ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0050.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: mind brain interaction, Avicenna, consciousness, cognition, incorporeity of mind, mind matter interaction
Online: 6 June 2019 (12:58:52 CEST)
Mind and brain/matter interaction is one of the important and controversial issues in Islamic philosophy. In fact, in the resources of Islamic philosophy, one of the basic parts of philosophical discussions is related to mind’s nature and its interaction with the brain. Especially, in Avicenna’s philosophy, there are many articles and books which have addressed the topic of mind and brain and the relation between them. Avicenna was a profound philosopher, an expert physicist and a proficient physician of his time. Because of his experimental proficiency in medicine and surgery and his deep philosophical analysis, his discussion about mind and brain is very interesting for our time, due to recent advances in neuroscience. In this article, we have explained one of Avicenna’s arguments (in his famous opus “al-Isharat”) about the incorporeity of mind (self), which is very close to modern neuroscience and physics literature. In addition, we explain his model of mind and brain interaction. Avicenna described the mechanism of the causal effect of mind on the brain via a third identity, which works as an interface between them (in his main book “al-Shifa”). We try to illustrate his model by the use of some examples, inspired from modern physics. Also, we explore the philosophical constraints which must be considered in any model of mind-matter interaction, within the Islamic philosophy framework. In fact, we propose a new understanding of Avicenna’s philosophy which is in agreement with modern physics and neuroscience.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0233.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Mind-body problem; Mind-body coupling phenomenon; Entropic system; Entropic system equation; Law of entropic system; Self-organized criticality (SOC); Self-organized critical triggering factor (SOCTF); Conscious strength; Macrostates of consciousness; Self-organization of minds.
Online: 10 February 2021 (12:45:03 CET)
The mind-body problem is the central issue in both of philosophy and life science for several centuries. To date, there is still no conclusive theory to interpret the relation between the mind and the body, even just the mind alone. Here, we promote a novel model, a derived mathematic equation called the entropic system equation, to describe the innate characters of the mind and the mechanism of the mind-body coupling phenomenon. As the semi-open thermodynamic systems far from equilibrium, the living organisms could be logically considered as an entropic system. In the living organisms or the entropic systems, there also are three essential existing elements including mass, energy and information, in which the mind and the body are hypothetically coupled by free energy and entropic force.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0084.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: philosophy of emotion; science of emotion; meta-semantic pluralism; embodied cognition; mind; mind-body problem; perception; cognition; emotion; cultural evolution; dual-inheritance theory; evolutionary norm psychology
Online: 6 July 2022 (03:55:00 CEST)
In this paper, I give readers an idea of what some scholars are interested in, what I found interesting, and what may be of future interest in the philosophy of emotion. I begin with a brief overview of the general topics of interests in the philosophy of emotion. I then discuss what I believe to be some of the most interesting topics in the contemporary discourse, including questions about how philosophy can inform the science of emotion, conceptions of the mind and the mind-body problem, concerns about perception, cognition, and emotion, along with questions about the place of 4E approaches and meta-semantic pluralist approaches in the embodied cognitive tradition. Finally, I discuss the emerging field of cultural evolution, the import of a dual-inheritance theory in this emerging field, and I propose a possible way to integrate the frameworks of dual-inheritance theory and meta-semantic pluralism to demonstrate at least one way in which the philosophy of emotion can contribute to the emerging field of cultural evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0679.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Consciousness Field; cosmic consciousness network; default mode network; EEG; Fara-darmani; Fara-therapist; gamma wave; Mind-body
Online: 27 September 2020 (11:58:42 CEST)
Mind-body interaction and its manifestations at the brain level has been studied extensively in the field of consciousness research. Fara-darmani Consciousness Field, as claimed by Mohammad Ali Taheri (the founder), is a method of connecting with the Cosmic Consciousness Network through human mind and his brain has a detective role in this process. As a result of this connection, the scanning process of the state of a being, e.g., the health status of the cells and consequently organs is performed. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the Fara-darmani Consciousness Field connection on electroencephalogram (EEG) features as an important biomarker of the brain functioning. The results showed that there was a significant increase in the gamma2 frequency band (35-40 Hz) power in the frontal lobe in medial frontal gyrus (BA6) and paracentral lobule (BA31) of the brain during the task condition compared to the rest condition in a Fara-therapist population. Considering the cortical electrical activity of Fara-therapist’s brain during Fara-darmani Consciousness Field connection, characterizing increase in the power of gamma wave and the activity of the areas affecting on memory, attention, perception and default mode network intrinsic activity. This manifestation distinguishes Fara-darmani Consciousness Field connection from other known methods dealing with the mind-body interaction criterion mainly different types of mediation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: brain; nervous system; Einstein; relativity; spacetime; mind
Online: 22 November 2019 (06:46:57 CET)
Visual imagery, i.e., the mental experience of an object occurring in the absence of external visual stimulus, might encompass diverse content according to different observers. Further, subjectively experienced time is encoded in the later entorhinal cortex. Starting from these two observations, and considering Einstein’s account of spacetime, we show how, in terms of special relativity, the content of visual imagery is not stationary and fixed, rather depends on the standpoint of the observer. We elucidate how the subjective definition of time (perceived by our mind as static) might give rise to modifications in the length of the imagined object which are experimentally assessable and quantifiable. In particular, based on recent neuroscientific literature, we show how changes in our mental time windows are able to squeeze the visual content of mental imagery.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; public health intervention; disease severity; personal survival strategy; randomized control trials; epidemiological model; junk science; mind and body; reductionist
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:11:34 CEST)
To predict how the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, we developed a systematic method for predicting disease outcomes. In the method, we evaluate how personal disease outcomes are mainly affected by viral concentration and exposure time and four defense mechanisms: human innate immunity/host response, acquired immune response, inflammation resolution and micro circulation, and the available space in the thorax cage. By considering how pandemic measures affect viral exposure and those mechanisms, we found many pandemic measures are misused or abused to deliver long-term adverse impacts. We noted that lifestyles have been changed as a result of movement restriction measures. By using the method, we found that altered lifestyles are predicted to raise infection rate, disability and death risks in the future. We show that a person can use personal, environmental, emotional factors to reduce infection rate and death risk. To prove the validity of this finding, we extensively examined medical research models, holistic and reductionist models, epidemiological models, disease risk factors, etc, and found that population methods are unfit for studying holistic health, statistical population does not exist in most clinical trials, mathematical models were misused for studying disease properties for a population, mathematical equations for modeling personal diseases are beyond human ability to solve, statistical models are misused, population-derived treatments are inherently dangerous to patients, vaccines have limited benefits due to unique lung structure and rapid RNA mutation, and immune system damage is caused by fast viral replication rate. We found that altering biological properties to improve the defense mechanisms could prevent a super majority of deaths and prevent the virus from reaching a point to damage the immune system. For vulnerable persons, such measure is a viable strategy for surviving from the pandemic. As a whole, holistic personalized medicine is more powerful than population-based reductionist treatment by one to several orders of magnitudes. We urge people do their parts to force the medical establishment to abandon population treatment models that are responsible for failure of medicine and dissemination of misleading and factually wrong information on the effectiveness of medical treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0793.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: autism, humor, semantic joke, idiom, theory of mind
Online: 23 April 2023 (08:25:09 CEST)
Semantic jokes involve resolving an incongruity emerging from wordplay or from violation of world knowledge. Research has shown individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate lower performance on humor tasks involving social situations, but less is known about their semantic joke comprehension. This study examined semantic joke comprehension among adolescents with ASD, and its possible relationship to vocabulary size, theory of mind (ToM), and idiom comprehension. Thirty-two adolescents with ASD and 32 typically developed (TD) peers participated. Semantic joke comprehension was assessed via multiple-choice questionnaire and time-limited computer program. Vocabulary, ToM abilities, and idiom comprehension were also tested. Results revealed that adolescents with ASD were as fast in processing semantic jokes as their age- and vocabulary-matched TD peers but less accurate. Age and idiom comprehension contributed significantly to semantic joke comprehension among both groups. As semantic joke comprehension is based on incongruity resolution, the greater difficulties in comprehension among the adolescents with ASD may be due to deficits in simultaneously retaining two alternative interpretations and selecting the relevant one. Like the TD group, semantic joke comprehension among the ASD group appeared more developed with age. Future neuroimaging studies should test semantic brain region involvement in semantic joke comprehension in ASD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0098.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Consciousness; Mind; Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics; Causality; Evolution
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:11:07 CEST)
We propose a novel interpretation of consciousness and an enlarged definition of locality, which provide a solution to the problem of the consistency of measurements in quantum mechanics: consciousness is a characteristics of the Universe as a whole. Besides its physical consequences, this interpretation has also moral implications: individuality comes out naturally to be just an accident functional to evolution which shaped past and present history through competition, and realizing this fact should enforce cooperation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0711.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: order; entropy; chaos; evolution; cosmic mind; big bang
Online: 30 October 2018 (07:50:20 CET)
We discuss the role of the opposing principles of order and disorder in physical and biological systems in determining stability, growth and evolution and bring forth the potential role of a cosmic ordering agency. We analyze its role in decreasing entropy by coarse-graining and hence in determining the initial low entropy state of the big bang universe. Since all physical and biological systems have either cycles of order and disorder alternating, or may have chaotic evolution with non-linear laws, the same is expected of the dynamics of the whole universe as well. The entropy of the initial state of the universe could be low because of the reduction of degrees of freedom (DoF) as one moves from physical encoding to neural encoding and then on to psychic encoding of information in a nested manner by coarse-graining. It is by such encoding that this cosmic agency enables the universe to pass through the big crunch phase and then rolls it out as the big bang universe from the initial state of low entropy.
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: irrationality; human senses; human mind; material continuity; existence
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:57:08 CEST)
It has been a challenge to visualize in nature some concepts from abstract subjects such as mathematics and philosophy. Irrationality is certainly among the least comprehensive. This essay aimed to propose that irrationality is simply an illusion resulting from the human inability to grasp the full nature of reality, rather than actual continuity flaws in the fabric of existence. There are three major arguments: (1) human senses have limitations and these are likely to be extended to the intellect, (2) there are no observable existential discontinuities in everyday experience, and (3) some rational phenomena have irrational components. These arguments point towards the existence of a physical existence of irrational quantities or distances, visible to the human eye but not fully comprehended through arithmetic abstraction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: false belief; Williams syndrome; theory of mind; social cognition
Online: 14 March 2023 (09:02:41 CET)
Background: People with Williams syndrome (WS) are characterized with hypersociability, fluency in languages, and advantageous face-processing skills, leading to the proposal of a social module. Previous studies on the mentalizing abilities of people with WS using two-dimensional pictures and mindreading from eyes, including normal-like, delayed, and deviant behaviors, have yielded mixed results. This study thus examined the mentalizing ability of people with WS through structured computerized animations of false belief tasks to investigate whether inferences about other people’s minds can be improved in this population. Method: Participants were shown animations with unexpected location and content changes. After viewing each animation, participants had to answer four types of questions: character identification, reality, memory, and false belief. Their responses were recorded and analyzed. Results: Comprehension of false belief was observed in 4-year-old healthy children, whereas children with WS showed unsuccessful comprehension of false belief (until they attained a mental age of 5.3 years), suggesting an improvement in theory of mind resulting from viewing structured computerized animations. This age is earlier than that reported by previous studies for using theory of mind to pass false belief tests (8.5 years old), even challenging the age at which individuals failed to pass the tests (12.10 years old). Conclusions: Structured computerized animations enhanced the mentalizing ability of people with WS to a certain extent. Compared to the typically developing controls, people with WS presented with a lower developmental level in processing false belief tasks. The educational implication of this study is to develop computerized social skills interventions for people with WS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: musculoskeletal pain; body height; body weight; schoolchildren
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:07:54 CET)
Background Children often suffer the nonspecific musculosceletal pain as reported in literature. Aim To determine relationship between body weights with development of musculoskeletal pain and to determine whether growing in body height is associated with musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren. Subjects/ Methods A prospective longitudinal study included 1315 school children aged 7-14 years (652 boys and 663 girls) and was performed in 13 elementary schools in B&H. Child body height and body weight were measured. The survey of perception of musculoskeletal pain in different body regions of subjects was conducted by adjusted Nordic Musculosceletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Results The highest prevalence of an overweight and obesity in the 10th year 35.7% and the lowest frequency 17.8% in the 14th year was. In the age 14th obesity was’nt found. Boys have more prevalence of overweight. Using logistic regression model, we found that school children with normal BMI were protected with increased body height of acute lower back pain (β= -0.089, 95%CI, -9.730- -0.023, P< 0.049), and increased body height was protector of obese school children of acute upper back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001) and chronic lower back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001). Conclusion Schoolchildren with normal weight more often have had musculosceletal pain than those with overweight or obesity. This can be associated with intense physical growth period in height, especially. The assumption is that the increase in height changes the relationship between excessive BMI and musculoskeletal pain in children of school age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: insulin resistance; body weight; body fat; visceral fat; waist circumference; body mass index
Online: 28 February 2018 (04:43:50 CET)
The incidence of obesity which leads to insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic disorder increases in developing countries including Indonesia. Male adult has higher risk to have abdominal obesity than female which is associated with cardiometabolic disorders. Several anthropometric measurements have been proposed to predict IR. The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF) or visceral fat percentage (VF) could become a better predictor of IR in healthy young male adult. Total of 140 healthy young male adults ranging from 18-25 years were recruited in the study. Insulin resistance was measured by calculating Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Subjects with HOMA-IR value >75th percentile with cut off 3.75 were defined as IR. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, BMI, WC were performed whereas BF and VC were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). IR had significant strong correlation with body weight, BMI, WC, BF and VF. The area under curve of body mass, BF, VF were greater than WC and BMI. Anthropometric measurements correlated strongly with IR but body weight, BF, VF have stronger correlation than WC and BMI in healthy young male adult.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0111.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: predictive brain; modularity of the mind; cognitive function; functional segregation
