ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0703.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: tympanic membrane; chronic perforation; fat myringoplasty; success rate; middle ear packing; fibrin glue packing
Online: 30 July 2021 (13:25:54 CEST)
Background: To date, FM using middle ear packing has rarely reported. In this study, we hypothesized that middle ear packing with dexamethasone soaked gelfoam and fibrin glue over the fat graft could promote the success rate of TMP closure regardless of perforation size. Methods: Between January 2005 and July 2020, a total of 209 patients who underwent fat myringoplasty due to chronic TMP at tertiary referral center were encountered and analyzed. The success rate and audiologic outcome was analyzed. Results: The mean successful TM closure rate was 88.0 %. The success rate by different age generation was not significant difference. The size of the perforation grade showed no significant difference. The perforation site by anterior or posterior was not significant. The preoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 55.71, 12.98 and 42.73 dB respectively. The postoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 23.67, 12.98 and 10.69 dB. The change of preoperative and postoperative hearing showed statistically significant. Conclusion: From our results, the simple trimming of the perforation edge and middle ear packing with external ear canal packing using fibrin glue induced the stable adhesion between the remnant TM and the fat graft.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: chronic pediatric pain; low income country; middle income country; low and middle income country; pediatric palliative care.
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:45:24 CEST)
Chronic pain is a serious health concern and potentially debilitating condition, leading to anxiety, depression, reduced productivity and functionality, and poor quality of life. This condition can be even more detrimental and incapacitating in the pediatric patient population. In low and middle income countries (LMICs), pain services are inadequate or unavailable, leaving most of the world's pediatric population with chronic pain untreated. Many of these children in LMICs are suffering without treatment, and often die in pain. Awareness and advocacy for this population must be prioritized. We reviewed the available literature on the chronic pediatric pain burden in LMICs, barriers to treatments, and current efforts to treat these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: sports participation; junior middle school students; prosocial behavior
Online: 8 September 2021 (14:21:00 CEST)
Based on the 2014-2015 China Education Panel Survey (CEPS) and using the propensity score matching method, we studied the causal relationship between physical exercise and prosocial behavior of junior middle school students in China. Ordinary least squares regression and propensity score matching estimation results showed that participation in physical exercise significantly increases students’ prosocial behavior by more than 0.2 standard points. The results of this study were tested and found to be robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0605.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Prostate cancer; Middle Eastern Ancestry; Copy number alteration
Online: 26 February 2021 (10:47:12 CET)
Background: Our knowledge of prostate cancer (PCa) genomics mainly reflects European (EUR) and Asian (ASN) populations. Our understanding of the influence of Middle Eastern (ME) and African (AFR) ancestry on the mutational profiles of prostate cancer is limited. Design, setting and participants: To characterize genomic differences between ME, EUR, ASN and AFR ancestry, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies for NKX3-1 deletions and MYC amplification was carried out on 42 tumors arising in individuals of ME ancestry. These were supplemented by analysis of copy number profiles of 401 tumors of all ancestries. Outcome measurement and statistical analysis: FISH results of NKX3-1 and MYC were assessed in the ME cohort and compared to other ancestries. Gene level copy number aberrations (CNAs) for each sample were statistically compared between ancestry groups. Results and Limitation: NKX3-1 deletions by FISH were observed in 17/42 (17.5%) prostate tumors arising in men of ME ancestry, while MYC amplifications were only observed in 1/42 (0.23%). Using CNAs called from arrays, the incidence of NKX3-1 deletions was significantly lower in ME vs. other ancestries (20% vs. 52%; p = 2.3 x 10-3). No differences in MYC amplifications was noted between the two cohorts using array-based CNAs. Across the genome, tumors arising in men of ME ancestry had fewer CNAs than those of other ancestries (p = 0.014). Additionally, the somatic amplification of 21 specific genes was more frequent in tumors arising in men of ME vs. EUR ancestry (Proportions test; Q < 0.05). Those included amplifications in the glutathione S-transferase family on chromosome 1 (GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTM5) and the IQ Motif Containing family on chromosome 3 (IQCF1, IQCF2, IQCF13, IQCF4, IQCF5, IQCF6). Conclusion: Significant differences in genetic background exists between different ancestries. The lower number of somatic CNAs observed in prostate cancer arising in men of ME ancestry may explain the relatively good prognosis in this population. Larger studies are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0225.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: climate change; aridity; precipitation; Mann-Kendall; Middle East
Online: 13 March 2020 (03:10:51 CET)
