ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0512.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social sustainability; seasonal migration; circular migration; industrial agriculture; Huelva; Lleida; Romanian migration; temporary migration programs
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:24:46 CET)
Since the beginning of the 21st century, Romanian migrants have become one of the most significant national groups doing agricultural work in Spain, initially coming via a temporary migration program and later under several different modalities. However, despite their critical importance for the functioning of Europe’s largest agro-industry, the study of this long-term circular mobility is still underdeveloped in migration and agriculture literature. Thanks to extensive fieldwork carried out in the provinces of Huelva and Lleida in Spain and in the counties of Teleorman and Buzău in Romania, this paper has two main objectives: first, to identify some of the most common forms of mobility of these migrants and second, to discuss whether this industrial agriculture, hugely dependent on migrant work, is socially sustainable. The case of Romanian migrants in Spanish agriculture will serve to show how a critical sector for the EU and for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations, operates on an unsustainable model based on precariousness and exploitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Cell Migration; Cancer cell migration; normal epithelial cell motility
Online: 1 November 2023 (11:18:02 CET)
Cellular locomotion is required for survival, fertility, proper embryonic development, regeneration, and wound healing. Cell migration is a major component of metastasis, which accounts for two-thirds of all solid tumor deaths. While many studies have demonstrated increased energy requirements, metabolic rates, and migration of cancer cells compared to normal cells, few have systematically compared normal and cancer cell migration as well as energy requirements side by side. Thus, we investigated how non-malignant and malignant cells migrate utilizing several cell lines from the breast and lung. Initial screening was done in an unbiased high-throughput manner for the ability to migrate/invade on collagen and/or Matrigel. We unexpectedly observed that all the non-malignant lung cells moved significantly faster than cells derived from lung tumors regardless of growth media used. Given the paradigm-shifting nature of our discovery, we pursued possible mechanisms responsible. Neither mass, cell doubling, nor volume, accounted for the individual speed and track length of the normal cells. Non-malignant cells had higher levels of ATP at premigratory-wound induction stages. Meanwhile, cancer cells also increased ATP at premigratory-wound induction – but not to the levels of the normal cells, indicating the possibility for further therapeutic investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0058.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: labor migration; migration policy; Russia; Post-Soviet space; governmentality; labor legalization
Online: 18 September 2016 (09:45:52 CEST)
The authors argue that despite significant numbers of foreign workers present in the Russian labor market Russia remains unattractive for highly skilled foreign workers. The economic crisis the country has faced since 2014 has resulted in a further outflow of foreign nationals from OECD countries. So Russia has to look for employees among newcomers from the former Soviet states, the majority of whom come from Central Asia. Russian politics with regard to immigration is characterized by the collision between “geopolitical” and domestic policy rationales. On one hand, seeking to maximize its influence in the post-Soviet space Russia provides preferential conditions of employment for citizens of partner countries in the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. On the other hand, the Kremlin is afraid to liberalize its approach to immigration and the integration of immigrants through fear of losing popularity among the electorate. The second substantial feature of Russian immigration politics is an extreme level of securitization of migration issues. The government considers these issues primarily through a policing lens. One cannot claim that the Russian state does not take any steps to liberalize “migratory regulation”; however, the effect of these measures is being vastly reduced by new restrictions. In addition, liberally designed laws do not bring the expected results due to the corrupt practices that pervade the whole of migration regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Zebrafish; Macrophages; Migration; DUSP2; ERK
Online: 5 May 2023 (05:16:02 CEST)
Dual specificity phosphatase 2 (DUSP2) regulates the activation of members in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, which is involved in a variety of cellular processes like cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and migration. DUSP2 also regulates the expression of inflammatory mediators in macrophages, however, it remains unknown whether DUSP2 participates in macrophage migration. Here, using the tail fin injury model in zebrafish larvae, we found that deletion of DUSP2 inhibited expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage chemokines. Moreover, live imaging results showed that migration of macrophages to the injury site was inhibited after DUSP2 deletion. This inhibitory effect was mediated through reduced activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) in DUSP2 knockout zebrafish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0322.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Albania; family; migration; return; transnationalism
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:45:48 CEST)
Albanian migration has always reflected a family character, be that before 1945 when Albania was not yet completely isolated, as well as after 1990 when borders were reopened. This feature characterized all types of movement, internal or international, permanent or seasonal migration, return migration or transnational movements, and remigration. The role of the family has been very important in making decisions regarding migration and answering questions from why to how to migrate, from when to where, whom to ask for help or how to invest remittances. Based on the case study of a rural area in Northern Albania, The Administrative Unit of Dajç, this article explores in detail the roles of family and kinship on decisions regarding return migration, the re-adjustment process, remigration or transnational life. By exploring the role of the family context in remigration and vice-versa the article reflects that the family biography – including the lifestyle, plans for the future or expectations - has changed due to previous migration experiences or challenges and difficulties when returning to the home country. It demonstrates how individual decisions to migrate or to ‘return home’ are negotiated and supported within families making transnational life a family project. The article adopts a new approach in the Albanian Migration Studies which may be implied on broader areas for further research in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0081.v1
Online: 5 October 2021 (11:40:07 CEST)
International migrants comprised 14% of the UK population in 2020, but migrant health in the UK has rarely been studied at a population level using primary care electronic health records (EHRs). Given the difficulty of determining migration status using EHRs, this study developed a migration phenotype and assessed its validity. We developed a phenotyping algorithm using codes for country of birth, visa status, non-English main/first language and non-UK origin. It was applied to a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD database of 16,071,111 primary care patients between 1997 and 2018. We compared the completeness and representativeness of the identified migrant population to Office for National Statistics (ONS) country of birth and 2011 census data by year, age, sex, geographic region of birth and ethnicity. Between 1997-2018, 403,768 migrants (2.51% of the CPRD GOLD population) were identified using the phenotype. 178,749 (1.11%) of these migrants were identified by codes indicating foreign country of birth or visa status, 216,731 (1.35%) a non-English main/first language, and 8,288 (0.05%) non-UK origin. The cohort was similarly distributed compared to ONS migration statistics in terms of sex and region of birth. Recording of migration improved from identifying approximately one-tenth of the expected proportion of migrants according to the ONS in 2004 to a quarter in 2018. Younger migrants were better represented than those aged 50 and over. The migration phenotype identified a large number of migrants and can be used to undertake large-scale migration health research in CPRD GOLD to inform healthcare policy, practice and action. While the cohort was representative of the UK migrant population in terms of sex and region of birth, migration status was under-recorded in earlier years and older ages, and future studies for these groups should therefore be interpreted with caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1803.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: DUSP6; vascular remodeling; VSMC; proliferation; migration
Online: 30 October 2023 (05:49:53 CET)
In response to injury, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of the arterial wall dedifferentiate into a proliferative and migratory phenotype, leading to intimal hyperplasia. The ERK1/2 pathway participates in cellular proliferation and migration while dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6, also named MKP3) can dephosphorylate activated ERK1/2. We showed that DUSP6 was expressed in low baseline levels in normal arteries; however, arterial injury significantly increased DUSP6 levels in the vessel wall. Compared with wild-type mice, Dusp6-deficient mice had smaller neointima. In vitro, IL-1β induced DUSP6 expression and increased VSMC proliferation and migration. Lack of DUSP6 diminished IL-1β-induced VSMC proliferation and migration. DUSP6 deficiency did not affect IL-1β-stimulated ERK1/2 activation. Instead, ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 prevented DUSP6 induction by IL-1beta, indicating that ERK1/2 functions upstream of DUSP6 to regulate DUSP6 expression in VSMCs rather than downstream as a DUSP6 substrate. IL-1β decreased levels of cell cycle inhibitor p27 and cell-cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin in VSMCs whereas lack of DUSP6 prevented their downregulation, revealing novel functions of DUSP6 in regulating these two molecules. Taken together, our results indicate that lack of DUSP6 attenuated neointima formation following arterial injury by reducing VSMC proliferation and migration, which were likely mediated via maintaining p27 and N-cadherin levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0318.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: diterpenes; ferruginol; apoptosis; melanoma; migration, caspases.
Online: 3 August 2023 (11:48:59 CEST)
Ferruginol is a promising abietane-type antitumor diterpene able to induce apoptosis in SK-Mel-28 human malignant melanoma. We here aim to increase this activity by testing the effect of a small library of ferruginol analogues. After an screening of their antiproliferative activity (SRB staining) on SK-Mel-28 cells the analogue 18-aminoferruginol (GI50=10 µM) was further selected for mechanistic studies including effects on mitochondrial viability (MTT assay, IC50=10 µM p<0.0001), induction of apoptosis (DAPI staining, p<0.001), changes in cell morphology associated with the treatment (cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing), induction of caspase-3/7 activity (2.5x at 48h, 6.5x at 72h; p<0.0001), changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential (not significant), and effects on 2D cell migration and 3D cell invasion (modified Boyden assay, not significant). The results were compared to those of the parent molecule (ferruginol, GI50»50 µM) and paclitaxel (GI50=10 nM) as a reference drug. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that derivatization of ferruginol into 18-aminoferruginol increases its antiproliferative activity 5 times in SK-MEL-28 cells as well as changing the apoptotic mechanism of its parent molecule ferruginol from activation of caspases without depolarization of mitochondrial membrane.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Climate Change; Policy; Migration; Health; Governance
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:39:36 CET)
Changing mobility patterns combined with changes in the climate present challenges and opportunities for global health, requiring effective, relevant and humane policy responses. This study used data from a systematic literature review that examined the intersection between climate change, migration and health. The aim of the present study was to synthesize policy recommendations in the peer-reviewed literature, regarding this type of environmental migration with respect to health, to strengthen the evidence-base. Systematic searches were conducted in four academic databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, Global Health and Scopus) and Google Scholar for empirical studies published between 1990 – 2020 that used any study design to investigate migration and health in the context of climate change. Studies underwent a two-stage protocol-based screening process and eligible studies were appraised for quality using a standardized mixed-methods tool. From the initial 2,425 hits, 68 articles were appraised for quality and included in the synthesis. Among the policy recommendations, six themes were discernible: (1) avoid the universal promotion of migration as an adaptive response to climate risk; (2) preserve cultural and social ties of mobile populations; (3) enable the participation of migrants in decision-making in sites of relocation and resettlement; (4) strengthen health systems and reduce barriers for migrant access to health care; (5) support and promote optimization of social determinants of migrant health; (6) integrate health into loss and damage assessments related to climate change. The results call for transformative policies that support the health and wellbeing of people engaging in, or affected by mobility responses, including those whose migration decisions and experiences are influenced by climate change, and to establish and develop inclusive migrant healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1949.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: heavy metals; spatial distribution; atmospheric deposition; migration
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:42:44 CET)
The migration paths and distribution driving factors of heavy metals in dry and windy area polluted by their production in the North China need a further research. To address this research gap, we collected 675 soil samples, 72 atmospheric deposition samples and 20 water samples around a production area and measured its heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that the Cu, Zn, As and Pb in 0-10 cm soil layer showed a fan-shaped distribution, which was consistent with their atmospheric deposition fluxes. It indicated the distribution patterns of these heavy metals were driven by strong winds in studied area. Although Cr concentrated to the production area in the 0-10 cm soil layer, principal component analysis showed that this migration was through wind as well. The concentration of Cd in the river increased from 0.257 mg/L to 0.460 mg/L along water flowing, and caused the same distribution trend in soil near the river from upstream to downstream. Unlike the above, surface runoff should drive the Cd migration. The concentration of Pb in the river was over threshold of pollution, and also led to an accumulation in the 5-10 cm soil layer. It suggested that the migration of Pb was through both wind and surface runoff. Six studied heavy metals showed different migration behaviors, and specific control strategies for individual heavy metal should be concerned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1776.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: lung cancer; dehydroepiandrosterone; proliferation; viability; migration; autophagy
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:59:48 CEST)
Lung cancer is a prevalent and aggressive neoplasm worldwide, contributing to significant mortality rates. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) constitutes the bulk of the steroid hormone in human plasma, has a robust antiproliferative effect, and induces cell death in various tumor cells. However, its role in lung cancer cells remains unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the influence of DHEA on the proliferation, viability, autophagy, and migration of several lung cancer cell lines, including A549, HCC827, and NCI-H2347. Cell proliferation was assessed through crystal violet staining; cell number and viability were evaluated using trypan blue staining; viability was confirmed by MTT reduction, a method that is also an indicator of metabolic activity; migration was assessed via a wound healing assay. Autophagy was evaluated using a specific kit, while cell death was determined by annexin-V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and caspase-3/7 activity assay. The results indicate that DHEA significantly reduced proliferation, cell number, metabolic activity, and migration in all examined lung tumor cells. These effects correlate with an increased autophagy induced by DHEA. No signs of apoptosis or necrosis were observed across the range of DHEA concentrations used. Although these findings are preliminary, they suggest that DHEA could hold promise as an alternative treatment option for various subtypes of lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0572.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: pesticides; photodegradation; half-life; leaching; vertical migration
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:50:11 CEST)
Abstract: The migration and transformation of pesticides in the environment will have an impact on the ecosystem. This study collected greenhouse soil from Shouguang, Shandong Province, and studied the photodegradation and leaching of 17 common pesticides in the soil. The results of photodegradation experiments showed that the degradation rate of certain pesticides was increased in the light environment, compared with that in the dark controls. The light half-lives of emamectin benzoate, pyraclostrobin, and metalaxyl were all shorter than their respective dark half-lives, indicating that their residues in soil were greatly affected by light. The leaching experiment showed that the leaching potential of the leachable pesticides was: nitenpyram ≫ metalaxyl > acetamiprid > carbendazim > diethofencarb ≈ chlorantraniliprole > isoprothiolane > oxadixyl > boscalid ≈ tebuconazole > hexaconazole. Pesticides that are easy to leach but not easy to degrade, such as chlorantraniliprole and metalaxyl, have a high potential risk of groundwater pollution, and more degradation technologies should be used to reduce their pollution risk. The study on photodegradation and vertical migration behavior of various pesticides in this study was conducive to providing references for the agricultural use and pollution control of pesticides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: cytokines; leukocyte migration; N-acylhydrazones; nitric oxide
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:51:13 CEST)
