REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0548.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: millet; fermentation; microbiome; metagenomics; vitamins; biosynthesis
Online: 29 November 2022 (09:42:36 CET)
Fermented foods play an important role in the human diet and particularly so in under-resourced environments where cold preservation is not attainable due to irregular supply of electricity. Fermented foods are reported to support gut health by contributing probiotics and the purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity and metabolic potential of spontaneous millet fermentation. The literature in the field was reviewed and analysis conducted on publicly available Sequence Read Archive (SRA) datasets. Quality analysis was performed with FastQC, and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) generated using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME2) and Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm (DADA2) pipeline with Greengenes as the reference database. Metagenomics and pathways analysis were performed with Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt2). Statistical analysis and visualization were accomplished with Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). At the family taxonomic level, there were significant differences in the relative abundances of bacteria involved in the spontaneous fermentation of millet namely, Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae, and Clostridiaceae in one dataset. The incidence of Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae suggest the probiotic characteristic of fermented millet. The datasets were collected with fermentations mediated by autochthonous microorganisms and the presence of some potential pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Aeromonadaceae, Microbacteiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Neisseriaceae suggest the need for standardization of fermentation approaches. The genomes show the potential to synthesize metabolites such as vitamins suggesting that the respective fermented foods can be further optimized to enhance nutritional benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: finger millet; mycorrhiza; drought; ROS; antioxidant
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:38:17 CEST)
Under abiotic stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi help plants by improving nutrient and water uptake. Finger millet is an arid crop having soils with poor water holding capacity. Therefore, it is difficult for the plants to obtain water and mineral nutrients from the soil to sustain life. To understand the role of mycorrhizal symbiosis in water and mineral up-take from the soil, we studied the role of Rhizophagus intraradices colonization and its beneficial role for drought stress tolerance in finger millet seedling. Under severe drought stress condition, AM inoculation led to the significant increase in plant growth (7%), phosphorus, and chlorophyll content (29%). Also, the level of osmolytes including proline and soluble sugars were found in higher quantities in AM inoculated seedlings under drought stress. Under water stress, the lipid peroxidation in leaves of mycorrhized seedlings was reduced by 29%. The flavonoid content of roots in AM colonized seedlings was found 16% higher compared to the control, whereas the leaves were accumulated more phenol. Compared to the control, ascorbate level was found to be 25% higher in leaf tissue of AM inoculated seedlings. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) level was increased in mycorrhiza inoculated seedlings with a maximum increment of 182% under severe stress. The results demonstrated that AM provided drought tolerance to the finger millet seedlings through a stronger root system, greater photosynthetic efficiency, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biofortification, Pearl millet, Malnutrition, Iron, Zinc, Market.
Online: 7 March 2019 (12:08:24 CET)
Pearl millet is an important food crop in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of Africa and Asia. These regions are home to millions of poor smallholder’s households living in harsh agro ecology and reported higher prevalence of malnutrition. Such poor households have few options in terms of food crops, besides the limited markets. Indeed, pearl millet is one of the food crops they continue to grow for their food and nutritional security. Pearl millet is important sources of dietary carbohydrates, energy, protein, and important minerals such as calcium, iron and zinc. Considering inherent high nutritional values and climate resilient nature (drought and heat), demand for pearl millet as food, beside valued for its Stover as a source of livestock fodder, is projected to grow strongly in Asia (India) and Africa (West and Central Africa). Iron (cause anemia) and zinc (cause stunting) deficiencies are widespread and serious public health problems worldwide, including India and Africa. Biofortification is a cost-effective and sustainable agricultural strategy to address this problem. Research on pearl millet has shown that large genetic variability (30-140 mg/kg Fe and 20-90 mg/kg Zn) available in this crop can be effectively utilized to develop high-yielding cultivars with high iron and zinc densities. Both Open –pollinated varieties (Dhanshakti and Chakti) and hybrids (ICMH 1202, ICMH 1203 and ICMH 1301) of pearl millet with high grain yield (>3.5 tons/ha in hybrids) and high levels of iron (70-75 mg/kg) and zinc (35-40 mg/kg) densities have been developed and released. Currently, India growing >70,000 ha of biofortified pearl millet, besides more pipeline hybrids and