Available water resources in the Middle East, as one of the most water-scarce regions of the world, have undergone extra pressure due to climatic change, population growth, and economic development during the past decades. The objective of this study is to detect the trends and quantify the changes in aridity with respect to precipitation and potential evapotranspiration in 20 countries of the Middle East and the adjacent area. A Pixel-wised trend analysis was conducted on precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and aridity index for 71 years from 1948 to 2018. A nonparametric Mann-Kendall test was used over 14106 points in the study area to detect the trends at monthly and annual time scales. Results showed statistically significant (|Z| >1.96) upward trends in aridity (a downward trend in aridity index) up to 96 percent from December through September in most parts of the region. Aridity in October and November had a downward tendency in most parts of the study area. At the annual time scale, 62.5 percent of the statistically significant trends in aridity were found to be upward (up to 96 percent increase in aridity) due to the combined effects of the decrease in precipitation and the increase in potential evapotranspiration and 37.5 percent of the detected trends were downward (up to 61 percent decrease in aridity). The highest and the lowest trends in aridity were found in the north of Sudan (96 percent increase in aridity) and Eastern Arabia (61 percent decrease in aridity), respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0073.v1
Subject: Keywords: coffee culture, domestication, creolization, encapsulation, and middle class
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:48:50 CET)
This article is an anthropology study on how western-style coffee culture influences Indonesian coffee culture and eventually develops a new localized coffee culture. Immense development of such worldwide coffee franchise as Starbucks affects local community's coffee culture, particularly the middle class. This new wave is considered as an alternative lifestyle for those who are consumptive and seeking for leisure, dynamics, and identity. Broader than just the process of domestication or creolization, Indonesian new coffee culture has an element of “soft countering to” western coffee culture even though it still embraces some parts of the western styles. This phenomenon is referred to by the writer as the cultural encapsulation process or the process of substantial cultural resistance by drawing a line between the two coffee cultures with the intention of taking merely compatible elements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0063.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: SISAL database; speleothem; cave; isotopes; Middle East, palaeoclimate
Online: 6 February 2019 (13:32:13 CET)
The Middle East spans the transition between temperate Mediterranean climate in the Levant to hyper-arid sub-tropical deserts in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, with the complex alpine topography in the northeast feeding the Euphrates and Tigris rivers which support life in the southeastern Fertile Crescent (FC). Climate projections predict severe drying in major parts much of the ME in response to global warming, making it important to understand the controls of hydro-climate perturbations in the region. Here we discuss 23 ME speleothem stable oxygen isotope (δ18Occ) records from 16 sites from the SISAL_v1 database, which provide a record of past hydro-climatic variability. Sub-millennial changes in ME speleothem δ18Occ values primarily indicate changes in past precipitation amounts superimposed on variations of the main synoptic pattern in the region, specifically Mediterranean cyclones. The coherency (or lack thereof) between regional records is reviewed from Pleistocene to present, covering the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), prominent events during deglaciation, and transition into the Holocene. The available speleothem δ18Occ time-series are investigated by binning and normalizing at 25-year and 200-year time windows over the Holocene. Important Holocene climatic oscillations are discussed, such as the 8.2 ka, 4.2 ka and 0.7 ka (the Little Ice Age) Before Present events. Common trends in the standardized anomalies are tested against different climate archives. Finally, recommendations for future speleothem-based research in the region are given along with comments on the utility and completeness of the SISAL database.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: calorie restriction; PUFA; meal replacement; metabolic syndrome; middle age
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:39:38 CEST)
The increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has led to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide. In Taiwan, middle-aged women are at a greater risk of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than men are because they have more subcutaneous fat and larger waist circumferences compared to men with equal visceral fat levels. This study investigated the effects of calorie restriction supplemented with fish oil (CRF) in middle-aged women with MetS. For 12 weeks, 75 eligible participants were randomly assigned either calorie restriction (CR) or CRF. Both dietary intervention groups were further divided into two age groups: ≤45 and >45 years. The changes in MetS severity, inflammatory status, iron status, and red blood cell fatty acid profile were evaluated. Seventy-one participants completed the trial. Both dietary interventions significantly ameliorated MetS and improved the participants’ inflammatory status. CR significantly increased total iron binding capacity, whereas CRF increased hepcidin levels. Furthermore, CRF significantly increased the n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios. In conclusion, CR and CRF improved the anthropometric and MetS characteristics of early-middle aged women, including body weight, blood glucose levels, triglyceride levels, as well as the scores for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity cheque index. Dietary intervention was more effective in >45-year-old women than ≤45-year-old women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Physical Activity; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 1 September 2022 (16:13:25 CEST)