The N-acylhydrazone function has been reported as a pharmacophore group of molecules with diverse pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, this study evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of the compound N'-(3-(1H-indol-3-yl)benzylidene)-2-cyanoacetohydrazide (JR19) in vivo. The study started with the carrageenan-induced peritonitis model, followed by an investigation of leukocyte migration using the subcutaneous air pouch test and an assessment of the antinociceptive profile using formalin-induced pain. To find out the likely mechanism of action, a preliminary molecular docking study was performed focusing on the crystallographic structures of NFκB, iNOS, and sGCs. The computational study revealed satisfactory interaction energies with the selected targets, and the same peritonitis model was used to validate the involvement of the nitric oxide pathway and cytokine expression in the peritoneal exudate of mice pretreated with L-NAME or methylene blue. In the peritonitis assay, JR19 (10 and 20 mg/kg) reduced leukocyte migration by 59% and 52%, respectively, compared to the control group, with the 10 mg/kg dose used in subsequent assays. In the subcutaneous air pouch assay, the reduction in cell migration was 66%, and the response to intraplantar formalin was reduced by 39%, particularly during the inflammatory phase, suggesting that the compound lacks central analgesic activity. In addition, a reversal of the anti-inflammatory effect was observed in mice pretreated with L-NAME or methylene blue, indicating the involvement of iNOS and sGC in the anti-inflammatory response of JR19. The compound effectively and significantly decreased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-17, and IFN-γ, and this effect was reversed in animals pretreated with L-NAME, supporting a NO-dependent anti-inflammatory effect. In contrast, pretreatment with methylene blue only reversed the reduction in TNF-α levels. Therefore, these results demonstrate the pharmacological potential of the novel N-acylhydrazone derivative, which acts through the nitric oxide pathway and cytokine signaling, making it a strong candidate as an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Climate change; salmonids; Salmo; rivers; freshwater; migration
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:05:33 CEST)
The migratory life history of anadromous salmonids requires successful migration between nursery, feeding and spawning habitats. Smoltification is the major transformation anadromous salmonids undergo before migration to feeding areas and prepares juvenile fish for downstream migration and entry to seawater. We reviewed the effects of climate change on smolt ecology from growth of juveniles in freshwater to early post-smolts in sea. Shift in the suitable thermal conditions by climate change is causing Atlantic salmon to expand their range northwards, while in the southern edge of their distribution populations struggle with high temperatures and occasional droughts. Climatic conditions, particularly warmer temperatures, are affecting growth during freshwater phase in the river. Better growth in the northern latitudes leads to earlier smoltification. Thermal refuges, the areas of cooler water in the river, are especially important for salmonids impacted by climate change. Restoring and maintaining connectivity and suitable diverse mosaic habitat in rivers are important for survival and growth throughout the range. The start of the smolt migration has shifted earlier as a response to increasing water temperatures, which has led to concerns of mismatch with optimal conditions for post-smolts in the sea decreasing their survival. A wide smolt window allowing all migrating phenotypes from early to late migrant’s safe access to sea is important in changing environmental conditions. This is true also for regulated rivers, where flow regulation practices cause selection pressures on migrating salmonid phenotypes. Life history in freshwater affects also marine survival, and there is a need for better collaboration across life stages and habitats among researchers and managers to boost the smolt production in rivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0642.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pennisetum hybridum; Cadmium; Phytoextration; Migration; Removal pathways
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:15:46 CEST)
This study was conducted to identify soil cadmium (Cd) removal pathways and their contribution rates during phytoremediation by Pennisetum hybridum, as well as to comprehensively assess its phytoremediation potential. Multilayered soil column tests and farmland simulating lysimeter tests were conducted to investigate the Cd phytoextraction and migration patterns in topsoil and subsoil simultaneously. The aboveground annual yield of P. hybridum grown in the lysimeter was 206 ton·ha–1. The total amount of Cd extracted in P. hybridum shoots was 234 g·ha–1, which was similar to that of other typical phytoremediation plants. After the test, the topsoil Cd removal rate was 21.50%–35.81%, whereas the extraction efficiency in P. hybridum shoots was only 4.17%–8.53%. These findings indicate that extraction by plant shoots was not the most important contributor to the decrease of Cd in the topsoil. The proportions of Cd retained by root cell wall was approximately 50% of the total Cd in root. Based on column test results, P. hybridum treatment led to a significant decrease in soil pH and considerably enhanced Cd migration to subsoil and groundwater. P. hybridum decreases Cd in the topsoil through multiple pathways and provides a relatively ideal material for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mental health; working population; labour; migration; depression
Online: 3 November 2020 (13:52:38 CET)
Background: Mental health is a growing concern worldwide. It is not well understood whether Nepali workers, including international labour migrants from Nepal, are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of our study is to determine the prevalence of and examine the risks factors for depression among returnee migrants and non-migrant working male adults in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a probability-based sample of 725 participants was conducted in February 2020. The sample was comprised of two groups based on migration status: returning migrants and non-migrants. Logistic regression was applied to investigate factors associated with symptoms depression.Results: The overall prevalence of depression was 10.1%. However, the prevalence of depression was lower (7%) among returnee migrants compared to non-migrants (13.7%). Participants in the lower income group were more at risk of depression (OR=5.38, 95% CI: 1.96-14.78) than those in the higher income group. Similarly, Buddhists and Christians were more likely to be depressed (OR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.02-4.64) than Hindus. Interestingly, participants having more than two children had a higher prevalence of depression (OR=5.14, 95% CI: 1.22-21.63) compared with those having no children. Unmarried participants were more likely to be depressed (OR=4.05, 95%, CI:1.10-14.93) than those who were married. Conclusion: The working Nepali adult male population in Nepal, including returning migrants, is at risk of depression, but this risk is lower in those in the higher income group, returnee migrants, married, Hindus and those with no children. This study highlights the need to monitor and develop national policies to ensure the mental health of Nepali male adult population, including returnee migrants.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Parkinson's disease; development; dopamine neurons; substantial migration
Online: 22 December 2019 (13:16:16 CET)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder that is coupled to both widespread protein aggregation and to loss of substantia nigra dopamine (DA) neurons, resulting in a wide variety of motor and non-motor signs and symptoms. Recent findings suggest that the PD process is triggered several years before there is sufficient degeneration of DA neurons to cause onset of overt motor symptoms. According to this concept, the number of DA neurons present in the substantia nigra at birth could influence the time from the molecular triggering event until the clinical diagnosis with lower number of neurons at birth increasing the risk to develop the disease. Conversely, the risk for diagnosis would be reduced if the number of DA neurons is high at birth. In this commentary, we discuss the genetic and epigenetic factors that might influence the number of nigral DA neurons that each individual is born with and how these may be linked to PD risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0320.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: water; agriculture; migration; caribbean sids; climate change
Online: 29 September 2019 (02:54:00 CEST)
Caribbean SIDS are among the most vulnerable to climate change which will have a disproportionate impact on local environments and economies. Whilst there is a growing literature on how Caribbean SIDS can adapt to become more resilient a question that has received little attention is with regard to migration as an unplanned response. It is recognised that events such as hurricanes and flooding can lead to internal relocation in the short term but societal responses to droughts through migration have not generally been investigated. This paper seeks to address this by considering the case of the island of Carriacou, part of the state of Grenada. Carriacou with its small population, limited land area and local economy, historically based on agriculture has had a high degree of migration. This is in part a response to limited economic opportunities. Environmental stress manifest through limited water availability, inappropriate land management and social conditions is likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability. Resultant increases in the frequency and intensity of droughts, in the absence of proactive interventions, are likely to result in non-linear migration, both to Grenada itself and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Indirubin; Td-EC; proliferation; migration; invasion; angiogenesis
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:30:51 CEST)
Hepatocellular Carcinoma is one of the most predominant malignancies with high fatality rate and is rising at an alarming rate because it is quite resistant to radioand chemotherapy. The proliferation, migration and activation of endothelial cells are involved in tumor occurrence and development. Indirubin is the major active anti-tumor ingredient of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In this research, Td-ECs were derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by treating HUVECs with the conditioned medium of human liver cancer cell line HepG2. The effects of indirubin on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis of Td-ECs were assessed. Indirubin significantly inhibited Td-EC cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indirubin also inhibited Td-EC migration and angiogenesis. However, indirubin’s effects on HUVECs were weaker than on Td-ECs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0533.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Colon tumorigenesis; ERK1/2; SOD3; migration, invasion; proliferation
Online: 8 December 2023 (04:56:53 CET)
ERK1/2 phosphorylation is frequently downregulated in the early phase of colon tumorigenesis with subsequent activation of ERK5. In the current work, we studied the advantage of ERK1/2 downregulation for tumor growth by dissecting the individual functions of ERK1 and ERK2. The patient sample data demonstrated decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the early phase of tumorigenesis followed by upregulation of the phosphorylation in late-stage colon adenocarcinomas with intratumoral invasion or metastasis. In vitro results indicated SOD3-mediated coordination of small GTPase RAS regulatory genes in the inhibition of RAS-ERK1/2 signaling. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that ERK2 has a more prominent role in chemotactic invasion, collective migration, and cell proliferation than ERK1. Noteworthily, simultaneous ERK1 and ERK2 expression inhibited collective cell migration and proliferation but tended to promote invasion, therefore suggesting that ERK1 controls ERK2 function. According to the present data, phosphorylated ERK1/2 at the early phase of colon adenocarcinoma limits tumor mass expansion, whereas reactivation of the kinases at the later phase of colon carcinogenesis is associated with the initiation of metastasis. Additionally, our results suggest that ERK1 is a regulatory kinase, which coordinates ERK2-promoted chemotactic invasion, collective migration, and cell proliferation. Our findings indicate that ROS, especially H2O2, are associated with the regulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer either increasing or decreasing the kinase activity. The data suggesting a growth-promoting role for ERK2 and a regulatory role for ERK1 could result in new avenues in the developmental strategies for cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Nudt2, TNBC, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion.
Online: 18 July 2023 (11:55:05 CEST)
The main known function of Nudix hydrolase 2 (Nudt2) is to hydrolyze the secondary messenger diadenosine 5', 5’’’-p1, p4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A). In this study we examined the role of Nudt2 in breast carcinoma through its expression in the human invasion ductal carcinoma tissues, and its functions in human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. A significantly high expression of Nudt2 in the human invasion ductal carcinoma tissues was observed in our study. Knockdown of Nudt2 in TNBC cell lines showed a significant reduction in cellular proliferation via the Ki67 marker, accompanied by G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. A significant reduction in the migration and invasion of Nudt2 knockdown TNBC cell lines was also observed. The effect of Nudt2 knockdown in the TNBC cell lines on tumorigenicity and anchorage-independent growth was assessed, where significant reductions in the Nudt2 knockdown TNBC cell lines were found. It can therefore be concluded that Nudt2 plays a significant role in promoting TNBC growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0808.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Disintegrin-like; breast cancer; TNBC; HUVEC; migration; angiogenesis
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:03:08 CEST)
Venoms are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and among them is leberagin-C (Leb-C), a disintegrin-like protein derived from the venom Macrovipera lebetina transmediterrannea snakes. Leb-C has shown promising inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. Previous studies have demonstrated that this SECD protein specifically targets α5β1, αvβ3 and αvβ6 integrins through a mimic mechanism of RGD disintegrins. In our current study, we focused on exploring the potential effects of Leb-C on metastatic breast cancer. Our findings revealed that Leb-C disrupted the adhesion, migration, and invasion capabilities of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and its highly metastatic D3H2LN sub-population. Additionally, we observed significant suppression of adhesion, migration, and invasion of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, Leb-C demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect on fibroblast growth factor 2-induced proliferation of HUVEC. We conducted in vivo experiments using nude mice and found that treatment with 2 µM of Leb-C resulted in a remarkable 73% reduction in D3H2LN xenograft tumor size. Additionally, quantification of intratumor microvessels revealed a 50 % reduction in tumor angiogenesis in xenograft after 21 days of twice-weekly treatment with 2 µM of Leb-C. Collectively, these findings suggest the potential utility of this dinsintegrin-like protein for inhibiting aggressive and resistant metastatic breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0363.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: migration; mentoring; unaccompanied minors; refugee; asylum seeker; integration
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:40:58 CEST)
Adolescents often migrate unaccompanied by a caregiver, facing specific risks. Mentoring has been identified as a strategy with positive results for youth at risk. Its application with unaccompanied minors (UM) refugees and asylum seekers has gained momentum within EU countries receiving refugee citizens from the EU relocation program. Portugal hosts the fourth highest number of Middle East and North Africa UM refugees and asylum seekers among EU countries. Thus, it´s relevant to review strategies and intervention programs, focused on mentoring to inform future programs in Portugal supporting UM. This article aims to describe the use of mentoring strategies towards integrating UM refugees, and how this has been taking place in Portugal. This review has the potential to inform professionals, namely social education professionals involved in the Portuguese refugee relocation program and encourage the discussion about creating based mentoring-based programs for this target group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0075.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: human migration; prediction; methods; artificial intelligence; data; uncertainty
Online: 6 April 2023 (07:12:19 CEST)
As a fundamental, overall, and strategic issue facing human society, human migration is a key factor affecting the development of countries and cities given constantly changing population numbers. The fuzziness of the spatiotemporal attributes of human migration limits the pool of open-source data for human migration prediction, leading to a relative lag in human migration prediction algorithm research. This study expands the definition of human migration research, reviews the progress of research into human migration prediction, and classifies and compares human migration algorithms based on open-source data. It also explores the critical uncertainty factors restricting the development of human migration prediction. Given the effect of human migration prediction, in combination with artificial intelligence and big data technology, the paper concludes with specific suggestions and countermeasures aimed at enhancing human migration prediction research results to serve economic and social development and national strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cranial neural crest cells; embryogenesis; development; cell migration
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:28:49 CET)
A recent study from our lab revealed that inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 exclusively reduces the level of PGE2 amongst the prostanoids and hamper the normal development of several structures, strikingly the cranial vault, in chick embryos. In order to unearth the mechanism behind the deviant development of cranial features, the expression pattern of various factors that are known to influence the cranial neural crest cell (CNCC) migration were checked in chick embryo after inhibiting the COX-2 activity using etoricoxib. The compromised level of cell adhesion molecules and their upstream regulators, namely CDH1, CDH2, MSX1, and TGF-β, observed in the etoricoxib treated embryos indicate that COX-2, through its downstream effector PGE2, regulates the expression of these factors perhaps to aid the migration of CNCC. The histological features and levels of FoxD3 as well as PCNA further consolidates the role of COX-2 in migration and survival of CNCC in developing embryo. The results of the current study indicate that the COX-2 plays a pivotal role in orchestrating the proliferation and migration of CNCC during embryonic development of chick.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ER stress; GPCR; EMT; cancer progression; migration; cancer
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:06:04 CEST)
The majority of cellular responses to external stimuli are mediated by receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and systems including endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Since GPCR signalling is pivotal in numerous malignancies, they are widely targeted by a number of clinical drugs. Cancer cells often negatively modulate GPCRs in order to survive, proliferate and to disseminate. Similarly, numerous branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) act as pro-survival mediators and are involved in promoting cancer progression via mechanisms such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, there are a few proteins among these groups which impede deleterious effects by orchestrating the pro-apoptotic phenomenon and paving a therapeutic pathway. The present review exposes and discusses such critical mechanisms and some of the key processes involved in carcinogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: conservation; monarch butterfly; migration; population ecology; population genetics
Online: 16 September 2020 (07:13:35 CEST)
