ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0054.v1
Subject: Keywords: Nisin; water soaked tiger nut milk (WSTM); toasted tiger nut milk (TTM); methanol soaked tiger nut milk (MSTM); and the pasteurised tiger nut milk (PTM)
Online: 6 February 2018 (10:15:54 CET)
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is an edible perennial grass-like plant that has long been recognized for its health benefits as it is rich in fiber, protein, vitamins, minerals and natural sugars. It can be eaten raw, roasted or made into a refreshing milk which is very nutritive and healthy for consumption. There were several efforts to mass-produce the locally prepared tiger nut milk in our locality, but the fact that it has a shorter shelf-life, brings about a hindrance. The main objective of the present study is to unveil the cause for the easily spoilage of tiger nut milk and device ways to promote its production using different treatments. Tiger nut milk products were prepared using different methods; water soaked tiger nut milk (WSTM), toasted tiger nut milk (TTM), methanol soaked tiger nut milk (MSTM), and the pasteurised tiger nut milk (PTM). Each of these milk proucts prepared was divided into two portions; the first portion is treated with an antibiotic preservative, Nisin and the second portion was left untreated. The two portions were further divided into two; one stored at refrigerating temperature and the other at room temperature, making four different treatments per mixture and a total of 16 samples. These samples were subjected to proximate analysis; protein, fat, moisture, ash and carbohydrate. The chemical composition of the samples was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by processing treatment. All the samples had high moisture content, and a considerable amount of fat. The preservative treated samples that received pasteurized treatment were found to stay more than a week with fair quality. Findings from the study shows that the chemical characteristics of the various milk products were significantly affected by the different processing treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: discrete-impulse energy; hydromechanic; process; milk products
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:52:37 CET)
The basis of the discrete-impulse energy supply (DIES) concept is the efficient use of supplied energy. The references describe in detail the general principles of DIES, examine the energy and thermodynamic aspects and the main mechanisms of intensification that can be initiated on the basis of this principle. DIES mechanisms conveniently can be divided into hard and soft ones. The former should be used to stimulate hydromechanical processes, and the latter to accelerate the processes of phase heat and mass transfer, or for the purpose of intensive mixing of multicomponent media. The authors have studied the possibility of using DIES to intensify the hydromechanical processes, in particular emulsification of milk fat (homogenization of milk, preparation of spreads), processing of cream cheese masses. Objects of research were whole non-homogenized milk, fat emulsions, cream cheese mass. In order to evaluate the efficiency of milk homogenization the homogenization coefficient change was studied, which was determined by centrifugation method as the most affordable and accurate one. Emulsions were evaluated according to the degree of destabilization, resistance and dispersion of the fat phase. The rheological characteristics of cheese masses were evaluated by the effective viscosity change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0097.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Goat population; Goat milk; Milk production; Milk composition; Goat cheese; Therapeutic properties
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:57:07 CEST)
Since the 1980s, a growing interest in goat milk was noticed due to the nutritional values and health benefits of this milk, which resulted in increasing goat populations and milk production worldwide. This comprehensive review elaborates on goat milk composition compared to other types of milk. It is also an overview of goat milk production, properties, nourishment-value, applications in dairy products, and potential health benefits. Goat milk composition and its characteristics are slightly different from other types of milk and can be utilized to manufacture many dairy products. Fresh goat milk and goat milk products (e.g., yogurt and kefir were found to provide various potential health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, prevent cardiovascular disease, anti-diabetic and antihypertensive, strengthen bones, boost immunity, and improve metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: asthma; breastfeeding; milk other than breast milk
Online: 3 October 2018 (11:32:20 CEST)
Prevalence of asthma in Australian children is amongst the highest in the world. Although breastfeeding positively influences infants’ immunity, early introduction of Milk Other than Breast Milk (MOTBM) may also play an important role in the development of Asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the introduction of MOTBM in the first six months after birth and the development of reported persistent asthma in children 3-years old. As sample of 1,121 children were extracted from the Environments for Healthy Living longitudinal birth cohort study. Introduction of MOTBM during the first six months after birth increased the risk of development of persistent asthma by almost two-folds (Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR): 1.71, 95%CI: 1.03-2.83, p= 0.038). This study indicates that the introduction of MOTBM in the first six months of life is a risk factor for asthma incidence among children 3 years old or younger. This result is important in explaining the benefits of breastfeeding as part of public health interventions to encourage mothers to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration and avoid introduction of MOTBM in the first six months after childbirth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maternal nutrition; Breast milk; Premature delivery; Milk composition
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:27:30 CET)
(1) Background: Premature infants require mothers’ milk fortification to meet nutrition needs, but breast milk composition may be variable leading to a risk of inadequate nutrition. We aimed at determining factors influencing mothers’ milk macronutrients. (2) Methods: Milk samples were analyzed for the first 5 weeks after premature delivery, by infrared spectroscopy. Mothers’ nutritional intake data were obtained during standardized interviews with dieticians then analyzed with reference software. (3) Results: Composition of 367 milk samples from 81 mothers was (Median [range]g/100mL): Carbohydrates 6.8[4.4-7.3], lipids 3.4[1.3-6.4], proteins 1.3[0.1-3.1]. There was a relationship of milk composition with mothers’ carbohydrates intake only (r=0.164; p<.01). Postnatal age was correlated with milk proteins (r=-0.505 p<.001) & carbohydrates (r=+0.202, p<.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed (coefficient) a relationship between milk proteins r=0.547 and postnatal age (-0.028), carbohydrates intake (+0.449) and the absence of maturation (-0.066); and between milk lipids r=0.295 and carbohydrates intake (+1.279) and smoking (-0.557). Finally, between milk carbohydrates concentration r=0.266 and postnatal age (+0.012) and smoking (-0.167). (4) Conclusions: Variability of mothers’ milk composition is differentially associated for each macronutrient with maternal carbohydrates intake, antenatal steroids, smoking, and postnatal age. Improvement in milk composition could be achieved by modification of these related factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0095.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: indigenous goats; free range; milk production; milk composition
Online: 11 May 2017 (07:52:28 CEST)
This study was conducted to evaluate the yield and quality parameters of milk from 60 indigenous South African goats of different genotypes namely Nguni, Boer and Non- descript reared under a free ranging system. Milk yield and quality parameters (milk fat, protein, lactose, solid non-fat and minerals) from Nguni (10), Boer (10) and Non-descript (10) goats was measured and analysed per week at each stage of lactation. Result showed that, Nguni goats produced (1.2±0.09, 1.3±0.11 and 1.2±0.07 litres per day) more milk (P ˂ 0.05) at early, mid and late stages of lactation than Boer (0.6±0.10, 1.0±0.17 and 0.6±0.09 litres per day) and Non-descript (0.3±0.10, 0.3±0.12 and 0.3±0.09 litres per day) goats, respectively. The mean value of milk fat, protein and lactose content from Nguni goat was (3.98, 3.54 and 5.31); Boer goat (2.9, 3.59 and 5.04) and Non-descript goat (4.05, 3.39 and 5.02), respectively. There was significant effect (P ˂ 0.05) of genotypes on milk fat, milk magnesium and sodium contents of Nguni, Boer and Non-descript goats. It could be concluded that, Nguni goat produced more milk than Boer and Non-descript goats, but the Non-descript goat had higher mean percentage of milk fat compared to Nguni and Boer goats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0097.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: cow milk; sheep milk; goat milk; proteomics methods; bioactive peptides; antimicrobial peptides; allergenic potential; adulterations
Online: 8 October 2022 (08:22:24 CEST)
Milk is newborn’s food and an emulsion full of all necessary components for neonatal growth. Its consumption is worldwide and is the base for all dairy products. Because of the latter, many new technologies are growing, among them proteomics; in order to give new insights in milk’s compounds and to maximize the beneficial potential for consumers’ health. In this review, we aimed to gather data of proteomics studies for the majority of dairy animals and elucidate the role of milk bioactive compounds. Furthermore, special reference was made to milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) peptides and the result of thermal treatment in milk proteins. Finally, the proteomic approach regarding adulterations was included in the review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: infant nutrition; breast milk; mammalian milk; formula milk; protein similarity profiling; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
Online: 20 August 2018 (10:28:59 CEST)
Human milk composition is dynamic and substitute formulae are intended to mimic its protein content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiality of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) followed by multivariate data analyses as a tool to analyze peptide profiling of mammalian, human and formula milks. Breast milk samples from women at different lactation stages (2 (n = 5), 30 (n = 6), 60 (n = 5), and 90 (n = 4) days postpartum), and milk from donkeys (n = 4), cows (n = 4), buffaloes (n = 7), goats (n = 4), ewes (n = 5), and camels (n = 2) were collected. Different brands (n = 4) of infant formulae were also analyzed. Protein content (<30 kDa) was analyzed by MS and data were exported for statistical elaborations. Mass spectra for each milk closely clustered together, whereas different milk samples resulted well separated. Human samples formed a cluster in which colostrum constituted a well-defined subcluster. None of the milk formulae correlated with animal or human milk, although specifically characterized and well correlated each other. These findings propose MALDI-TOF MS milk profiling as an analytical tool to discriminate, in a blinded way, different milk types. As each formula has a distinct specificity, shifting a baby from one to another formula implies a specific proteomic exposure. These profiles may assist in milk proteomics for easiness of use and low cost consuming, suggesting that the MALDI-TOF MS pipelines may result useful for milk adulteration assessment but also for the characterization of banked milk specimens in paediatric clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0125.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cows; milk fat; ruminal fluid; milk fatty acids; energy balance
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:08:31 CET)
The trials were performed on 20 multiparous cows of Holstein breed (39.7 ± 0.75 kg of milk) at the end of the first phase of lactation this different milk fat (4.1-2.8%). The aim of the research was to study the characteristics of nutrition, metabolism and biosynthesis of milk components in highly productive dairy cows with normal and low milk fat levels and the timing of their productive use. Study the characteristics of fermentation of scar formation substrates and their use in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of the milk components. Found that low fat milk is not associated with a lack of formation of acetate in the rumen (6.1 vs. 6.6 mmol/dl in the contents of the rumen, р>0.05) and the non change in the hormonal profile, but depends on the reduction of fatty acids synthesis de novo in mammary gland, regulated by conjugated higher fatty acids. The result is a reduction in the need of cows in the exchange energy (reduction of heat transfer by 6.2 MJ), a shorter service period (109.5 vs.139 days) and the prolongation of their productive use (the number of lactations correlated back with the level of fat in milk (r=-0.68, p<0.05, n=1300).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: donor human milk; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; breast milk; preterm formula; pasteurization
Online: 12 January 2018 (05:42:06 CET)