Worldwide, depressive disorder is one of the leading determinants of disability-adjusted life years. Although the benefits associated with physical activity (PA), there is a lack of information related to depression, especially in countries like Czechia, where modern approaches to mental health care only recently emerged. The PA levels were associated with aspects of depression such as clinician-diagnosed history; different severities; continuous depression scores; and specific symptoms that characterize the depression. The multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models were carried out on 2123 participants (45.3% men, median 48 years). Compared to subjects with insufficient PA, the moderate and high PA levels were inversely associated with clinician-diagnosed depression history (respectively, prevalence rate [PR]= 0.84; 95% CI 0.66-0.82 and PR=0.50; 95% CI 0.36-0.67); and with continuous depression scores (PR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.97; and PR=0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.90).; but only high PA showed association with depression categories (PR=0.75; 95%CI 0.60-0.95). Depressed mood and worthlessness were the symptoms associated with moderate and high PA. Tiredness, change in appetite, and problems with concentration only with high PA. Although only high PA was sufficient for people intending changes among depression categories, the moderate PA may be enough for slight changes in depressive symptoms, and a good strategy when starting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Intermediate care unit; Middle care; Education; CPAP; Noninvasive ventilation; rehabilitation
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:41:43 CEST)
The different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic caused dramatic issues regarding the organiza-tion of care. In this context innovative solutions have to be developed in a timely manner to adapted the organization of the care. The establishment of middle care (MC) units is a bright example of such an adaptation. A multidisciplinary MC team, including expert and non-expert respiratory nurses, physicians, physiotherapists, psychologists, nutritionists and social workers, was built and trained to work in the COVID-19 MC unit. Important educational resources were set up to ensure rapid and effective training of the MC team, limiting the admission or delaying transfers to ICU and ensuring optimal management of palliative care. We conducted a retrospec-tive analysis of patient data in the MC unit during the second COVID-19 wave. Fifty-two COVID-19 ‘step-up’ patients admitted to the MC unit were included in the study. Thirty-four (65%) patients worsened, of which 12 (23%) were not eligible for ICU access. In total, 42% of the ICU-eligible patients were managed in the MC unit to avoid the ICU. Among the 22 patients transferred to the ICU, 15 were intubated. The establishment of an MC unit during a pandemic, mixing expert and non-expert respiratory team members, is feasible and needed. MC units possi-bly relieve the pressure exerted on ICUs. A highly trained multidisciplinary team is key to ensur-ing the success of an MC unit during a pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: aerosol; CALIPSO; desert dust; Eastern Mediterranean; North Africa; Middle East
Online: 10 March 2022 (13:57:26 CET)
Turkey is located in the heart of complex transition geography between Eurasia and the Middle East. In the grand scheme, the so-called Eastern Mediterranean Basin is almost amidst the dusty belt and a hot spot of climate change. The downstream location of dust carrying winds from the closer desert sources reveals Turkey as an open plane to particulate matter exposure throughout the year. In order to clarify this phenomenon, it is aimed to find out the desert dust climatology of Turkey via CALIPSO onboard Lidar. This prominent instrument enables us to understand clouds, aerosols and their types and relatedly climatic systems with its valuable products. In this study, 9-year CALIPSO derived pure dust product is formed to explain horizontal and vertical distributions, transport heights and case incidences. Results indicated mass and conditional abundancy are higher with the location shifts from west to east. In the same direction, dominant spring months change to summer and autumn. Mountain range systems surrounding Anatolia are the main obstacles against lofted and buoyant dust particles travelling to northern latitudes. Even if high ridges accumulate mass load on the southern slopes, it also enables elevated particles to reach the ground level of the inner cities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Sexuality; Mental Health; Adolescents; Experiences; Low and middle-income countries
Online: 18 January 2022 (10:47:22 CET)
During puberty and emerging sexuality, adolescents experience important physical, mental, and social transformations. In the process of dealing with these changes, adolescents can become potentially vulnerable to mental health problems.The aim was to identify and synthesize published research evidence on sexuality-related mental health stressors among adolescent girls and boys, identify gaps (if any) in current knowledge, and contribute to knowledge about the experiences of emerging sexuality and health among adolescents, to further inform research, practice, and policy initiatives in sexual health.A scoping literature review of peer-reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2018. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global health, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched for research studies that reported experiences of sexuality related mental health issues and symptomatology of adolescents. We targeted studies conducted with adolescent populations between ages 11-24 years living in LMICs.Data from 12 published research papers, including 8 qualitative studies, 3 quantitative studies, and 1 mixed method study, were systematically analyzed. Four major themes and 4 sub themes were identified regarding sexual health and mental health of adolescents: 1) Relationship of sexuality and mental health; 2) Social and cultural influences; 3) Challenges in seeking sexuality information and services among adolescents; and 4) Educational needs among adolescents related to sexuality; and 4) Educational needs among adolescents related to sexuality. Lack of social support, Unmet needs for accessible adolescent friendly sexual health services, counseling, and age-appropriate information may be associated with several mental health stressors and symptoms, such as sadness, depressive and anxiety symptomatology, regret, fear, embarrassment, low self-esteem, guilt, shame, and anger. Therefore, tackling sexuality-related stressors could play an important role in addressing the overall wellbeing of young people. Future studies need to generate a deeper understanding of the concept of sexual health and its relation to mental health in diverse contexts. Health care professionals need to be aware of sexuality-related experiences of adolescent girls and boys by offering effective youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health education to support overall mental health and improve the experiences of emerging sexuality in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0299.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: vocational interests; interests inventory; high-school students; middle-school students