Online: 10 November 2019 (13:40:28 CET)
Modularity is arguably one of the most influential theses guiding research on brain and cognitive function since phrenology. This paper considers the following question: is modularity entailed by recent Bayesian models of brain and cognitive function, especially the predictive processing framework? It starts by considering three of the most well-articulated arguments for the view that modularity and predictive processing work well together. It argues that all three kinds of arguments for modularity come up short, albeit for different reasons. The analysis in this paper, although formulated in the context of predictive processing, speaks to broader issues with how to understand the relationship between functional segregation and integration and the reciprocal architecture of the predictive brain. These conclusions have implications for how to study brain and cognitive function. Specifically, when cognitive neuroscience works within an acyclic Markov decision scheme, adopted by most Bayesian models of brain and cognitive function, it may very well be methodologically misguided. This speaks to an increasing tendency within the cognitive neurosciences to emphasise recurrent and reciprocal neuronal processing captured within newly emerging dynamical causal modelling frameworks. The conclusions also suggest that functional integration is an organising principle of brain and cognitive function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0754.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human body segments; body dimensions; biomechanical modeling; anthropometry
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:54:14 CEST)
The knowledge of human body proportion and segmental properties of limbs, head and trunk are of fundamental importance in biomechanical research. As many methods are employed, it is important to know which they are currently available, which data on human body masses, lengths, center of mass (COM) location, weights and moment of inertia are available and which methods are most suitable for a specific research purposes. The present review examines the literature concerning human body segments properties for biomechanical purposes. It emerges that data obtained in studies on cadaveric specimens are still the most accurate, whilst technological tools currently available are manifolds, each one with proper advantages and disadvantages. Classical studies were focused mainly on white men, while in recent year the available data of body segments has been extended to children, woman, and other races. Also, data on special population (obese, pregnant women) are starting to appear in the scientific literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: thinness, girls, youth, body satisfaction, body mass index
Online: 21 March 2018 (16:00:02 CET)
Psychological wellbeing can be impacted substantially by changes in body image during youth, which can be a predictive factor for positive or negative attitudes, such as for self-esteem and satisfaction. In this study, adherence to the thinness model and to healthy behaviours were analysed in terms of the emotional patterns and body management of the young female Italian population (N = 2287). Skinny girls fitting better with the thinness model tended to develop higher positive emotional patterns, but their body management was low. Findings suggest the urgent need for preventive programmes to enhance awareness of healthy behaviours against appearance models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0389.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: body composition; body condition score; body parameters; fat; live weight; ewes condition; im-age analysis
Online: 6 June 2023 (05:54:38 CEST)
Farmers are continually looking for new reliable, objective and non-invasive methods for evaluation of ewe condition. Live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) are used by farmers as a basis to determine the condition of the animal. Body composition is an important aspect of monitoring animal condition. The body composition is the amount of fat, lean and bone; knowing the amount of each is important because the information can be used for better strategic management interventions. Experiments were conducted to establish the relationship between body composition and body parameters, at key life’s stages (weaning and pre-mating), using measurements automatically determined by an image processing ap-plication at Lincoln University sheep farm for 88 Coopworth ewes. Computerized Tomography technology was used to develop relationship with body parameters and a subset was used to validate the predicted model. Multivariate linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANNs) and regression tree (RT) statistical analysis methods were evaluated to determine their efficacy to predict body fat, lean and bone. The results showed a correlation between fat, lean and bone determined by CT and the fat, lean, bone weight estimated by live weight and body parameters calculated using the image processing application with R2 values of 0.90 for fat, 0.72 for lean and 0.50 for bone using ANNs statistical model. From these results, farmers can utilize accurate measures of fat which will enhance nutritional and management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0026.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: mind-wandering; video lecture; self-caught method; oculomotor data; eye movements
Online: 3 February 2020 (08:34:54 CET)
The purpose of this study was to detect mind-wandering experienced by pre-service teachers while learning video lecture on physics. The lecture was videotaped and consisted of a live lecture in a classroom. The lecture was about Gauss's law on physics. We investigated whether oculomotor data and eye movements could be used as a marker to indicate the learner’s mind-wandering. Each data was collected in a study in which 24 pre-service teachers (16 females and 8 males) reported self-caught mind-wandering while learning physics video lecture during30 minutes. A Tobii Pro Spectrum (sampling rate: 300Hz) was used to capture their eye-gaze during learning Gauss's law course video. After watching video lecture, we interviewed pre-service teachers about their mind-wandering experience. We first used the self-caught method to capture the mind-wandering timing of pre-service teachers while learning from video lectures. We detected more accurate mind-wandering segments by comparing fixation duration and saccade count. We investigated two types of oculomotor data (blink count, pupil size) and nine eye movements (average peak velocity of saccades; maximum peak velocity of saccades; standard deviation of peak velocity of saccades; average amplitude of saccades; maximum amplitude of saccades; total amplitude of saccades; saccade count/s; fixation duration; fixation dispersion). The result was that the blink count could not be used as a marker for mind-wandering during learning video lectures among them (oculomotor data and eye movements), unlike previous literatures. Based on the results of this study, we identified elements that can be used as mind-wandering markers while learning from video lectures that are similar to real classes, among the oculomotor data and eye movement mentioned in previous literatures. Also, we found that most participants focused on past thoughts and felt unpleasant after experiencing mind-wandering through interview analysis.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:50:10 CEST)
TThe passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Question-naire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, (p=0.001), and the subscales of dieting (p=0.01) and bulimia. (p=0.001). Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. (p=0.01). The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both profes-sional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0471.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:10:51 CEST)
The passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, and the subscales of dieting and bulimia. Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both professional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ultrawideband (uwb); localization; ranging; body wearable sensors; human body shadowing
Online: 23 September 2019 (11:36:26 CEST)
In recent years, several Ultrawideband (UWB) localization systems have already been proposed and evaluated for accurate position estimation of pedestrians. However, most of them are evaluated for a particular wearable sensor position; hence the accuracy obtained is subject to a given wearable sensor position. In this paper, we study the effects of body wearable sensor positions i.e., chest, arm, ankle, wrist, thigh, fore-head, hand, on the localization accuracy. The conclusion drawn is that the fore-head is the best, and the chest is the worst body sensor location for tracking a pedestrian. While the fore-head position is able to set an error lower than 0.35 m (90th percentile), the chest is able to set 4 m. The reason for such a contrast in the performance lies in the fact that in NLOS situations, the chest as an obstacle is larger in size and thickness than any other part of the human body, which the UWB signal needs to overcome to reach the target wearable sensor. And so, the large errors arise due to the signal arriving at the target wearable sensor from reflections of a nearby object or a wall in the environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: lung transplantation; body mass index; nutrition; body composition; lean body mass; muscle mass; leptin; sarcopenia; creatinine-height index
Online: 1 November 2019 (13:02:51 CET)
Lung transplantation offers patients with end stage lung disease an opportunity for a better quality of life, but with limited organ availability it is paramount that selected patients have the best opportunity for successful outcomes. Nutrition plays a central role in post-surgical outcomes and historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used as the de facto method of assessing a lung transplant candidate’s nutritional status. Here we review the historical origins of BMI in lung transplantation, summarize the current BMI literature, and review studies of alternative/complementary body composition assessment tools, including lean psoas area, creatinine-height index, leptin, and dual x-ray absorptometry. These body composition measures quantify lean body mass versus fat mass and may provide a more comprehensive analysis of a patient’s nutritional state than BMI alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0210.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Infrared; Photodetector; Black Body
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:44:55 CEST)
We propose a method for the estimation of the spectral response of a photodetector, using only the variation of the temperature of a black body source without the need of an expensive monochromator or a circular filter. The proposed method is suitable especially for infrared detectors in which the cut – off wavelength and the responsivity vs. wavelength is not exactly known. The method provides a rough estimation of the curve S(l) solving a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The precision of this technique depends on the number of temperatures at which the detector output is measured. Some example is given in order to better explain the proposed technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: body temperature; sensors; transduser
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:11:12 CET)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of transduser design and its elements, and their materials on temperature in deeper layers of tissues measurement results. A digital modeling was performed to evaluate the influence of the properties of transduser design elements. Experimental research was carried out. Revealed that the accuracy, similar to that of an invasive method using needle probes, can be achieved by measuring the temperature in deeper muscle layers using the proposed transducer.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: body shape index; body roundness index; metabolic risk factors; Southern China adults
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:44:12 CEST)
This purpose was to compare the ability of body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) with waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body adiposity index (BAI) to predict metabolic risk. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 17,360 Chinese subjects (were aged 18-95 years old) who escaped cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were measured by trained staff. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and optimal cutoff values of obesity indices were recruited to compare the predictive ability for metabolic risk factors. The mean age of subjects was 53.7(13.1) years, 41.6 % were males. Within young group (<60 years), the areas under the curve (AUC) demonstrated that WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BRI were able to similarly predict high metabolic risk in males (0.74 vs. 0.74 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) and in females (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.71 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73), while the approximate predictive ability were only acquired in males (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.70 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) within elder group (≥60 years). The optimal cut-off values of BRI for high metabolic risk were calculated in males (<60 y: 3.49 vs. ≥60 y: 3.46) and females (<60 y: 3.47 vs. ≥60 y: 3.60). Meanwhile, BRI displayed a strong prediction to elevated BP and elevated TG in males (AUC = 0.64; AUC = 0.70) and to elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA in females (AUC = 0.67; AUC = 0.69; AUC =0.70). BRI was able to similarly predict high metabolic risk compared to WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI, while ABSI was not. Moreover, BRI revealed specific predictive ability for elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Perspective Taking; Self-Awareness; Self-Representation; Metarepresentation; Theory of Mind; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:35:01 CEST)
Only by understanding the ability to take third-person perspective can we begin to elucidate the neural processes responsible for one’s inimitable conscious experience. The current study examined differences in hemispheric laterality during a first-person perspective (1PP) and third-person perspective (3PP) taking task, when using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Participants were asked to take either the 1PP or 3PP when identifying the number of spheres in a virtual scene. During this task, single-pulse TMS was delivered to the motor cortex of both the left and right hemispheres of 10 healthy volunteers. Measures of TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the contralateral abductor pollicis brevis (APB) were employed as an indicator of lateralized cortical activation. The data suggest that the right hemisphere is more important in discriminating between 1PP and 3PP. These data add a novel method for determining perspective taking and add to the literature supporting the role of the right hemisphere in meta representation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: obesity; diabetes; body weight; body composition; glucose tolerance; insulin tolerance; incretin; energy expenditure
Online: 12 February 2019 (10:37:42 CET)
Background/Goals: The gut hormone PYY secreted from intestinal L-cells has been implicated in the mechanisms of satiation via Y2-receptor (Y2R) signaling in the brain and periphery and is a major candidate for mediating the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on appetite and body weight. Methods: Here we assessed the role of Y2R signaling in the response to low- and high-fat diets and its role in the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure and glucose handling, in global Y2R-deficient (Y2RKO) and wildtype mice made obese on high-fat diet. Results: Both male and female Y2RKO mice responded normally to low- and high-fat diet in terms of body weight, body composition, fasting levels of glucose and insulin, as well as glucose and insulin tolerance for up to 30 weeks of age. Contrary to expectations, obese Y2RKO mice also responded similarly to RYGB compared to WT mice for up to 20 weeks after surgery, with initial hypophagia, sustained body weight loss, and significant improvements in fasting insulin, glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, and liver weight compared to sham-operated mice. Furthermore, non-surgical Y2RKO mice weight-matched to RYGB showed the same improvements in glycemic control as Y2RKO mice with RYGB that were similar to WT mice. Conclusions: PYY signaling through Y2R is not required for the normal appetite-suppressing and body weight-lowering effects of RYGB in this global knockout mouse model. Potential compensatory adaptations of PYY signaling through other receptor subtypes or other gut satiety hormones such as GLP-1 remain to be investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Whole body cryotherapy (WBC); skin temperature; extreme cold; human body
Online: 17 May 2023 (12:39:36 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the impact of body heat loss on the thermal and aerodynamic conditions in a whole-body cryotherapy chamber. The underlying hypothesis is that the heat generated by the human body alters the thermal and aerodynamic environment inside the cabin. A numerical study was conducted to test this hypothesis to analyze the thermodynamic exchanges between the human body and the cabin during a 3-minute whole-body cryotherapy session. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was used to study the unsteady heat transfer between the human body and the interior of the cryotherapy cabin. A thermal boundary condition, based on a mathematical model developed from experimental data, was applied to simulate skin cooling kinetics over time. The post-processing of the 3D results, including temperature, velocity fields, and thermal flux maps at the body surface, provided insight into the thermo-convective mechanisms involved in a whole-body cryotherapy session. The study found that body heat loss significantly affects the temperature fields inside the cabin, leading to global modifications of the aeraulic and thermal conditions. These findings suggest that cryotherapy protocols may need to be adjusted or the cabin set temperature optimized to enhance the therapeutic benefits.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: body posture defects; the shape of anterior-posterior spinal curvatures; body composition; school-children
Online: 11 April 2020 (05:38:01 CEST)