Monarch butterflies are a species of conservation priority due to declining overwintering populations in both eastern and western North America. Declines in western overwintering monarchs—more than 99% since monitoring began—are especially acute. However, the degree to which the western monarch is a distinct biological entity is uncertain. In this review, we focus on phenotypic and genetic differentiation between eastern and western monarchs, with the goal of informing researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monarch conservation. Eastern and western monarchs occupy distinct environments and show some evidence for phenotypic differentiation—particularly for migration-associated traits—though population genetic and genomic studies suggest that they are genetically indistinguishable from one another. We suggest future studies that could improve our understanding of differences between eastern and western monarchs. We also discuss the concept of adaptive capacity in eastern and western monarchs as well as non-migratory populations outside of the monarch’s primary North American range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0137.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Archaeology; Archaeogenetic Model; Neolithic; Chalcolithic; Bronze Age; Migration
Online: 19 December 2017 (15:49:22 CET)
Migrations are much more important than currently recognised, for explaining important patterns observed in the European archaeology record – according to this archaeology led model. At a high level, they explain the introduction of different farming, monument building, the spread of metalworking and patterns of trade and exchange. This paper presents an archaeogenetic model based on a strategic review of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic archaeology of Europe, alongside a review of recently published ancient DNA data. The model is archaeology led. It takes archaeology themes and proposes migratory events to explain them. Ancient DNA data and further archaeology evidence is then used to test these proposed migrations- to reject or refine them. The model introduces a new and more strategic way of looking at archaeological cultures - that updates early 20th century approaches to studying archaeology cultures, and integrates with the detailed ‘post processual’ studies of the late 20th Century. The model consists of seven maps – each showing multiple migration events – with key evidence to support each migration map. It proposes a new category of a ‘Black Sea’ related population that makes a major genetic contribution to the Middle Neolithic of Europe. The proposed migrations provide an explanation for the observed patterns of archaeology, for example: • multiple Neolithic migrations that introduced, farming and metalworking into Europe; • a major ‘Black Sea’ related ‘Middle Neolithic’ migration that carried advanced knowledge of astronomy that can be recognised in a variety of types of monument from the Neolithic through to Bronze Age Europe; and, • migrations of related cultures (‘supercultures’) that explain patterns of trade and exchange in Bronze Age western Europe. The model also provides ancient DNA and archaeology based support for the key aspects of Childe’s ‘dawn of civilisation’ in Europe and Egypt and Gimbutas’ ‘Old Europe’ and “three waves of migration from the Steppe”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: digital financial inclusion; migration; remittance; household; rural-urban; Bangladesh
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:36:56 CEST)
Globally, large numbers of adults remain unbanked and most of them live in rural areas of the Third World. The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has shown us how inequalities in accessing financial services continue to affect us. However, financial inclusion has emerged as an effective tool to tackle socioeconomic ills and drive economic development. In fact, due to these modern technological developments, the number of studies in this area is very limited, especially in the context of developing economies. This study examines the impacts of migrant remittances on digital financial inclusion within households using the Migration and Remittance Household Survey in Bangladesh. To meet the research objectives of this study, a household survey was conducted and interviewed 2,165 households in 2022-2023 in Bangladesh. This study finds that the coefficient of remittance has a positive relationship with the probability of using mobile banking for a household's financial transactions. However, the use of ATM cards by households for financial transactions has not been significantly affected. The article concludes that remittance flows may enhance access to and use of digital financial inclusion by reducing some of the barriers and costs in Bangladesh, which can greatly contribute to the country's economic growth by creating and increasing a strong fund for investment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: CD4+ T cell; Primary Immunodeficiencies; Cell Migration; Adaptive Immunity
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:04:55 CEST)
CD4+ T cells orchestrate and regulate immunity within jawed vertebrates, yet our understanding of their evolution, development, and cellular physiology has only begun to be unearthed in the past few decades. Discoveries of genetic diseases that ablate this cellular population have provided insight into their critical functions while transcriptomics, proteomics, and highresolution microscopy have recently revealed new insights into CD4+ T cell anatomy and physiology. This article compiles historical, microscopic, and multi omics data which can be used as a reference atlas to dissect cellular physiology within these influential cells and further understand pathologies like HIV infection that inflict human CD4+ T cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1414.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Ore-forming element; vertical migration; laboratory simulation; nonlinear theory
Online: 20 July 2023 (12:54:44 CEST)
For deep-penetrating geochemistry, there is a frontier issue as to how to explore ore-bearing information deep in covered areas, while it is, too, important to investigate the geochemical migration of ore-forming elements for the development of exploration geochemistry. In this study, a 380-day migration column experiment was conducted with surface soil and pure Cu powder collected from the Yujiashan study area in Wuhan City, Hubei Province taken as the object of research to simulate the migration process of ore-forming elements under natural conditions. The results showed obvious vertical migration of the ore-forming elements and conversion of mobile metal forms in the process; further, according to 6 groups of simulation experiments that took 45 days to conduct on migration column samples and the surface oil and Cu powder collected from the Pulang mining area in Yunnan Province, the vertical migration of the ore-forming element was still visible, and the exogenous substance (pure Cu powder) could enhance the anomaly without changing the basic migration mechanism. This indicates that Cu might migrate in a stable manner in soil cover in the Pulang mining area, and its migration was mostly driven by the transformation of Fe-Mn oxide bound state and organic bound state; finally, a multifractal analysis was conducted, revealing that the ore-forming elements presented a nonlinear and complex structure during their upward migration, which caused anomalies in the covered area, and multiple parameters exerted a certain indicative effect on different source intensities and properties of soil. In this study, laboratory simulations were performed to summarize the active-state evolution pattern and migration mechanism of ore-forming elements with a view to providing technical support and theoretical guidance for geochemical prospecting in the covered region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0238.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: wastewater; river water; groundwater; migration species; bottom sediments; modeling
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:36:06 CEST)
The development of mineral deposits causes changes that are comparable to natural exogenous geological processes, and in local areas of intensive mining activity prevail over them. In this article, a diamond deposit is selected, developed by quarries of great depth, and a forecast is made of the impact of drainage water discharge on changes in the composition of surface water and bottom sediments during the entire period of development of the deposit. Modeling was per-formed according to various scenarios, taking into account changes in the total dissolved solids of groundwater from 0.5 to 21.7 g/kg H2O. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out using the HCh software package. The role of dissolved organic carbon in the migration of chemical elements and the effect of DOC on the precipitation of chemical elements from mixing solutions is given. It has been established that fulvic acid completely binds to Fe in the Fe(OH)2FA– complex in all types of natural waters and under all mixing scenarios. With humic acid, such a sharp competitive complex formation does not occur. It is distributed among the various elements more evenly. It was determined that the mass of precipitating iron in the presence of DOC decreases by 18-27%, and its precipitation in winter is more intense. In contrast to Fe, precipitation of Ca, Mg, and C from solution with DOC is higher in summer, and there are more of them in solution in winter. This study contributed to a better understanding of the behavior of heavy metals in surface waters and sediments under anthropogenic pressures in order to improve the sustainable management of water resources in the face of anthropogenic activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0431.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Blood microbiome; skin microbiome; migration; Kerguelen Islands; 16S rRNA
Online: 24 January 2023 (10:52:08 CET)
Our understanding of how microbiome signatures are modulated in wild fish populations remains poorly known and has, until now, mostly been inferred from studies in commercial and farmed fish populations. Here, we have studied for the first time changes in the skin and blood microbiomes of the Salmo trutta population of the volcanic Kerguelen archipelago located at the northern limit of the Antarctic Ocean. Kerguelen is a natural framework of population expansion and a likely situation under further climate change in distribution areas. Our results showed that S. trutta of Kerguelen has a microbiome signature distinct from those of salmonids of the Northern Hemisphere. Our study also revealed that the skin and blood microbiomes differ between sedentary and migratory S. trutta. While 18 phyla were shared between both groups of trout, independent of the compartment, six phyla were unique to migratory trout. Further analyses showed that microbiome signatures undergo significant site-specific variations that correlate, in some cases, to the peculiarity of specific ecosystems. Our study also revealed the presence of potential pathogens at particular sites and the impact of abiotic factors on the microbiome, most notably due to the volcanic nature of the environment. This study contributes to a better understanding of the factors that modulate the microbiome signatures of migratory and sedentary fish populations. It will also help better monitor climate change's impacts on the colonization process in the sub-Antarctic region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: health policy; unorganised sector; brick-kiln workers; migrant; migration
Online: 8 June 2022 (08:54:52 CEST)
Urbanization is a global phenomenon and as the economies are shifting from rural based subsistence to services based, the net flow of migration is inevitable. Unfortunately, In India, migration is very poorly understood. India is next to China in production of bricks, accounting for nearly 13% of global annual bricks’ production. The condition of brick-kiln workers is pitiable, especially due to poor care available. They are exposed to health hazards such as various communicable diseases, sexually transmitted diseases and occupational health hazards. The diseases such as respiratory problems, allergies, gastrointestinal ailments and malnutrition are frequent in these populations. This paper reflects upon various policies that exist for the welfare of unorganised sector but do these workers qualify for these benefits? This paper provides empirical basis for paradigm shift for policy formulation to provide safety nets for migrant population and have better urban planning for future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0218.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Migration; Shared Socioeconomic Pathways; Inequality; Labor; Demographics; Human capital
Online: 15 March 2022 (14:29:19 CET)
International migration is closely tied to demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental factors and their interaction with migration policies. Using a combination of a gravity econometric model and an overlapping generations model, we estimate the probability of bilateral migration among 160 countries in the period of 1960 to 2000 and use these findings to project international migration flows and their implication for income inequality within and between countries in the 21st century under five shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Our results show that international migration not only increases the welfare in developing countries, but also closes the inequality gap within and between low-skilled and high-skilled labor in these countries. In most developed countries on the contrary, international migration increases the inequality gap and slightly reduces output. These changes are not uniform and vary significantly across countries depending on their population growth and human capital development trajectories. Overall, while migration is strongly affected by inequality between developed and developing countries, it has an ambiguous impact on inequality within and between countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: interstitial flow; glioma; chemotaxis; autologous; computational; gradient; CXCL12; migration
Online: 19 November 2021 (13:01:48 CET)
Fluid flow and chemokine gradients play a large part in not only regulating homeostatic processes in the brain, but also in pathologic conditions by directing cell migration. Tumor cells in particular are superior at invading into the brain resulting in tumor recurrence. One mechanism that governs cellular invasion is autologous chemotaxis, whereby pericellular chemokine gradients form due to interstitial fluid flow (IFF) leading cells to migrate up the gradient. Glioma cells have been shown to specifically use CXCL12 to increase their invasion under heightened interstitial flow. Computational modeling of this gradient offers better insight into the extent of its development around single cells, yet very few conditions have been modelled. In this paper, a computational model is developed to investigate how a CXCL12 gradient may form around a tumor cell and what conditions are necessary to affect its formation. Through finite element analysis using COMSOL and coupled convection-diffusion/mass transport equations, we show that velocity (IFF magnitude) has the largest parametric effect on gradient formation, multidirectional fluid flow causes gradient formation in the direction of the resultant which is governed by IFF magnitude, common treatments and flow patterns have a spatiotemporal effect on pericellular gradients, exogenous background concentrations can abrogate the autologous effect depending on how close the cell is to the source, that there is a minimal distance away from the tumor border required for a single cell to establish an autologous gradient, and finally that the development of a gradient formation is highly dependent on specific cell morphology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0612.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Migration; Northern Triangle of Central America; climate change; drought
Online: 25 June 2021 (09:23:22 CEST)
The worldwide number of migrants has had a rapid increase during the last fifteen years. Despite the extensive research studies that elucidate the increase in migrants' recipient countries, we know little about the relationship between the climate factors and human mobility in the countries of origin. Hence, this study focuses on the effects of weather and the propensity of individuals to leave a territory by measuring the importance of rain precipitation or the lack of it in one of the critical food corridors of Central America, formed by El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. To study the mobility process, we develop a stochastic frontier model; the main result shows a greater propensity to migrate when there is a significant drought event in the place of origin. Some other factors that motivate people to leave their homeland are the effect of other climate events measured through the control system (ENSO), homicide levels, economic performance, and exchange rate. The findings allow differentiating between drought and excess precipitation on a population and mobility to other territories. In addition, these results permit us to derive observable implications of the different effects of flooding and drought and create public policies of prevention, mitigation, and resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Geniposide; NF-ĸB; IEC-6; Signaling pathway; Cell migration
Online: 8 January 2021 (08:35:25 CET)
The nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) transcriptional system is a major effector pathway involved in inflammatory responses. Previous studies found that a Gardenia decoction (GD) inhibited the expression of NF-κB in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse intestinal injury model. Herein, we hypothesized that geniposide (GE), a component of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, also exerts anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits NF-ĸB activity in LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). IEC-6 cells were stimulated with LPS, following which the effects of GE on NF-ĸB signaling in the IEC-6 cells were examined by western blotting to detect IĸB phosphorylation/degradation. The expression of NF-κB was determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the inhibitory effect of GE on the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activated by LPS in IEC-6 cells. In addition, the migration ability of IEC-6 cells was observed by the scratch method. These results showed that GE dose-dependently downregulated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β that had been upregulated by LPS and suppressed the phosphorylation of IĸB and NF-ĸB induced by LPS. Our findings indicated that GE could reduce LPS-induced NF-ĸB signaling and proinﬂammatory expression in IEC-6 cells and significantly enhance the migration of IEC-6 cells. Moreover, GE inhibited the expression of NF-κB, nuclear transfer, and transcriptional activity in IEC-6 cells. GE could block the synthesis of inflammatory factors of IEC-6 cells by inhibiting activation of the IĸB/NF-κB signaling pathway induced by LPS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Alzheimer; blood brain barrier; CD4+ T cells; migration; medication
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:08:41 CEST)
The effect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) medications on CD4+ T cells homing has not been thoroughly investigated. Alzheimer's disturbs the life of at least five million persons in the USA. CD4+ T cells could both exacerbate and reduce AD symptoms. Regulating CD4+ T cells homing to the leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) constitutes a new hope for enhancing AD prognosis. Alzheimer's drugs such as Donepezil (Aricept), Rivastigmine (Exelon), Galantamine (Razadyne) and memantine are known to play an important part in regulating the neurotransmitters mechanisms. However, little is known about the effect of these drugs on CD4+ T cells homing. In this review, we focus on current and new drugs that could modulate CD4+ T cells interactions with the BBB in AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Furin; ppFurin; Breast cancer; Calcium; SOCE; TRPC6; Viability; Migration.