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication after preterm birth. Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) has increasingly become the standard of care for very preterm infants over the use of preterm formula (PF) if mother’s own milk (MOM) is unavailable. Studies have reported beneficial effects of DHM on BPD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on the effects of DHM on BPD and other respiratory outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of RCT’s could not demonstrate that supplementation of MOM with DHM reduced BPD when compared to PF (3 studies, risk ratio [RR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–1.32). However, meta-analysis of observational studies showed that DHM supplementation reduced BPD (8 studies, RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67–0.90). An exclusive human milk diet reduced the risk of BPD, compared to a diet with PF and/or bovine milk-based fortifier (3 studies, RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68–0.95). Feeding raw MOM, compared to feeding pasteurized MOM, protected against BPD (2 studies, RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62–0.96). In conclusion, our data suggest that DHM protects against BPD in very preterm infants, but pasteurization of human milk reduces the benefit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0242.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Temperature Humidity Index; Milk Production; Milk Composition; Temporal and Periodic Variation
Online: 14 November 2022 (06:32:11 CET)
Global warming has been increasing heat stress threat in animals which can be monitored by Temperature Humidity Index (THI). The present study describes the relationship of THI, calculated using 35 years period weather station data, and production performances of dairy cattle in a se-lected area of Bangladesh. The month January and June were identified as the coolest and hottest, respectively. Based on this outcome, every year in the month of January and June production performances of 10 crossbred cows with homogenous characteristics were monitored for a period of 5 years. The average THIMEAN value was found 17% higher in June as compared to January, and with this increment of THIMEAN average milk production was decreased 24.4% (p<0.05). The milk fat and protein content were also reduced (p<0.05) by 14.5 and 15.2%, respectively suggesting negative correlation as like as milk production. However, ash content was increased 15.3% that indicates a positive correlation. In addition, multiple regression analysis revealed each point increase in THIMEAN and rectal temperature, there was a decrease in milk yield 0.04 and 1.17 kg ECM, respectively. In contrary, each point increase in THIMEAN resulted 0.059 C increase of rectal temperature. Taken together, THIMEAN value calculated using metrological station data has distinct relationship with the production performances of lactating crossbred dairy cows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0712.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: diacylglycerol acyl-CoA acyltransferase (DGAT1); K232A; milk traits; milk fatty acid
Online: 30 October 2018 (08:46:38 CET)
Milk fat production is important in the New Zealand (NZ) dairy industry. Elsewhere, an amino acid substitution (K232A) in the enzyme diacylglycerol acyl-CoA acyltransferase (DGAT1) has been reported to explain variation in some milk traits, including variation in milk fatty acid (FA) profile. In this study, associations between K232A, and milk traits including milk FA composition, were studied in wholly pasture-fed NZ Holstein-Friesian × Jersey (HF×J) cross-bred dairy cows. With a high frequency of K variant (61.9%), the KK cows produced more milk fat than the AA cows (5.41 ± 0.04 % vs 4.42 ± 0.05 %). The milk volume, fat concentration and protein concentration of AK cows were between the genotypes, AA and KK. More C16:0, CLA and C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15 FA were found in the milk of Kiwi-cross cows feed in outdoor pasture grazing system., and the influence of DGAT1 K232A, on these FAs from mid- and late lactation stages were significant. The AA cows produced (P < 0.001) more CLA and C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15, but less C16:0 (1.137 ± 0.047, 0.855 ± 0.015 and 35.170 ± 0.355) than the KK cows (0.934 ± 0.025, 0.778 ± 0.009 and 38.010 ± 0.250).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0119.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Donkey milk; donkey colostrum; mammal’s milk; bioactive peptides; biologic activity; health benefits
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:57:01 CEST)
Due to its similarity with human milk and its low allergenic properties, donkey milk has long been used as an alternative for infants and patients with cow's milk protein allergy. In addition, this milk is attracting growing interest in human nutrition because of presumed health benefits. It has antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumoral, antiproliferative, and antidiabetic activity. Also, it stimulates the immune system, regulates the gastrointestinal flora, and prevents inflammatory diseases. Although all components of donkey milk can contribute to functional and nutritional effects, it is generally accepted that the whey protein fraction plays a major role. The purpose of this review is to highlight the active proteins and peptides of donkey milk in comparison with other types of milk, emphasizing their properties and their roles in different fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0213.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: bael; buffalo milk; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; non-cow milk; probiotic yoghurt; probiotic viability
Online: 9 December 2020 (09:52:03 CET)
Recently, there is a trend among food manufacturers in producing functional foods containing fruit and milk. On the other hand, there is an increasing demand for buffalo milk as an alternative to cow milk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of adding bael fruit extract on microbial, physiochemical and sensory characteristics of buffalo yoghurt containing the EPS-producing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) during 21 days of refrigerated storage. Four formulations of buffalo yoghurt: a control yoghurt manufactured with conventional yoghurt culture (CON); a probiotic yoghurt containing Lb. rhamnosus GG plus yoghurt culture (PY); a probiotic yoghurt containing 5% (w/v) bael (PY5); and 10% (w/v) bael (PY10) were evaluated for changes in pH, syneresis, hardness, probiotic viability and sensory attributes during the storage. Control yoghurt experienced significant post acidification and a higher rate of syneresis. Addition of probiotics had a positive effect on post acidification and syneresis rate. Addition of bael did not affect post-acidification, but significantly decreased the level of syneresis. All probiotic formulations maintained LGG counts of >107 cfu/mL and the highest counts were observed in 5% (w/v) bael incorporated yoghurt. Results showed that buffalo yoghurt is an ideal matrix to deliver LGG and 5% bael incorporation would be ideal or symbiotic product development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0237.v1
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:48:34 CEST)
Human milk (HM) is the gold standard for feeding infants but has been associated with slower growth in preterm infants compared with preterm formula. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarises the post-1990 literature to examine the effect of HM feeding on growth during the neonatal admission of preterm infants with birth weight ≤1500g and/or born ≤28 weeks’ gestation. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus were searched, and comparisons grouped as: exclusive human milk (EHM) vs exclusive preterm formula (EPTF), any HM vs EPTF and higher vs lower doses of HM. We selected studies that used fortified HM and compared that with a PTF; studies comparing unfortified HM and term formula were excluded. Experimental and observational studies were pooled separately. The GRADE system was used to evaluate risk of bias and certainty of evidence. Forty-four studies were included with 37 (n =9,963 infants) included in the meta-analyses. In general, due to poor quality studies, evidence of the effect of any HM feeds or higher versus lower doses of HM was inconclusive. There was a possible effect that lower doses of HM compared with higher doses of HM improved weight gain during the hospital admission, and separately, a possible effect of increased head circumference growth in infants fed EPTF vs any HM. The clinical significance of this is unclear. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effects of an exclusive HM diet on any outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0094.v1
Online: 5 October 2020 (14:29:20 CEST)
Corn silage (Zea mays L.) is the most widely used energy resource in the diets of dairy cattle around the world; it stands out for its higher biomass yields, good palatability, homogeneous quality at harvest and ease of silage due to its higher soluble sugar content. It was carried out a search of studies related to dry matter yield (ton ha-1), population density (plant density ha-1), dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), organic matter (OM), DM digestibility (DMD) and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) and milk production per hectare (kg of milk ha-1) that was determined using MILK2006®. It was carried out a cluster analysis (CL, PROC CLUSTER) obtaining six groups of corn silage: CL1: "Starch", which included DMD, DFDN, TDN1xDM, Mega calories per kg of DM and kg of milk/ton/DM; CL2: "Fats" which included TDN1xMS, Mcal/kg/DM and kg of milk/ton/DM; CL3: "Dry Matter", conformed only by DFDN; CL4: "Plant Density" including Yield of DM ha-1 and Milk Production ha-1; CL5: "Neutral Detergent Fiber" and CL6: "Raw Protein". It is concluded that CL1 was characterized by a higher DMD, DFND, CNF and starch that allow a higher TNDx1DM and an energy concentration (Mcal/kg/DM) that shows a higher milk production (kg of milk/ton/DM ha-1). The characteristics of CL2 with higher EE, allow a higher TNDx1DM and an energy concentration (Mcal/kg/DM) with a higher milk production (kg of milk/ton/DM ha-1).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0304.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Enterococcus; QPS; GRAS; safety; milk; cheese; mountain area
Online: 19 August 2021 (06:31:01 CEST)
The latest EU regulation on geographical indications (EU Regulation No. 1151/2012) has intro-duced a set of new tools for the protection and enhancement of food products in rural areas, under the group name of optional quality term (OQT). The Commission Delegated EU Regulation, No. 665/2014, regulated the conditions for the use of the optional quality term «mountain product» (MP), to support the implementation of a mountain value chain. This new tool is aimed at pro-moting local development, maintaining the economic activities in mountain areas and redistrib-uting wealth, whilst, at the same time, promoting the territory. Pecorino and goat cheeses are typ-ical Italian cheeses made usually with whole raw ewe's or raw goat's milk, without starter cul-ture addition. In an attempt to characterize these productions, the aim of this study was to inves-tigate the evolution of enterococci during the production and ripening of Pecorino cheese made in three different farms, located in Umbria, Italy in areas facing natural or other specific constraints as stipulated by Regulation 1305/2013 on support for rural development by the European Agri-cultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). Enterococci are enteric organisms which are commonly isolated from ewe and goat's milk production in Umbria, Italy. Counts of enterococci in raw milk ranged from 1.75 for ovine milk to 3.62 for ewe milk and a marked reduction was observed after thermization especially in ovine milk. Out of 100 isolates, 69 were E. faecium, 23 E. durans, 8 E. faecalis and 2 E. casseliflavus and the distribution of species between farms and be-tween samples showed a prevalence of E. faecium in ovine farms and E. durans in ewes farms, with an equal distribution between samples. High percentages of susceptible isolates were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulphamethoxazole, sulphameth-oxazole/trimethoprim, ticarcillin, vancomycin. A high prevalence of resistant strains (> 30%) was observed for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, kanamycin, tetracycline. A comparison of this results with those of previous works on similar dairy products revealed high levels of resistance to antimicrobials which needs to be addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0407.v1
Online: 31 December 2019 (10:22:43 CET)
Despite the existence of pasteurization and its advocacy worldwide, most marketed milk in a developing country like Nigeria are sold raw by the locals. It costs hundreds of millions of Naira to set up a conventional pasteurizing plant in Nigeria. Boiled milk ends up curdling which results in to a loss of nutrients, so it is not beneficial to treat milk by this method. This paper hence presents the re-designing and fabrication of the contact area of a solar milk pasteurizer
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0122.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Methionine, milk protein synthesis, proteome, HMBi
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:45:41 CET)