Online: 20 December 2021 (09:50:31 CET)
Vocational interest inventories are widely used by career counselors to help individuals to make career choices. The most common approach to assess vocational interests is based on verbal or textual stimuli. However, some of them are based on pictorials to overcome reading limits and provide additional information about the working environment and the activities related to a particular job. This article aims to present two studies on the development and first validation of the Multilingual Iconographic Professional Interest Inventory (MIPII) on two samples, one composed of 792 high-school students, and one composed of 366 middle school students. The inventory aimed to assesses the vocational interests of people over 19 areas by illustrations representing 95 jobs, five for each one, combined with their title in six different languages (Arabic, German, English, Spanish, French and Italian in this order). Both illustrations and titles are provided separately in the male and female version on the same page.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Cardiorespiratory Fitness; Cardiometabolic Risk Factors; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 23 August 2021 (12:18:10 CEST)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. However, there is no recent information about the impact of CRF on cardiometabolic risk specifically in Central and Eastern Europe, which are characterized by different biological and social determinants of health. Normative CRF values were proposed and the association between CRF and cardiometabolic outcomes was evaluated in an adult Czechian population. In 2054 participants (54.6 % females, median 48 years), the CRF was predicted from a non-exercise equation. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regressions were carried out to determine the associations. Higher CRF quartiles were associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and dyslipidaemia. Comparing subjects within the lowest CRF, those within the highest CRF had decreased chances of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.22-0.60); T2D (OR=0.16; 95% CI 0.05-0.47), low HDL-c (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.17-0.60), high low-density lipoprotein (OR=0.33; 95% CI 0.21-0.53), high triglycerides (OR=0.13; 95 CI 0.07-0.81), and high cholesterol (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.69). There was an inverse association between CRF and cardiometabolic outcomes, supporting the adoption of a non-exercise method to estimate CRF of the Czech population. Therefore, more accurate cardiometabolic studies can be performed incorporating the valuable CRF metric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0284.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: urban; rural; millet; garden; orchard; Iberian Peninsula; High/Late Middle Ages
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:57:08 CET)
Towns emerged as dynamic economic and political centers during the Middle Ages, giving rise to the emergence of new social classes. As a result of these functions, a new relationship began to be forged with the rural world, which supplied towns with foodstuffs that satisfied new social demands. Archaeobotanical analysis (carpology) allows us to understand the flow of cash crops by tracing seeds and fruits produced in the countryside that were consumed in and redistributed from the towns. The study of waterlogged contexts from medieval archaeological sites in the Kingdom of Galicia (Santiago de Compostela, Padrón, and Pontevedra) has provided a set of species that played a crucial role in the economy of the urban dwellers and that possibly were related to differential access or food preferences. Evidence for fruits (grapes, chestnuts, figs, apples, and cherries, among others), garden crops (melon), and cereals (foxtail millet, rye, naked wheat, and oat) has been documented. Broomcorn millet is particularly abundant, demonstrating that it was important for subsistence. Some of the species found (medlar, turnip/grelo, and spinach) are novel in the archaeobotanical literature of the medieval period in the Iberian Peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0449.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Suicidal ideation; suicide plans; suicide attempts; middle school students; Sierra Leone
Online: 17 November 2020 (12:25:51 CET)