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:41:14 CEST)
The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) modulation plays a key role in the regulation of cellular growth and survival in normal cells and failure of [Ca2+]i homeostasis is involved in tumor initiation and progression. Here we show that inhibition of Furin by its naturally occurring inhibitor the prodomain ppFurin in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells resulted in enhanced SOCE through TRPC6 activation that associated reduced cells malignant phenotype. Expression of ppFurin in a stable manner in MDA-MB-231 and the melanoma MDA-MB-435 cell lines inhibits Furin activity as assessed by in vitro digestion assays. Accordingly, cell transfection experiments, revealed that the ppFurin-expressing cells are unable to process adequately the PC substrates proVEGF-C and proIGF-1R. Compared to MDA-MB-435 cells, expression of ppFurin in MDA-MB-231 significantly induces Ca2+ entry which is impaired by silencing of TRPC6 expression. Analysis of TRPC6 activation revealed its up-regulated tyrosine phosphorylation in ppFurin-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. The expression of ppFurin in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced their viability and ability to migrate and enhanced their sensitization to the apoptosis inducer hydrogen peroxide. These findings suggest that Furin inhibition by ppFurin may be a useful strategy to interfere with Ca2+ mobilization leading to breast cancer cells malignant phenotype repression and reduction of their resistance to treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chalocomoracin; proliferative vitreoretinopathy; vitreous; Akt; p53; migration; proliferation; contraction
Online: 19 April 2020 (02:18:01 CEST)
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are the major cell type in the epi- or sub-retinal membranes in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is a blinding fibrotic eye disease and still short of effective medicine. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if Chalocomoracin (CMR), a novel purified compound from fungus-infected mulberry leaves, is able to inhibit vitreous-induced signaling events and cellular responses intrinsic to PVR. Our studies have revealed that the CMR IC50 for ARPE-19 cells is 35.5 μM at 72 hours, and that 5 μM CMR inhibits vitreous-induced Akt activation and p53 suppression; in addition we have discovered that this chemical effectively blocks vitreous-stimulated proliferation, migration and contraction of ARPE-19 cells, suggesting that CMR is a promising PVR prophylactic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: miR-139-5p; SLC7A11; proliferation; migration; pancreatic cancer (PANC)
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:42:14 CEST)
Objective: Pancreatic carcinoma (PANC) is one of the important aggressive cancers, with deficiency in effective therapeutics. Studies have unveiled that miR-139-5p expression is significantly downregulated in other types of cancers. However, the functions and mechanisms of miR-139-5p in PANC remain unclear. Methods: Bioinformatic analysis was performed to analyze the differentially expressed genes in the TCGA database. PANC cell line with overexpressed miR-139-5p and Solute Carrier Family 7, Member 11 (SLC7A11) was established, and has been used to detect cell proliferation, migration, invasion and colony formation in PANC. Subsequently, bioinformatic analysis and luciferase assay were performed to confirm that SLC7A11 was a target gene of miR-139-5p. Xenograft mouse model was used to investigate the role of miR-139-5p in PANC tumorigenicity. Results: Through bioinformatic analysis, miR-139-5p was predicted to regulate phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway by targeting SLC7A11. MiR-139-5p was found to be lowly expressed in PANC tissues, while SLC7A11 was highly expressed. Low expression of miR-139-5p and high expression of SLC7A11 were positively associated with poor clinical outcomes. PANC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion could be inhibited by miR-139-5p overexpression and could be promoted by SLC7A11 overexpression. MiR-139-5p could regulate the protein expression level of PI3K and Akt associated with phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway could be by inhibiting the expression of SLC7A11. MiR-139-5p overexpression could suppress PANC tumor growth and the expression of SLC7A11, p-PI3K, p-Akt in tumor tissues. Therefore, the inhibiting effect of miR-139-5p to PANC cell proliferation, invasion and migration, at least, was partly due to its inhibiting effect on SLC7A11 expression. Conclusion: These results demonstrated a novel role of miR-139-5p/SLC7A11 in PANC and provided potential prognostic predictors for PANC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: migration; female genital mutilation; sexual health; reproductive health; communication
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:30:20 CEST)
Objectives: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a significant public health problem. It is estimated around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with FGM in Switzerland, describing their own perception of health, reproductive life and sexuality. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a group of eight immigrant women of African origin living in Switzerland with Type III FGM (infibulation). Results: Seven of the women were from Somalia and one from Ivory Coast. All of the Somali women were mothers and married (two separated), and the Ivorian woman was a single mother. The women in our study reported a low level of sexual satisfaction and reproductive health. They affirmed their desire to improve, or at least change, their condition. Although they rarely talk with their husbands about sexual subject matter, they would like to include them more and improve dialogue. Conclusions: Specific socio-sexual management is recommended when caring for immigrant women living with FGM in order to respond to their specific health care needs. Multidisciplinary approaches may be able to offer more comprehensive health care, including facilitated communication to improve dialogue between women and health care professionals, and eventually between women and their husbands in discussing sexual matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrate phase transition; deepwater wellbore; bubble migration velocity; mass transfer
Online: 31 October 2023 (07:28:41 CET)
Mass transfer and phase transition have important effect on the velocity of bubble migration in deepwater wellbore, and accurate prediction of bubble migration velocity is crucial for calculating the safe shut-in period of deepwater oil and gas well. Therefore, the effect of bubble dissolution mass transfer and hydrate phase transition on bubble migration behavior in deepwater environment have attracted extensive attention from researchers in the fields of energy, marine chemistry, and marine engineering safety. In this work, a new model of bubble migration velocity in deepwater is developed, which considers the effect of hydrate phase transition and gas-water bidirectional cross-shell mass transfer during bubble migration. Based on the observation data of bubble migration in deepwater, the reliability of the model in predicting bubble migration velocity is verified. Then, the model is used to calculate and analyze the bubble migration velocity and bubble migration cycle under different initial bubble size, different annular fluid viscosity and density. The results show that the initial size of bubble and the viscosity of annulus fluid are the main factors affecting the migration velocity of bubble, but the density of annulus fluid has little effect on the migration velocity of hydrated bubble and clean bubble. In addition, the migration velocity of clean bubble gradually increases during the migration process from the bottom to the wellhead, while the migration velocity of hydrated bubble is divided into gradually decreasing stage and slowly increasing stage. The gas consumption and the thickening of hydrate shell in the gradually decreasing stage play a dominant role, and the increase of bubble volume caused by the decrease of pressure in the slowly increasing stage is the most important factor. The formation of hydrated bubble can significantly reduce the migration velocity of bubble and effectively prolong the safe shut-in period. This study provides a reference for quantitative description and characterization of complex bubble migration behavior with phase change and mass transfer in deepwater environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: C-scorpionate; anti-cancer drug; anti-proliferation; anti-migration; metabolomics
Online: 2 June 2023 (12:38:19 CEST)
The growing worldwide cancer incidence, coupled to the increasing occurrence of multidrug cancer resistance, requires a continuous effort towards the identification of new leads for cancer management. In this work, two C-scorpionate complexes, [FeCl2(κ3-Tpm)] (1) and [Co(κ3-TpmOH)2] (2), (Tpm = hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)methane and TpmOH = 2,2,2-tris(pyrazol-1-yl)ethanol), are studied as potential scaffolds for future anti-cancer drug development. Their cytotoxicity and cell migration inhibitory activity are analyzed, and an untargeted metabolomics approach is em-ployed to elucidate the biological processes significantly affected by these two complexes, using two tumoral cell lines (B16 and HCT116) and a non-tumoral cell line (HaCaT). While [FeCl2(κ3-Tpm)] did not display a significant cytotoxicity, [Co(κ3-TpmOH)2] was particularly cy-totoxic against the B16 cell line. While [Co(κ3-TpmOH)2] significantly inhibited cell migration in all tested cell lines, [FeCl2(κ3-Tpm)] displayed a mixed activity. From a metabolomics perspective, exposure to [FeCl2(κ3-Tpm)] is associated with changes in various metabolic pathways involving tyrosine, where iron-dependent enzymes are particularly relevant. On the other hand, [Co(κ3-TpmOH)2] is associated with dysregulation of cell adhesion and membrane structural pathways, suggesting its antiproliferative and anti-migration properties can be due to changes in the overall cellular adhesion mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0374.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: marine algae; lambda-carrageenan; oligosaccharides; heparanase; migration; anti-cancer agents
Online: 21 March 2023 (09:16:48 CET)
Oligosaccharides derived from λ-carrageenan (λ-COs) are gaining interest in the cancer field. They have been recently reported to regulate heparanase (HPSE) activity, a protumor enzyme involved in cancer cell migration and invasion, making them very promising molecules for new therapeutic applications. However, one of the specific features of commercial λ-carrageenan (λ-CARs) is that they are in fact heterogeneous mixtures of different CARs families, and are named according to the thickening purpose of the product which does not reflect the real com-position. Consequently, this can limit their use in a clinical grade. To address this issue, six commercial λ-CARs were compared for which differences in their physiochemical properties were shown. Then, a H2O2-assissed radical depolymerization was applied to each commercial source and the number and weight averaged molar masses (Mn and Mw) and sulfation degree (DS) of the λ-COs produced over time were determined. By adjusting the depolymerization time for each product, almost comparable λ-CO formulations could be obtained in term of molar masses and DS, that ranged within previously reported values suitable for anti-tumor proper-ties. However, when the anti-HPSE activity of these new λ-COs was screened, small changes that could not be attributed only to their small length or DS changes between them were found, suggesting a role of other features such as differences in the initial mixture composition. Further structural MS and NMR analysis revealed indeed qualitative and semi-quantitative differences between the molecular species, especially in the proportion of the anti-HPSE λ-type, other CARs types and adjuvants, but also showed that H2O2-based hydrolysis induced sugar degradation. Finally, when the effects of λ-COs were assessed in an in vitro migration cell-based model, they seemed more related to the proportion of other CAR types in the formulation than to their λ-type-dependent anti-HPSE activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: housing unaffordability; migration; the high-skilled young migrants; land provision
Online: 17 November 2022 (04:22:42 CET)
A large number of studies have concluded that since housing pressure will affect the mobility of highly skilled young migrants (HSYM) in Chinese cities and regions, it is necessary to apply corresponding housing policies to adjust housing unaffordability for HYSM. This study uses a survey data conducted in China's Zhejiang Province of China, where specific policies have been implemented to attract talent and found that housing does crowds out the HSYM from a city, but the HSYM who have a master's degree or above or who work in government organizations or state-owned enterprises are more tolerant of housing unaffordability. The unmarried or those staying in the city for a long period are less tolerant of housing unaffordability. Meanwhile, there are the heterogeneous impacts of factors on the HSYM's tolerance for housing unaffordability across cities of different levels. Therefore, housing policies should highlight urban differences and intra-group differences.
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Urban household, migration, connectivity, food remittances, food security, Nairobi, Kenya
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:55:04 CEST)
This paper draws on data from a representative city-wide household food security survey of Nairobi conducted in 2017 to examine the importance of food remitting to households in contemporary Nairobi. The next section of the paper provides an overview of urbanization and the rapid growth of Nairobi which has led to growing socio-economic inequality, precarious livelihoods for the majority, and growing food insecurity, as context for the more detailed empirical analysis of food security and food remittances that follows. It is followed by a description of the survey methodology and sections analyzing the differences between migrant and non-migrant households in Nairobi. Attention then turns to the phenomenon of food remitting, showing that over 50% of surveyed households in the city had received food remittances in the previous year. The paper then uses multivariate logistic regression to identify the relationship between Nairobi household characteristics and the probability of receiving food remittances from rural areas. The findings suggest that there are exceptions to the standard migration and poverty-driven explanatory model of the drivers of rural-urban food remitting and that greater attention should be paid to other motivations for maintaining rural-urban connectivity in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Microglia; Extracellular vesicles; migration; P2X4 receptor; MFG-E8; lipid rafts
Online: 22 June 2021 (08:26:41 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) effectively suppress neuroinflammation and induce neuroprotective effects in different disease models. However, the mechanisms by which EVs regulate neuroinflammatory response of microglia remain largely unexplored. Here, we addressed this issue by testing the action of EVs derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells (SHEDs) on immortalized human microglial cells. We found that EVs induced a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ and promoted a significant ATP release in microglial after 20 min of treatment. Boyden chamber assays revealed that EVs promoted microglial migration by 20 %. Pharmacological inhibition of different subtypes of purinergic receptors demonstrated that EVs activated microglial migration preferentially through the P2X4R pathway. Proximity ligation and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that EVs promote association between milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) and P2X4 receptor proteins. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of αVβ3/αVβ5 integrin suppressed EV -induced cell migration and formation of lipid rafts in microglia. These results demonstrate that EVs promote microglial motility through P2X4 R/ MFG-E8 – dependent mechanisms. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms through which EVs target human microglia that may be exploited for the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting disease associated neuroinflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bactrian camel; Last Glacial Maximum; Million Years Ago; Human migration
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:30:58 CET)
The Evolutionary history and domestication of Camels are largely unexplored because of the lack of well dated early archaeological records. However, limited records suggest that domestication of Camels likely happened in the late second millennium BCE. Over the time, camels have helped human for their basic needs like meat, milk, wool, dung to long routes transportation. This multifaceted animal has helped the mankind to connect through continents and in trade majorly through the Silk route. In India, both dromedary and Bactrian camels are found and their habitat is entirely different from each other, dromedaries inhabit in hot deserts and Bactrians are found mostly in cold places (Nubra Valley, Ladakh). Fewer studies on Indian dromedaries have been conducted but no such studies are done on Bactrian camels. It is needed to study the genetics of Bactrian camels to find out their genetic affinity and evolutionary history with other Bactrians found in different parts of the world. Furthermore, parallel studies on humans and Bactrian camel are required to understand the co-evolution and migration pattern of humans during their dispersal in different time periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0121.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: carbon sequestration; caprock integrity; noble gas migration; seal by-pass
Online: 3 February 2021 (15:07:39 CET)
The assessment of caprock integrity for underground storage of CO2 and/or enhanced oil recovery (EOR) systems is a multiscale endeavor. Caprock sealing behavior depends on coupled processes that operate over a broad range of length and time scales including nanoscale heterogeneity in capillary and wettability properties to depositional heterogeneity that is basin wide. Larger-scale sedimentary architecture, fractures, and faults can govern properties of potential “seal-bypass” systems that may be difficult to assess. We present a multiscale investigation of geologic sealing integrity of the caprock system that overlies the Morrow B sandstone reservoir, Farnsworth Unit, Texas, USA. The Morrow B sandstone is the target geologic unit for an on-going combined CO2 storage–EOR project by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP). Methods and/or data encompass small-to-large scales, including: petrography using electron and optical microscopy; mercury porosimetry; core examinations of sedimentary architecture and fractures; well logs; a suite of geomechanical testing; and a noble gas profile through sealing lithologies into the reservoir, as preserved from fresh core. The combined data set allows a comprehensive examination of sealing quality by scale, by primary features that control sealing behavior, and an assessment of sealing behavior over geologic time.