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing different types of methionine (L and D-type) and its precursor (HMBi) on milk protein synthesis using immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T Cell); D-methionine (D-Met), L-methionine (L-met) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid I (HMBi), an isopropyl ester of the hydroxy analogue precursor of methionine. The underlying mechanism of milk protein synthesis by adding D- and L-type amino acid as well as HMBi was elucidated through omics analysis to verify the metabolism pathway. Results showed that HMBi group showed the highest beta casein mRNA expression levels compared to D- and L-Met groups and highest medium protein although not different with the L-Met treatment. The observed upregulated (>2 protein expression vs. control) and downregulated (<0.5 protein expression vs. control) proteins in L-Met, D-Met and HMBi treated groups were: 39, 77; 46, 68; and 40, 78, respectively. Interestingly, based on protein pathway analysis, L-Met treated group stimulated the ATP synthesis, PI3 kinase and pyruvate metabolism. On the other hand, the D-Met group stimulated fructose-galactose metabolism, glycolysis pathway, PI3 kinase and pyruvate metabolism. And lastly HMBi-treated group stimulated pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis pathway. Metabolite analysis revealed that L-Met treated group resulted in the increase in 11 metabolites. On the other hand, D-Met treated group showed increase in 7 metabolites and decreased of uridine monophosphate (UMP). HMBi supplementation caused increases of 3 metabolites and decreased of UMP and N-acetyl-L-glutamate Addition of different isoforms of Met stimulated the production of intermediate metabolites for energy production. Addition of L-Met stimulated the production of energy metabolites such as pyruvate, malate, and fumarate, well-known as intermediates of Krebs cycle. On the other hand, HMBi supplementation resulted in increases of energy metabolite glucose 1-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate. Results showed that HMBi-treated group exhibited highest expression of β-casein mRNA expression by stimulating proteins and metabolites as well as protein and metabolic pathways involved in protein and energy synthesis. As a result, HMBi-treated group resulted in highest protein concentration but not significantly different with L-Met. Both the D- and L-isoforms has considerably the same medium protein concentration and β-casein mRNA expression higher than the control. So, D- and L-Met isoforms can be used alternatively without any significant change in protein synthesis efficiency in bovine mammary epithelial cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0366.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; agricultural wastes; anthocyanins; ruminant nutrition; milk and meat production; fat milk and meat quality
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:52:05 CEST)
The objective was to analyze the effects of adding anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in animal diets. Scientific articles published before 2021 in clinics, pharmacology, nutrition, and animal production were included. The grains/concentrate, metabolic exigency, and caloric stress contribute to increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS); the excess of ROS unbalance the oxidants and antioxidants. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and anthelmintic activities. In the rumen, anthocyanin might show interactions and/or synergisms with substrates, microorganisms, and enzymes which could reduce the fiber degradability, but increase the potential methane (CH4) emissions; since anthocyanin interferes in the biohydrogenation of fats, they increase the fat milk and meat quality. Anthocyanins reduce plasma oxidation and deposit in tissues, increasing the milk and meat antioxidant activities. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside act as inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACEi) and rennin expression which may improve milk yield (there is not enough evidence in ruminants, though). Polyphenols affect the reproductive potential. Sub products of HS contain as many amounts of polyphenols as calyces, and their inclusion in diets would positively affect the average daily gain and fat meat quality. Including HS in ruminant diets can improve the meat and milk quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0008.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: perilipins, milk lipid globules, human breast milk, lipid content, tandem mass spectrometry, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography
Online: 1 October 2018 (12:18:46 CEST)
Objective: Lipids are secreted into milk as bilayer-coated structures: milk lipid globules (MLGs). Adipophilin (ADRP) and perilipin 3 (TIP47) are associated with MLGs in human breast milk; however, the role of these proteins in milk lipid secretion is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to investigate levels of ADRP, TIP47 and total lipid content in human breast milk, their mutual correlations and dynamics during lactation. Research Methods & Procedures: Milk samples from 22 healthy lactating women (Caucasian, Central European) were collected at five time points during lactation (1–3, 12–14, 29–30, 88–90 and 178–180 days postpartum). Mass spectrometry-based method was used for quantification of ADRP and TIP47 in the samples. The gravimetric method was used to determine milk total lipid content. Results: We observed distinctive trends in ADRP, TIP47 levels and lipid content in human breast milk during the first 6 months of lactation. We also found a significant association between lipid content and ADRP, lipid content and TIP47, and ADRP and TIP47 concentrations in breast milk at all sampling points. Moreover, we derived an equation for estimating the mean lipid content of milk based on ADRP concentration in human breast milk. Conclusions: A mass spectrometry-based method was developed for quantifying ADRP and TIP47 in human breast milk. Strong mutual correlations were found between ADRP, TIP47 and total lipid content in human breast milk.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0055.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: hosue fly,; falling,; dipping,; antimicrobial,; milk,; water
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:48:42 CET)
Background: The study describes the comparison of different microbial load results of natural falling and dipping of the house fly (Musca domestica) in water and milk to investigate the possibilities of preventing the effect of the transferred pathogens from the house fly to our sources by pointing out the existence of antimicrobial factors within the house fly. Methods: Samples of house fly were collected from Jeddah and Makkah (Makkah region) and were directly transferred to the laboratory. Each house fly was packed in sterile test tubes. Each tube was opened oppositely to a larger test tube containing 10 ml of sterile tap water, and sterile water at pH 4.0 in other similar series of treatments to represent the reactions of stomach fluids. Later, the house flies were left for 20 seconds after reaching the water surface, and then cultured on different microbial media to evaluate the microbial load of the natural falling of the house fly. To evaluate the complete dipping of house flies in the water, two methods were tested by one complete dip for the flies for 20 seconds, and three times complete dipping for 20 seconds in water before evaluating the microbial load. The same methods were achieved on milk in a series of experiments and the microbial load was evaluated after the incubation at room temperature for three hours. Results: It was found that dipping treatments of house flies gave lower microbial contamination in water at pH 4.0 than neutral pH. The lower microbial load was also observed when dipping the house flies three times in water as compared to once dipping and natural falling treatments. It was also found that the complete dipping of house flies’ treatments in milk will reduce the microbial contamination as compared to natural falling treatments. Conclusion: The observed results support the presence of antimicrobial factors on the house fly.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Cow milk; Enzymatic hydrolysis; Allergic protein; Antigenicity
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:04:35 CEST)
In this paper, the effects of different food-grade enzymes on the antigenicity of casein (CN), β- lactoglobulin (β-LG) and ɑ-lactalbumin (ɑ-LA) in natural cow milk were studied. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), SDS-PAGE and molecular mas (MW) distribution of cow milk (CM) hydrolysates was assessed. Additionally, the residual antigenicity of CM hydrolysates was evaluated by using ELISA and western blotting with anti-CN, anti-β-LG and anti-ɑ-LA rabbit polyclonal antibody. The results showed that Alcalase and Protamex hydrolysis could efficiently reduce the antigenicity of CN, β-LG, ɑ-LA, showed a higher DH and the loss of density of CM proteins, as indicated by SDS-PAGE. The increasing of the low MW (<3 kDa) in CM hydrolysates was also presented. It was also found that Protamex, Alcalase could be more efficiently hydrolyzed major allergenic of CM than other enzymes for the development of hypoallergenic cow milk. Our research will lay a theoretical foundation for the study of hypoallergenic cow milk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Drospirenone 4mg; breastfeeding; plasma concentration; milk concentration
Online: 24 May 2020 (20:26:11 CEST)
Objective: The primary objective of this trial was to assess the transfer of drospirenone to breast milk after daily administration of an oral test preparation containing 4 mg of drospirenone at the steady state. The secondary objective of the trial was to assess the safety of the preparation based on safety clinical and laboratory measurements (at the beginning and at the end of the trial) and reporting of adverse events and/or adverse drug reactions. Patients and Methods: This was an open label, non-comparative single center study. Drospirenone 4mg per day was the first postpartum contraceptive for the study participants who were no longer breastfeeding yet were still lactating. It was administered for 7 (seven) days to achieve steady-state concentration. All participants were volunteers who planned to use oral contraceptives as their family planning method in the future. Results: A total number of 12 volunteers completed the trial according to the protocol and the samples of all the 12 study completers were analyzed. The average concentration-time curve of drospirenone in plasma 24 h after the administration of the last dose (AUC(0-24h)) was 635.33 ng*h/mL and 120 h after the single repeat dose administration (AUC(0-120h) was 1180.57 ng*h/mL, respectively. The average Cmax was 48.64 ng/mL. The average concentration-time curve of drospirenone in milk 24 h after the administration of the last dose (AUC(0-24h)) was 134.35 ng*h/mL and 120 h after the single repeat dose administration (AUC(0-120h) was 227.17 ng*h/mL respectively. The average Cmax was 10.34 ng/mL. Conclusion: On average 18.13% of plasma drospirenone made it to breast milk and the highest concentration of drospirenone in breast milk was 17.55% of that in plasma. The total quantity of drospirenone passing to breast milk is on average 4478 ng during a 24 h period representing 0.11% of the maternal daily dose. Thus, at the recommended doses, no effects on breastfed newborns/infants are anticipated with drospirenone 4 mg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: milk; human; microbiota; microbiome; extracellular vesicle; breastfeeding
Online: 23 April 2020 (05:11:19 CEST)
The microbiota of human breast milk (HBM) contributes to infant gut colonization; however, whether bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in HBM or might contribute to this process remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized the HBM microbiota of healthy Korean mothers and measured the key bacteria likely affecting infant gut colonization by analyzing both the microbiota and bacterial EVs. A total of 22 HBM samples were collected from lactating mothers. The DNA of bacteria and bacteria-derived EVs was extracted from each sample. Gene analysis was performed using Illumina MiSeq. Firmicutes accounted for the largest portion among the phyla, followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, and Actinobacteria in both bacteria and bacterial EV samples. At the genus level, Streptococcus (25.1%) and Staphylococcus (10.7%) were predominant in bacterial samples, whereas Bacteroides (9.1%), Acinetobacter (6.9%), and Lactobacillaceae(f) (5.5%) were prevalent in bacterial EV samples. Several genera including Bifidobacterium were significantly positively correlated between the two samples. Our findings reveal the diverse bacterial communities in HBM of healthy lactating mothers and suggest the presence of key bacteria with metabolic activity in HBM and that EVs derived from these bacteria may contribute to the vertical transfer of gut microbiota from mother to infant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0068.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: breast milk lipidome, preterm infant, growth trajectory
Online: 11 December 2017 (15:53:33 CET)
