content, whilst the percent air voids in bituminous mixtures (VV), Marshall Stability and VMA increased. Mineral fiber had the most obvious impact on the bulk specific gravity of bituminous mixtures, while flocculent lignin fiber had a minimal impact. The mixture with mineral fiber and polyester fiber had significant effects on the volumetric properties, and, consequently, exhibited better VMA over the conventional SMA mixture with lignin fiber. Modified fiber content range was also provided, which will widen the utilization of mineral fiber and polyester fiber in the applications of SMA mixtures. The mixture evaluation suggested no statistically significant difference between lignin fiber and polyester fiber on the stability. The mineral fiber required a much larger fiber content to improve the mixture performance than other fibers. Overall, the results can be a reference to guide SMA mixture design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0175.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: peat; electrical conductivity; magnetic susceptibility; K-means clustering; loss on ignition (LOI); organic soils; mineral soils; Indonesia
Online: 27 February 2018 (05:21:36 CET)
Various type of soils have been identified based on their electrical and magnetic properties, especially with regards to peat soils. Peat soils are commonly considered as partly decomposed vegetation. In this study, electrical and magnetic properties have been used in K-means clustering to identify layers of peat soils. K-means clustering is a partitioning method that treats observations in the data. Data cores were obtained at every centimeter and examined for their electrical conductivity (σ) and magnetic susceptibility (χm) properties. A 291 cm core was obtained at Tegal Arum Village in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The K-means clustering results indicate two different layers at 148 cm, and this is supported by loss on ignition (LOI) measurements. In the first layers, a 87.65% LOI was found associated with peat soils (above 248 cm). Whereas, in the second layers, there was a 26.11% LOI associated with mineral soils (below 248 cm). The results of this study using K-means clustering can be used to delineate soil layers.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: mineral physics; ultrasonic interferometry; resonant ultrasound spectroscopy; law of corresponding states; equations-of-state; Columbia University; American Geophysical Union
Online: 29 March 2019 (07:54:57 CET)
From 1964 to the early 1970s, Orson Anderson led a research program at the Lamont Geological Observatory in the newly-emerging field of “mineral physics”. In collaboration with colleagues Edward Schreiber and Naohiro Soga, Orson exploited the techniques of physical acoustics to study the behavior of the sound velocities of minerals at elevated pressures and temperatures. This research program also included semi-empirical studies of relationships between the bulk modulus and the molar volume of solids and the use of lattice dynamics to calculate the elastic moduli of cubic structures as a function of pressure to predict instabilities, as well as theoretical investigations of the Lagrangian vs. Eulerian formulations of finite strain equations of state.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0272.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Portable instruments; indicator minerals; pathfinder elements; core scanners; pXRF; pXRD; pNIR-SWIR spectrometer; μRaman spectrometer; LIBS; mineral exploration; on-site analysis
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:24:35 CET)
Until recently, the classic approach to mineral exploration studies is to bring the field samples/drill cores collected during field studies to the laboratory followed by laborious analysis procedures to generate the analytical data. This is very expensive, time consuming and difficult for exploring vast areas. But rapid technological advances in field portable analytical instruments such as portable ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, gamma ray spectrometer, pXRF, pXRD, pLIBS, and µRaman spectrometer have changed this scenario completely and increased their on-site applications in mineral exploration studies. These instruments are currently providing direct, rapid, on-site, real-time, non-destructive, cost-effective identification, and determination of target elements, indicator minerals and pathfinder elements in rock, soil, and sediment samples. These portable analytical instruments are currently helping to obtain accurate chemical and mineralogical information directly in field with minimal or no sample preparation, and providing decision-making support during field work as well as during drilling operations in several successful mineral exploration programs. In this article, the developments in these portable devices, and their contributions in the platinum group elements (PGE), rare earth elements (REE), gold, base metals, and lithium exploration studies both on land and on ocean bed have been summarized with examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0186.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: mineral dust; north African dust; Saharan dust; Bodélé depression; bias correction; machine learning; aerosol optical depth; chemistry-transport model; aerosols; particulate matter
Online: 14 September 2022 (03:02:59 CEST)
We develop a machine learning (ML) approach for improving the accuracy of the horizontal dis-tribution of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) simulated by the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model over Northern Africa using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD satellite observations. These observations are used during the training phase of the ML method for deriving a regional bias correction of AODs simulated by CHIMERE. The results are daily maps of regional bias corrected AODs with full horizontal coverage over Northern Africa. We test four types of ML models: multiple linear regression (MLR), random forests (RF), gradi-ent boosting (XGB), and multiple layer perceptron networks (NN). We perform comparisons with satellite and independent ground-based observations of AOD that are not used in the training phase. They suggest that all models have overall comparable performances with a slight advantage of the RF model which expresses less spatial artifacts. While the method slightly underestimates the very high AODs, it significantly reduces biases and absolute errors, and clearly enhances linear correlations with respect to independent observations. This im-provement for deriving the AOD is particularly relevant for high dust pollution regions like the Sahara Desert, which dramatically lack ground-based measurements for validations of chemis-try-transport modeling which currently remains challenging and imprecise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patient; Low-phosphate meal; CKD-MBD (chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder); Proinflammatory cytokine; TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha)