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: fibronectin; corneal fibroblasts; fibrin; 3-D matrices; collective cell migration
Online: 6 August 2020 (00:20:04 CEST)
We previously reported that corneal fibroblasts within 3D fibrin matrices secrete, bind, and organize fibronectin into tracks that facilitate cell spreading and migration. Other cells use these fibronectin tracks as conduits, which leads to the development of an interconnected cell/fibronectin network. In this study, we investigate how cell induced reorganization of fibrin correlates with fibronectin track formation in response to two growth factors present during wound healing: PDGF BB, which stimulates cell spreading and migration; and TGFβ1, which stimulates cellular contraction and myofibroblast transformation. Both PDGF BB and TGF stimulated global fibrin matrix contraction (P < 0.005), however cell and matrix patterning were different. We found that during PDGF BB induced cell spreading, fibronectin was organized simultaneously with the generation of tractional forces at the leading edge of pseudopodia. Over time this led to the formation of an interconnected network consisting of cells, fibronectin and compacted fibrin tracks. Following culture in TGFβ1, cells were less motile, produced significant local fibrin reorganization, and formed fewer cellular connections as compared to PDGF BB (P < 0.005). Although bands of compacted fibrin tracks developed in between neighboring cells, fibronectin labeling was not generally present along these tracks, and the correlation between fibrin and fibronectin labeling was significantly less than that observed in PDGF BB (P < 0.001). Taken together, our results show that cell-induced ECM reorganization can occur independently from fibronectin patterning. Nonetheless, both events seem to be coordinated, as corneal fibroblasts in PDGF BB secrete and organize fibronectin as they preferentially spread along compacted fibrin tracks between cells, producing an interconnected network in which cells, fibronectin and compacted fibrin tracks are highly correlated. This mechanism of patterning could contribute to the formation of organized cellular networks that have been observed following corneal injury and refractive surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Annona squamosa; phytomedicine; proliferation; apoptosis; migration; estrogen receptor; tumor size
Online: 12 May 2020 (12:37:43 CEST)
: Annona squamosa L. is an important medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Different parts of A. squamosa L. have various therapeutic effects; however, the anticancer activity of the leaves has not yet been identified. In vitro, MTT, nuclear staining, and LDH assays were used to evaluate cell survival and proliferation in cells exposed to the extracts. The effect of the extracts on cell migration was investigated using a monolayer wound repair assay, and the apoptotic effects were evaluated using flow cytometry. A breast cancer model was used to study the effect of the extract on the tumor size, and the expression of different proliferative and apoptotic markers was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. At a concentration of 100 µg/mL, A. squamosa leaf extracts exerted strong antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects against various cell lines. The extracts reduced wound closure and strongly induced apoptosis. In vivo study, rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection, and tumor size, as well as the expression of proliferative and apoptotic markers, were observed to be greatly affected by treatment with the extracts. Therefore, A. squamosa leaf extract may be developed as a potential novel drug to treat breast cancer in the future
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: demographic growth; displacement; remote sensing; forced migration; urban sprawl; mobility
Online: 27 March 2020 (04:08:12 CET)
Anthropogenic change is associated with population growth, land use change, and changing economies. However, internal migration patterns and armed conflicts are also key drivers behind anthropogenic and demographic processes. To better understand this sort of change, we explore the spatial relationship between forced migration due to armed conflict and changing demographic factors in Colombia, a country which has a recent history of 7 million internal migrants. In addition, we use remote sensing, Google Earth Engine, as well as spatial statistical analyses of demographic data in order to measure anthropogenic change between 1984 and 2008; and we look into spatiotemporal relationships between both demographic and anthropogenic changes, which are caused by forced migration. We find, thus, that the latter is significantly and positively related to an increasing rural-urban kind of migration which originates in armed conflict, and results show that it is also negatively associated with interregional expulsion. Indeed, anthropogenic prints (term hereafter used to denote changes in nighttime satellite imagery) pertaining to different regions have had different sensitivities towards forced migration, and across different time periods. Finally we discuss how social and political phenomena such as Colombia’s armed conflict can have significant effects on the dynamics and motions of humans and territories in countries of the Global South.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: gap junction; connexin; angiogenesis; cell mechanics; cell migration; cellular stiffness
Online: 28 December 2018 (05:19:52 CET)
Angiogenesis, the sprout and growth of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, is an important process of tumor development for the supply of oxygen and nutrition to cancer cells. Endothelial cell is a critical player in angiogenic process by modulating cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell morphology in the response to pro-angiogenic factors and environments provided by tumor and cancer cells. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that gap junction of endothelial cells also participates in the promotion of angiogenesis. Pro-angiogenic factors modulate gap junction function and connexins expression in endothelial cells, whereas endothelial connexins involve in angiogenic tube formation and cell migration of endothelial cells via both gap junction channel function dependent or independent mechanisms. In particular, connexin might have the potential to regulate cell mechanics such as cell morphology, cell migration, and cellular stiffness that are dynamically changed during angiogenic processes. Here, we review the implication for endothelial gap junction and cellular mechanics in vascular angiogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0037.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Emdogain; amelogenin; dental pulp cells; cell differentiation; cell migration; mineralization
Online: 7 January 2018 (11:00:15 CET)
Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is used for periodontal tissue regeneration therapy, and can induce mineralization in dental pulp cells (DPCs). We designed a synthetic peptide (SP) derived from the response of cells to EMD, and investigated the effect of the SP on potentiating osteogenesis in DPCs, which have a critical role of dental pulp homeostasis. DPCs were treated with 0, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL SP to determine its effect on cell proliferation, cell migration, cell differentiation, and mineralization. We then examined the molecular effects of the SP, focusing on changes in the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway in these cells. The SP significantly promoted DPC proliferation and migration. Cultures treated with the SP also showed an enhanced expression of markers of osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The SP also induced the activation of MAPK signaling pathway components. These results suggest that our SP could promote the dental pulp tissue repair by hard tissue formation and the mineralization through activating MAPK signaling pathway. This study provides the first evidence that SP might be a new material for dental pulp tissue treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: angiogenesis; cell invasion; cell migration; Flavone derivative (TTF1); hepatoma; STAT3
Online: 9 November 2016 (10:21:43 CET)
TTF1-NP(5,2′,4′-trihydroxy-6,7,5′-trimethoxyflavone nanoparticles), derived from the traditional Changbai Mountain medicinal plant Sorbaria sorbifolia (SS), has been showedits anti-cancer effect in various liver cancer cell types and tissues. The present study was designed to evaluate the antitumor mechanism of the TTF1-NP against HepG2 hepatoma cells and HepG2 cells-induced hepatocarcinoma (HCC) in nude mouse model. Here we demonstrated that TTF1-NP inhibits tube formation of HUVECs and HepG2 cell migration and invasion, and inhibits tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells through the downregulation of STAT3 protein and activation, along with VEGF, KDR, bFGF, MMP2 and MMP9 levels. We further revealed that TTF1-NP decreased the DNA-binding capacity of STAT3. Together our results provide a mechanism by which TTF1-NP suppresses cancer cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis through the action of STAT3 and suggests TTF1-NP as a potential therapy for hepatocellular cancer treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0408.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: venezuelan migration; urban growth; colombia; remote sensing analysis; social network data
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:25:31 CEST)
This study investigates the intricate relationship between Venezuelan migration and urban growth in Colombia from 2018 to 2021. The study employs remote sensing data and social network metrics to uncover migration patterns and their impact on urban expansion. The methodology consists of three stages. Firstly, nighttime satellite imagery is used to analyze year-over-year urban growth in Colombia. Secondly, social network data estimates Venezuelan migration, overcoming challenges of underreporting and informal border crossings. Lastly, an econometric analysis explores the quantitative link between Venezuelan migration and urban growth, integrating socioeconomic variables to address endogeneity. The findings reveal the complex interplay of Venezuelan migration, socioeconomic factors, and urban growth. The study outlines remote sensing analysis, introducing the Anthropogenic Footprint Expansion Index (AFEI) to quantify urban growth. Facebook API data estimates migration trends and explores socioeconomic impacts on urban expansion. The analysis uncovers migration, poverty, aging, and urban population proportion as key factors affecting Colombia's urban landscape. Furthermore, the research underscores how Venezuelan migration affected short-term urban expansion pre- and post-COVID-19. Migration had a notable effect before the pandemic, but this influence waned afterward. The study highlights migration's short-term nature and emphasizes age demographics' role in medium-term dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: rural residents; post-retirement migration intention; logistic regression model; influencing variables
Online: 22 August 2023 (04:48:50 CEST)
With the intensification of population aging in rural areas, it becomes increasingly important to analyze the post-retirement migration intention of rural residents and the variables influencing these intentions. In this study, we focus on rural residents aged 45 to 60 and investigate the main variables that influence the post-retirement migration intention of rural residents, using survey data collected from 164 households in three different rural areas and the logistic regression model. From the result of this study, we found that gender, part-time employment, savings level, children's residence and occupation stability, and interest in urban living positively affect migration intention. In contrast, the number of rural companions, relationships with others in rural areas, and evaluation of rural living have a negative effect. In addition, we employ age and the proportion of mobile income as control variables to examine the variables that influence the post-retirement migration intention in different age groups and mobile income groups. The analysis reveals that, the variables influencing post-retirement migration intention varied across age groups and mobile income groups, and this variation can be attributed to the differences between groups' characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Megaptera novaeangliae; Land-based observations; Anthropogenic interactions; Migration; Feeding; Southeast Pacific
Online: 31 July 2023 (08:00:03 CEST)
The notion that ‘Stock-G’ humpback whales off western South America are primarily deep oceanic migrators is poorly supported. We documented 66 land-based sightings from Pucusana, Lima Sur: 18 incidental (2002–2023) and 48 dedicated sightings during the northbound winter migration (June-July 2023), covering respectively 38 and 105 individual whales, despite a mean daily observer effort of only 58.7 min. Estimated distances from shore ranged 20–7,000 m (mean= 2,729 m) at depths 25–99 m, while 50% migrated at < 2,500 m (median) from shore. Several groups skirted the coastline from headland to headland. Of five southbound migrating groups, four included an adult with neonate; no northbound groups enclosed a neonate. Two cases of single juvenile/subadult whales moving multidirectionally and closely associated with large seabird feeding frenzies, were considered foraging also. In 2023, 94% of all northbound nearshore sightings occurred from 14 June-11 July, signalling the maximum threat period for interactions with coastal fisheries off metropolitan Lima. If migration is temporally and spatially predictable, effective mitigating measures should be feasible.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Soluble carbon; leaching loss; Water and fertilizer input; Soil carbon migration
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:41:15 CEST)
In order to formulate a reasonable water input model for cotton fields in southern Xinjiang, scientific and rational fertilization, reduce soil carbon leaching, and improve soil carbon sequestration capacity, the undisturbed soil column leaching test was used to simulate the current field management method in the study area. Two methods of drip irrigation and flood irrigation were set up, and three irrigation and three nitrogen fertilizer levels were used to carry out the undisturbed soil column leaching test. The results showed that the amount and mode of water and nitrogen input affected the distribution and leaching loss of organic carbon and inorganic carbon in soil. When the nitrogen application rate increased from 270 kg·hm-2 to 450 kg·hm-2, the leaching loss of soluble organic carbon and soluble inorganic carbon increased significantly. When the water input increased from 6000 m3·hm-2 to 9000 m3·hm-2, the leaching loss of DOC and DIC increased significantly. The carbon leaching loss under drip irrigation was higher than that under flood irrigation. The leaching rates of DOC and DIC were the fastest under the conditions of high water ( 9000 m3·hm-2 ) and high fertilizer ( 450 kg·hm-2 ). It shows that water and nitrogen input and irrigation methods are important factors affecting soil carbon leaching. In the case of excessive water input, long-term high-frequency irrigation is the main factor affecting carbon leaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0374.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem Cells 1; Cell Migration 2; Xenogeneic Wound Repair 3.
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:06:48 CEST)
Bone marrow derived adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) possess therapeutic qualities that enable them to enhance wound repair. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remains poorly understood. Basic mechanisms may include the directed migration of delivered cells to target sites and/or the production and release of soluble factors that act at a distance. Allogeneic and even xenogeneic cells may effectively participate in wound repair. Labeled hMSCs were delivered to full-thickness skin wounds that were created in immunologically competent mice. The delivery occurred on day 3 post-wounding using two different carriers; one which released cells and one which retained cells. The fates of the delivered cells were tracked for up to 25 days. During this period, released cells migrated as a tight cohort deep into the wound to reach the subdermal vascular plexus. Simultaneously, enhanced formation of granulation tissue was evident. This migration of hMSCs was not essential in that enhanced granulation tissue formation and wound contraction occurred when cells were retained in the carrier matrix. This provided further evidence for the release of therapeutic factors by hMSCs to sites of injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0344.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: entomology; foraging; movement; migration; behaviour; morphology; mating; reproduction; fecundity; range expansion
Online: 29 January 2020 (04:09:55 CET)
Dispersal represents a key life-history trait with several implications for the fitness of organisms, population dynamics and resilience, local adaptation, meta-population dynamics, range shifting and biological invasions. Plastic and evolutionary changes of dispersal traits have been intensively studied over the past decades in entomology, in particular in wing-dimorphic insects for which literature reviews are available. Importantly, dispersal polymorphism also exists in wing-monomorphic and wingless insects, and except for butterflies, fewer syntheses are available. In this perspective, by integrating the very last research in the fast moving field of insect dispersal ecology, this review article provides an overview of our current knowledge of dispersal polymorphism in insects. After having provided a definition of the main terms characterising insects’ movements, some of the most often used experimental methodologies for the separation of dispersers and residents in wing-monomorphic and wingless insects are presented. The existing knowledge on the morphological and life-history trait differences between resident and disperser phenotypes is then synthetized. The fourth part examines the effects of range expansion on dispersal traits and performance, in particular for insects from range edges and invasion fronts. Finally, some research perspectives are proposed in the last part of the review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0177.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: macrophage migration inhibitory factor; HNSCC cell lines; proliferation; cell cycle; apoptosis
Online: 15 November 2019 (08:48:50 CET)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional cytokine that contributes to the progression of several cancers. MIF overexpression has been reported in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. However, the exact role of MIF in HNSCC is not fully understood. Our aim was to evaluate the amount of secreted MIF and the role of MIF in the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in HNSCC cell lines. The MIF levels in conditioned media from human primary (HN18 and HN30) and metastatic (HN17 and HN31) HNSCC cell lines were evaluated using ELISA. The HNSCC cell lines were treated with recombinant MIF and its effect on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptotic status was determined by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. The HNSCC-secreted MIF concentration ranged from 49.33‒860 pg/ml. Exogenous MIF (25 ng/ml) significantly increased HN18, HN30, and HN31 cell proliferation. Moreover, MIF induced cell cycle progression and inhibited apoptosis in these cells. However, MIF did not affect growth or apoptosis in HN17 cell. In conclusion, the HNSCC cell lines were evaluated secrete MIF. Exogenous MIF promotes various effects on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in HNSCC cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Gentrification; Residential Migration; Black Middle Class; Washington, DC; PG County, MD
Online: 5 November 2018 (14:06:31 CET)