Human milk is recommended for feeding preterm infant. Yet the potential impact of specific breast-milk lipid components on the initial growth rate of very-preterm infants has received scant attention. The current pilot study aims to determine whether breast-milk lipidome had any impact on the early growth pattern of preterm infants fed their own mother’s milk. A prospective monocentric observational birth cohort was established, enrolling 147 preterm infants, who received their own mother’s breast-milk throughout hospital stay. Among that cohort, infants who experienced slow (n=15) or fast (n=11) growth were selected, based on the change in their weight Z-score between birth and hospital discharge (-1.54± 0.42 and -0.48± 0.19 Z-score, respectively). Liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry was used to obtain lipidomic signatures in breast-milk. Multivariate analyses made it possible to identify breast-milk lipid species that allowed clear-cut discrimination between the 2 infants’ groups. Validation of the selected biomarkers was performed by means of various multidimensional statistical techniques, false-discovery rate and ROC curve computation. Breast-milk associated with fast growth contained more medium chain-saturated fatty acid and -sphingomyelin, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)-containing phosphethanolamine, and less oleic acid-containing triglyceride and DGLA-oxylipin. Their predictive ability of preterm early-growth rate was validated in presence of confounding clinical factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0199.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: human milk; DNA extraction; PCR; DNA quality, microbiota
Online: 14 October 2022 (03:19:46 CEST)
Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have shown that the human milk microbiota of healthy women varies substantially. The gDNA extraction method may influence the observed variation, biasing the microbiological reconstruction after all. In this study, a genomic DNA extraction method for DNA isolation from human milk samples was standardized and compared with commercial and standard hose make methods. Spectrophotometric measurements, gel electrophoresis, and PCR amplifications were used as criteria for evaluating the quantity, quality, and functionality of the extracted DNA. Furthermore, the standardized method of extracting gDNA from human milk was evaluated for its ability to isolate functional DNA from gram-positive, and gram-negative bacteria and fungi, to improve the reconstruction of microbiological profiles. The novel DNA extraction method increased the quantity and quality of the gDNA extracted compared with commercial and standard house-make protocols. This method even allowed PCR amplification of the V3-V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal gene in all samples, and the ITS-1 region of the fungal 18S ribosomal gene in 95 % of the samples as well. It is concluded that the proposed method provides better performance for the extraction of gDNA from complex samples such as human milk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0014.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: aflatoxin M1; milk; dairy products; risk assessment; children
Online: 1 November 2021 (12:26:43 CET)
The present study was conducted to estimate the exposure and risk characterization of the children population of Serbia to Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from milk and milk-based food. A total of 3404 samples comprising of milk and different milk-based food samples were collected from various regions of Serbia from 2017 to 2019. Evaluation of the AFM1 exposure was carried out using the deterministic method, whereas risk characterization was evaluated with the calculation of the Margin of Exposure (MOE) and the risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Detection rates for AFM1 in milk and milk-based food samples ranged between 2% and 79%, with the highest incidence (79%) and mean level (22.34 0,018 ng kg-1) of AFM1 was detected in pasteurized and UHT milk. According to the three consumption estimates, the values of EDI were higher for toddlers as compared with children. Children aged 1–3 years had the highest risk of exposure to AFM1 in milk, with an estimated daily intake of 0.164 and 0.193 ng kg-1 bw day-1 using a lower bound (LB) and the upper bound (UB) exposure scenarios, respectively. Such difference could result from the higher consumption versus weight. Based on the EDI found in this study, the risk of AFM1 due to consumption of milk and milk-based food was low since MOE values obtained were 10000. In addition, the risk of HCC cases/year/105 individuals of different age groups showed that the value of HCC using potency estimates of 0.0017 (mean) was maximum (0.00034) in the age group 1–3 years which indicates no health risk for the evaluated groups. The present study revealed the importance of controlling and preventing AFM1 contamination in milk through continuous monitoring and regular inspection to reduce the risk of AFM1 exposure, especially in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0736.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Bifidobacteria; fucosidases; glycosyl hydrolases; conserved domains; human milk
Online: 30 June 2021 (12:30:31 CEST)
Fucosylated carbohydrates and glycoproteins from human breast milk are essential for the development of the gut microbiota in early life because they are selectively metabolized by bifidobacteria. In this regard, α-L-fucosidases play a key role in this successful bifidobacterial colonization allowing the utilization of these substrates. Although a considerable number of α-L-fucosidases from bifidobacteria have been identified by computational analysis, only a few of them have been characterized. Hitherto, α-L-fucosidases are classified into 3 families, GH29, GH95 and GH151 based on their catalytic structure. However, bifidobacterial α-L-fucosidases belonging to a particular family show significant differences in their sequence. Because this fact could underlie distinct phylogenetic evolves, here extensive similarity searches and comparative analyses of the bifidobacterial α-L-fucosidases identified were carried out with the assistance of previous physicochemical studies available. This work reveals 4 and 2 paralogue bifidobacterial fucosidase groups within GH29 and GH95 families, respectively. Moreover, Bifidobacterium logum subsp. infantis species exhibited the greatest number of phylogenetic lineages in their fucosidases clustered in every family GH29, GH95 and GH151. Since α-L-fucosidases phylogenetically descended from other glycosyl hydrolase families, we hypothesized that could exhibit additional glycosidase activities other than fucosidase, raising the possibility about their application to transfucosylate other substrates than lactose in order to synthesis novel prebiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: diabetes; microbiota; yogurt; milk; dairy; probiotic; prebiotic; synbiotic
Online: 13 January 2021 (17:23:07 CET)
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is increasing worldwide and there are no long-term preventive strategies to stop this growth. Emerging research shows that perturbations in the gut microbiome significantly contribute to the development of T2D, while microbiome modulators may be beneficial for T2D prevention. However, microbiome modulators that are effective, safe, affordable, and able to be integrated daily in the diet are not yet available. Based on our previous pro- and prebiotic studies, we developed a novel synbiotic yogurt comprised of human-origin probiotics and plant-based prebiotics and investigated its impact on diet- and streptozotocin-induced T2D in mice. We compared the effects of our synbiotic yogurt to those of a commercially-available yogurt (control yogurt). Interestingly, we found that feeding of this synbiotic yogurt significantly reduced the development of hyperglycemia (diabetes) in response to high-fat diet feeding and streptozotocin compared to milk-fed controls. Surprisingly, the control yogurt exacerbated diabetes progression. Synbiotic yogurt beneficially modulated the composition of gut microbiota compared to milk; conversely, the control yogurt negatively modulated the gut microbiota by significantly increasing the abundance of detrimental bacteria like Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. In addition, the synbiotic yogurt protected intact pancreatic islet morphology compared to the milk control, while the commercial yogurt demonstrated worse effects on pancreatic physiology. These results suggest that our newly developed synbiotic yogurt protects against diabetes in mice and can be used as a modality to prevent diabetes progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0181.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ethiopia; milk; aflatoxin; Awi zone; HPLC-FLD; Aspergillus
Online: 8 October 2020 (15:53:52 CEST)
The aim of this study, therefore, provides information about Aflatoxin levels in raw cow’s milk in Injibara Town of Awi Administrative zone by using HPLC-FLD. A good linearity of standard calibration was found for AFM1 at a range of 0.5–7 µg/L. Regression coefficient (R2) values were 0.9999, whereas slope and intercept were 2.5278 and 0.1012, respectively. The average recoveries for the spiked samples were range from76.62– 90.98 % and the RSD values ranged between 2.55–7.36 %. The results showed that 15 % of samples (3 out of 20) were contaminated with AFM1 in the range of 0.046–0.22 µg/L. The average contamination level was 0.121 µg/L. The determined mean values of AFM1 in the collected milk samples were above the standard limit of the European Commission and lower than the level established by United States regulations. Further monitoring of Aflatoxin in milk samples from different regions of the country is justified to conclusively determine the actual safe/risks and possibly low Aflatoxins-risk milk production areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0513.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: heat stress; cow; automatic milking system; temperature; milk
Online: 24 August 2020 (08:15:32 CEST)
The objective of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of heat stress (HS) from automatic milking system (AMS), the relationships between measurements of temperature-humidity index (THI) and reticulorumen ph and temperature and some automatic milking systems parameters in dairy cows (rumination time (RT), milk traits, body weight (BW) and consumption of concentrate (CC)) during summer period. The experiment was carried out on a dairy farm at 54.9587408, 23.784146. Lithuanian Black and White dairy cows (n=365) were selected. The cows were milked with Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots with free traffic. The rations were calculated to meet physiological requirements of the animals. Daily milk yield, rumination time, body weight, milk fat and protein ratio were collected from the Lely T4C management program for analysis. The pH and temperature of the contents of cow reticulorumen were measured using specific smaX-tec boluses manufactured for animal care. The daily humidity and air temperature in the farm zone were obtained from the adjacent weather station (2 km away). According this study during HS, the higher THI had positive correlation with ML, which show tendencies to increase risk of mastitis, and decrease CC, RT, BW, MY, reticulorumen ph and F/P. Some biomarkers of HS can be milk yield, milk lactose, somatic cell count, concentrate conception, rumination time, body weight, reticulorumen ph and milk fat – protein ratio. We can recommend to monitoring these parameters in the herd management program to identify possibility of heat stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0161.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: embryonic type copper metabolism; milk ceruloplasmin; baby formula
Online: 10 September 2018 (09:43:22 CEST)
Copper, which can potentially be a highly toxic agent, is an essential nutrient due to its role as a co-factor for cuproenzymes and participation in signaling pathways. In mammals, the liver is a central organ that controls copper turnover throughout the body: copper absorption, distribution, and excretion. In ontogenesis, there are two types of copper metabolism: embryonic and adult, which maintain the balance of copper in each of these periods, respectively. In the liver cells, these types are characterized by specific expression patterns and activity levels of the genes encoding ceruloplasmin, which is the main extracellular ferroxidase and copper transporter and proteins mediating ceruloplasmin metalation. In newborns, the molecular-genetic mechanisms responsible for copper homeostasis and the ontogenetic switch from embryonic to adult copper metabolism are highly adapted to milk ceruloplasmin as a dietary source of copper. In the mammary gland cells, the level of ceruloplasmin gene expression and the alternative splicing of its pre-mRNA govern the amount of ceruloplasmin in milk, and thus, the amount of copper absorbed by the newborn is controlled. In the newborns, absorption, distribution, and accumulation copper are adapted to milk ceruloplasmin. In the newborns, which are not breast-fed at the early stages of postnatal development, the control for alimentary copper balance is absent. We tried to focus on the neonatal consequences of a violation of the balance of copper in the mother / newborn system. Although there is still much to be learned, the time to pay attention to this problem came because the neonatal misbalance of copper may provoke the development of copper related disorders for future life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0108.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: food sustainable innovation; rice with milk; hedonic tasting
Online: 16 November 2017 (07:29:20 CET)