varieties are under various stage of testing at the national (India) and international (west Africa) trials for possible release. Genomic tools will be an integral part of breeding program particularly for nutritional traits to use diagnostic markers and genomic selection. Clinical studies showed that 200g grains from biofortified cultivar would provide bioavailable Fe to meet full recommended daily allowance (RDA) in children, adult men and 80% of the RDA in women. Till today, no markets to promote biofortified cultivars/grains/products as no incentive price and such products aims to address food and nutritional security challenges simultaneously. The demand is likely to increase only after investment and integration into modern public distribution system, nutritional intervention schemes, private seed and food companies with strong mainstreaming nutritional policies. In the non-traditional regions, this will contribute to livestock and poultry feed industry as spill-over benefits to improve nutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agronomic biofortification; finger millet; genotype; mineral fertilizer; yield
Online: 3 May 2023 (13:00:18 CEST)
The present study aimed to investigate influence of genotypic differences to zinc and iron agronomic biofortification responses among yield of finger millet. A field experiment was conducted over two seasons in farmers’ fields in Ethiopia (2019, 2020). The experimental design had 15 treatment combinations comprising 3 finger millet varieties and application of different combinations of zinc and iron mineral fertilizers. 5 soil-applied fertilizer treatments (20 kg h-1 FeSO4 + 25 kg h-1 ZnSO4 + NPKS, 25 kg h-1 ZnSO4 + NPKS, 20 kg h-1 FeSO4 + NPKS, NPKS, and 30% NPKS), at 2 locations (Gojjam and Arsi Negelle, Ethiopia), and two 2 slope positions (Foot and hill), replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. Grain yield and biomass were evaluated on plot basis. Plant height, total and productive tiller number, finger length of the longest spike and number of fingers per main ear were measured at maturity stage. The combined soil application of FeSO47H2O and ZnSO47H2O increased yield to Meba variety by 51.6%. Also, ZnSO47H2O fertilizer application increased yield to Urji variety by 27.6%. About 18.3% of yield enhancement of Diga-01 variety was achieved due to the FeSO47H2O fertilizers application. The findings of the present study suggests that the influence of Zn and Fe agronomic biofortification on yield of finger millet could be affected by genotype differences and environmental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0826.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: proso millet collection; genetic diversity; SSR markers; agronomic traits
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:37:54 CEST)
Proso millet is an important allotetraploid cereal crop, however, it is the least studied species of the Poaceae family as it is an under-utilized crop. Genomic resources of proso millet are very limited compared to the major crops. Understanding of genetic relationships among germplasm resources is important for future breeding endeavors. In the present study, the SSR markers were employed to assess the polymorphism and genetic diversity of 100 millet accessions from different countries, which were tested in the dry steppe zone conditions of the Akmola region from 2020 to 2022. The use of 20 SSR markers detected a total of 47 alleles with an average allele number of 2.35 per locus among these proso accessions. Nine of them were polymorphic among genotypes, which suggests that these SSR markers can be used for genetic studies. The results showed a moderate level of polymorphism information content (PIC) averaged at 0.424, ranging from 0.125 to 0.795. The markers SSR 67, SSR-82, SSR-85 and SSR-109 showed high PIC values, 0.536, 0.756, 0.795 and 0.758 respectively. Markers SSR 85 and SSR 86 significantly correlated to agronomic traits, such as productive tillering (PT) and grain yield (GY). The genetic structure, UPGMA cluster and PCoA assay indicated that the accessions originated from Central Asia had higher genetic diversity. Based on Structure (K=3), all the accessions were divided into three groups, whereas the gene pool originated from Central Asia were detected in all the three clusters. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the accessions of Central Asian origin were genetically closer to the North Asian group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Transcription Factors; Evolutionary progression; Pearl millet; Phytohormones; Abiotic stress
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:50:48 CEST)
Transcription factors (TFs) are the regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches in controlling stress responsive gene expression. Among them MYB transcription factor family is one of the largest TF family in plants, playing a significant role in plant growth, development, phytohormone signaling and stress-responsive processes. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) is one of the most important C4 crop plant of the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa and South-east Asia for sustaining food and fodder productions. To explore the evolutionary mechanism and functional diversity of the MYB family in pearl millet, we conducted a comprehensive genome-wide survey and identified 279 MYB TFs (PgMYB) in pearl millet and distributed unevenly across seven chromosomes of pearl millet. Phylogenetic analysis of identified PgMYBs classified them into 18 subgroups and members of the same group showed a similar gene structure and conserved motif/s pattern. Further, duplication events were identified in pearl millet that indicated towards evolutionary progression and expansion of the MYB family. Transcriptome data and relative expression analysis by qRT-PCR identified differentially expressed candidate PgMYBs (PgMYB2, PgMYB9, PgMYB88 and PgMYB151) under dehydration, salinity, heat and phytohormones (ABA, SA and MeJA) treatment. Taken together, this study provides valuable information for a prospective functional characterization of MYB family members of pearl millet and genetic improvement of crop plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0221.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: proso millet; mutagenesis; colchicine; chlorophyll deficient; agronomic traits; ISSR markers