The implications of urban revitalization, gentrification, and residential migration have attracted widespread interest and ongoing debate among scholars across a range of disciplines. While a significant body of literature explores race and class interactions within urban gentrifying neighborhoods, few have examined the environments that await those displaced by this process. This study explores the social and political impact of urban gentrification and class stratification within the black community by examining responses of black middle class residents in Prince George’s County, MD to the growing in-migration of low-income and minority residents from Washington, DC. Drawing on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, a multi-neighborhood sample of ninety-five black middle class residents of Prince George’s County, and informal interviews with subject-area experts, this study explores how race and class shape residential decisions and their impact on residential mobility initiatives. Residents responded to a 26-item survey that covered demographic information, political and community engagement, and their attitudes and beliefs about the poor, changes in their community, and racial unity and responsibility. Findings from cross tabulations and binary logistic regression indicate that lower middle class residents are the most likely to resist in-migration by exiting their communities and/or voting against proposals to create affordable housing options. Core and upper middle class residents were the most likely to stay in their neighborhoods despite increases in low-income migration, to vote in support of policies to create affordable housing options and to believe their responsibility to poor blacks could include sharing residential space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: cell migration; hepatic stellate cell; TGF-β1; Rap1; RhoA; NF-κB
Online: 7 September 2018 (12:19:49 CEST)
Although the migration of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is important for hepatic fibrosis, the regulation of HSC migration is poorly understood. Interestingly, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induces monocyte migration to sites of injury or inflammation in the early phase but inhibits cell migration in the late phase. In this study, we investigated the role of RhoA signaling in TGF-β1-induced HSC migration. We found that TGF-β1 increased the protein and mRNA levels of α-SMA and collagen type I in HSC-T6 cells. The level of RhoA-GTP in TGF-β1-stimulated cells was significantly higher than that in control cells. Moreover, cofilin phosphorylation and F-actin formation was more strongly detected in TGF-β1-stimulated cells than in control cells. Additionally, TGF-β1 induced the activation of NF-κB and the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and several cytokines in HSC-T6 cells. The active form of Rap1 (Rap1 V12) suppressed RhoA-GTP levels, whereas the dominant negative form of Rap1 (Rap1 N17) augmented RhoA-GTP levels. Therefore, we confirmed that Rap1 regulates RhoA activation in TGF-β1-stimulated HSC-T6 cells. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 regulates Rap1, resulting in RhoA suppression, NF-κB activation and F-actin formation during the migration of HSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: sinulariolide; human bladder cancer; migration; invasion; PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway
Online: 27 June 2017 (06:23:44 CEST)
Sinulariolide, a natural product extracted from cultured-type soft coral Sinularia flexibilis, possesses bioactivity against the movement of several types of cancer cell. However, the molecular pathway of its effects on human bladder cancer remain poorly understood. Using a human bladder cancer cell line as an in vitro model, this study investigated the underlying mechanism of sinulariolide against cell migration/invasion in TSGH-8301 cells. We found that sinulariolide inhibited TSGH-8301 cell migration/invasion, and the effect was concentration-dependent. Furthermore, the protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as urokinase, were significantly decreased after 24-h sinulariolide treatment. Meanwhile, the increased expressions of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were in parallel with an increased concentration of sinulariolide. Finally, the expressions of several key phosphorylated proteins in the mTOR signaling pathway were also downregulated by sinulariolide treatment. Our results demonstrated that sinulariolide has significant effects against TSGH-8301 cell migration/invasion, and its effects were associated with decreased levels of MMP-2/-9 and urokinase expression, as well as increased TIMP-1/TIMP-2 expression. The inhibitory effects were mediated by reducing phosphorylation proteins of the PI3K, AKT and mTOR signaling pathway. The findings suggested that sinulariolide is a good candidate for advanced investigation with the aim of developing a new drug for the treatment of human bladder cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1888.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: P-cadherin; c-Met; cell proliferation; cell migration; Head and neck cancer
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:05:42 CET)
(1) Background: P-cadherin (CDH3) is a transmembrane protein that plays a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of epithelial tissue and homeostasis. Its role in carcinogenesis remains a subject of debate, as its behavior can vary depending on the molecular context and the specific tumor cell model under study. In this study, we explored the role of P-cadherin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and the mechanism underlying its function. (2) Methods: We analyzed P-cadherin expression in HNSCC patients using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. For in vitro functional analysis, we conducted proliferation, migration, invasion, and western blot assays after either suppressing or overexpressing P-cadherin. For in vivo functional analysis, we utilized mouse xenograft models. (3) Results: P-cadherin was significantly overex-pressed in tumor samples compared to normal samples in the TCGA-HNSCC cohort. P-cadherin knockdown resulted in decreased proliferation, migration, and invasion compared to control cells, while P-cadherin overexpression increased cell proliferation and migration in HNSCC cells. We discovered that c-Met functioned as an upstream regulator of P-cadherin. Surprisingly, we found that P-cadherin knockdown increased the phosphorylation of c-Met and STAT3. Combining P-cadherin siRNA with the c-Met inhibitor SU11274 resulted in a more effective reduction in HNSCC cell growth, both in vitro and in vivo, compared to either treatment alone. (4) Conclusions: Our study uncovered a previously unknown aspect of P-cadherin-mediated c-Met regulation. The enhanced activation of c-Met/STAT3 following P-cadherin inhibition could be responsible for the survival of resistant tumor cells. Therefore, dual inhibition of P-cadherin and c-Met may be a potentially effective approach for treating HNSCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1910.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TAp73; PDAC; SMAD4; transforming growth factor-β; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cell migration
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:53:45 CEST)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal disease due to early metastatic spread, late diagnosis and the lack of efficient therapies. A major driver of cancer progression and hurdle to successful treatment is transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Recent data from pancreatic cancer mouse models have shown that transcriptionally active p73 (TAp73), a p53 family member, inhibits tumor progression through promoting tumor suppressive canonical TGF-β/Smad signaling, while preventing non-canonical TGF-β signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. Here, we have studied whether this mechanism also operates in human PDAC. Using the PDAC-derived tumor cell lines PANC-1 and HPAFII, we show that TAp73 induces the expression of the epithelial marker and invasion suppressor E-cadherin and the common-mediator Smad, SMAD4, while at the same time suppressing expression of the EMT master regulator SNAIL and basal and TGF-β1-induced activation of ERK1 and ERK2. Using dominant-negative and RNA interference-based inhibition of SMAD4 function we went on to show that inhibition of ERK activation by TAp73 is mediated through SMAD4. Intriguingly, both SMAD4 and the α isoform of TAp73 - but not the isoform - interfered with cell migration as shown by xCELLigence technology. Our findings highlight the role of TAp73-SMAD4 signaling in tumor suppression of human PDAC and identify direct inhibition of basal and TGF-β-stimulated pro-invasive ERK activation as an underlying mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1674.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Overpressure; Hydrocarbon downward migration; “Upper source-lower reservoir”; Numerical simulation; Chezhen Sag
Online: 23 June 2023 (12:02:11 CEST)
Pore fluid pressure is very important to the generation, migration and accumulation of petroleum. The previous studies indicate that the Chezhen sag region is typically characterized by pore fluid overpressure (the difference between pore fluid pressure and hydrostatic pressure). To date, the formation mechanism of pore overpressure and the accumulation regularity of “upper source-lower reservoir” type in this region remains unknown. In order to investigate these problems, a 2-D finite element model is established with regards to the fluid-solid coupling in Chegu 25 block of Chezhen depression, fully considering the existing seismic, logging data and regional tectonic stress environment. Meanwhile, we calculate the abnormal overpressure generated at the source rock during hydrocarbon generation and the process of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation along the faults, analyzing the dynamic conditions of hydrocarbon downward accumulation. The results show that overpressure can accelerate migration of hydrocarbon and improve the efficiency of hydrocarbon accumulation. However, when the overpressure is too large, tensile fractures and shear fractures may occur, resulting in hydrocarbon dissipation, and changing the results of oil and gas accumulation. The overpressure at the source rock is mainly caused by hydrocarbon generation, while the overpressure at the reservoir is primarily created by unbalanced compaction. As the dominant channel of hydrocarbon migration, overpressure will change the direction and path of hydrocarbon migration in the fault. Therefore, the “upper source-lower reservoir” hydrocarbon accumulation model is strongly explained by the high permeability of faults and the presence overpressure. In summary, the simulated overpressure results are in good agreement with the mud weight equivalent overpressure and the drill stem tests (DSTs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1609.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: migration; remittances; mountainous areas; Phuthadijthaba; systematic literature review; PRISMA; Bibliometric Analysis; VOSViewer
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:39:34 CEST)
Remittances are essential to economies in mountainous regions that face massive labour migration due to limited income generation and employment opportunities. In 2021, the share of remittances to GDP in the top 10 mountainous economies in the world was over 20%. Nonetheless, most are characterized by relatively lower GDP per capita and high poverty levels. Drawing a comparison with other mountainous areas, Phuthadjthaba, an emerging mountainous and border city of South Africa with Lesotho, faces similar out-migration and inferior socio-economic parameters. A global systematic literature review on the impact of remittances on livelihoods specifically targeting mountainous areas is missing. We, therefore, interrogate the role remittances can play in Phuthadijthaba. To inform our intended research, we seek to draw lessons from evidence on how migration and remittances affect mountainous communities globally. Accordingly, we carry out a systematic literature review (SLR) based on an updated Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) 2020 statement supported by Bibliometric (co-word) Analysis (BA) in VOSViewer. We collected data from Scopus and Dimensions websites and drew 165 publications, of which only 88 were included after exclusion and inclusion assessments. PRISMA results show that Mountain Research and Development, King Russell, and Nepal is the most productive and cited journal, the most productive and cited author, and the most researched country, respectively. Bibliometric analysis on keyword co-occurrences reveals women, agriculture, labour migration, land management, forest, and poverty, to be the research hotspots. In light of these findings, we proffer important recommendations to future researchers and policymakers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Ecological connectivity; brachyura larvae; diel vertical migration; Pelagic Life Duration; Adriatic Sea
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:48:32 CEST)
Among Crustacea, Decapoda Brachyura represent a good candidate for studies on the dispersal capability of coastal benthos by means of larvae. One oceanographic cruise allowed us to describe larvae dispersal routes in the South Adriatic Sea thanks to a multidisciplinary approach. In May 2013 a swarm of zoeae (11 Brachyura taxa, mostly at first instar, with Xantho granulicarpus at 87%) was recorded in the neuston of the Italian side of the basin. Complementary collections of zooplankton, in the same cruise, demonstrated that Decapoda larvae were not abundant below the neuston and concentrated in the first 20-30 m surface layer, with which probably they drift together. The availability of four satellite-tracked surface drifters in the same area and period of the larvae presence, represented a possibility to discuss the geographic dispersal of larvae on the basis of the surface circulation in successive days. During the studied period, only one drifter crossed the south Adriatic passing from the Italian to the Balkan neritic area, employing about 40 days. The daily vertical migration of larvae suggest that they can only employ more time to cross the basin, subtracting and re-entering the surface moving waters. The actual genetic homogeneity of populations of many Brachyura coastal species on the opposite sides of the Adriatic Sea suggests the existence of a genetic connection which, however, should not rely exclusively upon larvae circulation and needs to be fueled by additional strategies of biological communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0473.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Sado Island; divide migration; tilting uplift; stream capture; geomorphic indexes; topographic analysis
Online: 26 December 2022 (06:41:43 CET)
Drainage divide is a dynamic feature that migrates in response to tectonic activity. The asymmetric uplift between two adjacent basins causes the divide migration from a slower to faster uplift area. Sado Island, Japan, has been affected by southeastward tilting uplift since ca. 300k years. Despite the faster uplift on the northwest, the main divides have existed on the southeast side of the geometric center of the island, with no other feature suggesting tectonic inversion of the tilting direction. In this study, we conducted a DEM-based investigation that focused on divide migration. A spectrum from very inactive to active divide migration in the northwest. Regardless of their position, actively migrating divides are comprehensible, but inactive divides located in a relatively slow uplift area remain unclear. We concluded that some divides slowed down owing to the local balance of erosion rates across the divides, not implying the balance between uplift and river erosion at the basin scale, reflecting disequilibrium in river longitudinal profiles. The main divides of Sado have presumably continued to slowly migrate toward the faster uplift area; however, they are most likely to have never overcome the moving geometric center owing to land expansion at the seacoast due to asymmetric uplift.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: switching intention; proximity mobile payment; migration theory; push-pull-mooring framework; dissatisfaction
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:50:51 CEST)
Individual users' payment behaviors have changed. The diffusion of mobile devices makes people suitable for proximity mobile payment (PMP) services without the need for traditional payment. Existing mobile payment literature mainly focuses on users' adoption and continuous usage behavior, nevertheless, switching behavior on payment received little attention, especially focusing on why users switch from traditional payment to PMP. Thus, the objective of the current research is to investigate factors influencing users’ traditional payment - PMP switching to comprehend how these factors shape users’ switching intentions. We developed a traditional payment - PMP transition model based on the push-pull-mooring framework derived from migration theory. This research adopted a structural equation modeling analysis on 311 valid data. The findings indicate that a push factor drives users away from traditional payment in terms of dissatisfaction. The pull factors, including perceived substitutability and perceived usefulness, attract users to PMP. Furthermore, in terms of perceived technical compatibility, a positive mooring factor facilitates users' switching to PMP. The negative mooring factor, in terms of perceived risk, hinder users' switching intention. However, another pull factor - perceived ease of use, failed to influence switching intention significantly. This study found some distinctions between mobile payment switching and mobile payment adoption. These findings provide pivotal insights for mobile payment service providers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0398.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: self-assembling peptide; biomineralization; pulp-dentin complex; tooth repair; cell migration; biocompatibility
Online: 20 January 2021 (12:55:47 CET)
Self-assembling peptide P11-4 is amphiphilic and pH-triggered with demonstrated effectivity repairing early carious lesions in enamel. However, P11-4 effects on dentin biomineralization and repair remain unexplored. Thus, cytocompatibility and effectiveness of P11-4 inducing mineralization and migration of odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) were investigated. MDPC-23 were seeded in contact with P11-4(0.5µg/ml and 1µg/ml), Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1 0.5µg/ml and 1 µg/ml) or Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 100µg/ml) solutions. Cytotoxicity was verified using MTT (n=6/group). Mineralization was tested using Alizarin Red (n=4/group). Cell migration was assessed by light microscopy (n=2/group). MTT and Alizarin Red data were compared using Krus-kal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (α=0.05). P11-4 (0.5µg/ml and 1µg/ml) and DMP1 (0.5µg/ml and 1µg/ml) presented the highest cytocompatibility; Ca(OH)2 presented the lowest. DMP1 1µg/ml exhibited the highest mineralization ability, with no difference to P11-4 1µg/ml. Ca(OH)2 presented lower values than DMP1 1µg/ml (p<0.05), but similar to P11-4 1µg/ml. P11-4 and DMP1 at 0.5 µg/ml showed induced less mineralization than P11-4 and DMP1 at 1µg/ml (p<0.05), with no difference to Ca(OH)2. All materials stimulated cell migration, however, lower concentrations of DMP1 and P11-4 provided better results. P11-4 is cytocompatible, induces mineralization and MDPC-23 migration like DMP1. P11-4 could be an alternative for dentin mineralization and tooth repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; cancer-associated fibroblasts; metastasis; cell migration; cell invasion; Akt; EGFR
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:25:20 CEST)
Oral cancer cells (TYS) and the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, in response to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, COM) and normal oral mucosal fibroblasts (MM1) was studied. Metastatic cell behaviour was observed by cell-scatter, 3D-collagen gel migration and 3D-spheroid invasion assays. Akt, MAPK, EGFR, TGFβRii and CXCR4 inhibitors were used to identify the signalling pathways involved. Signalling pathway protein expression and activation were assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting. COM-CM (conditioned medium) and MM1-CM stimulated cancer cell scattering, which was blocked only by the Akt inhibitor. COM-CM induced scattered cancer cells showed higher levels of Akt phosphorylation than the negative control and MM1-CM. Migration and invasion of TYS cells into the collagen gels from the spheroids was stimulated by CM from both sources, compared to the negative control. COM cells stimulated TYS, cancer cell invasion into the collagen more than MM1 and the control. Akt and EGFR inhibitors effectively blocked CM and COM cell-induced invasion. Akt-silenced cancer cells were not stimulated to migrate and invade by fibroblast-CM and did not survive addition of the EGFR inhibitor. This suggests that CAFs stimulate oral cancer cell migration and invasion in an Akt- dependent manner. EGFR and Akt are potential therapy targets in metastatic oral cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: protozoan infections; helminthiasis; infectious diseases; travel medicine; human migration; climate change; one health
