ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0338.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: migratory birds; Newcastle disease virus-GVII; poultry; phylogenetics; sequence-independent; sin-gle-primer amplification (SISPA); velogenic; whole genome sequencing (WGS)
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:40:10 CEST)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genotype VII is a highly pathogenic Orthoavulavirus that has caused multiple outbreaks among poultry in Egypt since 2011. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of NDV prevailing in domestic and wild birds in Egyptian governorates. A total of 37 oropharyngeal swabs from wild birds and 101 swabs from domestic bird flocks including chickens, ducks, turkeys, and swans were collected from different geographic regions within 13 governorates during 2019-2020. Virus isolation and propagation via embryonated eggs revealed 91 swab samples produced allantoic fluid containing hemagglutination activity, suggestive of virus presence. The use of RT-PCR targeted to F gene successfully detected NDV in 85 samples. The geographical prevalence of NDV spread to 12 governorates in domestic birds, migratory and non-migratory wild birds. Following whole genome sequencing, we assembled six NDV genome sequences (70 - 99% of genome coverage), including five full F gene sequences. All NDV strains carried high virulence, based on the presence of polybasic amino acids (RRQRF) at the F gene cleavage site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NDV strains belonged to class II within genotype VII.1.1. The presence of genetically similar virulent NDV in wild birds further highlights their role in the dissemination of NDV in poultry populations across Egypt. Continued genomic surveillance in both wild birds and poultry would be necessary for monitoring NDV incursions and genetic diversification.
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Saiga; antelope; conservation breeding; reintroduction; Convention on Migratory Species (CMS)
Online: 26 February 2020 (10:49:20 CET)
Saiga (Saiga tatarica) was extirpated in China. Since Mid-1980s, attempts have been made for revival the species in the country, however, only a breeding herd of Saiga was successfully established at Wuwei, Gansu, China. The reintroduced Saiga population experienced a bumpy growth. Then, the population collapsed following the catastrophe die-off in the Saiga ranging countries in Central Asia, then population started to rebound when 6 new lams were born in 2019. After reviewing the population trend and conservation breeding of Saiga in China, we concluded that to establish a migratory species that needs vast range size like Saiga on central Asia steppe, an international collaboration is needed for introducing new genes. We recommend China to ratify the CMS in order to facilitate international conservation efforts to restoring the species in its former range.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0115.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: beaches; coastal avifauna; ecotourism; migratory birds; recreation ecology; recreational disturbance; shorebirds; tourism development; wetlands
Online: 11 September 2019 (05:17:14 CEST)
This data descriptor summarizes the process applied to identify, screen, select and gather data from the content of 142 peer-reviewed papers/sources that report on the sources and impacts of recreational disturbance on coastal avifauna. While populations of resident and migratory coastal avifauna are under threat and diminishing rapidly across the planet, and particularly in association with Asian flyways, many governments are leveraging booming global demand for coastal recreation and tourism in order to deliver economic development to regional communities. The summary data shared via this data description was extracted from papers collected in a systematic literature review that was designed to explore the global literature on the recreational disturbance of coastal avifauna in order to elucidate the state of the global knowledge regarding this issue and to identify management strategies that could be applied at tropical Asian destinations to minimize the impacts of recreational disturbance and thus enhance the ecological sustainability of coastal recreation and tourism across the region. The data shared via the Excel worksheet associated with this data descriptor was extracted from peer-reviewed articles published in English between 1 January 2000 and the 31 December 2018 with the full text of the article available online. These articles were found by searching several online indexing several databases including Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0037.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Varroa mite, Pesticide Residues, Ppathogens, Apis mellifera, Migratory Hives, Sinai Virus, Lotmaria passim, Apocephalus borealis
Online: 5 May 2021 (11:54:37 CEST)
A two-year study was conducted in Maine wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) on the health of migratory honey bee colonies in 2014 and 2015. In each year 3-5 colonies were monitored at each of 9 wild blueberry field locations during bloom (mid-May until mid-June). Colony health was measured by assessing percent worker and sealed brood rate of change from the beginning of bloom until the end of bloom. Potential factors that might affect colony health were queen failure or supersedure; pes-ticide residues on trapped pollen, wax comb, and bee bread; and parasites and pathogens. We found that Varroa mite and pesti-cide residues on trapped pollen were significant predictors of colony health as measured by the percent rate of change of sealed brood during bloom. These two factors explained 71% of the variance in colony health over the two years. Pesticide exposure was different in each year as were pathogen prevalence and incidence. We detected high prevalence and abundance of two recently discovered pathogens and one recently discovered parasite, the trypanosome Lotmaria passim Schwartz, the Sinai virus, and the phorid fly, Apocephalus borealis Brues.