The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvature of the spine and body composition in school-children. The study included 257 children, aged 11-12. Correct spinal curvature was established in 106 (41.08%) subjects. Other types included: decreased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 40 participants (15.50%), correct kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 24 individuals (9.30%), increased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 17 subjects (6.59%), correct kyphosis and increased lordosis - 22 children (8.53%), decreased kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 32 people (12.40%), decreased kyphosis and increased lordosis - 4 of the examined subjects (1.55%), increased kyphosis and lordosis - 13 people (5.04%). In addition, 134 (51.94%) demonstrated scoliotic posture and 8 (3.10%) scoliosis. There were significant relationships between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvatures and body composition in school-children. Those with a strong body build (predominance of mesomorphs) were generally characterised by the correct formation of these curvatures. In contrast, lean people (with the predominance of ectomorphic factors) were more likely to experience abnormalities. No correlations with body composition were observed in the group with scoliotic posture or scoliosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cognition; cognitive functions; localization; lesion studies; body perception; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); electrical microsimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation; extrastriate body area; fusiform body area
Online: 28 July 2022 (11:16:04 CEST)
It is one of the central goals of cognitive neuroscience to understand how structure and function relate in the brain. We review how cognitive function characterization has been approached in the past. In addition, we examine the ongoing efforts, as well as the implications for the future. Clinical studies on patients with lesions have provided key insights into the relationship between brain areas and behavior over the past century. We describe cognitive function according to localization considering these early efforts for characterization. We chose a perceptual-cognitive function, namely body perception, to describe our current efforts. Using body perception as an example, we summarize contemporary techniques. Finally, we outline the trajectory of current progress into the future and discuss the implications for clinical and basic neuroscience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0223.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: mind brain interaction, quantum consciousness, Avicenna, Bohmian quantum mechanics, modified Schrödinger equation, quantum field theory
Online: 17 May 2019 (11:10:12 CEST)
In quantum approaches to consciousness, the authors try to propose a model and mechanism for the mind-brain interaction using modern physics and some quantum concepts which do not exist in the classical physics. The independent effect of mind on the brain has been one of the challenging issues in the history of science and philosophy. In some recent mind-brain interaction models, the direct influence of mind on matter is either not accepted (as in Stapp’s model) or not clear, and there have not been any clear mechanism for it (as in Penrose-Hameroff’s model or in Eccles’s model). In this manuscript we propose a model and mechanism for mind’s effect on the matter using an extended Bohmian quantum mechanics and Avicenna’s ideas. We show that mind and mental states can affect brain’s activity without any violation of physical laws. This is a mathematical and descriptive model which shows the possibility of providing a causal model for mind’s effect on matter. It is shown that this model guarantees the realistic philosophical constraints and respects the laws of nature. In addition, it is shown that it is in agreement with the Libet style experimental results and parapsychological data. To propose this model, we obtained a modified (non-unitary) Schrödinger equation via second quantization method which affects the particle through a modified quantum potential and a new term in the continuity equation. At the second quantized level, which is equivalent to quantum field theory level (QFT), we can use the path integral formalism of Feynman. We show that there are three methods to extend Bohmian QM via path integral formalism, which has different interpretations. By numerical simulation of trajectories in the two-slits experiment, we show their differences and choose one of these methods for our mind-brain model which can be the basis for explaining some phenomena which are not possible to explain in the standard Bohmian QM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0254.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Centella asiatica; body weight; obesity; adipocyte
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:36:10 CEST)
To understand the mechanisms involved in the anti-obesity effects Centella asi-atica (CA), we examined body weight, serum levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, histological analysis, and the expression of cholesterol homeostasis- and lipid metabolism-related genes in mice with high-fat, high-sugar diet (HFHSD)-induced obesity that were orally treated with CA for 12 weeks. Eight-week-old, male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to the following four groups (eight mice/group): NOR, normal diet; Control, HFHSD; CA-L, HFHSD+CA 300 mg/kg; CA-H, HFHSD+CA 600 mg/kg. CA treatment signifi-cantly attenuated HFHSD-induced increase in body weight gain, serum glucose, serum triacylglycerol, and WAT weight (p < 0.05). Compared to that in Control group, adipocyte diameter and macrovesicular area of epididymal WAT signif-icantly decreased with CA treatment (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), 3- hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR), and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD 1) were significantly downregulated in the CA-H group compared to the Control group (p < 0.05). CA exerts anti-obesity effects by lowering body fat accumulation via regulat-ing gene expression in the liver and thus, is a potential lipid-lowering agent.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aging; body composition; kidney; sex differences
Online: 11 November 2022 (03:53:06 CET)
Aging is a complex biological process, with gradual and progressive decline in structure and function in many organ systems. Our objective is to determine if structural changes produced by aging, vary with sex, in a stressful situation such as dehydration. The expression of Slc12a3 mRNA in renal cortex, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin, was evaluated in male and female rats aged 3 and 18 months submitted or not to water deprivation (WD) for 48 hours. When comparing ages, 18-month-old males showed lower expression of Slc12a3 mRNA than 3-month-old males, and control and WD 18-moth-old male and female rats exhibited higher expression of α-SMA than respective 3-month-old rats. Fibronectin was higher in both control and WD 18-month-old males than respective 3-month-old males. In females, only control 18-month-old rats showed higher fibronectin than control 3-month-old rats. When we compared sex, control and WD 3-month-old female rats had lower expression of Slc12a3 mRNA than re-spective males. WD 18-month-old male rats presented higher expression of fibronectin and α-SMA than WD 18-month-old female rats. When we compared hydric condition, WD 18-month-old males displayed lower relative expression of Slc12a3 mRNA and higher α-SMA expression than control 18-month-old males. Aging, sex, and dehydration lead to alteration in kidney structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Neck Muscle Vibration; Proprioception; Body Schema
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:45:37 CEST)
Upper limb control depends on accurate internal models of limb position relative to the head and neck, accurate sensory inputs, and accurate cortical processing. Transient alterations in neck afferent feedback induced by muscle vibration may impact upper limb proprioception. This research aimed to determine the effects of neck muscle vibration on upper limb proprioception using a novel elbow repositioning task (ERT). 26 right-handed participants aged 22.21 2.64 performed the ERT consisting of three target angles between 80-90 (T1), 90-100 (T2) and 100-110 (T3). Controls (CONT) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of rest and the vibration group (VIB) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of 60Hz vibration over the right sternocleidomastoid and left cervical extensor muscles. Task performance was reassessed following experimental manipulation. Significant time by group interactions occurred for T1: (F1,24 = 25.330, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.513) where CONT improved by 26.08% and VIB worsened by 134.27%, T2: (F1,24 = 16.157, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.402) where CONT improved by 20.39% and VIB worsened by 109.54%, and T3: (F1,24 = 21.923, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.447) where CONT improved by 37.11% and VIB worsened by 54.39%. Improvements in repositioning accuracy indicates improved proprioceptive ability with practice in controls. Decreased accuracy following vibration suggests that vibration altered proprioceptive inputs used to construct body schema, leading to inaccurate joint position sense and the observed changes in elbow repositioning accuracy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: body plan; archetype; burden; generative entrenchment
Online: 1 March 2022 (10:17:43 CET)
A body plan is a stable configuration of characters for a major taxonomic group, such as chordates or arthropods. Despite widespread casual reliance on the concept for guiding comparisons within and between groups, the nature of body plans as well as the biological causes underlying their evolution have remained elusive. This paper proposes an abstract mechanistic model of body plan identity. We hypothesize that body plans are an evolutionary phenomenon that only applies to a relatively small subset of major clades, rather than being associated with each and every so-called “phylum.” Body plans arise in evolution by stepwise accretion, and require a level of developmental complexity that is only found in some animal clades. Further, we suggest that, parallel to the developmental mechanisms controlling character identity, there are “body plan identity mechanisms” (BpIMs) that maintain entire configurations of characters while possessing a mechanistic architecture that is itself stable and traceable through evolutionary change. These BpIMs, we suggest, are entrenched intercellular signaling networks operating between transient embryonic structures that are destined to differentiate into distinct individualized characters. The activity of a BpIM results in a transient long-range integration of the embryo that is highly sensitive to genetic and environmental perturbations, and that can be detected morphologically as a conserved phylotypic stage. This model is illustrated with detailed interpretations of the notochord signaling system and the segment polarity network as candidate BpIMs in vertebrates and arthropods, respectively. We conclude by contrasting the proposed developmental-mechanistic conception of body plans with the phylogenetic notion of ground plans, and sketch the general outlines of an empirical research program on body plan evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorder; Body Image; Adolescents.
Online: 16 September 2021 (16:34:57 CEST)
There is growing recognition of the adverse effects of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and eating disorder (ED) symptoms on adolescent health. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ED symptoms, BID, and their relationship in adolescents from public schools in Southern Brazil. A total of 782 schoolchildren (male: n=420, female: n=362); age: 15 ± 0,4 years) answered a self-administrated questionnaire to identify sociodemographic data. Children´s Figure Rating Scale was adopted to identify body image and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to investigate ED symptoms. Inferential statistics and hierarchical model-controlled logistic regression were used for association between variables. Most of the schoolchildren reported being satisfied with their bodies. However, we observed a higher prevalence of dissatisfaction among girls for being overweight and thinness among boys. Female students and students from schools located in the central area of the city showed higher chances of developing ED symptoms, and the absence of symptoms of ED appeared to act as a protective factor against BID in schoolchildren. Results of this study show the need to reflect on these factors that influence the development of ED and non-acceptance of their own body in a population concerned with their physical appearance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: body; action; abstract concepts; metacognition; sociality
Online: 2 August 2021 (23:19:08 CEST)
Recent research has shown that the sensorimotor system plays a significant role in a variety of cognitive processes. In this paper, we will review recent studies performed in our lab (Body Action Language Lab, BALLAB) or in labs with which we collaborate, showing the involvement of the sensorimotor system at different levels. With the purpose of expounding on this aspect, we focus on studies that highlight two main characteristics of the involvement of the sensorimotor systems. First, we concentrate on the flexibility of sensorimotor grounding during interaction with objects. We report evidence showing how social context and current situations influence affordance activation. We then focus on the tactile and kinesthetic involvement in body-object interaction. Second, we illustrate flexible sensorimotor grounding in word use. We review studies showing that not only concrete words, like “bottle,” but also abstract words, like “freedom,” “thinking,” and “perhaps,” are grounded in the sensorimotor system. We report evidence showing that abstract words activate sensory modalities and involve the mouth effector more than concrete words due to their privileged relationship with language, both outer and inner speech. We discuss the activation of the mouth sensorimotor system in light of studies on adults (e.g., studies employing articulatory suppression), children (e.g., studies on the effects of pacifier use on word acquisition and processing), and infants (e.g. studies on emergence of new words). Finally, we pinpoint possible mechanisms at play in the acquisition and use of abstract concepts. We argue that with abstract concepts, we rely more on other people to learn or negotiate the meaning of words; we have called this mechanism social metacognition.Social metacognition is bidirectionally linked to our sensorimotor system. On the one hand, linguistic explanations constitute a primary source of grounding that may be re-enacted when retrieving a concept, for example through inner speech. On the other hand, it leads us to feel closer and be more synchronous in movement with others, who can help us understand the meaning of very complex words. Overall, we show that the sensorimotor system provides a grounding basis not only for objects and concrete words but also for more abstract and concrete ones. We conclude by arguing that future research should address and deepen two different and interrelated aspects concerning the involvement of the sensorimotor system during object and word processing. First, the sensorimotor system is flexibly modulated by the context, as studies on affordances reveal. Second, the sensorimotor system can be involved at different levels, and its role can be integrated and flanked by that of other systems, like the linguistic one, as studies on abstract concepts clearly show. We urge future research aimed at unravelling the role of the sensorimotor system in cognition to fully explore the complexity of this intricate-and sometimes slippery-relation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0504.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: body size; foraging; hominid; slope; terrain
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:06:21 CET)
Meganthropus palaeojavanicus was known very tall with body height of 8 feet and this made M. palaeojavanicus as the tallest hominid ever existed. This species was living in closed tropical woodland and hilly landscape as the fossil remains were found in a remote forest in Sangiran, central Java. Owing large body size, it may influence the foraging ecology of M. palaeojavanicus to cope with the terrain. In here, this study aimed to model the M. palaeojavanicus foraging ecology along terrain gradients. The model indicates that within 5 km home range radius, the most suitable foraging areas were in north east since these areas have more flat landscapes with slopes of <7.5%. While less suitable areas in north west and south west areas were characterized by hilly landscapes with rugged terrain and steep slopes with slopes of >62.8%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0310.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: Euler's equation; rigid body; rotation; Maple
Online: 14 August 2020 (06:32:59 CEST)
Finding a solution for Euler's equations is a classic mechanics problem. This study revisits the problem with numerical approaches. For ease of teaching and research, a Maple code comprising 2 lines is written to find a numerical solution for the problem. The study's results are validated by comparing these with previous studies. Our results confirm the correctness of the principle of maximum moment of inertia of the rotating body, which is verified by thermodynamics. As an essential part of this study, the Maple code is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1846.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: team sports; explosive strength; body composition; CMJ
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:24:30 CEST)
Player’s performance in an intense sport such as basketball is known to be related to attributes like speed, agility, and power. This study presents a comparative analysis of associations between anthropometric assessment and physical performance in different age-group elite youth basketball players, while simultaneously identifying the predictors for speed and agility in these players. U14 (n=44), U15 (n=45) and U16 (n=51) players were tested for anthropometry, lower body power, speed, and agility. U16 players were found to be taller, heavier, more muscular than U14 and U15 players. Also, the U16 group showed better performance in all performance tests. Age had a significant positive correlation with countermovement (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) performance in U14 players, and a significant negative correlation with 10m and 20m sprint times in U15 group. CMJ and DJ emerged as the most significant predictors for sprint and agility variables, respectively. Body fat percentage was found to be a significant predictor for the speed and agility tests in all age groups, but a negative lower-body power predictor. Therefore, besides all sport-specific and fitness tests, it is essential to place emphasis on the percentage of body fat when designing players’ individualized training programs, and during team selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Magnesium deficiency; Body composition; Chronic kidney failure.