Sustainable innovation in the agro-food system has become a strategy increasingly used by companies as a means to increase their competitiveness and position themselves in the market. In this context, the objective of this work is to identify the attitudes and sensory perceptions of consumers towards sustainable food technology through two scales (Food Technology Neophobia and Domain Specific Innovativeness) and hedonic tastings. For this, a new product was selected in the market: powder to prepare rice with milk. Most consumers have attitudes toward low neophobia to products with food technology, but there is also some caution, situation that is corroborated by the moderate predisposition towards innovations. Color and flavor attributes can make the difference in positive perceptions. It should not be forgotten that there is a segment of innovative sustainable consumers that represent a key market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0385.v1
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:15:22 CEST)
Obesity and hyperglycemia can trigger various diseases, including diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular ailments. Health-promoting fermented milk products can be useful in tackling these issues. One such product is the fermented milk developed using Lactobacillus casei AP, a probiotic strain from Indonesia that has not been tested in humans thus far. Our objective was to examine the effects of L. casei AP-fermented milk products on lipid profiles, blood glucose levels and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in obese adults. A total of 29 obese subjects were given L. casei AP-fermented milk products, and their fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride levels were measured using diagnostic system kits. MCP-1 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was determined that the administration of L. casei AP-fermented milk products significantly reduced total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels (p < 0.05); however, it did not increase HDL (p > 0.05), MCP-1 or fasting blood glucose levels (p ≥ 0.05). In conclusion, in obese Indonesian adults, L. casei AP-fermented milk might reduce total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels but may not affect HDL, MCP-1 or fasting blood glucose levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: breast milk immunoactive factors; cortisol; maternal stress; social support
Online: 15 April 2021 (11:07:47 CEST)
Possible alterations of maternal immune function due to psychological stress may reflect immunoactive factor levels in breast milk. This study aimed to assess the association between maternal distress and breast milk levels of secretory IgA (SIgA), IgM, IgG, and lactoferrin (LF). We hypothesized this association is moderated by maternal social support achieved from others during lactation. The study group included 103 lactating mothers and their healthy 5-months-old infants. Maternal distress was determined based on the State Anxiety Inventory and the level of salivary cortisol. Social support was assessed using Berlin Social Support Scales. Breast milk samples were collected to test for SIgA, IgM, IgG, and LF using the ELISA method. Milk immunoactive factors were regressed against maternal anxiety, social support, salivary cortisol, and infant gestational age using the general regression model. Maternal anxiety was negatively associated with milk levels of LF (β=-0.22, p<0.05) and SIgA (β=-0.29, p<0.01), while social support was positively associated with milk IgG (β=0.25, p<0.05). Neither anxiety nor social support was related to milk IgM. No association was found between the level of maternal salivary cortisol and immunoactive factors in milk. Our results suggest that maternal psychological well-being and social support may affect milk immune properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0576.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria; Traditional fermented milk; Isolation; Identification. characterization
Online: 24 March 2021 (09:58:43 CET)
Fermented milk product "Laban" in Libya is one of the most a traditional fermented milk product consumed a refreshing drink, particularly in the warm season The average values of the physicochemical including titratable acidity, pH, total solids, and fat were 0.73%, 4.16, 8.12%, and 1.54% respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴, and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml., respectively. Most strains of coliform bacteria were Serratia odorifera, Escherichia coli 1, E. coli 2. and Klebsiella oxytoca. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of 142 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests revealed the most frequent Lactobacillus species found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%), followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris. Thus, our research documented the lactic acid bacteria strains and will provides fundamental basic and useful information for further studies of strain selection starter culture, with regard to the industrial production of fermented dairy milk products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0636.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: sorghum silage; corn silage; buffalo cows; milk; serum biochemistry
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:49:47 CET)
The influence of replacing corn silage with sorghum silage in the diet of dairy buffalo cows on metabolic status and on milk yield, chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile was studied. Forty dairy buffalo cows were included in the trial and divided into two homogeneous groups (SS, sorghum and CC, corn). Blood was collected at the end of the trial (120 days), individual milk yield was registered daily. Samples of milk were monthly collected and analyzed for fat, protein and lactose. Moreover, fatty acid profiles of silages and milk were determined. Buffalo cows fed sorghum silage showed an average milk yield higher than group CS (kg/d 10.120 vs 9.270; P<0.05), probably due to the lower lignin content of sorghum silage (31 vs 47 g/kg dry matter, respectively for SS and CS diets) and by consequence to its energy value, higher than expected. The percentage of linoleic acid was significantly higher in milk of group CS (C18:2: 1.27% vs 2.05%; P<0.01) due to the higher content of these acids in corn than in sorghum silage. The omega 6/omega 3 ratio was significantly lower in milk from buffalo cows fed sorghum than corn silage (7.8 vs 12.9; P<0.01). Serum biochemistry showed no negative effects of the corn replacing with sorghum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0331.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: milk lactose; automatic milking system; smart farming; dairy cows
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:51:45 CEST)
In this study pH, temperature of the contents of the forestomach of cows and cow activity were measured using specific smaXtec boluses manufactured for animal care. Rumination time, body weight, milk yield, milk fat/protein ratio, milk lactose, milk somatic cell count, milk electrical conductivity and conception of concentrates were registered with the help of Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots. The following parameters were obtained: base excess in blood, partial carbon dioxide pressure, partial oxygen pressure, bicarbonate, hydrogen potential, total carbon dioxide carbon, base excess in extracellular fluid, sodium, calcium, potassium, packed cell volume, chlorides, hemoglobin concentration and lactate. According to the concentration of lactose in milk, cows were grouped into two groups: group 1 - milk lactose <4.70% (n = 20), group 2 - milk lactose ≥ 4.70% (n = 15). Data of cows were also divided by milk fat and protein ratio: F/P<1.2 (class 1), F/P=1.2 (class 2) and F/P>1.2 (class 3). According our results we can conclude that inline registered milk lactose concentration can be used as indicator for the health status of fresh dairy cows. Cows with higher lactose concentration (≥ 4.70%) developed more activity (54.47%) and had less risk of mastitis (lover milk EC, and SCC) and metabolic disorders according to F/P. Cows with higher lactose concentration showed higher glucose concentrations. Low level of lactose can be used as indicator of mastitis (milk SCC ≥ 100 thousand/ml) and metabolic disorders according to F/P.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0264.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; biosorption; milk; ICP-MS; isotherm; sensory evaluation
Online: 12 July 2020 (15:29:26 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Cadmium absorption in Milk. Nowadays one of the most serious problems is heavy metals pollution. Applying microorgaisms as a novel biotechnology is so useful especially in foodstuffs. Among the biosorbents for heavy metals’ removal, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has got an increasing attention due to its popularity in food industry. In this regard, the effects of some important factors such as the initial metal concentration, biomass concentration and contact time on the biosorption capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The biosorption was analyzed by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The maximum Cd bioremoval (70%) was at 80 μg/L of this metal concentration in milk samples containing 30×108 CFU Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the end of storage time (the 4th day). There were no significant differences in sensory and physicochemical properties of milk samples during storage (p < 0.05). The isotherm studies followed by two popular models; Langmuir and Freundlich and the results showed a better fit to the Langmuir isotherm. All together, the results of this project demonstrated that the approach of using this valuable yeast, could be applied for food and drinks’ detoxification and producing healthier foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antibiotic residue; human health; milk; risk assessment; TLC; UHPLC
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:25:29 CEST)
Consumption of milk contaminated with antibiotic residues above the maximum residue limit (MRL) causes direct toxicity to humans and the development of superbugs that leads to the failure of antibiotic therapy and threatens human life. Besides, long-duration exposure might alter the nature of gut microflora results in the enhancement of many diseases. Therefore, we examined 300 raw and processed packet milk samples using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method against five veterinary antibiotics and assessed the risk for consumers in Chattogram, Bangladesh. Risk analysis was calculated by using hazard quotient on the basis of 165 ml per capita milk consumption. We found a total of 7% prevalence of antibiotic residues in raw milk samples which were higher (8%) in individual samples than the pooled samples (4%). However, we did not find any processed packet milk samples as positive. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline residue was detected 61.29 µg/l and amoxicillin was 124 µg/l in individual milk samples. Risk analysis showed the hazard quotient values of 0.0056 for oxytetracycline and 0.0017 for amoxicillin residue which was confirmed that, no significant health risk associated with the consumption of milk produced and marketed in the study area. Our study might fill the gap of knowledge to measure the safety status of milk regarding public health issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: food allergy, food allergen, fruits, seafood, nut and milk
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:32:18 CEST)
Food allergy has been recognised by the World Health Organisation as a chronic disease that could lead to fatality. The symptoms can mediate from mild to severe consequences. Some cases have reported that food allergy sufferers are bullied and are discriminated at workplace, thus increasing their stress level, apart from facing difficulty in consuming certain food due to allergy. This has an adverse effect on the quality of life amongst food allergy sufferers. Medical bills are increased when food allergy sufferers become unknowingly exposed to food allergen. Hence, this study investigated food allergens among food allergy sufferers in order to make their lives better. A total of 250 respondents participated in an online survey. Surprisingly, apart from chicken, soybean and other food allergens that have been listed under the Big Eight Allergens, the respondents mentioned some fruits that could trigger allergic reactions, such as rambutans and watermelons. Food allergy sufferers can be allergic to seafood and seafood products as well, such as shrimp paste or locally known as belacan, which refers to fermented shrimp paste cured under the sun. It is a common food ingredient used among Malaysians. The study findings offer practical insights, such as avoidance of food allergens amidst food allergy sufferers and help the government to carefully manage for menu planning. The knowledge contribution of this study reveals several specific food and fruits, as aforementioned, which appear to be common and nutritious food, yet harmful to food allergy sufferers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0272.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, meat, raw milk, antibiotics; antibiotic resistance genes
Online: 15 August 2018 (13:58:11 CEST)