Online: 3 November 2023 (10:59:14 CET)
. Colchicine (C22H25NO6) is a substance used for inducing mutations in order to regulate important agronomic traits. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations (0.0, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1%) and treatment time (6, 12 and 24 h) of colchicine on agronomic traits of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and to assess the genetic diversity of M2 generations using inter simple sequence repeat markers (ISSR). The experiment was conducted in 2021 for the M1-generation and in 2022 for the M2-generation, from May to September. The percentage of the field germination was decreased with the increasing colchicine concentration and exposure duration. The chlorophyll-defective M1-M2 plants were obtained using various concentrations and exposure periods of colchicine. The highest amount of mutational modifications was attained at 0.08-0.1% concentrations colchicine. A total of 248 plant families with chlorophyll-defective mutations based on the research results were selected from 2214 families. The growing season of M1- and M2 plants were diminished under higher colchicine concentration (0.08-0.1%) combined with soaking time. Thus, the highest indicator of growing season (84 days) was observed at six h treatment time for PI 289324, while the fewest (78 days) was recorded at 12 and 24 h. The possibility of obtaining morphological mutations using colchicine has been confirmed. The ISSR primers amplified a total of 1333 fragments, 1281 bands were found to be polymorphic and 52 bands monomorphic. The percentage of polymorphism varied from 80 to 100 % with an average of 96.11%. Our results showed that most of the bands were found at 0.08% colchicine concentration. These positive variations are a great opportunity to use colchicine as a tool for improving agronomic traits in plant breeding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1796.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: proso millet starch; extraction; characterization; modification; in vitro digestibility; application
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:17:40 CEST)
Proso millet starch (PMS) as an unconventional and underutilized cereal starch is becoming increasingly popular worldwide due to its health-promoting properties. This review summarizes research progress in the isolation, characterization, modification, and applications of PMS. PMS can be isolated from proso millet grains by acidic, alkaline, or enzymatic extraction. PMS exhibits typical A-type polymorphic diffraction patterns and shows polygonal and spherical granular structures with a granule size of 0.3-17 µm. PMS is modified by chemical, physical, and biological methods. The native and modified PMS are analyzed for swelling power, solubility, pasting properties, thermal properties, retrogradation, freeze-thaw stability, and in vitro digestibility. The improved physicochemical, structural, and functional properties and digestibility of modified PMS are discussed in terms of their suitability for specific applications. The potential applications of native and modified PMS in food and non-food products are presented. Future prospects for research and commercial use of PMS in the food industry are also highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0284.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: urban; rural; millet; garden; orchard; Iberian Peninsula; High/Late Middle Ages
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:09:03 CET)
Towns emerged as dynamic economic and political centers during the Middle Ages, giving rise to the emergence of new social classes. As a result of these functions, a new relationship began to be forged with the rural world, which supplied towns with foodstuffs that satisfied new social demands. Archaeobotanical analysis (carpology) allows us to understand the flow of cash crops by tracing seeds and fruits produced in the countryside that were consumed in and redistributed from the towns. The study of waterlogged contexts from medieval archaeological sites in the Kingdom of Galicia (Santiago de Compostela, Padrón, and Pontevedra) has provided a set of species that played a crucial role in the economy of the urban dwellers and that possibly were related to differential access or food preferences. Evidence for fruits (grapes, chestnuts, figs, apples, and cherries, among others), garden crops (melon), and cereals (foxtail millet, rye, naked wheat, and oat) has been documented. Broomcorn millet is particularly abundant, demonstrating that it was important for subsistence. Some of the species found (medlar and turnip/grelo) are novel in the archaeobotanical literature of the medieval period in the Iberian Peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0087.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: millet porridge; electric cooker; nutritional composition; principal component analysis; cluster analysis