Online: 24 November 2021 (15:27:03 CET)
High dietary phosphate intake and poor adherence to phosphate-binding-therapy elevate the risk of hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis (HD; MHD) patients. Therefore, chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) indicators increase; consequently, risks of CKD-MBDs and inflammation are elevated. This double-blind, randomized control trial intervention study was designed to investigate the possibility of reducing blood CKD-MBD indicators and modulating inflammatory indicators by consuming low-phosphate (LP) meals accompanied by a minimum dose of a calcium-based phosphate binder (CaCO3). MHD patients were recruited and randomly assigned to an LP meal group (LP group) or a control group. After initial data collection, blood collection, and dietary counseling, subjects were asked to consume a washout diet for 1 week. During the washout diet period, subjects consumed their usual diet but took 1 tablet of calcium carbonate (1CaCO3) as a phosphate binder with each meal. After the washout diet period, subjects in the LP group and control group respectively consumed LP meals and regular meals twice a day for 1 week. Meat in the LP meals was boiled before the regular cooking process, but meat in control meals was not. All meals were supplied by a central kitchen so that the contents of phosphate and other nutrients could be identified. In total, 40 MHD patients completed the study program. After 1 week of the dietary intervention, the blood Ca x P product and dietary phosphate had significantly decreased in the LP group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The LP group had significantly lower variations in dietary phosphate intake, blood calcium, Ca x P product, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α than the control group by comparing differences between after the dietary intervention and the baseline (△after intervention - baseline, p<0.05). The increase in dietary phosphate intake (△3rd - 2nd dietary phosphate intake) augmented the increase in the TNF-α level by 6.24-fold (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 6.24 [1.12~34.92], p<0.05). These results highlighted the conclusion that LP meals accompanied by a minimum dose of CaCO3 downregulated pro-inflammation by reducing CKD-MBD indicators which was triggered by decreasing dietary phosphate intake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0377.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Global salt cycle; Wilson cycle; Giant salt accumulations; Subduction; Rifting; Mantle; upwelling; Hydrated mantle; Hydrothermal salt expulsion; Hydrothermal circulation; Basin subsidence; Supercritical fluids; Phase separation; Saline brine; Salt diapir; Bedded salts; Inherited composition; Inherited structures; Lower crustal body; Electrical conductivity; Magnetotelluric method; Seismic velocity; Brittle-ductile behaviour; Continental crust formation; Oceanic crust formation; Hydration of oceanic crust; Serpentinization; Volcanism; Mineral solubility.
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:34:42 CEST)
The main objective of this communication is to describe the ‘Global Salt Cycle’. Giant salt accumulations are commonly found along continental margins of former rifts. The first stage in the accumulation process is saturation of newly formed oceanic crust with seawater. Final mobilisation and accumulation of the salts occurs during rifting, localised in the vicinity of relict subduction zones. Oceanic crust is created along the spreading ridges in the deep oceans of the Earth. It exchanges mass and energy with seawater in hydrothermal circulation cells that penetrate deep into the new and fractured crust. Water-rock interactions include the formation of hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, e.g., serpentinites and clay minerals. By incorporating hydroxyl groups and water in their crystal lattices, the salinity of remaining brines increases. Subduction of oceanic crust and serpentinised lithosphere transports water, hydrated minerals, and marine salts deep into the crust and mantle. Upon pressurisation and heating of the subducting slab, different parts of this water are expelled at different depths/temperatures. The resulting fluids will contain salts brought in with the slab, as well as new salts formed by water-rock interaction. The combination of elevated pressures and temperatures, water, salinity, and CO2, create permeability in the normally impermeable, peridotitic mantle, by altering the fluid-rock dihedral angles of mineral grains. This P/T-determined intergranular permeability allows ascent of saline fluids, under lithostatic pressure, within the mantle wedge, or the slab itself. The fluids produce a mechanically weakened and buoyant zone within the mantle wedge due to high pore pressure between mineral grains and reduced mantle density. During the lifetime of a subduction zone, a substantial accumulation of saline fluids within the mantle wedge and crust, is evident. Deep, fluid reservoirs accumulate between the subduction trench and the volcanic front. They may exist for hundreds of millions of years, even after the extinction of the subduction zone. Saline fluids may escape to the surface along deep faults, due to overfilling of available pores/fractures. Fluids within the mantle wedge may form rock melts or exist as supercritical, mineral rich fluids. The combination of reduced pressure due to rifting, and a saline and buoyant mantle, creates a mantle circulation that brings the accumulated, saline fluids, to crustal levels. Salts will therefore accumulate during initial stages of rifting as a result of massive fluid expulsion, phase change and boiling of mantle fluids. No extra energy is required to produce phase change and boiling. The result is formation of solid salts or dense brines/slurries invading fractured crustal rocks, or escaping to the surface/seabed. This process may take place both before and after the sea has invaded a continental rift.