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) occasionally threatens the life of the host as a persistent pathogen even though it is normal flora of humans and animals. We characterized drug resistance in S. aureus isolated from animal carcasses and milk samples from the abattoirs and dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province. Methods: A 1000 meat swab samples and 200 raw milk samples were collected from selected abattoirs and dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. S. aureus was isolated and positively identified using biochemical tests and confirmed by molecular methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test against 14 different antibiotics was performed against all isolates. Antibiotic resistance genes were also detected. Results: Of the 1200 samples collected, 134 (11.2%) samples were positive for S. aureus. Resistance ranged from 71.6% for penicillin G to 39.2% for tetracycline. Resistance gene (blaZ) was detected in 13 (14.9%), while msrA was found in 31 (52.5%) of S. aureus isolates. Conclusions: The present result shows the potential dissemination of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in the dairy farms and abattoirs in the Eastern Cape. Therefore, this implies that the organism may rapidly spread through food and pose serious public health risk
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0362.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Labelling; Food Allergy; Prevention; Proteomics; Mass Spectrometry; Cow’s Milk Allergy
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:44:55 CET)
Extremely sensitive food-allergic patients may react to very small amounts of allergenic foods. Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) warns from possible allergenic contaminations. We explored the ability of proteomic methods to identify minute amounts of milk/egg allergens in a brand of PAL-labelled milk- and egg-free biscuits. We evaluated the reactivity of children with severe milk and egg allergy, by oral food challenge. Traces of milk and/or egg allergens in biscuits were measured by two different liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The binding of patient's serum with egg/milk proteins was assessed at immunoblotting. None of the patients reacted to biscuits. Egg and milk proteins were found under the limit of detection of 0.6 µg/g for milk and egg (method A), and of 0.1 and 0.3 µg /g for milk and egg, respectively (method B). The immunoblots did not show milk/egg proteins in the studied biscuits. Our biscuits did not contain allergens of clinical significance. Their milk/egg content is far lower than 4 µg of milk or egg protein per gram of product, the minimal doses considered theoretically capable of causing reactions. With high sensitivity, proteomic assessments predict the harmlessness of very small amount of allergenic foods and can be used to avoid unnecessary PAL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0387.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ice cream; sheep's milk; probiotics; apple fiber; inulin; Bifidobacterium; Lactobacillus
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:19:50 CET)
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the addition of inulin and the replacement of part of inulin with apple fiber on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Moreover, the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was studied in sheep milk ice cream. There was no effect of apple fiber and the type of bacteria on the number of bacteria of the probiotics after fermentation. As a result of freezing, mixture containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12, there was a significant reduction in the bacterial from 0.39 log cfu g −1 to 0.46 log cfu g −1. In all ice cream on the 21st day of storage, it exceeded 10 log cfu g –1, which means that the ice cream retained the status of probiotic products. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus ice cream showed a lower yellow colour compared to the Bifidobacterium Bb-12 ice cream. The overrun of sheep's milk ice cream was within a range from 78.50% to 80.41%. The appearance of sheep's milk ice cream is influenced considerably by the addition of fiber and the type of bacteria and the interaction between the type of bacteria and the addition of fiber and storage time and fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0674.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: chitosan; microbial synthesis; milk composition; volatile fatty acids; purine derivatives
Online: 26 November 2020 (14:15:52 CET)
The study compared the influence of chitosan sources on rumen fermentation, methane emission and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a glycerin-based diet. Six, lactating Holstein-Frisian crossbreeds (410 ± 5.0 kg BW, 120 ± 21 day-in-milk), were arranged in a 3 x 3 replicated Latin square design. In addition to control, a 2% chitosan extract supplement and a 2% commercial chitosan supplement of dry matter intake were the treatments. The results denoted that no significant differences on daily dry matter, nutrients or estimated energy intake were noted when cows received different sources of chitosan. Nutrient digestibility was not influenced differently by extraction based or commercial chitosan supplements. The pH, temperature, ammonia nitrogen, blood urea and microbial count were similar among treatments. The different sources of chitosan supplements did not change the totals of volatile fatty acids, acetate and butyrate; in contrast, different chitosan sources influenced (P<0.05) propionate content. The ruminal acetate to propionate ratio was markedly (P<0.05) reduced with chitosan supplement, but no change appeared between sources of chitosan. At 4 hours after feeding, the methane estimation signiﬁcantly decreased with the addition of chitosan supplementation (P<0.05) compared to the control group. The purine derivatives and microbial protein synthesis were not altered by the treatments. No significant differences existed on milk yield, milk composition or milk urea nitrogen when cows received different sources of chitosan (P>0.05). In sum, supplementing extracted chitosan showed more potential than did commercial chitosan for enhancing economic efficiency and recycling shrimp residues, therefore, reducing environmental waste.
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: CTs molecular weight; ruminal fermentation; bio-hydrogenation; milk compositions; goat
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:44:56 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of condensed tannin (CTs) with differing molecular weight on their capacity to modify the fatty acid profile in milk. Twenty multiparous crossbred lactating dairy goats were assigned in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), and were subjected to receive the dietary treatments as followings; T1: control (with no CTs supplementation), T2: supplemented with mangosteen peel in a concentrate as a source of low molecular weight CTs at level of 3.0 %DM of CTs equivalent, T3: supplemented with the same diet with T2 but added with polyethylene glycol (PEG, as tannin inactivator) as the control of T2, and T4: supplemented with quebracho CT extract (UNITAN ATO, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 75-77 % tannins) in a concentrate as a source of high molecular weight CTs at level of 3.0 %DM of CTs equivalent, and T5) supplemented with the same diet with T4 but added with PEG as the control of T4. No significant change was detected for feed intake and nutrient digestibility indicate that CTs at level of 3.0 %DM of diet did not showed the detrimental effect to feed intake and nutrient digestibility, however, ruminal fermentation parameters and milk yield and milk compositions did not affected by different source of CT inclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: feasibility; acceptability; adherence; attrition rate; periodontal therapy; milk fortification; pregnancy
Online: 10 September 2020 (04:44:05 CEST)
This study aims to assess the acceptability, adherence, and retention of a feasibility trial on milk fortification with calcium and vitamin D (Ca+VitD) and periodontal therapy (PT) among low income Brazilian pregnant women with periodontitis (IMPROVE trial). This 2x2 factorial feasibility trial used a mixed-methods evaluation. 69 pregnant women were randomly allocated to four groups: 1.fortified sachet with Ca+VitD and milk plus early PT (throughout gestation); 2.placebo and milk plus early PT; 3.fortified sachet with Ca+VitD and milk plus late PT after childbirth; 4.placebo and milk plus late PT. Data were collected via questionnaires, field notes, participant flow logs, treatment diary, and focal group discussions. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using appropriate descriptive statistics and content analysis, respectively. Eligibility rate (12%) was below the target of 15%, but participation (76.1%) and recruitment rate (2 women/week) exceeded the targets. Retention rate (78.6%) was slightly below the target (80%). Adherence to the PT was significantly higher in the early treatment groups (98.8%) compared to the late treatment groups (29%). All women accepted the random allocation and baseline groups were balanced. There was no report of adverse events. This multi-component intervention is acceptable, well-tolerated, and feasible among low-risk pregnant women in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: precision dairy farming; milk progesterone; production; reproduction; automatic milking system
Online: 14 July 2020 (05:48:53 CEST)
The aim of the instant study was to evaluate relative inline progesterone dynamic changes according to parity and status of reproduction and to estimate the relationship with productivity in dairy cows by inline milk analysis system (IMAS) Herd Navigator. According to a progesterone assay, cows were divided into three periods: postpartum, after insemination, and pregnancy. In the first stage of the postpartum period (0-29 days), the progesterone level in milk was monitored every 6 days. The second stage of the postpartum period (30-65 days) lasted until cows were inseminated. In the third period (0-45 days) after cows were inseminated, progesterone scores were distributed according to whether or not cows became pregnant. The stability of progesterone dynamics was monitored in the last study period (45-90 days). For milk progesterone detection, the fully automated real-time progesterone analyzer Herd Navigator (Lattec I/S. Hillerød. Denmark) was used in combination with a DeLaval milking robot (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden). The highest progesterone concentration in multiparous cows ranged from 1.08% (11-17 days postpartum) to 34.89% higher than that in cows of the first parity. The lowest progesterone concentrations in the milk of all cows were estimated during the first 5 postpartum days and between 18 and 23 days after calving. Peak milk progesterone concentrations were evaluated in the first stage of the experiment on days 24-29 after calving. In the 30-65-day period after calving, the level of milk progesterone was 2.02-2.08 times higher than that in the 24-29-day postpartum period. After insemination, the level of progesterone in milk increased by 10.77-22.54% compared with the level from cows on days 30-65 after calving. A higher (12.88%) concentration of progesterone in milk was evaluated in multiparous cows compared with that from cows of the first parity. In pregnant cows, milk progesterone within 0-45 days after insemination was 23.88% (in multiparous cows) and 32.54% (in primiparous cows) higher than that in non-pregnant cows. On days 31–35 after insemination, pregnant cows had higher milk progesterone levels, which can predict pregnancy success. According to our study results, we can suggest that an inline progesterone concentration determined by inline milk analysis system Herd Navigator and changes in its dynamics correlate with different reproductive statuses and milk yield of cows. Pregnant cows 11–15 days after insemination have higher milk progesterone levels, what positively, associated with a successful pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0491.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: electronic tongue; milk; galactose; phthalocyanine; chitosan; ionic liquid; LbL sensor
Online: 25 July 2018 (15:50:19 CEST)
A nanostructured electrochemical bi-sensor system for analysis of milks has been developed using the Layer by Layer technique. The non-enzymatic sensor [CHI+IL/CuPcS]2, is a layered material containing a negative film of the anionic sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuPcS) acting as electrocatalytic material, and a cationic layer containing a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) that enhances the conductivity and chitosan (CHI) that facilitates the enzyme immobilization. The biosensor ([CHI+IL/CuPcS]2-GAO) results from the immobilization of galactose oxidase on the top of the LbL layers. FTIR, UV-vis and AFM have confirmed the proposed structure and cyclic voltammetry has demonstrated the amplification caused by the combination of materials in the film. Sensors have been combined to form an electronic tongue for milk analysis. Principal Component Analysis has revealed the ability of the sensor system to discriminate between milk samples with different lactose content. Using PLS-1 calibration models, correlations have been found between the voltammetric signals and chemical parameters measured by classical methods. PLS-1 models provide excellent correlations with lactose content. Additional information about other components such as fats, proteins and acidity can also be obtained. The method developed is simple and the short response time permits its use in assaying milk samples on-line.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Breast milk; Carotenoids; Tocopherols; Colostrum; Lactation stage; Cross-sectional study