Background: The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle school students in Sierra Leone. Method: Data from 2,798 adolescents (15 years of median age) that responded to the cross-sectional “2017 Sierra Leone Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)” were analysed. Results: The prevalence of past 12-month suicidal ideation was 14.2%, suicide plans 16.0%, and suicide attempts 19.1%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, worry-induced sleep disturbance (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 1.84, 95% Confidence Interval-CI: 1.32-2.57), bullied (AOR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.77-4.74), trouble from alcohol use (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.03-3.50), and leisure-time sedentary behaviour (AOR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.18-4.98) were associated with suicidal ideation. Bullied (AOR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.46-3.95) and current cannabis use (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.51-4.09) were associated with suicide plans in the past 12 months. No close friends (AOR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.46-4.72) loneliness (AOR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08-2.66), bullied (AOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.66-3.28), trouble from alcohol use (AOR: 4.01, 95% CI: 2.25-7.13) and current cannabis use (AOR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.37-6.25) were positively and school attendance (AOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42-0.92) negatively associated with suicide attempts in the past 12 months. Conclusion: Almost one in five students had made suicide attempts in the past 12 months and several associated variables were discovered that can assist in designing interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Middle School Students; Smartphone Usage Types; Depression; Parenting Attitude
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:27:01 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smartphone addiction of middle school students and smartphone usage types, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude. This study was also performed with the aim of verifying the relationships among depression, ADHD, perceived stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude, which are predictors of smartphone addiction. The subjects of this study were 487 local middle school students (234 males and 253 females). The measurement instruments used were the smartphone addiction scale, depression scale (PHQ-9), ADHD scale (K-ARS), perceived stress scale (PSS), interpersonal problem scale (KIIP-SC), and the parenting attitude scale. This study identified the relationships between the variables with correlation analysis and examined the predictors of smartphone addiction with hierarchical multiple regression analysis. According to the study results, the factors that influenced smartphone addiction were gender, stress, and interpersonal problems. In addition, when the confounding variables of smartphone addiction were controlled to examine the effects of smartphone usage types on smartphone addiction, social media use and music/videos were found to have a positively significant effect on smartphone addiction while study had a negatively significant effect. The order of the usage types with the highest influence on smartphone addiction was enjoying music/videos, social media use, and study. This suggests that selective intervention depending on the main smartphone usage type can be effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0323.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: vascular; omega-3; exercise; cerebral blood flow; middle cerebral artery; supplements
Online: 23 February 2020 (13:05:55 CET)
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) decreases across the lifespan, and chronic conditions such as dementia and stroke accelerate this decline. Impaired CBF results in reduced delivery of oxygen and nutrients, which can damage the brain over time. Thus, there is a need to identify lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise to maintain CBF with aging and in the presence of chronic disease. In the present study, we used transcranial Doppler ultrasound to record middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), a surrogate measure of CBF, during moderate-intensity exercise in sedentary, cognitively-normal older adults (N = 90). A multiple linear regression model (F(4, 85) = 3.21, p = 0.02) showed self-reported omega-3 supplement use significantly moderated the association between age and mean exercising MCAv in these individuals (p = 0.01). Older age was associated with lower exercising MCAv in the group not taking omega-3 supplements, while exercising MCAv showed no decline with increasing age in the group who reported omega-3 supplement use. These findings suggest omega-3 supplementation may have an important role in the preservation of CBF with aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Gentrification; Residential Migration; Black Middle Class; Washington, DC; PG County, MD
Online: 5 November 2018 (14:06:31 CET)
The implications of urban revitalization, gentrification, and residential migration have attracted widespread interest and ongoing debate among scholars across a range of disciplines. While a significant body of literature explores race and class interactions within urban gentrifying neighborhoods, few have examined the environments that await those displaced by this process. This study explores the social and political impact of urban gentrification and class stratification within the black community by examining responses of black middle class residents in Prince George’s County, MD to the growing in-migration of low-income and minority residents from Washington, DC. Drawing on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, a multi-neighborhood sample of ninety-five black middle class residents of Prince George’s County, and informal interviews with subject-area experts, this study explores how race and class shape residential decisions and their impact on residential mobility initiatives. Residents responded to a 26-item survey that covered demographic information, political and community engagement, and their attitudes and beliefs about the poor, changes in their community, and racial unity and responsibility. Findings from cross tabulations and binary logistic regression indicate that lower middle class residents are the most likely to resist in-migration by exiting their communities and/or voting against proposals to create affordable housing options. Core and upper middle class residents were the most likely to stay in their neighborhoods despite increases in low-income migration, to vote in support of policies to create affordable housing options and to believe their responsibility to poor blacks could include sharing residential space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0366.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency; G6PD; ABO Blood-Group System; Middle East; Arabs.