Online: 7 September 2023 (10:49:03 CEST)
In a rapidly evolving global landscape characterized by increased international travel, migration, and ecological shifts, this study sheds light on the emergence of protozoal and helminthic infections targeting the central nervous system (CNS) within Europe. Despite being traditionally associated with tropical regions, these infections are progressively becoming more prevalent in non-endemic areas. By scrutinizing the inherent risks, potential outcomes, and attendant challenges, this study underscores the intricate interplay between diagnostic limitations, susceptibility of specific population subsets, and the profound influence of climate fluctuations. The contemporary interconnectedness of societies serves as a conduit for the introduction and establishment of these infections, warranting comprehensive assessment. This study emphasizes the pivotal role of heightened clinician vigilance, judicious public health interventions, and synergistic research collaborations to mitigate the potential consequences of these infections. Though rare, their profound impact on morbidity and mortality underscores the collective urgency required to safeguard the neurological well-being of the European populace. Through this multifaceted approach, Europe can effectively navigate the complex terrain posed by these emergent infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0135.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: amyloid; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative diseases; neurodegeneration; dementia; population genomics; migration; admixture; APP; neuropathology
Online: 8 November 2022 (02:10:21 CET)
Genetic discoveries related to Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias have been performed using either large cohorts of affected subjects or multiple individuals from the same pedigree, therefore disregarding mutations in the context of healthy groups. Moreover, a large portion of studies so far have been performed on individuals of European ancestry, with a remarkable lack of epidemiological and genomic data from underrepresented populations. The present study aims at scanning 70 single-point mutations on the APP gene in a publicly available genetic dataset including 2.504 healthy individuals from 26 populations, and analyzing their distribution. Moreover, after gametic phase reconstruction, a pairwise comparison of the segments surrounding the mutations was performed to reveal patterns of haplotype sharing that could point to specific cross-population and cross-ancestry admixture events. Eight mutations have been detected in the worldwide dataset, with several of them being specific for a single individual, population or macroarea. Patterns of segment sharing reflect recent historical events of migration and admixture possibly linked to colonization campaigns. These observations reveal the population dynamics of the considered APP mutations in worldwide human groups, and support the development of ancestry-informed screening practices for the improvement of precision and personalized approaches to neurodegeneration and dementias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0213.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: cell migration; optimal control; geometric partial differential equations; mechanical membrane forces; cell polarisation
Online: 15 June 2022 (05:54:15 CEST)
Cell migration is essential for physiological, pathological and biomedical processes such as, in embryogenesis, wound healing, immune response, cancer metastasis, tumour invasion and inflammation. In light of this, quantifying mechanical properties during the process of cell migration is of great interest in experimental sciences, yet few theoretical approaches in this direction have been studied. In this work, we propose a theoretical and computational approach based on the optimal control of geometric partial differential equations to estimate cell membrane forces associated with cell polarisation during migration. Specifically, cell membrane forces are inferred or estimated by fitting a mathematical model to a sequence of images, allowing us to capture dynamics of the cell migration. Our approach offers a robust and potentially accurate framework to compute geometric mechanical membrane forces associated with cell polarisation during migration and also yields geometric information of independent interest, we illustrate one such example that involves quantifying cell proliferation levels which are associated with cell division, cell fusion or cell death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0067.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Intermarriage; migration; local markets; Poisson model; Probit model; spatial autocorrelation; spatial heterogeneity; Spain
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:43:08 CET)
We utilized all Spanish marriage records available at the municipality level from 2005-2007 to model spatial variations in intermarriage. We constructed a spatial regime zero inflated Poisson model and grouped-data probit model, with spatially lagged regressors, to predict the absolute and relative presence of intermarriage between Spaniards and migrants based on structural characteristics of the local marriage markets and their neighboring areas (i.e., relative group size, homogeneity of national origins, and sex ratio indicators). Our models do not assume collapsibility of the marriage market. Instead, they incorporate the local dimension of the marriage market and examine the association between intermarriage and structural variables at the spatial local level. The model also investigates intermarriage variation by size of place. The local characteristics of the marriage markets are robust indicators of both the absolute and relative importance of intermarriage, but their impact varies by size of municipality. The relative size of the migrant community positively impacts intermarriage. The homogeneity of the origins of migrants is negatively related to it. The impact of sex ratios in the migrant and native communities on intermarriage is not uniform across all municipalities and is not always related to more intermarriage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: hypoxia; HIF-1α; partial EMT; collective migration; inflammatory breast cancer; E-cadherin; metastasis
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:19:42 CEST)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular biological process involved in migration of primary cancer cells to secondary sites facilitating metastasis. Besides, EMT also confers properties such as stemness, drug resistance and immune evasion which can aid a successful colonization at the distant site. EMT is not a binary process; recent evidence suggests that cells in partial EMT or hybrid E/M phenotype(s) can have enhanced stemness and drug resistance as compared to those undergoing a complete EMT. Moreover, partial EMT enables collective migration of cells as clusters of circulating tumor cells or emboli, further endorsing that cells in hybrid E/M phenotypes may be the ‘fittest’ for metastasis. Here, we review mechanisms and implications of hybrid E/M phenotypes, including their reported association with hypoxia. Hypoxia-driven activation of HIF-1α can drive EMT. In addition, cyclic hypoxia, as compared to acute or chronic hypoxia, shows the highest levels of active HIF-1α and can augment cancer aggressiveness to a greater extent, including enriching for a partial EMT phenotype. We also discuss how metastasis is influenced by hypoxia, partial EMT and collective cell migration, and call for a better understanding of interconnections among these mechanisms. We discuss the known regulators of hypoxia, hybrid EMT and collective cell migration and highlight the gaps which needs to be filled for connecting these three axes which will increase our understanding of dynamics of metastasis and help control it more effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0374.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Qinghai Tibet Plateau; permafrost; active layer thickness; ground penetrating radar; reverse time migration
Online: 21 August 2018 (09:13:59 CEST)
The active layer thickness (ALT) is affected by local soil material and surface vegetation coverage in Tibetan plateau permafrost region. The human activities and engineering construction along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway (QTH) destroyed the surface vegetation coverage, which have seriously influenced the ALT and heat exchange balance. Meanwhile, the changes of the detailed internal structure in the active layer will affect the stability of engineering infrastructure. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was used to detect the ALT in the permafrost region. However, researches on the detailed structure of the active layer and spatial variation information of ALT are rare, the main reason given for this is that the lack of advanced imaging techniques to enhance the GPR images. In this paper, the researchers focus on solving this problem by applying the reverse time migration (RTM) method to GPR field data acquired in the Beiluhe region. Analyses of the results led to conclusions as follows: a) The RTM algorithm is proved to be accurate for imaging the characteristics of the active layer through the dielectric constant model obtained by common midpoint and GPR data velocity analysis. b) The result of RTM profiles show the loose structure and graben-like fine internal structure. Combining with drill data and soil materials information, the researchers deduce the graben-like structure might be coarse gravel layer, which may be related to subgrade settlements in some local area. c) The 2D contour maps not only show the spatial variation feature of ALT at two sides of the highway, but also can compensate the defect of the research for single 2D survey line. The ALT is about 0.6~0.8 m in most areas, and about 0.8~0.9 m near the highway at west side of the QTH on the 2D contour maps. From the RTM interpretation profile, the closer to the plash, the deeper thawed active layer. The detailed internal structure of the active layer and 2D contour maps of ALT have great significance for the study of fine internal structure and the characteristic of ALT spatial variation in the Tibetan plateau under the background of climatic change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pembrolizumab; immunotherapy; temozolomide; durvalumab; brain tumor; cell migration; metastasis; glioblastoma; PD-1; PD-L1
Online: 7 December 2023 (16:57:26 CET)
Cancers of the brain and nervous system account for 1 in every 100 cancer diagnoses in the United States and about 0.3 million diagnoses globally, every year. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemo-therapy constitute the standard of care. Despite advancements in diagnosis and treatment delivery, mortality rate for these cancers have remained steady for over three decades. Immunotherapy is an emerging fourth treatment modality which has been effective against several cancers but not brain cancers, such as glioblastoma, GBM. Here, we develop in vitro assays to quantify molecular readouts of cell death, cell migration and clonogenicity, and synopsize these as biophysical markers for the rapid evaluation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), durvalumab and pembrolizumab, alone and in combination with radiotherapy (radioimmunotherapy). We find different trends in their direct action on two GBM cell lines (T98G and U87), even in the absence of immune cells. Radiation alone, and pembrolizumab with radiation, both reduced (p < 0.05) cell-cell adhesion. This reduction suggests increased potential for local invasion. Our assays offer additional insights regarding ICIs, may enable evaluation of their potential efficacy, and could set the stage for pa-tient-specific radioimmunotherapy against brain cancers, engendering improved treatment out-comes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Ilex nanchuanensis; global climate change; migration prediction; potential distribution,Critically Endangered Chinese Endemic Species
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:18:32 CEST)
Global climate change, dominated by climate warming, is seriously affecting the balance of global ecosystems, but the risk of species extinction is particularly high in low-altitude mountain areas. To clarify the response of the endemic and critically endangered species Ilex nanchuanensis to climate change, this study used the MaxEnt model to simulate and predict the potential habitat of I. nanchuanensis during the Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, the current period, and two future periods (the 2050s and 2070s). The results showed that the hottest monthly minimum temperature is the most important climatic factor affecting the geographical distribution of I. nanchuanensis. Furthermore, I. nanchuanensis will be at risk of population shrinkage and extinction in the future, with the center of mass moving further northwest as concentrations of greenhouse gases increase, especially in the 2070s, when its geographical distribution shrinks the most under the RCP6 scenario. Global warming is causing habitat degradation for many species and will continue to migrate to higher altitudes and latitudes in the future, seriously affecting the global ecosystem balance. Therefore, to actively respond to the impacts of climate change, protected areas should be established around the geographical distribution centers of species, and core, buffer, and experimental areas should be scientifically and rationally delineated for the conservation and cultivation of germplasm resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0629.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: accretion; adaptive responses; Bangladesh; erosion; floods; geophysical; hazards; river basin; river channel migration; resettlement.
Online: 20 April 2023 (08:01:29 CEST)
This study posits that for appropriately explaining the complex charland (mid-channel island) processes and formulating policy and planning measures, a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the geomorphological, ecological, and human systems holistically is essential. This is also valid for the territorial and maritime areas of Bangladesh. The objectives of this study are: (i) to analyze the salient features and characteristics of the geomorphological and riparian systems of the Bengal Delta; (ii) to analyze the evolutionary discourse of the legal systems concerning eroded (diluvion) and accreted (alluvion) land in Bangladesh; and (iii) to assess characteristics of coping and adaptation strategies of the charland inhabitants. The findings reveal that the delta-building processes, characterized by the dynamic shifts of river channels, and erosion and accretion of charlands have made the land and water systems of the territory very dynamic and unstable – resulting in consistent displacement of settlers and serious deterioration of their socioeconomic status. The historical evolution of land laws and regulations concerning the accreted land favoured vested interests. As no effective institutional framework and structure presently exists in Bangladesh for resettlement planning, formulation of a comprehensive national resettlement policy is therefore urgently needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: channel migration; riverine landscape; riverine dwellers; livelihood vulnerability index (LVI); river confluence; RS-GIS
Online: 27 December 2022 (06:48:21 CET)
The power of the river does not always work to the benefit of living things; rather, it has the ability to destroy human society and has negative effects on the environment. River Teesta has a prodigious significance on the riverine dweller and its changing precarious behaviour has repercussions on the lives of millions. Utilizing satellite images and 41 years of temporal analysis, the mapping of channel extraction and channel shifting has been demonstrated. Delineating the exact channel boundary is a laborious operation, but MNDWI technique is really valuable in this situation to produce valuable results. Descriptive statistics are used to analyze the Teesta River's active flow line migration trend and channel migration behaviour. A particular river's oscillating character over time has both beneficial and detrimental power, destroying important resources for environmental sustainability and human society while also providing fertile mother earth as a source of wealth. As a result, another goal of the current study was to determine how vulnerable riverine residents were. A livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) based on the riverine inhabitants' exposure, sensitivity, and capacity for adaptation was created. According to the findings, the river's erratic behaviour is putting the people who live beside it in danger. Therefore, it is vitally necessary to implement a capable management strategy to stop bank failure at the Teesta-Dharala confluence in order to save the riverine residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: road,; energy-saving constructions; temperature regime; deformation of the roadbed; water migration; compaction coefficient
Online: 20 January 2022 (13:36:57 CET)
Currently, the design and construction of embankments of roads, railroads and hydraulic structures are based on regulatory documents developed 25-30 years ago. For the construction of granite massifs it is necessary to use sandy soils, the distribution of which in the Arctic zone of Siberia in the areas of construction is not more than 1.5%. In this case, the range of transport of sand in the alluvial area is 35 kilometers, in the rest of the area - an average of 60 kilometers. Large volumes of soil massifs require large amounts of transportation units, fuel consumption and are accompanied by large emissions of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. Over the past 15 years, the authors have developed designs and technologies that significantly reduce the energy consumption during the construction of soil embankments. Combined structures are cages made of geosynthetic materials filled with unsuitable melted and frozen overmoistened clay and peaty soils. This allowed the use of soils within the construction sites and thereby reduce the range of transportation from 0.2 to 2.0 kilometers. As an example, when reducing the range of transportation from 25 km to 1 km, the energy consumption is reduced by a factor of 21. The use of geosynthetics made it possible to set the initial parameters of the water-heat regime control process, which increased the life cycle of the embankment from 2 to 5 times in comparison with traditional soil massifs and reduced the consumption of energy for repair and maintenance of linear transport structures. This article gives a theoretical substantiation of water-heat regime management, based on which new designs and technologies have been proposed and tested in Siberia in 2008-2013. The results of the tests confirm the theoretical research. Thus, the use of combined constructions of geosynthetics and inapplicable soils not only reduces the distance of transportation, but also reduces the volume of earthworks. It reduces the consumption of energy by 1.5-2 times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0308.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: transnational social fields; social network analysis; migration; sampling; binational link-tracing; statistical network models
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:11:01 CEST)
We advance binational link-tracing sampling design, an innovative data collection methodology for sampling from transnational social fields, i.e., transnational networks embedding migrants and non-migrants. This paper shows the practical challenges of such a design, the representativeness of the samples and the qualities of the resulted networks. We performed 303 face-to-face structured interviews on sociodemographic variables, migration trajectories and personal networks of people living in a Romanian migration sending community (Dâmbovița) and in a migration receiving Spanish town (Castellón), simultaneously in both sites. Inter-connecting the personal networks, we built a multi-layered complex network structure embedding 4,855 nominated people, 5,477 directed ties (nominations) and 2,540 edges. Results indicate that the participants’ unique identification is a particularly difficult challenge, the representativeness of the data is not optimal (homophily on observed attributes was detected in the nomination patterns), and the relational and attribute data allow to explore the social organization of the Romanian migrant enclave in Castellón, as well as its connectivity to other places. Furthermore, we provide methodological suggestions for improving link-tracing sampling from transnational networks of migration. Our research contributes to the emerging efforts of applying social network analysis to the study of international migration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0324.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: CO2 geological storage, fractured carbonates, CO2 migration plume, updated geological model, Discrete Fracture Network