Online: 6 July 2022 (04:38:57 CEST)
(1) Background: In order to study the effects of different electric cookers on the nutritional components of millet porridge, five different electric cookers were selected to cook millet porridge, and sensory and nutritional components in millet porridge, millet soup, and millet grains were analyzed. (2) Methods: Using principal component and cluster analysis, a variety of nutritional components were comprehensively compared. (3) Results: The results showed that among the different cooked samples, the content of amylose and reducing sugar was the highest in the samples cooked by electric cooker no. 3. The electric cooker no. 4 samples had the highest sensory evaluation score, crude fat, and protein content. The contents of ash, fatty acids, bound amino acids, and minerals were the highest in the electric cooker no. 5 samples. The sensory evaluation score and content of crude fat, ash, reducing sugar, direct starch, and Cu were higher in millet grains than in millet soup or porridge. The content of fatty acid, protein, amino acid, Zn, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Ca was highest in millet soup. Different electric cookers produced millet porridge with varying nutritional levels. (4) Conclusions: This study provides a reference for the further development of new electric cookers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1920.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: pearl millet; Landrace; Pennisetum glaucum L; Abiotic and Biotic constraints; pests and disease
Online: 28 July 2023 (07:45:01 CEST)
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) is the second most important cereal grown in Eritrea after sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) grown under low input systems by small scale farmers. The crop utilizes soil moisture efficiently and has ability to tolerate soil toxicity and extreme temperatures than other cereals. It is a sustenance and food security crop important for its nutritive and cultural value and provides dietary energy and nutrition. However, despite the positive attributes and qualities of pearl millets for the present and future agriculture, production has been low. We attribute this to inadequate rainfall distribution, poor crop management by poorly resourced farmers, unavailability and high prices of farm inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides and low adoption of improved varieties by the farmers. This review outlines the constraints, interventions the government/ farmers have and can implement and the prospects of actions that can improve pearl millet production. As much as there have been efforts by the government and stakeholders to address these challenges and improve productivity of pearl millet, more needs to be done to meet the increasing demand of the increasing populations. This will enable farmers to intensify and diversify their agricultural systems and improve food security situation in the country. Unless a combined effort in soil fertility improvement, policies to promote use of modern varieties and conservation of and promotion of this crop biodiversity, the potential of this crop as famine and poverty alleviation among the rural poor will not be realized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0565.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: foxtail millet 1; nitrogen use efficiency 2; varieties3; physiological parameters 4; transcriptomics 5.
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:41:12 CEST)
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) is an important food and forage crop that is well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. However, little is known about how foxtail millet adapts to low nitrogen (LN) at the physiological and molecular levels. In the present study, two foxtail millet varieties with contrasting low nitrogen (LN) tolerance properties were investigated through integrative analyses of physiological featureparameters and transcriptomics. The physiological results showed that JG20 (high tolerance to LN) had higher biomass accumulation, nitrogen content and nitrogen use efficiency compared with JG22 (low tolerancesensitive to LN) under LN. JG20 had higher soluble sugar and soluble protein concentration in shoots compared with JG22 under LN, while contcentrations of soluble sugar and soluble protein contents were higher in the roots of JG22. Higher levels of CTK contentzeatin concentration were found in the shoots of JG20 com-pared with JG22, and a higher ABA contcentration was found in both the shoots and roots of JG22 compared with JG20 under LN. In the transcriptomics results, JG20 had more differentially ex-pressed genes (DEGs) than JG22 both in shoots and roots in response to LN. These LN-responsive genes were enriched in glycolysis, starch and sucrose metabolism, photosynthesis, biosynthesis of amino acids, hormone metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Furthermore, the high-affinity nitrate transporter gene, SiNRT2.1, and glutamine synthetase gene, SiGS5, chlorophyll apoprotein of photosystem II gene, SiPsbQ, ATP synthase subunit gene, b, auxin-responsive protein gene, SiIAA25, and aldose 1-epimerase gene, SiAEP, in shoots, and high-affinity nitrate transporter gene, SiNRT2.3, SiNRT2.4, and glutamate synthase gene, SiGOGAT2, auxin-responsive protein gene, SiIAA4, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase gene, SiAEP5, in root, were important genes in-volved in the LN tolerance of foxtail millet. These results provide a detailed description of the physiological and transcriptome response of foxtail millet under LN condition.