Online: 16 October 2018 (15:43:55 CEST)
BACKGROUND G6PD deficiency is an inherited an X-linked recessive condition leading to insufficient levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, thus causing hemolytic anaemia under certain conditions. METHODS Our study is explorative for cases admitted to Jordan University Hospital. The studied parameters include demographics, clinical manifestations, biochemical markers including Hb level, WBC count, liver enzymes, and blood grouping. RESULTS Most of the patients were admitted to the emergency unit (53.13%). Individuals who were Rh-positive represented 57.81%, while patients of AB blood group accounted for 75%. The mean values were 4.81 years (age), 29.06 hours (time-to-hospital admission), 38.10 degree Celsius (temperature), 6.11 gm/dl (Hb), 13242.19 (WBC count), 343.20 U/L (S. ALP), and 50.98 IU/L (S. ALT). There was no significant difference between males and females or between favism-induced versus drug-induced hemolytic episodes. AB and Rh positive blood groups are of protective effect in relation to liver enzymes. Patients who were admitted to the hospital within 24 hours from having clinical manifestations had a better prognosis. CONCLUSION This study is the first inferential research on G6PD deficiency from the Middle East to explore cases from one of the largest healthcare centres in Jordan. The role of blood grouping should be investigated prospectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hydrologic modeling; TopModel; middle magdalena valley; nash sutcliffe efficiency; tropical regions
Online: 12 July 2018 (07:38:23 CEST)
Hydrological modeling allows us to make a comprehensive assessment of the interaction between dynamics of the hydrological cycle, climate conditions, and land use. These modeling results are relevant in water resources management field. We use TopModel (TOPography based hydrological MODEL for the hydrological modeling of an area of 17 000 km2 in the Middle Magdalena Valley (MMV), a tropical basin located in Colombia. This study is located in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) which is characterized by special meteorological conditions and fast water fluxes over the year. This area has been subjected to significant land use changes, as a result of intense economic activities, e.g., agriculture, hydropower energy and oil & gas production (Avellaneda, 2003). The proposed model is based on a record of 12 years of: i.) daily precipitation data from observed gauges, ii.) daily evapotranspiration data from temperature data and iii.) daily streamflow data as observed data. A calibration process was performed using data from 2000 to 2008, and a validation was performed with data from 2009 to 2012. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient was used as an objective function to assess the quality of these processes (values of this metric are between 0.74 and 0.73 respectively, for model calibration and validation). The results show us an adequate performance of the model in areas of the tropical region and allow us to analyze the relationship between water storage capacity in the soils of the area with subsurface runoff. This conclusion is consistent with the characteristics of the region. The calibrated model provides an idea about the hydrological functioning of the basin and estimates an approximation of the groundwater recharge in the region. The estimation of the recharge is important to quantify the interaction of surface water and groundwater, especially during the dry season, due to its importance in the analysis of scenarios with climate variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Greenhouse gases; GMDH; Middle Eastern countries; Carbon dioxide emission
Online: 29 May 2019 (10:17:43 CEST)
Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emission has considerable impact on global warming and climate change. Since energy systems and their features noticeably influence on the amount of GHGs emission, it can be modeled based on the specifications of energy sources utilized by the countries. In addition, economic activity is another factor which should be considered in GHG emission modeling. In this work, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used for estimating carbon dioxide emission, as one of the most abundant GHGs, on the basis of shares of various energy sources used as primary energy supply and GDP as an indicator for economic activities. Five countries including Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE) are considered as case studies. Comparing between the estimated data by the achieved model and actual quantities showed acceptable precision of the ANN model for prediction of carbon dioxide emission. The average absolute relative error and the R-squared values of the GMDH model are approximately 2.28% and 0.9998, respectively. The obtained values for the mentioned statistical criteria show the precision of the model in forecasting the emission of Co2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0168.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome; MERS; coronavirus; comorbidity; infection; camel; zoonosis; emerging virus
Online: 27 October 2017 (05:45:00 CEST)
The human coronaviruses (CoV) include HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1, some known for decades. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV briefly emerged into the human population but was controlled. In 2012 another novel severely human pathogenic CoV – Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV was identified in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where 80% of over 2,000 human cases have been recorded across five years. Targeted research remains key to developing control strategies for MERS-CoV, a cause of mild illness in its camel reservoir. A new therapeutic toolbox being developed in response to MERS is also teaching us more about how CoVs cause disease. Travel-related cases continue to challenge the world’s surveillance and response capabilities and more data are needed to understand unexplained primary transmission. Signs of genetic change have been recorded but it remains unclear whether any impact on clinical disease. How camels came to carry the virus remains academic to the control of MERS. To date, human-to-human transmission has been inefficient, but virus surveillance, characterisation and reporting are key to responding to any future change. MERS-CoV is not currently a pandemic threat; it is spread mainly with the aid of human habit and error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0233.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: primary and middle school teachers; justice; organizational justice; salary satisfaction; turnover intention; China
