ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0099.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Leptospira spp., secretome; virulent-associated secreted proteins; in-vivo mimic mammalian condition
Online: 9 October 2022 (02:07:23 CEST)
Leptospirosis remains an important worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira spp affecting human and animals. This research aims to study the virulent-associated secreted proteins (protein secretome) of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohemorrhagiae strain RGA (Leptospira RGA) transition from the environment to mammalian physiological osmolarity, temperature (37 °C) and carbon dioxide concentration (5% CO2) conditions for 24 h. Mass Spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches, we identified 69 potential secreted proteins from the culture supernatant of the Leptospira RGA isolate. We discovered transporters and porins such as phosphate porin, outer membrane efflux, ompA family protein, and polymer-forming cytoskeletal family protein under hyperosmotic condition. Under heat stress, degradation enzymes included zinc metallopeptidase, M23 family (LA3456, LA0709), Rhs family protein (LA1765), thermolysin metallopeptidase; / hydrolase family (LA1345, LA2501). Oxidative stress response proteins induced by osmolarity and temperature shifts included chaperon GrpE, DnaK (LA3705), antioxidants, i.e., thiol-specific redoxin, and peroxiredoxin (LA2809). In response to the in vivo transition, metabolic and other enzymes involved in energy production (COG:C), amino acid metabolism and transport (COG:E), and lipid metabolism and transport (COG:I), as well as moonlighting proteins functionally binding to plasminogen and fibronectin and regulating transcription, were also discovered. An overview of secreted proteins will supplement our understanding of Leptospira biology and pathogenesis during infection and also in response to environmental stimuli and their potential virulent determinants have the potential for developing leptospirosis vaccines and diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0036.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: two-factor authentication; online training; biological and behavioral features; mimic control method with sound intensity
Online: 6 June 2017 (09:04:47 CEST)
This study examines the evolution of the two-factor authentication method and its adaptability to the online education system. Two-factor authentication is a security measure used especially in areas where information such as banking is valuable. Parallel to technological developments, it has developed as much as daily. It aims to take security one step forward because it is composed of two phases. Today, banking, IOT devices, public transport tickets and many other areas are used. Two-factor authentication methods against security attacks in the field of information are also being updated. In recent years, new technologies such as biometric (iris pattern, retinal pattern, etc.) or behavioral biometry (location tracking, walking information, touch speed etc.) were studied. Instead of physically studying somewhere like going to a course in modern society, online trainings become more advantageous. Most of these online trainings are given certificates such as participation certificate, success certificate, etc. The main problem here is whether the person who is being certified is true. In the study conducted in line with these details, there is a proposal for the application of the Mimic Control Method with Sound Intensity (MCMSI) method for on-line training by examining the two-factor authentication techniques up to the day.