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:27:18 CEST)
(1) Background: Reduced magnesium (Mg) levels may be associated with a faster de-cline in renal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum and uri-nary Mg levels with body composition and inflammatory markers; (2) Methods: Lon-gitudinal study with patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing non-dialysis treatment in stages 3A, 3B and 4. Venous samples were collected after a 12-hour night fast. Body composition was evaluated by Double X-Ray Emission Absorptiometry and Air Displacement Plethysmog-raphy; (3) Results: The sample consisted of 134 patients. In the adjusted linear regression model, uric acid, percentage of lean mass and ali-mentar intake of Mg were positively associated with the sergic Mg. Triglyceride levels, WC and fat mass percentage were negatively associated with serum Mg. For the Mg urinal, in the adjusted model, the eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate), IL (interleukin 6), food intake of Mg and the percentage of lean mass showed a positive correlation.; (4) Conclusions: Serum Mg levels were positively associated with lean mass and negatively with total and central body fat and urinary Mg was positively associated with IL6 and lean mass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0522.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: astragalus; body mass; Bovid; Pleistocene; population density
Online: 22 September 2020 (11:37:26 CEST)
Astragalus bone is one of the most important fossil records as it can reconstruct the prehistoric life. Respectively, this study aims to model the body mass, habitat preference, and population density of prehistoric bovid Duboisia santeng (Dubois 1891) in eastern Java island in the early Pleistocene. The astragali from 9 specimens were used to estimate the body mass and population density. Likewise regression models are used to analyze the relationship between astragalus lateral length, width, and body mass compared to the astragalus of extant Bovid species. The result revealed the body mass average was 60.3 kg (95%CI: 58.9-61.7) and this indicates the D. santeng belongs to large herbivores. While the population density was estimated at about 5.39 individuals per km2 (95% CI: 3.18-7.6).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; obesity; weight-loss; body composition
Online: 12 April 2020 (16:44:13 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D was studied in regards to its possible impact on body mass reduction and metabolic changes in adults and children with obesity yet there were no studies assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation during a weight management programme in children and adolescence. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of 26 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese children undergoing an integrated 12-months’ long weight loss programme on body mass reduction, body composition and bone mineral density. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Vitamin D deficient patients ( <30 ng/ml level of vitamin D) aged 6-14, participating in multidisciplinary weight management programme were randomly allocated to receiving vitamin D (1200 IU) or placebo for the first 26 weeks of the intervention. Results: Out of the 152 qualified patients, 109 (72%) completed a full cycle of four visits scheduled in the programme. There were no difference in the level of BMI change. Although the reduction was greater in the vitamin D vs. placebo group (-4.28 ± 8.43 vs. -2.53 ±6.10) the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.319). Similarly the reduction in fat mass – assessed both using bioimpedance and DEXa was achieved, yet the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study ads substantial results to support the thesis on no effect of vitamin D supplementation on body weight reduction in children and adolescents with vitamin D insufficiency undergoing a weight management programme. Trial registration no: NCT 02828228; trial registration date: 8 June 2016 registered in: ClinicalTrials.gov.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: body self-image; adolescent; anthropometry; nutritional status
Online: 16 April 2018 (10:51:45 CEST)
The critical changes in physical appearance during adolescence can considerably influence the self-appraisal of body image. The purpose of this study is to analyze body self-image gender differences in Mediterranean adolescents, and his relationships to the anthropometric characteristics of this population in different phases of the adolescence. Participants were 809 Mediterranean teenagers (396 females) aged 11 to 17. A relative low prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed among healthy urban Mediterranean adolescents (boys 17.3%; girls 22.7%). Girls showed statistically significantly higher mean BSQ scores than boys (M = 61.7, SD = 26.6 versus M = 56.3, SD = 27.1; p < 0.001). Girls in the late adolescence were more often classified as being dissatisfied (31%) in comparison to those in the early adolescent group (19.1%; p < 0.05). There was a good correlation of BSQ scores with all the anthropometric variables in males but not in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: coffee; obesity; body mass index; waist circumference
Online: 30 September 2017 (05:12:52 CEST)
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5,995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption was evaluated using the food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity measured by BMI (≥ 3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; P for the trend < 0.001) and abdominal obesity measured by WC (≥ 3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.59-2.79; P for the trend < 0.001). The positive association between daily coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0131.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: foreign mental contents; human sclera; reception of pointing gestures; self-conscious emotions; Theory-of-Mind; vicarious expectations
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:54:13 CEST)
Abstract. Can we nowadays keep a qualitative difference between the primitive and advanced Theory-of-Mind? The old criteria have become blurry. In addition, it is clear that in ‘apes’ lifestyle’ it is not necessary to use the communicative-cognitive basic abilities which became indispensable in ‘the new lifestyle’. Thus, it is usual to conclude that apes would have to some degree such abilities. However, this article tries to reformulate and defend that qualitative difference. Thus, after underlining the contrast between two kinds of mental states (‘contents’ and ‘expectations’), I apply it to the detection of foreign mental states as well. Then, three points are proposed: First, ‘vicarious expectations’ sustain the primitive ToM; second, a subject can have no expectation of inner states which are intrinsically impossible for him; third, the state of interacting with ourselves as with a different person –e.g., the thinking what others think of us– cannot be a vicarious expectation of ours, but it requires the estimation of foreign contents. From this hypothesis, I deduce that vicarious expectations are unable to sustain self-conscious emotions or the really effective reception of pointing gestures. These abilities could appear only when ‘the estimation of foreign contents’ –i.e., the origin of the advanced ToM– arose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: religious pluralism; decolonization of mind; semi-structured interview; psychological features; Hinduism; Indian culture; religious rights of human
Online: 29 May 2019 (05:03:27 CEST)
This article presents the study of religious pluralism and decolonization of Indian mind in Russia. The paper analyzes the investigation results concerning psychological features of modern Indian students from universities in Russia and India. For measuring of connection between religious pluralism and decolonization of Indian mind we made socio-psychological investigation of Indian students. We made 254 semi-structured interview with Indian students who are studying in Russia and India. According to the result of investigation that decolonization of Indian mind is connected with the level of religious pluralism. Among the values principles of religious pluralism get more significance and importance in decolonizing mind of Indian students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Pervasive developmental disorder; Autism spectrum disorder (ASD); brain network; Theory of Mind (ToM); Music Therapy (MT); therapeutic effect
Online: 6 September 2016 (11:53:58 CEST)
Music has the innate potential to reach all parts of the brain, stimulates certain brain areas which are not achievable through other modalities. Music Therapy (MT) is being used for more than a century to treat individuals who needs personalized care. MT optimizes motor, speech and language responsibilities of the brain and improves cognitive performance. Pervasive developmentdisorder (PDD) is a multifaceted, neuro developmental disorder and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comes under PDD, which is defined by deficiencies in three principal spheres: social connection with others, communicative and normal movement skills. The conventional imaging studies illustrate reduced brain area connectivity in people with ASD, involving selected parts of the brain cortex. People with ASD express much interest in musical activities which engages the brain network areas and improves communication and social skills.The main objective of this review is to analyze the potential role of MT in treating the neurological conditions, particularly ASD. Evidence based studies have reported the extensive therapeutic application of music on various part of the brain in a nonverbal child with autism through hearing or making music.Hence we hypothesized that MT intervention can improve the communication capacity in people with ASD, than customary neurorestoration therapy alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0250.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Peanut oil body; caproic acid; demulsification; oil quality
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:13:03 CEST)
Aqueous enzymatic method is a green oil extraction technology with limited industrial application owing to the need for demulsification of the oil body intermediate product. Existing demulsification methods have problems including low demulsification rates and high costs, such that new methods are needed. Free fatty acids produced by lipid hydrolysis can affect the stability of peanut oil body (POB) at a certain concentration. After screening even-carbon fatty acids with carbon chain lengths below ten, caproic acid was selected for demulsification of POB using response surface methodology and a Box–Behnken design. Under the optimal conditions (caproic acid concentration, 0.22%; material-to-liquid ratio, 1:4.7 (w/v); time, 61 min; and temperature, 79 C), a demulsification rate of 97.87% was achieved. Caproic acid not only adjusted the reaction system pH to cause aggregation of the POB interfacial proteins, but also decreased the interfacial tension and viscoelasticity of the interfacial film with increasing caproic acid concentration to realize POB demulsification. Compared with pressed oil and soxhlet-extracted oil, the acid value and peroxide value of caproic acid demulsified oil were increased, while the unsaturated fatty acid content and oxidation induction time were decreased. However, the tocopherol and tocotrienol contents were higher than those of the soxhlet-extracted oil. This study provides a new method for the demulsification of POB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0608.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Football; athletic performance; body composition; Latin-American soccers
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:38:34 CEST)
Knowledge of body composition is essential for athletes for their sport performance. It has yet to be determined whether differences in body composition are present between international and non-international players playing in the same elite professional club competition. Similarly, it is not yet clear whether differences in body composition according to ethnic origin exist in the elite professional game, where relative homogeneity is to be expected among soccer players. There is no single anthropometric profile that guarantees sporting success, as the somatotype of football players differs according to their individual characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess the description and comparison of the body composition profile of latin american professional football players playing in european leagues. The sample was composed of 238 subjects football players from European professional football leagues. Differences were found in all variables measured. The present study shows that in Latin American professional football players playing in Europe, there are significant differences in different body composition variables such as weight, height, WC, skinfold and fat values. This means that the treatment of these data and the possible classifications of sporting performance carried out in football clubs should be different to other European or African-American football players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0437.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: freshman; weight gain; body composition; diet; physical activity
Online: 12 September 2022 (11:10:16 CEST)
Background: Students in the United States gain weight significantly during their first year of university, however limited data are available for Australian students. Methods: This 12-month observational study was conducted to monitor monthly body weight and composition, as well as quarterly eating behaviours, dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and basal metabolic rate changes amongst first-year Australian university students. Participants were first-year university students over 18 years. Results: Twenty-two first-year university students (5 males and 17 females) completed the study. Female students gained weight significantly at two, three, and four-months (+0.9 kg; +1.5 kg; +1.1 kg, p <0.05). Female waist circumference (2.5 cm increase at three-months, p = 0.012), and body fat also increased (+0.9%, p = 0.026 at three-months). Intakes of sugar, saturated fat (both >10% of total energy), and sodium exceeded recommended levels (>2000 mg) at 12-months. Greater sedentary behaviours were observed amongst male students throughout the study (p <0.05). Conclusions: Female students are at risk of unfavourable changes in body composition during the first year of university, while males are at risk of increased sedentary behaviours. High intakes of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium warrant future interventions in such a vulnerable group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; EEG; optical illusions; alpha oscillations
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:44:14 CET)
Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with imagined defects in appearance. Optical illusions induce illusory effects that distort the presented stimulus thus leading to ambiguous percepts. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated whether BDD is related to differentiated perception during illusory percepts. Methods: 18 BDD patients and 18 controls were presented with 39 optical illusions together with a statement testing whether or not they perceived the illusion. After a delay period, they were prompted to answer whether the statement is right/wrong and their degree of confidence for their answer. We investigated differences of BDD on task performance and self-reported confidence and analysed the brain oscillations during decision-making using nonparametric cluster statistics. Results: Behaviorally, the BDD group exhibited reduced confidence when responding incorrectly, potentially attributed to higher levels of doubt. Electrophysiologically, the BDD group showed significantly reduced alpha power at mid-central scalp areas, suggesting impaired allocation of attention. Interestingly, the lower the alpha power of the identified cluster, the higher the BDD severity, as assessed by BDD psychometrics. Conclusions: Results evidenced that alpha power during illusory processing might serve as a quantitative EEG biomarker of BDD, potentially associated with reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: cesarean section; body mass index; obesity; meta-analysis
Online: 7 December 2021 (13:48:15 CET)
Overweight/obesity is one of the most important health problem worldwide. Birth by cesarean section has been shown to influence long-term health outcome including obesity. The aim of this systematic review-meta-analysis is to examine whether cesarean section increases the risk of offspring’ s overweight/obesity. The study follows the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. A systematic literature search was con-ducted on Scopus, PubMed, and WoS until December 2020. For inclusion, studies must have re-ported either (I) both Birth by cesarean section and adult (≥ 18 years) offspring BMI, (II) cohort or case–control study design and (III) a risk estimate. Heterogeneity testing was performed using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed by Egger’s test and Begg’s test. Me-ta-analysis was performed through a random effect model. Eleven studies with a combined population of 180.408 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis (n = 18) yielded a combined risk estimate for overweight/obesity of 1.19 (95% CI 1.08-1.31) and the test of heterogeneity resulted Q=53,37 (I2 = 70,37 %, P≤0•0001). The risk of offspring obesity is 1.23 (95% CI 1.09-1.39) and the test of heterogeneity resulted Q=39.50 (I2= 72,15%, P≤0•0001). Children born by cesarean section have an increased risk of developing obesity in adulthood
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: elite athletes; olympic sailors; body temperature; heat adaptation
Online: 27 April 2021 (11:41:24 CEST)
Objective On the eve of the summer Olympic Games in Tokyo research focus has shifted on the core temperature responses of elite athletes competing in the heat. In the absence of the field data of core temperature during Olympic sailing competition aim of the present study was to identify core temperature response during the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Test Event. Methods Four elite athletes from Olympic sailing (177.5±5.2 cm, 71.1±7.4 kg, body mass index 22.5±1.4 kg/m2, 24.8±3.7 yrs, VO2max 50.6±7.2 mL/min/kg)): 2 males and 2 females participated in the study. Core temperature was recorded using e-Celsius ingestible capsules, heart rate using a heart rate monitor. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were measured using portable meteo station. Results Core temperature was recorded at water environment via an ingestible capsule in 4 sailors during the training (T), and competition (C), respectively. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were hot and humid: during training temperature were 30.9°C±1.7°C and relative humidity 81.4%±2.8%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 41°C±4°C and during competition temperature was 31.2°C±2.3°C and relative humidity 87.2%±4.4%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 45.2°C±8.9°C. Core temperature increased during training reaching higher peak values (38.6°C±0.4°C) and during competition (38.9°C±0.4°C). The highest temperature recorded was 39.4°C (C). Conclusion The current study provides unique information into the core temperature parameters under heat stress in elite Olympic sailors during training and race event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0611.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: validity; reliability; assessment; body image; self-evaluation; students