Online: 15 July 2022 (12:45:37 CEST)
Primary and middle school teachers are a critical part of China’s foundational education; teacher turnover heavily affects the stable development of foundational education. In this study, interviews with 20 teachers found that relatively low income, high work pressure, unfair distribution, and difficulty in achieving promotion to higher professional titles are the main reasons for teacher turnover intention. This study investigates 485 primary and middle school teachers from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces. We found that primary and middle school teachers reported intense feelings of unfairness about their distribution of income. Their salary satisfaction was low, and the ratio of turnover intention was high. The main reasons for teachers’ high turnover intentions were low income, high pressure from work, unfair distribution, and the difficulty of achieving professional title promotion. To lower teachers’ turnover intentions, China should raise teachers’ income appropriately and increase the number of teachers with high professional titles. Schools should improve procedural, distributive, and interactive justice. Teachers should adjust their income references and perceptions of fairness. This situation can be effectively resolved only if all parties work hard to make positive changes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Multimorbidity; Non-communicable diseases; Lifestyle prevention; Public health; Low and Middle Income Countries
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:04:04 CEST)
Objectives: Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are experiencing a fast-paced epidemiological rise in clusters of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, forming an imminent rise in multimorbidity (MMD). However, preventing MMD has received little attention in LMICs, especially in Sub-Saharan African Countries. Design: Narrative review which scoped the most recent evidence in LMICs about MMD determinants and appropriated them for potential MMD prevention strategies. Methods: MMD in LMICs is affected by several determinants including increased age, female gender, environment, lower socio-economic status, obesity, and lifestyle behavious, especially poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Results: MMD public health interventions in LMICs, especially Sub-Saharan are currently impeded by local and regional economic disparity, underdeveloped healthcare systems, and concurrent prevalence of communicable diseases. However, lifestyle interventions that are targeted towards preventing highly prevalent MMD clusters, especially hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, can provide an early prevention of MMD, especially within Sub-Saharan African countries with emerging economies and socio-economic disparity. Conclusion: Future public health initiatives should consider targeted lifestyle interventions and appropriate policies and guidelines in preventing MMD in LMICs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0128.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); MCPIP1; blood-brain barrier; inflammatory response; ischemia; metalloproteinases
Online: 11 December 2018 (10:49:54 CET)
Focal cerebral ischemia can lead to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, which is implicated in neuroinflammation and elevation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The role of the anti-inflammatory protein, monocyte chemotactic protein–induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) plays in the injury of BBB in stroke has not yet been reported. This study was conducted to identify and characterize the role MCPIP1 plays in BBB breakdown. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is induced in both wild-type and Mcpip1-/- mice for 2 hours of occlusion periods followed by reperfusion for 24 or 48 hours. BBB permeability was measured by FITC-dextran extravasation, MMP-9/3 expression was analyzed by western blot, and claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. After MCAO in wild type mouse is induced, there is significantly increase in MCPIP1 mRNA and protein levels. Absence of MCPIP1 leaded to significant increase in FITC-dextran leakage in peri-infarct brain, significant upregulation of MMP-9, MMP-3 and reduced levels of tight junction components, claudin-5 and ZO-1 in the brain after MCAO. Our data demonstrate that absence of MCPIP1 exacerbates ischemia-induced blood-brain barrier disruption by enhancing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and degradation of tight junction proteins. Overall data indicate that MCPIP1 is important protective role against BBB disruption in cerebral ischemia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0268.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: HPV self-sampling; cervical cancer; women living with HIV; low- and middle-income coutries
Online: 20 May 2022 (03:40:58 CEST)