Online: 23 May 2018 (16:43:00 CEST)
Investigation into geological storage of CO2 is underway at the Technology Development Plant (TDP) at Hontomín (Burgos, Spain), the only current onshore injection site in the European Union. The storage reservoir is a deep saline aquifer located within Low Jurassic Formations (Lias and Dogger), formed by fractured carbonates with low matrix permeability. Understanding the processes involved in CO2 migration within this kind of low-primary permeability carbonates influenced by fractures and faults is key to ensure safe operation and reliable plume prediction. During the hydraulic characterization tests, 2300 tons of liquid CO2 and 14000 m3 of synthetic brine were co-injected on site in various sequences to characterize the pressure response of the seal-storage pair [de Dios et al, 2017] The injection tests were analyzed with a compositional dual media model which accounts for both temperature effects (as the CO2 is liquid at the bottom of the wellbore) and multiphase flow hysteresis (to effectively simulate the alternating brine and CO2 injection tests that were performed). The pressure and temperature responses of the storage formation were history-matched mainly through the petrophysical characteristics of the fracture network [Le Gallo et al, 2017]. The dynamic characterization of the fracture network dominates the CO2 migration while the matrix does not appear to significantly contribute to the storage capacity. This initial modeling approach was improved using the characterization workflow developed within the European FP7 CO2ReMove project for sandstone fractured reservoirs [Ringrose et al., 2011; Deflandre et al., 2011]. Fractured reservoirs are challenging to handle because of their high level of heterogeneity that conditions the reservoir behaviour during the injection. In particular, natural fractures have a significant impact on well performance [Ray et al, 2012]. Furthermore, the understanding of the processes involved in CO2 migration within relatively low-permeability storage influenced by fractures and faults is essential for enabling safe storage operation [Iding and Ringrose, 2010]. As part of the European H2020 ENOS project, the site geological model is updated by integration of the recently acquired data such as the image log interpretations from injection and observation wells. The geological model is generated through the analysis and integration of data including borehole images and well test data. Following a methodology developed for naturally fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs [Ray et al., 2012], the image log analysis identified two sets of diffuse fractures. A Discrete Fracture Network [Bourbiaux et al., 2005] was built around both wells which encompass the caprock, storage and underburden formations. The fracture characteristics of the two sets of diffuse fractures, such as orientations, densities and conductivities, are calibrated upon the interpretation of the injection tests [Le Gallo et al, 2017]. For each facies, the DFN characteristics were then upscaled and propagated to the full-field reservoir simulation model as 3D fracture properties (fracture porosity, fracture permeability and equivalent block size).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Angiogenesis; blood vessels; endothelial cells; fetal cells; Flk1; migration; placenta; pregnancy; trophoblast; vasculogenesis; VEGF; VEGFR2
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:40:03 CEST)
Pregnancy entails bidirectional interactions between the developing fetus, the maternal tissues, and the organ systems. To this end, the phenomenon of migration of fetal cells (FCs) into the maternal circulation is poorly understood. Here, we review literature underlying the migration of FCs from the placenta to the maternal circulation, which is likely a dynamic process, including trophoblast invasion, placental angiogenesis, modulation of maternal immune responses, and enlargement of maternal organs. As placental neovascularization fosters direct connections between fetal and maternal circulatory systems, the trophoblast, a pivotal to placental development, adeptly deploys an array of invasive strategies to breach maternal tissue barriers, facilitating FC escapade into the maternal circulation. The intricate balance struck by the maternal immune system, which both acts as a guardian against potential foreign cell threats and orchestrates a niche conducive to FC survival and differentiation, is facilitated by finely tuned interactions among regulatory T cells, cytokines, and inhibitory receptors. FC presence in mothers’ circulation may be clinically relevant and unveil novel molecular participants like lncRNA, exosomes, and intricate signaling pathways that drive innovative clinical approaches for diagnostics and therapeutics. Ongoing research should reshape our knowledge of pregnancy and maternal-fetal health by improving our understanding of fetal-maternal interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1790.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TAp73; PDAC; RAC1b; Biglycan; SMAD3; SMAD4; transforming growth factor-β; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cell migration
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:48:58 CEST)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal disease due to early metastatic spread, late diagnosis and the lack of efficient therapies. A major driver of cancer progression and hurdle to successful treatment is the desmoplastic reaction of the tumor stroma, the formation of which is orchestrated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Recent data from pancreatic cancer mouse models have shown that the TGF-β pathway is controlled by transcriptionally active p73 (TAp73) through secretion of biglycan (Bgn) via intermittent expression of the TGF-β signaling intermediates, Smad3 and Smad4. Genetic knockout of TP73, and, as a consequence, deficient induction of Smad3/Dpc4 and secretion of Bgn led to activation of TGF-β signaling through a (Smad-independent) ERK pathway, favoring epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell motility. Except for BGN, these functions of TAp73 have recently been shown to also operate in human PDAC cells and are reminiscent of what we previously observed for the small GTPase, RAC1b. This prompted us to hypothesize that TAp73 and RAC1b are part of the same tumor-suppressive pathway in human PDAC cells. The two objectives of this study, therefore, were to reveal i) if the regulatory interactions between TAp73 and Bgn previously discovered in murine PDAC-derived cells also operate in their human counterparts, and ii) if RAC1b collaborates with TAp73 in these tumor-suppressive activities in human PDAC cells. Using a variety of experimental approaches, including mutual rescue experiments, we were able to show that the previously proposed tumor-suppressive TAp73-Smad4-Bgn signaling also operates in human cells and that RAC1b is as an upstream activator of this pathway. Our findings highlight the complex role of TGF-β in pancreatic tumorigenesis and might have implications for therapeutic approaches targeting this growth factor for inhibition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1937.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: adaptation; acclimation; climate change; global warming; species migration; trees; neotropical; rainforest; Amazon; Biodiversity; Tropical Forest
Online: 27 June 2023 (15:48:46 CEST)
For tropical forests to survive anthropogenic climate change, the trees that comprise them will need to tolerate the newly emerging conditions through adaptation or acclimation, or they can avoid climate change through range shifts and “species migrations”. In this review, we show that the rapid pace and extreme severity of modern climate change makes it extremely unlikely that tropical tree species can adapt (with some possible exceptions). We also show that while many tropical tree species are shifting their distributions to higher, cooler elevations, the rate of these migrations are mostly insufficient to offset ongoing changes in temperatures, especially in lowland tropical rainforests where thermal gradients are shallow or nonexistent. We argue that the best hope for tropical tree species to avoid becoming “committed to extinction” is acclimation. While several new methods are being developed to test for acclimation, we unfortunately still do not know if tropical tree species can acclimate or what factors may prevent or facilitate acclimation. Until these questions are answered, our ability to predict the fate of tropical species and tropical forests – and the many services that they provide to humanity – remains critically impaired.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: lab-on-a-chip; cell migration; microfluidics; PDMS; hydrogels; femtosecond laser microfabrication; two-photon polymerization
Online: 22 June 2022 (08:21:44 CEST)
Understanding cell migration is a key step to unravel many physiological phenomena and predict several pathologies, like cancer metastasis. In particular, mechanical confinement has been proved to be a key factor in the cellular migration strategy choice. As our insight in the field improves, new tools are needed in order to empower biologists’ analysis capabilities. In this framework, microfluidic devices have been used to engineer the mechanical stimuli and to investigate cellular migration response in a more controlled way. In this work, we will review the existing technologies employed in the realization of microfluidic cellular migration assays, namely soft lithography of PDMS and hydrogels and femtosecond laser micromachining. We will give an overview of the state of the art of these devices, focusing on the different geometrical configurations that have been exploited to study specific aspects of cellular migration. Our scope is to highlight the advantages and possibilities given by each approach and to envisage the future developments in in-vitro migration studies under mechanical confinement in microfluidic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Grouting migration height; Herschel-Bulkley model; Post-grouted drilled shafts; Layered soils; Iterative calculation method
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:08:12 CEST)
The traditional bored pile technology has some arduous problems, such as the sediment at the pile tip, the mud skin along the pile shaft, and the stress release due to borehole construction. The post-grouted technology at the pile tip of bored pile has emerged because of demand. The grouting migration height (GMH) is of great significance to the strengthen and reinforcement of the pile foundation. This paper derives the calculation formula of the GMH based on the theory of the column hole expansion and Herschel-Bulkley model. The influence of relevant parameters on the GMH is discussed. Aiming at the problem of the grouting migration along the pile shaft in layered soils, the iterative calculation method of the GMH is proposed. The correctness of the GMH is verified by an engineering case, which can guide the engineering practice. The result shows that the GMH increases with the increase of the grouting pressure, the pile diameter and the thickness of the mud skin, and the grouting pressure is positively correlated with the GMH. The GMH decreases with the increase of the buried depth, the consistency coefficient and the rheological index. On this basis, the correctness of the GMH is verified by an engineering case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0090.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: migrant health; length of stay; Médecins du Monde; self-perceived health; migration; Human Development Index
Online: 11 June 2019 (09:04:20 CEST)
Health of migrant is a widely studied topic. It has been argued that migrant health may deteriorate over time. Though migrants are ‘a hard to reach’ population in survey data, this paper builds on a unique dataset provided by Médecins du Monde from five countries. We study self perceived health (SPH) in connection with socio-economic and demographic factors and length of stay. Results show different results for men and women. Asylum seekers compared to other documented migrants have a worse health. Migrants with better living conditions tend to be in better health. Employment and stable accommodation has a positive effect on SPH. Women from poorer countries have a better physical SPH after 3 months of residing in the host country. This paper contributes widely to knowledge of health of migrants. Contrarily to other evidence, health of migrants tends to improve for some migrants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, PDAC, cancer stem cells, EMT, Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition, Heterogeneity, Plasticity, Adhesion, Migration, Invasion, Metastasis
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:36:00 CET)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is mostly diagnosed at advanced or even metastasized stages limiting patient´s prognosis. Metastasis requires high tumor cell plasticity implying phenotypic switching in response to changing environments. Here, Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT), being associated with the gain of cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, and its reversion are important. Since it is poorly understood whether different CSC-phenotypes exist along the EMT-axis and how these impact malignancy-associated properties, we aimed to characterize CSC-populations of epithelial and mesenchymal PDAC cells. Single-cell cloning revealed CSC (Holoclone) and non-CSC (Paraclone) clones from the PDAC cell lines Panc1 and Panc89. Panc1 Holoclone cells showed a mesenchymal phenotype dominated by high expression of the stemness marker Nestin, while Panc89 Holoclone cells exhibited a SOX2-dominated epithelial phenotype. Panc89 Holoclone cells showed enhanced cell growth and self-renewal capacity but slow cluster-like invasion. Contrarily, Panc1 Holoclone cells showed slower cell growth and self-renewal ability but were highly invasive. Moreover, cell variants differentially responded to chemotherapy. In vivo, Panc1 and Panc89 cell variants significantly differed regarding number and size of metastases as well as organ manifestation leading to different survival outcomes. Overall, these data support the existence of different CSC-phenotypes along the EMT-axis in PDAC manifesting in different metastatic propensities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Burn healing; anti-Gal antibody; -gal epitope; -gal nanoparticles; macrophage migration; -gal therapy; mesenchymal stem cells.
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:23:59 CEST)
Macrophages play a pivotal role in the process of healing burns. One of the major risks in the course of burns healing, in the absence of regenerating epidermis, is infections which greatly contribute to morbidity and mortality in such patients. Therefore, it is widely agreed that accelerating recruitment of macrophages into burns may contribute to faster regeneration of the epidermis and thus, decreasing the risk of infections. This review describes a unique method for rapid recruitment of macrophages into burns and activation of these macrophages to mediate accelerated regrowth of the epidermis and healing of burns. The method is based on application of bio-degradable “alpha-gal” nanoparticles to burns. These nanoparticles present multiple alpha-gal epitopes (Gal alpha1-3Gal beta1-4GlcNAc-R) which bind the abundant natural anti-Gal antibody that constitutes ~1% of immunoglobulins in humans. Anti-Gal/alpha-gal nanoparticles interaction activates the complement system, resulting in localized production of the complement cleavage-peptides C5a and C3a that are highly effective chemotactic factors for monocytes derived macrophages. The macrophages recruited into the alpha-gal nanoparticles treated burns are activated following interaction between the Fc portion of anti-Gal coating the nanoparticles and the multiple Fc receptors on macrophages cell membranes. The activated macrophages secrete a variety of cytokines/growth factors that accelerate the regrowth of the epidermis and regeneration of the injured skin, thereby cutting the healing time by half. Studies on healing of thermal injuries in the skin of anti-Gal producing mice, demonstrated a much faster recruitment of macrophages into burns treated with alpha-gal nanoparticles than in control burns treated with saline and healing of the burns within 6 days, whereas healing of control burns takes ~12 days. alpha-Gal nanoparticles are non-toxic, and do not cause chronic granulomas or keloids. These findings suggest that alpha-gal nanoparticles treatment may harness anti-Gal for inducing similar accelerated burn healing effects also in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Calcium-activated potassium channels; SK channels; IK channels; human leukemia cells; cell migration; cancer cell invasion
Online: 3 February 2023 (10:31:24 CET)
Calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa) are the important participants in calcium signaling pathways due to their ability to be activated by increase of the intracellular free calcium concentration. KCa channels are involved in the regulation of various processes in the cells under normal, as well as pathophysiological conditions, including oncotransformation. Previously, with the use of patch-clamp method, we registered the KCa activity in the plasma membrane of human myeloid leukemia K562 cell line. Here, we performed the molecular and functional identification of KCa channels and have uncovered their role in proliferation, migration and invasion of K562 cells. Using a combined approach, we identified the functional activity of SK2, SK3 and IK channels in the plasma membrane of the cells. Selective SK and IK channel inhibitors, apamin and TRAM-34, reduced the proliferative, migratory and invasive capabilities of human myeloid leukemia cells. At the same time, the viability of K562 cells was not affected by KCa channel inhibitors. Our data imply that SK/IK channel inhibitors could be used to slow down the proliferation and spreading of leukemia cells that express functionally active KCa channels in the plasma membrane.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0256.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solar photovoltaics in Poland; scattered generation; video-analytics; 4G migration; CCTV monitoring; Ka-band; lag time
Online: 10 February 2021 (12:42:30 CET)
This paper contains a concise overview of the deployment of scattered solar power plants in Poland, mainly from the perspective of their communication networks, and how the recent development of the Polish 4G networks has a very positive impact for the performance of the whole monitoring system (production control and video-surveillance), with a special emphasis on video-analytics, due to its higher bandwidth demand. All the information will be shown from the point of view of the solar photovoltaics developer I+D Energías, and therefore it constitutes a real user’s experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0524.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: object detection; tomato organ; K-means clustering; Soft-NMS; migration learning; convolutional neural network; deep learning
Online: 23 October 2018 (07:57:44 CEST)
In the current natural environment, due to the complexity of the background and the high similarity of the color between immature green tomato and plant, the occlusion of the key organs (flower and fruit) by the leaves and stems will lead to low recognition rate and poor generalization of the detection model. Therefore, an improved tomato organ detection method based on convolutional neural network has been proposed in this paper. Based on the original Faster R-CNN algorithm, Resnet-50 with residual blocks was used to replace the traditional vgg16 feature extraction network, and K-means clustering method was used to adjust more appropriate anchor size than manual setting to improve detection accuracy. A variety of data augmentation techniques were used to train the network. The test results showed that compared with the traditional Faster R-CNN model, the mean average precision (mAP) of the optimal model was improved from 85.2% to 90.7%, the memory requirement decreased from 546.9MB to 115.9 MB, and the average detection time was shortened to 0.073S/sheet. As the performance greatly improved, the training model can be transplanted to the embedded system, which lays a theoretical foundation for the development of precise targeting pesticide application system and automatic picking device.