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:05:42 CEST)
Body-Esteem Scale is an assessment tool for adolescents and adults that evaluate three dimensions of self-evaluations of one’s body. Body-Esteem Scale has been translated and validated in some countries since America down to Europe. Lack of translation and reliability evidence in Portugal was detected. This study aimed to translate and test the validity and reliability of the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) in students in the context of Portuguese higher educa-tion. A total of 173 students (60.7% are female) with a mean age of 19.7 (standard deviation = 2.2) years participated. Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the underlying dimensions of BESAA. Construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Appearance Schemas Inventory – Revised and a three-factor model (“Appearance”, ‘‘Weight’’ and “Attribu-tion’’) was established. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the construct validity of the instrument. Items that had factor weights (λ)<.40 were removed, as well as those that were considered redundant by the modification indices estimated by the Lagrange Multipliers (LM) method (LM>11, p<.001). We observed high correlations between theoretically similar factors, and low correlations between different factors. The Portuguese BESAA showed adequate validity and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: anthropometry; height; somatotype; body mass; soccer; sports performance
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:03:33 CET)
The aim of this article was to examine if there are position-specific differences in the morphological characteristics of sub-elite female football players and to establish normative standards for this level of female football players. The morphological features of 101 sub-elite female football players (age: 21.8±2.7 years) were assessed. Twenty anthropometric sites were used in the measurements of body composition and somatotype. The average value of body fat percentage was 20.8±5.7%. The somatotype of the overall group was 4.0–2.4–2.1. Positional significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were found between goalkeepers and outfield players in morphological characteristics. Goalkeepers were taller, heavier, possessed the highest body fat percentage and showed higher values for all skinfolds, breadth, girth and length measurements. However, there were very few practically worthwhile differences between the outfield positions. Positional groups did not differ (p ≤ 0.05) in somatotype characteristics either. The study suggests that at sub-elite level there are mainly differences between goalkeepers and outfield players, but outfield players are homogeneous when comparing morphological characteristics. These results may serve as normative values for future comparisons regarding the morphological characteristics of female football players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0267.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Knowledge; Overweight; Obesity; Body Mass Index; Health Risks
Online: 14 January 2021 (12:47:52 CET)
Background: Overweight and obesity are becoming serious public health menace in the world today. Weight gain is skyrocketing across the globe due to growing economy, fast food expansion and a shift towards more sedentary living. However, most people lack knowledge regarding risks associated with overweight and obesity. Aim: The study aimed to explore the knowledge level of bankers in the Ho Municipality on the health risks associated with overweight and obesity. Methodology: A cross-sectional study design with quantitative method was employed. The study spanned from September 7, 2018 to April 25, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire and convenience sampling technique were used to obtain data. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 Developer and the results presented in statistical tables and graphs. Results: Of 136 participants investigated, 67 (49.3%) were between 31 - 40 years. 2 participants (1.5%) were underweight, 49(36.0%) had normal weight, 43(31.6%) were overweight while 42 (30.9%) were obese. The study revealed that female bankers were prone to overweight (37.78%) while the males were prone to obesity (56.52%). Participants generally had low knowledge and awareness on health risks of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Most bankers in the Ho Municipality were overweight and obese due to insufficient knowledge and low awareness on the risks associated with overweight and obesity. Public education and awareness creation are urgently needed to stem the tide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: body composition; physical fitness; sedentary behavior; nutritional status
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:51:42 CET)
Mexico shows a high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Geographical location and cultural environment could play a role in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and nutrition. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in body composition (BC), physical fitness (PF), PA and nutritional status of adolescents from the state of Jalisco (Mexico). The study involved 469 students aged 13-17 years (55.0% girls) from 8 high schools. BC was analyzed by bioimpedance, and PF by standardized field tests. Objective measurements of PA and SB were taken in a subsample (n=240). Energy intake (EI) was calculated from two 24h recalls. Rural residents presented a higher prevalence of overweight, waist circumference, trunk fat mass, regional fat free mass and muscle handgrip strength (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.06). Cardiorespiratory fitness was similar among participants, whereas urban adolescents showed higher muscle power, speed-agility and flexibility scores (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.07). Overall lifestyle behavior in urban adolescents was more sedentary (p<0.05, ηp2= 0.11). EI was similar in both locations. In conclusion, urban Mexican adolescents presented a generally higher sedentary behavior and better fitness and fatness profile than their rural peers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: spatiotemporal parameters; gait; gender; age; Body Mass Index
Online: 9 September 2020 (07:12:18 CEST)
Studies on the gait's parameters have been identified on the patients population. Most researchers confirm that the patients walk differently than normal people and they may have a risk for falls. Consistent finding and description of gender, age, and body mass index differences in gait studies is rare in healthy subjects. A cross-sectional study with forty-five young adult (F = 20, M = 25) was conducted. Stadiometer and Physilog 4 inertial sensors were used for data collection. A gait analyser 5.2 software (GaitUp, S.A. Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to determine spatiotemporal parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in any bilateral foot gait parameters with respect to gender, age, and body mass index. Females are found with higher total double support and cadence than males. Cadence also increases with age. Obese people showed lower gait speed, cadence, and total double support. These findings may be beneficial to those who have abnormal gait pattern due to age, body mass index differences, decreased muscle strength, spasticity, and joint mobility. This important informations should be considered to rehabilitate patients with abnormal gait patterns to controlling dynamic balance and riks to falling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sport; health; body mass index; obesity; morbidity; mortality
Online: 28 July 2020 (04:21:17 CEST)
The classic Body Mass Index, (BMI), developed in the 19th century by the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet  is an important indicator of the risk of death, of obesity, of negative health consequences, body fat percentage and of the shape of the body. While he BMI is assumed to indicate obesity in sedentary people and in people who do not practice sports, it is undisputed and a consensus among researchers  that Body Mass Index (BMI) is not a good indicator for obesity in people who developed their body through heavy physical work or sport but also in other segments of population such as those who appear to have a normal weight but in fact have a high body fat percentage and obese methabolism. The BMI also does not include all the variables essential for a health predictor. The BMI is not always a good predictor of metabolic disease, people who appear of healthy weight according to BMI have in some cases an obese metabolic syndrome. The BMI was developed as a law of natural sciences and “social physics” , as it was called then, before the middle of the 19th century, and it had been used from the 70s for medical purposes, to detect obesity and the risk of mortality . The BMI has a huge importance for modern society, affected by an obesity epidemic . BMI has applications in medicine, sport medicine, sport, fitness, bodybuilding, insurance, nutrition, pharmacology. The main limitation of the BMI is that it does not account for body composition including non fat body mass such as muscles, joints, body frame and makes no difference between fat and non fat components of the body weight. The body composition and the proportion of fat and muscles make a difference in health outcomes  …. Body composition makes a difference also in the level of sport performance for athletes of every level. In nearly two centuries since the Body Mass Index was developed, no formula had been successfully developed to account for body composition and make the difference between muscle and fat in a consistent way. This can be considered a longstanding open problem of major importance for society. The objective of this analysis is to develop new formulae taking into account the health implication of body composition measured through indirect, simple indicators and making the difference between muscles and fat, healthy and non healthy metabolism. The formulae developed in this article are the only formula to successfully generalize BMI and make this difference. I develop a direct generalization of BMI, in the mathematical and physiological sense to account for fat and fat free mass and muscles, small and large body frames. It is the first such generalization because the classic BMI can be determined as a particular case of my formulae in the strict mathematical and practical physiologic sense. No other formula generalized the BMI to make the difference between fat and a large frame and muscles has ever been published in nearly two centuries since the BMI formula had been developed. The formulae I developed explain and generalize the conclusions of a large number of highly cited empirical experiments cited in the reference section.  .. Most of the experimental proof I bring in support of my formulae and bodyweight quantification theory comes from many highly cited experimental research publications in medicine, sports medicine, sport science and physiology. My formulae explain also performance in decades of competitive sports and athletics
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0415.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: coronavirus; self-defense mechanisms of the human body
Online: 29 March 2020 (03:12:09 CEST)
Social distancing, washing hands and good hygiene are essential and currently the most potent methods available to curb down the unprecedented speed by which the new coronavirus is spreading across the globe. Even under lockdown, which is necessary to significantly reduce the number of people that get infected by an ill person, are there additional measures that each of us can embrace to even further reduce the risk of infection and the severity of the COVID-19 disease? Given the lack of licensed drugs that target SARS-CoV-2 specifically, we have to look into additional non-specific defense mechanisms that animals and humans evolved to protect themselves from pathogen invasions. The goal of this article is to describe how various of our non-specific defense mechanisms work, which actually precede the inflammatory response, and to discuss whether we can exploit the unique features of the coronavirus envelope and the self-cleaning machinery of the human respiratory tract to strengthen our self-defense. The challenge is to actively interfere with supportive measures during the short time window between getting exposed and before an inflammatory response gets initiated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0067.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Mathematical Model; Streamline; Shape of the body; Theory
Online: 5 April 2019 (15:28:58 CEST)
This article attempts to propose a mathematical model and potential explanation regarding the unavoidable impact of a rigid body's peculiar shape on the seamless flow over it. The solid body completely immersed in a Newtonian fluid and respectively has a relative open circuit flow on it will typically experience various observable phenomena. These typical phenomena in laminar flow are explained using the proposed theory rather than conventional approximations or several partial theories. This article respectively represents an understanding of the laminar flow over a rigid body's external surface with due respect to its distinctive shape and size. To formulate a more realistic and simplified mathematical model for open circuit laminar flow over a body, a mathematical model is proposed based on the historical data of aerodynamics and theoretical mechanics. This mathematical model is intended to properly estimate forces on the continuous surface of the body in a laminar flow, to properly explain, understand and predict various phenomena like flow separation, flow transition, down-wash, stalling at the higher angle of attack, stalling velocity and how cambered airfoil can typically generate lift at a zero incidence angle. Most of all a mathematical model and the mechanism of streamline formation in an open-circuit laminar with respect to the shape and size of the body are illustrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0061.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: body-worn cameras; police; activation; attitudes; principled agents
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:03:46 CET)
What drives an individual police officer to activate his body-worn camera (BWC)? Some evidence suggests officer attitudes and resistance to the technology contributes to the equivocal results in studies testing for BWCs effect on use-of-force, complaints, and other outcomes of interest. Leveraging a novel survey and administrative dataset, we investigate the predictors of BWC activation among 147 police officers in a single agency. With a test of three nested models, we find job function covariates offer robust predictive power of how often an officer activates her or his BWC. Neither demographic nor attitudinal measures significantly predict BWC activations, except for a negative relationship with how officers perceive BWC impacts on professional discretion. The study furnishes empirical support for understanding officers as Principled Agents: job function, guided by administrative policy is the most explanatory and parsimonious, while models of attitudes and demographics fail to improve upon the job function model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: celiac disease; body composition; gluten free diet; children
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:19:09 CEST)
The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet. However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity and adverse changes in body composition. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a gluten free diet (GFD) on the body composition of children with CD. In a case-controlled study (n = 41; mean age 10.81 y; SD = 3.96) children with CD, in various stages of treatment, underwent medical assessment. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. More than half of the examined children (n = 26) followed a GFD. CD children had significantly higher mean values of the fat free mass (FFM% = 80.68 vs. 76.66, p = 0.015), and total body water (TBW% = 65.22 vs. 60.47, p = 0.012), and lower mean values of the fat mass (FM% = 19.32 vs. 23.34, p = 0.015). Children who were on a GFD presented slightly higher, but not statistically significant, mean values of FM and FFM, than children who did not follow dietary recommendations (FM [kg] = 7.48 vs. 5.24, p = 0.064; FM% = 20.81 vs. 16.73, p = 0.087; FFM [kg] = 28.19 vs. 22.62, p = 0.110). After minimum one year of a GFD, CD children showed significantly higher values of FFM [kg] (p = 0.001), MM [kg] (p < 0.001), TBW [L] (p < 0.001) and BCM [kg] (p < 0.001). Furthermore, CD children who were on a GFD presented significantly higher weight (p = 0.034) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.021) increase. The children adhering to a GFD demonstrate a tendency towards higher indices of selected body composition components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nuts; walnuts; body weight; adiposity; obesity; elderly; energy
Online: 14 September 2018 (08:05:18 CEST)
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts And Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University [LLU]), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns only the LLU cohort. Healthy elders (mean age 69 y, 67% women) were randomly assigned to walnut (n = 183) or control diets (n = 173). Subjects in the walnut group received packaged walnuts (28–56 g/d), equivalent to ≈15% of daily energy requirements, to incorporate into their habitual diet, while those in the control group abstained from walnuts. Adiposity was measured periodically, and data were adjusted for in-trial changes in self-reported physical activity. Results: After 2 years, body weight significantly decreased (P = 0.031), while body fat significantly increased (P = 0.0001). However, no significant differences were observed between the control and walnut groups regarding body weight (−0.6 kg and −0.4 kg, respectively, P = 0.67) or body fat (+0.9% and +1.3%, respectively, P = 0.53). Lean body mass, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio remained essentially unchanged. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of primary analysis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that walnuts can be incorporated into the daily diet of healthy elders without concern for adverse effects on body weight or body composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0042.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Pentagon; fivefold morphology; body plan; spatial organization; morphospace.