Online: 6 October 2017 (08:39:21 CEST)
This study aims to quantify carotenoids and tocopherols in human milk from healthy Chinese women, and to explore their associations with region, lactation stage, and maternal socio-economic and obstetric factors. Human milk was obtained from 509 healthy mothers and the compounds of carotenoids and tocopherols were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography after mild saponification and solvent extraction. Socio-economic and obstetric characteristics of the mothers and their dietary intakes through a single 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. The median content of each component [μg/100mL, median (interquartile range)] in colostrum and mature milk was, respectively, β-carotene 8.0 (4.7-15.2) and 1.8 (1.4-2.7), β-cryptoxanthin 6.2 (2.4-12.9) and 1.8 (1.1-3.4), lutein 5.7 (2.9-10.2) and 3.4 (1.5-6.0), lycopene 6.3 (4.0-9.9) and 1.4 (1.1-2.0), zeaxanthin 1.0 (0.6-1.5) and 1.0 (0.6-1.4), α-tocopherol 645 (388-1176) and 211 (131-321), γ-tocopherol 68 (48-121) and 77 (45-120). The levels of all those vitamins presented regional differences, and decreased as lactation stage increased except for zeaxanthin and γ-tocopherol. Associations of carotenoid contents with maternal education, delivery mode, and present body mass index were found in multivariate analyses. These results suggest that some region, lactation stage, obstetric and socio-economic factors are associated with human milk concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in healthy Chinese mothers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0085.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: aflatoxin M1; milk; dairy; cholesterol; β-cyclodextrin; food safety; global warming
Online: 11 April 2022 (03:18:05 CEST)
Approximately one-third of mankind is chronically exposed to the carcinogenic aflatoxin M1 contained in milk and dairy products and there is no ready to use procedure for decontamination purposes applicable in milk technology. Since β-cyclodextrin is frequently used in food industry, its effect on aflatoxin M1 concentration was investigated during cholesterol removal. So, milk samples were spiked with aflatoxin M1 at the average level 0.89 µg/kg and cholesterol removal was carried out by 2.0% (w/w) β-cyclodextrin addition. As found, average cholesterol concentration decreased by 92.3% while aflatoxin M1 concentration decreased to 0.53 µg/kg, i. e. by 39.1% after the treatment. The procedure itself is easy, inexpensive, and ready to use in milk processing technology on current production lines without any investments, thus fully applicable with a high potential of full aflatoxin M1 milk decontamination efficiency and such way to strengthen considerably the food safety issues associated with milk and dairy products on global level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0063.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: raw milk; microbiological safety; microbiological quality; food safety; dairy; MBS method
Online: 3 August 2020 (08:07:03 CEST)
The consumption of dairy products and the dairy industry is one of the main global agro-food sectors for size, economic importance and level of technology. Microbiological quality of pasteurized milk or other milk products is dependent on microbiological quality of raw milk. A variety of microbiological count methods is available for monitoring the hygienic quality of raw milk. Among them, the pour plate method is the official essay for counting the number of colony forming units in milk samples according to ISO 4833-1:2013. The aim of the present study is the validation of the Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method, against the reference plate count method, for the assessment of the microbiological quality of raw milk. This comparative study, performed in collaboration with the “Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana M. Aleandri” (IZSLT), demonstrates the accuracy of this alternative method for the determination of total viable bacterial count in cow’s raw milk. The results obtained with the MBS method highlighting its potential as a valid tool for reliable microbiological analysis in dairy industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0359.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: food allergens; egg allergy; milk allergy; fish allergy; amyloids; IgE-binding
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:31:23 CEST)
Several animal food allergens assembly into amyloids under gastric-like environments. These aggregated structures provide Gad m 1 with an enhanced IgE interaction due to the amyloid assembly of the epitope regions. However, whether these properties are unique of Gad m 1 or common to other food allergens has not yet been addressed. Using Bos d 5, Bos d 12 and Gal d 2 as food allergen models and Gad m 1 as control, aggregation reactions and the sera of milk, egg and fish allergic patients we have analyzed the IgE interaction of the distinct amyloids. We found that amyloids formed by Bos d 12 and Gal d 2 full-length and truncated chains are recognized by the IgEs of milk and egg allergic patient sera. As with Gad m 1, in most cases amyloid recognition is higher than that of the precursor structure. Bos d 5 was not recognized under any fold by the IgE of the sera studied. These results support that formation of IgE-binding amyloids might be a common feature to animal food allergen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0063.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: beta casein; MAC-T cells; Ile; milk protein synthesis; omics; proteomics
Online: 7 June 2019 (14:55:03 CEST)
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing L-isoleucine (L-Ile) on milk protein synthesis, using an immortalized bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cell line. In this case, the cells were treated with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 mM of supplemental Isoleucine (Ile), and the most efficient time for protein synthesis for each amino acid was determined by measuring the cell, medium and total protein at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Confirmatory tests showed that 48h incubation time and 0.6 mM dosage of L-Ile are considered as the optimal time and dosage. The mechanism of milk protein synthesis was elucidated through proteomics analysis to clarify the metabolic pathway. When the L-Ile was supplemented, extracellular protein (medium protein) reached a peak at 48h, whereas in the case of the intracellular cell protein, it was shown to have reached to its peak at 24h in all L-Ile dosage treatments. In total, it is noted that there were 63 upregulated and 52 downregulated proteins. The results of the protein pathway analysis showed that the L-Ile group stimulated insulin/IGF pathway-mitogen activated protein kinase kinase/MAP kinase cascade, insulin/IGF pathway-protein kinase B signaling cascade, p53 pathway, de novo purine biosynthesis, Wnt signaling pathway, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and ATP synthesis which are pathways involved and related to protein and energy metabolism. Together, these results demonstrate that L-Ile supplementation was effective in stimulating β-casein synthesis by stimulating genes and pathways which are significantly related to protein and energy metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0630.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: egg; milk; allergens; multiple reaction monitoring; mass spectrometry; reference doses; food; PAL
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:40:49 CEST)
The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last decades and consequently the food labeling policies have improved over the time in different countries to regulate allergen presence in foods. In particular, Reg 1169 in EU mandates the labelling of 14 allergens whenever intentionally added to foods, but the inadvertent contamination by allergens still remains uncovered topic. In order to warn consumers on the risk of cross-contamination occurring in certain categories of foods, a precautionary allergen labelling system has been put in place by food industries on voluntary basis. In order to reduce the overuse of PAL, reference doses and action limits have been proposed by the VITAL project representing a guide in this jeopardize scenario. Development of sensitive and reliable mass spectrometry methods are therefore of paramount importance in this regard to check the contamination levels in foods. In this paper we describe the development of a managed time MRM method based on a triple quadrupole platform for milk and egg quantification in processed food. The method was in house validated and allowed to achieve levels of proteins lower than 0.2mg of total milk and egg proteins respectively in cookies, challenging the doses recommended by VITAL. The method was finally applied to cookies labeled as milk and egg-free. This method could represent in perspective a promising tool to be implemented along the food chain to detect even tiny amounts of allergens contaminating food commodities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0365.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Fecal IgE; preterm birth; neonate; asthma; atopic dermatitis; cow’s milk allergy; Western Blot
Online: 20 December 2022 (10:15:32 CET)
Background: Little is known about the natural history of immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated diseases in preterm infants, further hampered by the lack of noninvasive investigations. We aimed at developing a non-invasive tool for the study of IgE and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in neonatal fecal samples and evaluating its predictive value for the development of IgE-mediated diseases (cow’s milk allergy, asthma, or atopic dermatitis) during the first year of life. Methods: We developed a stool extraction protocol, followed by freeze-drying and solubilization. sIgE responses were investigated in neonatal fecal samples from 21 preterm infants with a 300-allergen multiplex containing whole and molecular allergens and confirmed by capillary Western blot with nano-immunoassay. The local eosinophilic component was investigated by measuring the concentration of EDN. Results: The multiplexed allergen assay detected sIgE in all samples. Confirmation was obtained with Western blot. Frequency and levels of sIgE in neonatal fecal samples differed between infants who developed IgE-mediated diseases and controls. Neonatal fecal sIgE directed to milk proteins predicted later development of cow’s milk allergy (specificity 88%, sensitivity 78%). Allergen specificity of neonatal fecal sIgE was associated with later development of cow’s milk allergy and asthma. Neonatal fecal EDN levels predicted the development of IgE-mediated diseases (sensitivity 100%, specificity 75%). Conclusion: Non-invasive investigation of neonatal fecal sIgE is a promising tool for the prediction of subsequent development of IgE-mediated diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: DRS dielectric relaxation; DSC differential scanning calorimetry; SMP skim milk powder; boundary curves
Online: 9 April 2018 (10:22:24 CEST)
This paper describes the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) method for obtaining glass transition temperature and the onset of crystallinity of skim milk powder (SMP). The methodology consists of exposing SMP samples to numerous constant temperatures, T, and water activities, aw, and measuring the relaxation time. Measurements are based on changes in the loss-tangent height at its peak frequency. Glass transition times are identified at peaks in the loss-tangent height versus time curve and the onset of crystallinity times are identified when the loss-tangent height collapses. The analysis leads to two boundary curves: glass transition Tg, aw curve and the onset of crystallinity Tc, aw curve. They separate the SMP stable (long shelf life) and unstable (short shelf life) regions. Two curve fitting algorithms were developed for (a) aw2, tg curve where tg is the time to glass transition and aw2, tc curve where time tc is the time to onset of crystallinity and (b) Tg, aw and Tc, aw boundary curves. Finally, the DRS data are compared to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0188.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Zika virus; Zika virus infection; perinatal transmission; mother-to-child transmission; breast milk; breastfeeding
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:44:05 CET)
To gain new insights into the potential of mother-to-child transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) through breast milk or breastfeeding practices, we systematically searched regional and international databases and screened 1,658 non-duplicate records describing women with suspected or confirmed ZIKV infection, intending to breastfeed or give breast milk to an infant. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria and inform this analysis. These studies reported on 97 mother-children pairs who provided breast milk for ZIKV assessment. Seventeen breast milk samples from different women were found positive for ZIKV via RT-PCR, and ZIKV replication was found in cell cultures from five out of seven breast milk samples from different women. Only three out of six infants who had ZIKV infection were breastfed, no evidence of clinical complications were found to be associated with ZIKV RNA in breast milk. This review updates our previous report by synthesizing the evidence from 12 new articles and we find no evidence of mother-to-child transmission through breast milk intake or breastfeeding. As the certainty of the present evidence is low, additional studies are still warranted to completely understand any potential of transmission of ZIKV through breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0307.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: PUFA; oils; body condition score; sheep milk composition; supplementation; canola; flaxseed; safflower; rice bran
Online: 13 November 2018 (10:05:15 CET)
The Australian dairy sheep industry is small and mostly based on a natural grass grazing system which can limit productivity. The current study tested different plant oil-infused and rumen protected polyunsaturated fats and their interactions with sire breeds to improve lactation traits and body condition score (BCS) of ewes grazing low quality pastures. It was hypothesised that supplementing lactating ewe diets plant-derived polyunsaturated oils will improve milk production and composition without compromising BCS. Sixty ewes (n=10/treatment) in mid-lactation, balanced by sire breed, parity, milk yield, body condition score, and liveweight were supplemented with: 1) control: wheat-based pellets without oil inclusion; wheat-based pellets including 2) canola oil (CO); 3) rice bran oil (RBO); 4) flaxseed oil (FSO), 5); safflower oil (SFO) and 6) rumen protected fat containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (RPO). Except for the control group, all supplementary diets included the same level of 50 ml/kg DM of oil and all diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Experimental animals were grazed in the same paddock with ad libitum access to pasture, hay and water during the 10-week study. RPO was the most effective diet that enhanced milk, fat and protein yields by approximately 30, 13, and 31% respectively (P<0.0001). Significant increase in milk production was also observed in CO, RBO, and SFO (P<0.0001). Breed significantly influenced animal performance with higher milk yield recorded for crossbred Awassi x East Friesian (AW x EF) (578 g/day) vs purebred Awassi (452 g/day) (P<0.0001). This study provides empirical evidence for the use of rumen-protected and plant-derived oil-infused pellets as supplements under low quality pasture grazing conditions, to improve production performance of purebred Awassi and crossbred AW x EF ewes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: breast feeding; formula feeding; human milk oligosaccharide; 2’-fucosyllactose; Lacto-N-neotetraose; microbiota; bifidobacteria
Online: 23 July 2018 (11:34:09 CEST)
Introduction The authors reviewed the published evidence on the presence of oligosaccharides in human milk (HMO) and their benefits in in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as to evaluate published data on the addition of some of HMOs to infant formula. Method PubMed was searched from inception to April 2018 Results The presence of HMOs is a dynamic process, determined by many factors such as duration of lactation, environmental and genetic factors. HMOs may support immune function development and provide protection against infectious diseases directly through the interaction of the gut epithelial cells or indirectly through the modulation of the gut microbiota, including the stimulation of the bifidobacteria. Only a few of the many HMOs can be made industrially, and are added to infant formula. They have been shown to be safe and well tolerated, including normal growth and a trend towards health benefit. Conclusions HMOs are one of the major differences between cow’s milk and human milk , and evidence indicates that these components do have a health promoting benefit. The addition of one or two of these components to infant formula is safe, and brings infant formula closer to human milk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0607.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Milk Serum; whey proteins; RP-HPLC-UV; free amino acids; RP-HPLC-FLD; antimicrobial study
Online: 25 September 2020 (11:45:09 CEST)
The aim of this study was characterization of some dairy drinks based on Milk Serum regarding major whey proteins (WP) and free amino acids (FAAs) using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) methods. The studied WP, -lactalbumin (-La), bovine serum albumin (BSA), -lactoglobulin A (-Lg A) and -lactoglobulin B (-Lg B) were separated on Aeris XB-C18 column at 214 nm detection. The RP-HPLC method was validated by selectivity, linearity (R2 ≥0.99), sensitivity (LOQ, 1.35–10.08 µg mL−1), accuracy (recovery 96.79-103.07%) and precision (% RSD ≤ 4.13%). The total studied WP in studied dairy drinks varied between 1.42 and 3.047 g·L-1. The chromatographic profile of FAAs (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, histidine, arginine, glycine, threonine, alanine, tyrosine, cysteine, tryptophan, methionine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine) was determined in lyophilized concentrate of Milk Serum by RP-HPLC using pre-column derivatization reaction with orthophthalaldehyde (OPA). The total studied FAAs in studied samples varied between 1.103 and 1.119 mg·g-1. Moreover, the Milk Serum showed bacteriostatic activity against two bacterial strains Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The obtained results confirm that dairy drinks based on the Milk Serum constitutes a valuable sources of bioactive components with benefits for human healthy nutrition.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: lactation; physiology-based lactation models; drug exposure prediction; fasting; drug safety; newborn; infant; human milk
Online: 6 April 2020 (09:11:05 CEST)
There are guidelines on lactation following maternal analgo-sedative exposure, but these do not consider the effect of maternal fasting, nor fluid abstention on human milk macronutrient composition. We therefore performed a structured search (PubMed) on ‘human milk composition’ and screened title, abstract and full paper on ‘fasting’ or ‘abstention’ and ‘macronutrient composition’ (lactose, protein, fat, solids, triglycerides, cholesterol). This resulted in 6 papers and one abstract related to religious fasting (n=129 women) and observational studies in lactating women (n=23, healthy volunteers, fasting). These data reflect two different ‘fasting’ patterns: an acute (18-25h) model in 71 (healthy volunteers, Yom Kippur/Ninth of Av) women and a chronic fasting (Ramadan) model in 81 women. Changes were most related to electrolytes and were moderate, with almost no changes in macronutrients during acute fasting. We therefor conclude that neither short term fasting nor fluid abstention (18-25h) affect human milk macronutrient composition, so that women can be reassured when this topic were raised during consulting. Besides the nutritional relevance, this also matters as clinical research samples – especially to estimate analgo-sedative exposure by lactation - are commonly collected after maternal procedural sedation, associated with maternal fasting and physiology-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models assume stable human milk composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0063.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: contamination; pathogens; bacteria; escherichia coli; staphylococcus aureus; hygiene; shigella; salmonella; milk processing; foodborne infection; cfu
Online: 13 November 2019 (10:37:25 CET)
Pasteurized milks are still causing food borne illness. Milk contamination can occur at any stage from its way from cow to our tables. Usually milk is pure and sterile when produced in udder of a healthy cow. Like humans, cow are reservoirs of bacteria which are harmless to humans and some cows can harbour few bacteria that are harmful to humans even though they are not harmful to the cow. Milk can be contaminated during or after milking. Also, cow feeds can be contaminated with mycotoxins such as aflatoxins produced by the fungi, Aspergillus flavus. Four types of aflatoxins are known which are; aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2. Cows comsuming feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 leads to secretion in the milk of aflatoxin M1 and M2 causing aflatoxicosis. Microbial contamination of milk and dairy products is a universal problem and foodborne infections accounting for 20 million cases annually in the world have been identified as an important public health and economic problem in developed as well as developing nations. The main objective of this study was to determine milk microbial quality in Kicukiro district. The specific objectives are to identify bacteria pathogens in milk collected in Kicukiro district, to compare milk quality among sectors of Kicukiro district, to compare milk processed by industries and home-processed milk. The methodology employed in this research was cross-sectional and experimental as the study began with collection of raw data and went through laboratory analysis from July–August, 2018. The findings showed that 59.56% of the milk fell within Grade I – Grade III (< 200,000 ≤ 2,000,000 cfu/ml) and 40.42 % of the milk samples were not within the acceptable limit of total count quality as per COMESA and EAS, non-lactobacilli and fungi were present in most samples as examined through microscope and no Staphylococcus aureus was present in any sample as examined by catalase and coagulase tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cation exchange chromatography; minor milk protein; response surface modeling; simulation; steric mass action (SMA); optimization
Online: 12 January 2017 (09:59:40 CET)
Lactoperoxidase (LP), which is a high-value minor whey protein, has recently drawn extensive attention from research scientists and industry due to its multi-function and potential therapeutic applications. In this study, the separation and optimization of two similar-sized proteins, LP and lactoferrin (LF) were investigated using strong cation exchange column chromatography. Optimization was started with central composite design based experiments to characterize the importance of different decision variables. The three variables used in the optimization were flow rate, length of gradient and final salt concentration in the linear elution gradient step. The obtained empiric functional model represented the effect of the significant factors on the yield as the objective function. Afterwards, the calibrated mechanistic model was employed to predict accurate optimal set of variables. The optimal operating points were found and the results were compared with validation experiments. Predictions respecting yield confirmed a very good agreement with experimental results while keeping purity, a product quality characteristic, equal or above to a predefined value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0312.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: raw milk stretched cheeses; lactic acid bacteria; coliform bacteria; Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus; yeasts and moulds
Online: 12 February 2021 (15:26:35 CET)
To evaluate the behaviour of the relevant microbial populations during stretched cheese production, the quantitative microbiological analysis was performed during the critical steps of the preparation. The obtained data distributions proved statistically significant increases in all indicators, on average by 4.55 ± 0.64 log CFU/g of presumptive lactococci counts, 4.06 ±0.61 of lactobacilli, 1.53 ± 0.57 log CFU/g of coliforms, 2.42 ± 0.67 log CFU/g of Escherichia coli, 1.53 ± 0.75 log CFU/g of yeasts and moulds, and 0.99 ± 0.27 log CFU/g of presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, from the early stage of milk coagulation until curd ripening (0–24 h). The following steaming/stretching process caused reductions in viable counts with the most significant inactivation effect on coliform bacteria, including E. coli (-4.0 ± 1.0 log CFU/g). Total viable counts and yeasts and moulds showed 2 and almost 3 log reduction (-2.2 ± 1.1 log CFU/g and -2.6 ± 0.9 log CFU/g), respectively. The lowest decreases in presumptive S. aureus counts were estimated at the level of -1.50 ± 0.64 log CFU/g. The counts of yeasts and moulds showed the best indicatory function during the entire storage period of vacuum-packaged cheeses at 6 °C.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0297.v1
Subject: Keywords: Human Milk Fat; TAG; DHA; Fatty Acids; Nutrients; Food Industry; Structured Lipids; LCPUFA; Interesterification; Acidolysis; PA
Online: 18 May 2020 (05:47:46 CEST)
Maternal milk, from well-nourished and healthy mothers, is a source of several bioactive compounds and balanced nutrients required for proper growth and development of the infant. Hence it is regarded as the optimal form of nourishment. Human milk fat from human milk is the most crucial component and is a necessity for the growing infant. However, in certain cases, the breast milk may fulfill the nutritional needs or the breast-feeding of the infant is not feasible; infant formulae are then considered as the best alternative as nutritional support. It becomes essential for the infant formula to behave and provide nutritive support in the same way as human milk. In order to achieve so, the most crucial components of all should also be prepared precisely, i.e., the analogue of human milk fat. This analogue, which mimics the actual human milk fat, can be then used as a prime ingredient while designing the infant formula. Significant research and several advances have been made in preparing the infant formula enriched with adequate fat content, and more studies are still being conducted in order to achieve a more sound product in the most economical and simplest way possible.