Online: 2 August 2018 (09:00:56 CEST)
A basic pattern in the body plan architecture of many animals, plants and some molecular and cellular systems is five-part units. This pattern has been understood as a result of genetic blueprints in development and as a widely conserved evolutionary character. Despite some efforts, a definitive explanation of the abundance of pentagonal symmetry at so many levels of complexity is still missing. Based on both, a computational platform and a statistical spatial organization argument, we show that five-fold morphology is substantially different from other abundant symmetries like three-fold, four-fold and six-fold symmetries in terms of spatial interacting elements. We develop a measuring system to determine levels of spatial organization in 2D polygons (homogeneous or heterogeneous partition of defined areas) based in principles of regularity in a morphospace. We found that spatial organization of five-fold symmetry is statistically higher than all other symmetries studied here (three to ten-fold symmetries) in terms of spatial homogeneity. The significance of our findings is based on the statistical constancy of geometrical constraints derived from spatial organization of shapes, beyond the material or complexity level of the many different systems where pentagonal symmetry occurs.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: involuntary memories; causal logic and semiotical logic; unconscious; mathematical model of the mind-matter relation; idiotope; category; discrete cofibration
Online: 14 February 2020 (11:44:16 CET)
Using classical clinical observations, we first outline an elementary conceptual model for the Mind Representation System, then move to a more elaborate mathematical model that refers to discrete cofibration with enriched fibers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0547.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Fold belt; Metasediments; Ore-body; Orogenesis; Pull-apart basin
Online: 7 June 2023 (11:57:26 CEST)
The acquisition of regional, 1 metre resolution LIDAR in the PNG Highlands combined with 3D modelling in MoveTM has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of the Porgera gold mine and areas of new potential. The new 3D model demonstrates active pull-apart basins along a regional transfer during ongoing fold and thrust deformation. When overlain on regional aeromagnetic data, new potential is revealed. The Porgera gold mine is one of the richest in the world and lies in a wide valley at an elevation of 2800m surrounded by mountains up to 4000m high in the middle of the PNG Highlands. It lies along a major lineament, the Porgera Transfer Zone (PTZ), cutting across the orogen that is associated with a 50 km offset of the ophiolite belt. To the NW of the mine there is an extensive belt of low- to high-grade metasediments that formed in deep water during Jurassic rifting, but were metamorphosed during Eocene subduction to the north. Subduction ceased due to accretion of the Sepik Terrane which caused inversion and mild erosion of the Porgera area. The Late Oligocene onset of wrenching in the Mobile Belt to the north placed that area into extension, emplacing metamorphic core complexes, and led to regional subsidence in the Early Miocene. Collision of the margin with the Melanesian Arc in the Middle Miocene caused Late Miocene to Pliocene orogenesis creating the broad mountain belt that we see today, that is still active, as shown by the 2018 MW 7.5 earthquake. Regional mapping of the area using high resolution LIDAR in association with limited field mapping, analysis of gravity and magnetics data and drilling of 300-500m deep core-holes has allowed development of a detailed 3D structural model. The Porgera valley is constrained laterally by the Eastern Boundary and Western Boundary dextral strike-slip faults that lie along the PTZ cutting across the orogeny. However, whilst the position and nature of the faults is clear, due to bending, fracturing and offset of major synclines and anticlines, the faults do not crop-out as significant through-going features. Rather, the dextral offset of basement is soft-linked to the Tertiary limestones at surface due to intervening thick, ductile Cretaceous shales. Fold and thrust structures are ubiquitous in the Tertiary limestones, but the youngest structural features are large extensional faults, particularly around the Porgera valley. The intrusive underlying the Porgera ore-body was emplaced at 6.0+-0.3 Ma, the time of maximum compression during orogenesis. At this time the Eastern Boundary fault and Western Boundary fault were both active allowing a pull-apart basin to form locally along the PTZ at the south-eastern boundary of the Jurassic metasediments. This enabled emplacement of the intrusive. The gold-bearing fluids from the intrusive and metasediments were brought up through the Mesozoic muds to the contact with the Paleogene carbonates where the Porgera ore body was emplaced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2027.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bos indicus; Body condition; Primiparous cows; Reproductive efficiency; Supplementation
Online: 30 May 2023 (03:24:19 CEST)
The objective was to evaluate the metabolic and performance differences in primiparous Nellore cows, which became pregnant at 14 or 24 months. Thirty-eight primiparous Nellore cows, which were bred for first pregnancy at 14 or 24-mo of age, with 202 ± 5 days of gestation were divided into two treatments according to breeding age: 14 or 24 months in the breeding season. Cows were evaluated for weight, body condition score (BCS), carcass characteristics, milk yield and blood parameters: glucose, total proteins, albumin, urea, beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), progesterone, and for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). There was an in-teraction (p < 0.01) between age at first pregnancy and time for body weight, where 24-mo cows were heavier, but both categories loss weight at parturition which concomitant decrease in the BCS (p < 0,01). However, BW of 24-mo remained stable (p > 0.05) after parturition. Milk yield was higher in 24-mo cows (p < 0.01). Interaction between sampling time and breading age was observed for Longissimus muscle area (p < 0.01) and tended for Longissimus muscle depth, where 24-mo cows had greater values in prepartum. Calves born from the cows bred at 24-mo, where was higher (p < 0.01) from 160 days of age until weaning at 240 days. Glucose, urea, total proteins, albumin and NEFA were affected (p < 0.01) by the parturition data-point. There was an interaction (p < 0.01) between breading age and sampling period for β-OHB. Progesterone concentration was greater in 24-mo cows (p < 0.01). It was concluded that primiparous cows that became pregnant at 14 or 24 months of age have different nutritional and metabolic responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: virtual reality; exercise; overweight; body mass index; depression; immersion
Online: 29 December 2022 (03:52:25 CET)
Background: This study explored the effects of a virtual reality exercise program on overweight middle-aged women. Methods: This randomized controlled trial included women 4065 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 kg/m2 or more living in D city. The virtual reality environment was set up by attaching an IoT sensor to an indoor bicycle and linking it with a smartphone, enabling exercise in an immersive virtual reality through a head-mounted display. Results: In the virtual reality exercise group, the BMI was significantly decreased after the 8-week intervention compared with the baseline value (F=100.806, p<.001). The depression scores were significantly different among the three groups, with the intervention effect being more significant in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and con-trol groups (F=3.462, p<.001). Furthermore, the levels of exercise fun (F=12.373, p<.001) and exer-cise immersion (F=14.629, p<.001) were significantly higher in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and control groups. Conclusions: The virtual reality exercise program positively affected the BMI and the levels of depression, exercise fun, and exercise im-mersion in overweight middle-aged women. It is an effective home exercise program for obesity management in this population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: diabetes; antioxidant; antihyperglycemic; lipid profile; body weight; algal treatments
Online: 14 December 2022 (03:17:46 CET)
Currently, algae arouse a growing interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic area due to the fact that they have a great diversity of bioactive compounds with the potential for pharmacological, cosmetic, and nutraceutical applications. Many of these bioactive compounds are secondary metabolites whose amounts in the algae vary with varying environmental conditions. Free radicals and other active oxygen derivatives are recognized as a natural by-product of aerobic metabolism. However, reactive oxygen species directly participate in mechanisms related to various pathological states such as cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's, among others. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease resulting from changes in glucose metabolism and/or deficient production/action of insulin. This review has as its main objective to reveal the potential antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of algae extracts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; nutrition assessment; body composition; electric impedance; prognosis
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:33:30 CEST)
Background: Some studies have shown that an increase in visceral fat is associated with postoperative clinical and oncologic outcomes. However, no studies have used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to determine the effects of visceral fat on the oncologic outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and clinical, and oncologic outcomes in CRC. Methods: This study included 203 patients who underwent anthropometric measurements by BIA before surgical treatment for CRC between January 2016 and June 2020. Results: According to the cutoff level of VFA by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 85 (40.5%) patients had a low VFA, and 119 (59.5%) had a high VFA. Multivariate analysis found that preoperative CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 3.882; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–15.051; p=0.050) and nodal stage (HR, 7.996; 95% CI, 1.414–45.209; p=0.019) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, while sex (HR, 0.110; 95% CI, 0.013–0.905; p=0.040), lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.560; 95% CI, 1.098–11.544; p=0.034), and VFA (HR, 4.263; 95% CI, 1.280–14.196; p=0.040) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion: High VFA preoperatively measured by BIA was associated with inflammations and was an independent prognostic factor for DFS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0309.v9
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: obesity; body weight regulation; macronutrients; energy balance theory; mass balance model; paradigm shift; living review
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:18:08 CEST)
According to known laws of physics, chronic positive mass balance is the actual etiology of obesity, not positive energy balance. The relevant physical law in terms of body mass regulation is the Law of Conservation of Mass, not the Law of Conservation of Energy. A recently proposed mass balance model (MBM) describes the temporal evolution of body weight and body composition under a wide variety of feeding experiments, and it seems to provide a highly accurate description of the very best experimental human feeding data. By shifting to a mass balance paradigm of obesity, a deeper understanding of this disease may follow in the near future. The purpose of this living review is to present the core issues of the upcoming paradigm shift as well as some practical applications related to the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0349.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: yak; semantic segmentation; binocular vision; body size; weight stimation
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:02:00 CET)
In order to solve the labor-intensive and time-consuming problem in the process of measuring yak body ruler and weight in yak breeding industry in Qinghai Province, a non-contact method for measuring yak body ruler and weight was proposed in this experiment, and key technologies based on semantic segmentation, binocular ranging and neural network algorithm were studied to boost the development of yak breeding industry in Qinghai Province. Main conclusions: (1) Study yak foreground image extraction, and implement yak foreground image extraction model based on U-net algorithm; select 2263 yak images for experiment, and verify that the accuracy of the model in yak image extraction is over 97%. (2) Develop an algorithm for estimating yak body ruler based on binocular vision, and use the extraction algorithm of yak body ruler related measurement points combined with depth image to estimate yak body ruler. The final test shows that the average estimation error of body height and body oblique length is 2.6%, and the average estimation error of chest depth is 5.94%. (3) Study the yak weight prediction model; select the body height, body oblique length and chest depth obtained by binocular vision to estimate the yak weight; use two algorithms to establish the yak weight prediction model, and verify that the average estimation error of the model for yak weight is 10.7% and 13.01% respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0521.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional processing; disgust; cocaine dependence; alcohol dependence; face; body
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:58:19 CET)
Background: Different drugs damage the frontal cortices, particularly the prefrontal areas involved in both emotional and cognitive functions, with a consequence of decoding emotion deficits for people with substance abuse. The present study aims to explore the cognitive impairments in drug abusers through facial, body and disgust emotion recognition, expanding the investigation of emotions, processing, measuring accuracy and response velocity. Method: We enrolled 13 addicted to cocaine and 12 alcohol patients attending treatment services in Italy, comparing them with 33 matched controls. Facial emotion and body posture recognition tasks, a disgust rating task, and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale were included in the experimental assessment. Results: We found that emotional processes are differently influenced by cocaine and alcohol, suggesting that these substances impact diverse cerebral systems. Conclusion: The contribution made by the duration of consumption on emotional processing seems far less important than for cognitive processes. Drug abusers seem to be slower on elaboration of emotions and, in particular, of disgust emotion. Considering that the participants were not impaired in cognition, our data support the hypothesis that emotional impairments emerge independently from damage to cognitive functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hardened steel; cubic boron nitride; rolling body; structural equations
Online: 6 December 2021 (11:55:19 CET)
This article deals primarily with the problem of determining the cutting force when machining hardened steels. Secondary issues are focused on the evaluation of surface quality on machined samples and the recommendation of cutting conditions. A wide variety of components are used in engineering, the final heat treatment of which is hardening. These components are usually critical in a particular product. The quality of these components determines the correct functioning of the entire technical equipment and ultimately its service life. In our case, these are the core parts of thrust bearings, specifically the rolling elements. The subject of the experiment is machining these components in the hardened state with cubic boron nitride tools and continuous measurement of the cutting force using a dynamometer. The following evaluation assesses the surface quality by both touch and non-touch methods. A structural equation with appropriate constant and exponents was then constructed from the data obtained using the dynamometer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Body-size; Cerrado; Evolutionary history; Nymphalidae; Phylogeny; Species traits
Online: 5 November 2021 (10:35:29 CET)
Introduction: Body size is correlated with many aspects of an animal species' natural history, such as life span, abundance, dispersal capacity and diet breadth. However, contrasting trends have been reported for the relationship between body size and these ecological traits. Methods: Butterfly species from fruit-feeding guilds were used to investigate whether body size correlates with species abundances, dispersal, permanence, and diet breadth in a Neotropical savanna in Brazil (Cerrado). We used Blomberg’s K and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares models (PGLS) to measure phylogenetic signal strength in species traits, and to estimate size-dispersal-diet breadth associations while taking shared ancestry into account. Results: 539 individuals from 27 species were captured, and 190 individuals were recaptured, representing a 35% recapture rate. We found that body size negatively influenced butterfly abundance. In contrast, body size was positively associated with dispersal levels, distance traveled, number of traps visited, individual permanence, and diet breadth. These results indicate that larger butterflies have a greater proportion of dispersing individuals over longer distances, as they permanence were detected over longer periods than their smaller relatives. Moreover, larger butterflies are more generalized, based on the number of host plant families and genera they consume. Smaller butterflies demand fewer resources, which is reflected in their higher survival in small patches, and may explain their lower dispersal ability, and higher diet specialization. Nevertheless, lower dispersal ability, if not compensated by large population sizes, may threaten small-bodied species inhabiting environments with intense deforestation rates, such as the Cerrado. Conclusions: Body size positively influences dispersal and diet breadth in the fruit-feeding butterflies collected in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: human body; anthropometric dimensions; personalization; subject-specific model; biofidelity
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:15:24 CEST)
Virtual human body models contribute to designing safe and user-friendly products through virtual prototyping. Anthropometric biomechanical models address different physiques using average dimensions. In designing personal protective equipment, biomechanical models with the correct geometry and shape shall play a role. The presented study shows the variations of subject-specific anthropometric dimensions from the average for the different population groups in the Czech Republic and China as a background for the need for personalized human body models. The study measures a set of clothing industry dimensions of Czech children, Czech teens, Czech adults and Chinese adults and compares them to the corresponding age average, which is represented by a scaled anthropometric human body model. The cumulative variation of clothing industry dimensions increases the farer is the population group from the average. It is smallest for the Czech adults 7.54% ± 6.63%, Czech teens report 7.93% ± 6.25% and Czech children differ 9.52% ± 6.08%. Chinese adults report 10.86% ± 11.11%. As the variations of the particular clothing industry dimensions from the average prove the necessity of having personalized subject-specific models, the personalization of particular body segments using the measured clothing industry dimensions leading to a subject-specific virtual model is addressed. The developed personalization algorithm results in the continuous body surface desired for contact applications for assessing body behavior and injury risk under impact loading.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0578.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: homology; developmental mechanism; evidential integration; eumetazoan body plan; phylogenetics
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:45:06 CEST)
Reconstructing ancestral species is a challenging endeavour: fossils are often scarce or enigmatic, and inferring ancestral characters based on novel molecular approaches (e.g. comparative genomics or developmental genetics) has long been controversial. A key philosophical challenge pertinent at present is the lack of a theoretical framework capable of evaluating inferences of homology made through integration of multiple kinds of evidence (e.g. molecular, developmental, or morphological). Here, I present just such a framework. I start with a brief history and critical assessment of attempts at inferring morphological homology through developmental genetics. I then bring attention to a recent model of homology, namely Character Identity Mechanisms (DiFrisco, Love, & Wagner, 2020), intended partly to elucidate the relationships between morphological characters, developmental genetics, and homology. I utilise and build on this model to construct the evaluative framework mentioned above, which judges the epistemic value of evidence of each kind in each particular case based on three proposed criteria: effectiveness, admissibility, and informativity, as well as providing a generalised guideline on how it can be scientifically operationalised. I then point out the evolution of the eumetazoan body plan as a case in point where the application of this framework can yield satisfactory results, both empirically and conceptually. I will conclude with a discussion on some potential implications for more general philosophy of biology and philosophy of science, especially surrounding evidential integration, models and explanation, and reductionism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aggregative multicellularity; fruiting body; stalk formation; social amoebae; dictyostelium
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:10:59 CEST)
Throughout the eukaryotic tree of life, amoeboid organisms have evolved that aggregate upon starvation and form multicellular fruiting bodies, consisting of a ball of spores atop a stalk. This chapter discusses the remarkable convergent evolution of a stalked fruiting body in these different taxa. It then discusses a well-studied group of aggregative fruiters, the cellular slime molds, in more detail. These organisms exhibit substantial variation in their stalk formation and composition, which allows a better understanding of the evolution, maintenance and possible functions of stalked fruiting bodies, but also points to potential costs and benefits of different types of stalks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: BMI; Body Mass Index; Grip Strength; Health; Sport; strength
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:53:09 CEST)
The Body Mass Index (BMI) formula has been developed by Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet and published in 1840  as a law of nature and society, based on statistics about the weight and height of the population of that time, the first part of the 19th century. He called it “social physics”. From then, for nearly two centuries, the BMI had been the most important formula describing the normal relations and ratio of weight to the square of the height for humans. The problem arises if the BMI formula, developed in the first part of the 19th century is still good today when the type of work people perform is very different? In modern times, most people are less muscular than at the time when the BMI was developed because they do not work physically as heavy as at that time. In many cases, the Body Mass index can predict mortality, morbidity and illness but not always, for example cases such as (a) the obesity paradox for some cardiovascular problems and (b) the U shape mortality paradox as well as (c) false positive obesity diagnostic in regard to people who are strong and muscular, have low body fat percentage but are classified as obese by the BMI and (d) cases where BMI is normal but people have an “obese metabolism” (e) BMI normal but high fat percentage. The objective is to develop a formula good for all body types, a formula that makes the difference between fat and non-fat body weight such as muscle and body frame and quantifies the effect of strength and fitness, which BMI does not. Another objective is to develop a formula to predict the health risks and fitness status of people, better than BMI. The first generalizations of BMI using anthropometric metrics could be found in , where I discuss and analyze many formulae, developed, tested, and simulated by me, using similar new methods, accounting for body shape, physical shape and body function, making the difference between muscle mass and fat, fat and non fat body weight. Nearly all formulae and methods developed and proposed in this new model are new, never published before. Many experiments published before, in highly cited papers show that grip strength and muscle strength is a predictor of health, mortality, morbidity, endocrine and metabolic disease outside the BMI and anthropometric measures. The purpose of my formula is to explain the outcome of those experiments and create a formula which predicts these experiments [21-41].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0274.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; bone turnover markers; leptin; body composition
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:33:41 CEST)
The link between scoliotic deformity and bone metabolism in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has not been well researched. Moreover, the data concerning the cross-talk between fat tissue content/hormonal activity and bone markers in this group of patients are lacking. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the bone turnover vs. leptin level and nutritional status in girls with AIS. The study encompassed 77 AIS girls, aged 14.7 ± 2.17 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb’s angle was categorized as mild (10-19o) moderate (20-39º) or severe (≥40º). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height Z-score, BMI Z-score and waist/height ratio (WHtR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Bone turnover markers (osteocalcin (OC) and amino terminal of collagen cross-links NTx) and leptin levels were assessed in serum. Multiple regression analysis showed that, OC, NTx (negatively with p<0.05) and leptin (positively with p<0.01) were significantly associated with curve severity in AIS girls. Moreover, Cobb’s angle was positively correlated with W/HtR (p<0.01)and FAT (p<0.05). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences in leptin (p<0.05 vs. mild only), OC (p<0.05 vs. mild and moderate)) and W/HtR (p<0.01 and p<0.05 vs. mild and moderate respectively) between the three AIS severity subgroups. OC was significantly lower in the severe AIS subgroup, while leptin and W/HtR were significantly higher. Significant correlations between leptin and anthropometrical parameters as BMI z-score and W/HtR were shown. Leptin level correlated also significantly with BMI z score (p<0.001), W/HtR (p<0.0001) and body composition parameters (p<0.000001). Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between NTx and leptin level (p<0.05). Bone metabolism in AIS girls seems to be altered and significantly related to the scoliotic curve severity. Leptin may be a crucial link in the cross-talk between bone turnover and body composition in this group of patients. Further studies concerning this topic are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; physical fitness; body composition; functional mobility; physiotherapy
Online: 27 September 2019 (03:03:10 CEST)
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have the potential impact on the functional mobility and basic motor skills improvement after physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the functional mobility and basic motor skills in patients with MS and to correlate them with disability and anthropometrical status and body composition parameters. Materials and Methods: Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed in 36 patients with MS before and after 4 weeks of physiotherapy. Body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (W/HtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed in this group. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and fat mass (FAT), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were expressed as percentage of body mass. Clinical status was assessed by EDSS and AI scales. Results: After physiotherapy, there was a significant improvement in functional mobility and basic motor skills assessed by total distance in 6MWT (p<0.001) and in TUG trials (p<0.001). Positive significant correlations were found between the results obtained in both tests (either before and after physiotherapy) vs. FFM, TBW and PMM, whilst worse results in functional mobility and basic motor skills correlated significantly with higher WHtR, WHR and FAT (p<0.05). Clinical status (EDSS) were significantly related to the WHtR and body composition parameters with the same manner as the results in the either 6MWT and TUG. However, there were no significant relationships between BMI vs. either clinical status (EDSS, AI) and functional mobility tests results in patients with MS. Conclusions: Functional mobility and basic motor skills may be significantly improved during the physiotherapy, but they are related to the anthropometrical status and body composition of MS patients. Moreover, disability status is also significantly related to this parameters. Body composition deterioration seems to be the important target for the therapeutic intervention in MS patients. For proper nutritional status assessment in patients with MS, body composition analysis or WHtR instead BMI should to be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: image analysis; Turin Shroud; body-image formation; energy propagation
Online: 18 October 2018 (03:55:21 CEST)
Recent studies on the image of the Turin Shroud (TS) lead to think it could have been formed through a not well-identified mechanism of energy radiation. In order to remove some lacunas about this imaging process, a reverse engineering method has been applied to it, arriving to exclude some possible mechanisms. The image formation of a human face wrapped on a cloth by using an ad-hoc developed software has been simulated. The results of different kinds of the radiation depending from different parameters have been simulated, each one connected with accredited hypotheses. On the basis of the comparison among the different images produced by the software and the TS Face, some useful information both about the kind of radiation and the cloth wrapping conditions have been obtained. The effect of image distortion of a cloth wrapped around a face has been discussed too by defining the best laws of radiation and of their attenuation with distance. A Lambertian law is not compatible with the TS image. A vertical radiation shows a problem in reproducing the requested resolution. A radiation perpendicular to the emitting surface, like that produced by an electric field appears promising to explain the TS Face.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: physical activity; accelerometer; neck circumference; obesity; body composition; anthropometric
Online: 2 July 2018 (08:58:54 CEST)
The present study investigated the association of accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with neck circumference (NC) in adolescents and adults from eight Latin American countries. The sample consisted of 2370 participants from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health, a multicenter cross-sectional nutrition and health surveillance study of a nationally representative sample from eight Latin American countries. An Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to monitor MVPA. Adolescents were categorized as NC > 34.25 cm in boys and NC > 31.25 cm in girls, and adults were categorized as NC > 39 cm in men and NC > 35 cm in women. The average time of MVPA was 34.88 min/day, ranging from 31.16 in Venezuela to 40.27 in Chile. Concerning NC, 37.0% of the sample was classified as having elevated NC. Chile was the country with the highest percentage of people with elevated NC (56.9%), and Colombia had the lowest percentage (24.8%). Overall, the MVPA (min/day) was associated with elevated NC (OR = 0.994, CI95% = 0.990–0.998). In Costa Rica and Peru, there were significant associations between MVPA and NC when analyzed by country. Further research is required to understand the differences between countries in the observed associations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Aging, Nutrition, Diet, Muscle atrophy, Body wasting, Food choice
Online: 5 February 2018 (23:43:16 CET)
Inadequate protein intake can impair protein balance and lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, impaired body growth, and functional decline. Foods provide both non-essential (NEAAs) and essential amino acids (EAAs) that may convey different metabolic stimuli to specific organs and tissues. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of six diets with various EAA/NEAA blends on body composition and the risk of developing tissue wasting in late middle-aged male mice. Mice consuming NEAA-based diets, although showing increased food and calorie intake, suffered the most severe weight loss. Interestingly, even moderate NEAAs prevalence was able to induce inflammatory catabolic stimuli, generalized body wasting and systemic metabolic alterations. Complete depletion of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue and a severe loss (>75%) of brown adipose tissue were observed together with muscle wasting. Conversely, EAA-based diets induced significant decreases in weight by reducing primarily fat reserves, but improved clinical parameters. Tissue wasting was caused by altered AA quality, independent of reduced nitrogen or caloric intake. Our results indicate that an optimized balance of AA composition is necessary for preserving overall bodily energy status. These findings are particularly relevant in the context of aging and may be exploited for contrasting its negative correlates including body wasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0057.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: galaxies; clusters; general; methods N-body simulations; cosmology; theory
Online: 9 December 2016 (16:38:17 CET)
We explore the possibility of using the external regions of galaxy clusters to measure their mass accretion rate (MAR). The main goal is to provide a method to observationally investigate the growth of structures on the nonlinear scales of galaxy clusters. We derive the MAR by using the mass profile beyond the splashback radius, evaluating the mass of a spherical shell and the time it takes to fall in. The infall velocity of the shell is extracted from N-body simulations. The average MAR returned by our prescription in the redshift range z=[0, 2] is within 20-40% of the average MAR derived from the merger trees of dark matter haloes in the reference N-body simulations. Our result suggests that the external regions of galaxy clusters can be used to measure the mean MAR of a sample of clusters.
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: complexity; uncertainty; cognition; allostasis; homeostasis; free energy principle; active inference; environmental complexity thesis; adaptation; representation; interoception; biorhythms; life-mind continuity
Online: 29 February 2020 (12:33:12 CET)
What is the function of cognition? On one influential account, cognition evolved to co-ordinate behaviour with environmental change or complexity (Godfrey-Smith 1996). Liberal interpretations of this view ascribe cognition to an extraordinarily broad set of biological systems – even bacteria, which modulate their activity in response to salient external cues, would seem to qualify as cognitive agents. However, equating cognition with adaptive flexibility per se glosses over important distinctions in the way biological organisms deal with environmental complexity. Drawing on contemporary advances in theoretical biology and computational neuroscience, we cash these distinctions out in terms of different kinds of generative models, and the representational and uncertainty-resolving capacities they afford. This analysis leads us to propose a formal criterion for delineating cognition from other, more pervasive forms of adaptive plasticity. On this view, biological cognition is rooted in a particular kind of functional organisation; namely, that which enables the agent to detach from the present and engage in counterfactual (active) inference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0709.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: soccer referees; body composition; somatotype; tolerance ellipses; DXA; BIA vector
Online: 9 June 2023 (11:19:08 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the physical characteristics of elite international soccer referees, compare them with other referee populations in the literature, and establish reference tolerance ellipses for the bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) point graph. Forty-one elite international soccer referees (age 38.8 ± 3.6 years) participated in the study. the participants underwent body composition assessments, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BIVA, and somatotype. The Somatotype Attitudinal Distance (SAD), the two-sample Hotelling’s T2 test, and the Mahalanobis test were used to determine somatotype and bioelectrical vector differences with the literature. The average somatotype of the referees was a balanced mesomorph (2.8, 6.5, 2.8). Elite international referees significantly differed from other samples in the literature (SAD = 2.1, 2.6, 2.9 with respect to Zimbabwean, Brazilian, and South African referees, respectively). The bioelectrical vector was significantly different from the general population (T2 76.6; F = 38.8; D = 1.44; P < 0.001) and athletes (T2 25.3; F = 12.6; D = 0.8; P < 0.001). Somatotype values and tolerance ellipses from this study may be useful as a reference for developing training programs and improving the selection process of referees in soccer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1584.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Body temperature; Elderly patient; Orthopedic surgery; Zero-Heat-Flux thermometer
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:32:17 CEST)
Thermoregulation is important for maintaining homeostasis of our body. It can be easily broken under anesthesia. An appropriate method to measure the core body temperature is needed, especially for elderly patients because the efficiency of thermoregulation gradually decreases with age. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy and feasibility of using of SpotOn® sensor in lower extremity orthopedic surgery in elderly patients aged over 80 years by comparing a SpotOn® sensor with two other reliable minimal-invasive methods: a tympanic membrane thermometer and a bladder thermometer. This study enrolled 45 patients aged over 80 years who were scheduled to undergo a lower extremity surgery. Body temperature was measured using a SpotOn® sensor, tympanic membrane thermometer and bladder thermometer. Agreements between the SpotOn® sensor and the other two methods were assessed using Bland and Altman plots for repeated measures adjusted for unequal numbers of measurements per patient. Compared with TempBladder, bias and limits of agreement for TempZHF were 0.07℃ ± 0.58℃. Compared with TempTympanic, bias and limits of agreement for TempZHF were -0.28℃ ± 0.61℃. 3M SpotOn® sensor using ZHF method for patients aged over 80 years undergoing lower extremity surgery shows feasible measurement value and sensitivity.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0560.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Polymyalgia Rheumatica; Whole-Body Cryostimulation; Chronic Pain; Disease Activity; Rehabilitation
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:17:24 CEST)
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease among people over the age of 50 and occurs with symptoms such as musculoskeletal pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulders and hips. To date, corticosteroids represent the cornerstone of PMR treatment, although it is well known that their prolonged use is associated with several adverse effects, making it crucial to find therapeutic alternatives to their use. The purpose of this case report was to describe the effectiveness of 10 whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) sessions on a 74-year-old woman suffering from PMR. An improvement in disease impact, fatigue, pain, quality of sleep and total physical activity was observed after WBC. Moreover, the patient reduced her daily drug intake by 67% following WBC treatments. Given the increasing prevalence of PMR and considering the side effects that drug treatments can lead to, WBC could represent a valuable adjuvant and well-tolerated alternative for the treatment of PMR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0165.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Computed tomography, Thymus Gland, Dog, Age, Gender, Breed, Body Fat
Online: 4 May 2023 (02:59:54 CEST)
: Background: The thymus gland is the first lymphoid organ formed to regulate a newborn's immunity. It reaches its maximum size during puberty, after which it undergoes an atrophic procedure called involution, but its ability to grow again in response to some stresses, such as infections, neoplasia, surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is maintained. There is not any comprehensive study on computed tomographic features of thymus gland in dogs. So, the goal of the present study is to achieve some information about thymus gland using computed tomography as a non-invasive method. Methods: One hundred and fifty dogs classified in 5 age groups and 2 breed groups were entered to this study and the thymus gland was evaluated using 2-slice computed tomography machine. The inclusion criteria for the present study were having normal complete blood count, plain and post-contrast CT scan examination of thoracic region and no history of neoplasia, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The visibility, density, enhancement, grade, size, volume, shape, borders and lateralization of the thymus were evaluated and statistical analysis were performed. The effect of obesity on thymic grade and volume were also investigated. Results: The visibility, density, dorsal length, volume and grade decreased with increasing age. The thymic shape and lateralization were mostly wedge-shaped and left sided respectively. The borders became concave with aging and increasing body fat content caused to increase fatty degeneration of thymus. Conclusions: Declining of thymic density, grade, size and volume with aging was related to thymic involution and fatty degeneration was accelerated by increasing body fat content. Females and Males were different only in thymic shape and small and large breeds were different only in thymic volume. The thymus was visible in some geriatric dogs with no underlying disease. We hope that the present work can be used by radiologists in reading thoracic computed tomography but investigation of thymic characteristics in dogs with neoplasia and history of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and thoracic surgeries can complete this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0863.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: body image; appearance-concerns; context; PE kit choice; exercise motives
Online: 25 April 2023 (02:19:06 CEST)
It is widely acknowledged that adolescent females are particularly at risk of low body-esteem. Low body-esteem is associated with poor mental health and other negative outcomes. Interventions to help raise body-image could have considerable impact, especially if the intervention is low-cost, easy to implement and scalable. We investigated the efficacy of an intervention where participnants could chose their own clothes to wear during a Physical Education (PE lesson) on changes in body-esteem. We hypothesized that body-esteem would improve with choice. To show that body-esteem is not a transient construct, we tested its stability when assessed in a test-retest design when completed in a classroom setting, hypothesizing body-esteem would be stable. Participants (N =110; Mage =14.9; SDage = 0.68) females completed a 14-item body-esteem scale 4 times; a) wearing school uniform in an assembly, b) during a PE lesson separated by a 2-week gap. The intervention was implemented where students got a choice of PE kit and could wear their own clothes. Findings indicate that body-esteem was stable in the classroom setting where clothes and context were stable, but improved significantly when participants were given a free choice of kit to wear during PE. We argue that this low-cost and scalable intervention represents a useful start point for helping support low body-esteem among a potentially vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Election management body; election administration; insecurity; democratisation process; electoral security
Online: 16 March 2023 (06:21:49 CET)
This study is centred on Insecurity and Electoral Administration in Nigeria. Elections are the leading mechanism for selecting governments and a cardinal feature of democratisation. The quest for fair representation, development, good governance, inclusiveness and a true sense of belonging has been the driving force for election. The conduct of credible elections remains one of the thorny and fundamental issues in a democracy. The trajectory of electoral administration in Nigeria is long and tortuous; it precedes independence and is punctuated by the elite's scheming and cunning, electoral fraud, gimmicks and violence. Nigeria has had its fair share of insecurity from diverse sources such as banditry, insurgency, recurring violent religious crises, ethnic, resource and poverty-induced militancy, and crises occasioned by the clamour for self-determination. This has left the electoral management body in a quandary and has undoubtedly imperilled the administration of elections in Nigeria and equally accentuated the temerity for a holistic approach in reversing the trend and engendering the right atmosphere for the administration of elections. This study depends mainly on secondary sources and uses qualitative means in data analysis. It is revealed in this study that violence and various degrees of interruptions have taken the front burner in the democratisation process and are one of the dangerous dimensions in electoral administration; electoral politics remains one of the remarkable principal bases of clashes, political failure and social dislocation, Elections and their administration are some of the most complicated, time-sensitive activities undertaken by any country which will be exacerbated by insecurity. Democratic elections are successful when the electorate can make informed decisions; when faith in the process is sustained; when fraud is disincentivised, detected and punished. When insecurity is whittled down, mitigated or eradicated. The need for electoral security can never be overemphasised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: affect; pregnancy; food intake; body mass index; ecological momentary assessment
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:33:53 CEST)
Background: Affective states play a role in dietary behaviors. Yet, little research has studied within-subjects associations between affect and diet during pregnancy. We examined the acute bidirectional relationships between affect and food intake and moderation by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in low-income, Hispanic pregnant women using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Methods: Women (N=57) completed four days of EMA during their first trimester. Women responded to five random prompts per day about their current affect and past two-hour food intake. Results: Higher positive affect (PA) or lower negative affect (NA) predicted greater likelihood of fruit/vegetable consumption in the next two hours in women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI and lower likelihood in women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Higher PA predicted less likelihood of fast food consumption in the next two hours in women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI and slightly higher likelihood in women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI had higher PA when they reported consuming chips/fries in the past two hours, and women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI had lower PA when they reported consumption of chips/fries in the past two hours. Conclusions: Results showed differential relationships between affect and food intake as a function of pre-pregnancy BMI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: hypertension; obesity; body composition; intra-abdominal fat; sleep apnea; obstructive
Online: 10 May 2022 (04:45:21 CEST)
Background: Elevated fasting plasma glucose and visceral fat area (VFA) is highly prevalent in obese adults. This study investigated the associations between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and laboratory, anthropometric, heart rate variability (HRV), and obstructive sleep apnea markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 95 obese patients treated at Obesity Treatment and Surgery Center, located in Salvador, BA, Brazil. SAH data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients. To evaluate the association of SAH with the predictor variables, the sample was stratified in Normotense Group (NG) and Hypertensive Group (HG), and laboratory markers, body composition, polysomnography data, and HRV were measured. Results: The average age of the NG was 36.3 ± 10.1 and HG 40.4 ± 10.6 years, 73.7% were women in the NG and 57.9% in HG; 82.4% in HG had insulin resistance. In the multivarious logistics regression model with adjustments age, sex, height, and oxyhemoglobin saturation, SAH was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose mg/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% interval confidence [CI] = 0.92 - 0.99) and VFA cm2 (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97 - 0.99). The area under curve the VFA was 0.728; CI 95% (0.620 - 0.836) and fasting plasma glucose 0.693; CI 95% (0.582 - 0.804). Conclusions: Lower VFA and fasting plasma glucose concentrations were inversely associated with SAH. These results indicate opportunities to improve the outcome in obese patients through counseling and clinical interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: religious fasting; daytime dry fasting; energy expenditure; body composition; microdialysis
Online: 14 December 2021 (13:06:26 CET)
Each year in March, adherents of the Bahá’í faith abstain from eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset for 19 days. Thus, Bahá’í fasting (BF) can be considered as a form of daytime dry fasting. We tested if BF decreases energy expenditure after a meal and improves anthropometric measures, and systemic and tissue-level metabolic parameters. This was a self-controlled cohort study with 11 healthy men. We measured anthropometric parameters, metabolic markers in venous blood, and pre- and postprandial energy metabolism at systemic (indirect calorimetry) and tissue (adipose tissue and skeletal muscle microdialysis) level, both before and during BF. During BF, we found reduced body weight, body mass index, body fat and blood glucose. Postprandial increase in energy expenditure was lower, diet-induced thermogenesis tended to be lower. In adipose tissue, perfusion, glucose supply and lipolysis were increased. In skeletal muscle, tissue perfusion did not change. Glucose supply and lipolysis were decreased. Glucose oxidation was increased, indicating an improved insulin sensitivity. BF may be a promising approach to losing weight and improving metabolism and health. However, outside the context of religiously-motivated fasting, skipping a meal rather in the evening (dinner cancelling) might be recommended, as metabolism appears to be reduced in the evening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0352.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: skeletal abnormalities; vertebral column; quality index; body shape; finfish aquaculture
Online: 19 November 2021 (12:43:54 CET)
The lordosis of the haemal part of the vertebral column is a frequent abnormality in reared fish. Haemal lordosis develops during the late larval and early juvenile period, mainly due to the high swimming activity of the fish in the rearing tanks. In the present study we examined whether haemal lordosis recovers during the growth of European sea bass. Furthermore, we aimed to develop simple morphometric indices (PrAn1 and PrAn2) that could link the severity of lordosis at the juvenile stage with fish morphological quality at harvesting. At 111 days post-hatching (dph, 53±4 mm standard length, SL), 600 seabass juveniles with lordotic (L, 200 fish) or normal (N, 400 fish) external morphology were selected and introduced in a common tank. At 150 dph (75±7 mm SL), 350 fish were randomly selected, pit-tagged and transferred in a sea cage for on-growing up to 502 dph (234±16 mm SL). The morphological examination of the fish at 150 and 502 dph revealed that the 60% (46 out of 77) of L juveniles turned into normal phenotype by the end of on-growing period. Interestingly, 56% of the fish with recovered external morphology (N-Rec) presented either a completely normal vertebral column (31%) or minor abnormalities of individual vertebrae (25%). Following the results of geometric morphometric analysis, the differences in the body shape between N-Rec and N fish were not significant (p>0.05, canonical variate analysis). The examined morphometric indices were effective in discriminating the normal fish from the 58% (PrAn1) to 65% (PrAn2) of lordotic juveniles. Results are discussed with respect to the mechanism of lordosis recovery, as well as to their application for the quality control and cull out of the abnormal fish in the commercial hatcheries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: healthy diet; fruits and vegetables; body image; happiness; excessive weight
Online: 16 March 2021 (11:57:13 CET)
Recent evidence suggests that among behavioral-lifestyle factors, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is linked not only to better psychological health and mental positive status but also to increased subjective well-being (SWB). Nevertheless, this association has been unexplored among individuals with excessive weight. This study explored whether adherence to the MedDiet and the intake of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables (FV) are associated with increased happiness and life satisfaction among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity when weight, body image, and body satisfaction are also considered. A convenience sample of adult individuals with excessive weight completed self-reports on the study variables, and weight and BMI were measured by bioimpedance. No evidence of a relationship with SWB indicators was obtained for MedDiet global indicators, probably due to the low adherence to a healthy diet by these individuals. In contrast, FV intake, as a powerful indicator of healthy eating, was associated with life satisfaction when BMI and body image dimensions were considered, among which body satisfaction also had a key role. Moreover, life satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between FV consumption and happiness. Our findings are expected to make a relevant contribution to knowledge on the positive correlates or protective factors for overall well-being in obesity, including dietary habits and body appreciation. Our results may inform obesity management actions focused on inclusive, positive aesthetic models and promoting a healthy lifestyle for happiness in obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0653.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: ketone body ester; lipase; kinetic resolution; asymmetric synthesis; configuration inversion.
Online: 25 December 2020 (10:50:32 CET)
The oral administration of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, allows inducing a beneficial level of blood ketone bodies without the adverse effects due to the adhesion to a ketogenic diet. Several studies documented the therapeutic effectiveness of the (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate in treating neurodegenerative diseases as well as its boosting activity of athletic and cognitive performances during prolonged physical exercises. Further studies considering this ketone body ester for therapy of other pathologies are also underway. In the present work, we describe the synthesis of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate through the enantioselective transesterification of racemic ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate with (R)-1,3-butanediol catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B). The enantiopure (R)-1,3-butanediol was in turn obtained from the kinetic resolution of the racemate by CAL-B catalyzed acetylation with vinyl acetate. The economy of the synthetic procedure has been improved by recycling the unreacted (S) enantiomers of the ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate and 1,3-buatnediol after stereochemical inversion achieved by tosylation and SN2 with ammonium acetate. The overall procedure allows to incorporate up to 70% of the starting racemic reagents into the final product.