Introduction. Self-sampling has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening (CCS) among women living with HIV (WLWH) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, our understanding of how HPV self-collection studies have been conducted in WLWH is limited. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the extent to which the HPV self-sampling has been applied among WLWH in LMICs. Method: We conducted multiple searches in several databases for articles published between 2000 and January 2022. With the combination of keywords relating to HPV self-sampling, LMICs, and WLWH, we retrieved over 9,000 articles. We used pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria to select relevant studies for this review. Once a study met the inclusion criteria, we created a table to extract each study’s characteristics and classified them under common themes. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to summarize the scoping results. Results: A total of 12 articles were included in the final review. Overall, 3,178 women were enrolled in those studies and 2,105 (66%) of them were WLWH. The self-sampling participation rate was 92.6%. The findings of our study show that 43% of the WLWH in 8 of the studies reviewed tested positive for high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) genotypes, indicating 4 out of 10 WLWH in the studies are at risk of cervical cancer. The prevalence of the hr-HPV in WLWH was 18% higher than that of HIV-negative women. Most women in the study found the self-sampling experience acceptable, easy to use, convenient, and comfortable. Self-sampling performance in detecting hr HPV genotypes is comparable to clinician-performed sampling. However, limited access (i.e., affordability, availability, transportation), limited knowledge about self-screening, doubts about the credibility of self-sampling results, and stigma remain barriers to wide acceptance and implementation of self-sampling. In conclusion, the findings of this review highlight that (a) cervical cancer is a threat to every sexually active woman but for WLWH the threat increases, (b) self-sampling laboratory performance is similar to clinician performed sampling, (c) self-sampling is associated with an increase in cervical cancer screening uptake and (d) WLWH reported a positive experience with self-sampling. However, personal, environmental, and structural barriers challenge the application of self-sampling in LMICs, and these need to be addressed. Keywords: keyword 1; keyword 2; keyword 3 (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0218.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: palynology; Pyrenees; Middle Ages; forest dynamics; forest management; resilience; deforestation; land use; climatic change
Online: 14 October 2021 (13:04:11 CEST)
This paper compares the Medieval (ca. 400–1500 CE) dynamics of forests from low-mountain (Montcortès; ca. 1000 m a.s.l.) and high-mountain (Sant Maurici; 1900 m a.s.l.) areas of the Iberian Pyrenees, both of which experienced similar climatic forcing but different anthropogenic pressures. The main aim is to identify forest changes over time and associate them with the corresponding climatic and anthropogenic drivers (or synergies among them) to test how different forests at different elevations respond to external forcings. This could be useful to evaluate the hypothesis of general Pyrenean deforestation during the Middle Ages leading to present-day landscapes and to improve the background for forest conservation. The study uses palynological analysis of lake sediments, historical documents and paleoecological reconstructions based on pollen-independent proxies. The two sites studied showed different forest trajectories. The Montcortès area was subjected to intense human pressure during regional deforestation up to a maximum of ca. 1000 CE. Further forest recovery took place until the end of the Middle Ages due to a change in forest management, including the abandonment of slash-and-burn practices. Climatic shifts indirectly influenced forest trends by regulating human migrations and the resulting shifts in the type and intensity of forest exploitation. The highland Sant Maurici forests exhibited a remarkably long-standing constancy and an exceptional resilience to climatic shifts, which were unable to affect forest extension and composition, and to local human pressure, from which they rapidly recovered. The Montcortès and Sant Maurici records did not follow the rule of an irreversible forest clearing during the Middle Ages leading to present-day landscapes. The present Montcortès landscape was shaped after a Medieval forest recovery, a new Modern-Age deforestation and a further forest recovery during the last centuries. The Sant Maurici forests remained apparently untouched since the Bronze Age and were never cleared during the Middle Ages. The relevance of these findings for forest conservation is briefly addressed, and the need for the development of more high-resolution studies on Pyrenean forest dynamics is highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Copula Regression; ICT resources; Middle East; Spatial Analysis; Students Well-being; Sustainable Development Goals
Online: 2 July 2020 (13:18:03 CEST)
Target 9.c of the 2015 United Nations (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs) specifically addresses increasing access to information and communication technology (ICT) resources, and striving for universal access to the internet by 2020. The present study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the youth related national strategies implemented in this regard by a select number of countries in the Middle East region. The study does so, by relying on a spatial bivariate copula regression analysis of data on youth respondents from five countries, extracted from the 2018 Program for international students’ assessment (PISA). Focusing specifically on evaluating the availability of ICT resources to the youth population, and also identifying the impact of ICT resources on youth subjective well-being in the region, we find that except for the UAE and Qatar that have above OECD average youth performance on the ICT resource index, youth from the remaining countries reported below OECD level average access to ICT resources. The within region cross-country comparative analysis of ICT resources availability to the youth population at home, also highlighted significant heterogeneity across the five countries, post 2015 SDG adoption by UN country members. Furthermore, looking at the impact of ICT resources on youth well-being, controlling for not only cross-country spatial correlations, and factors such as home educational resources, cultural possessions at home, parental occupation status, youth expected occupation status, economic and socio-cultural status, age, gender, and grade level in school; we found that every standard deviation increase in ICT resources to the youth population in the region raises their self-expressed sense of belonging in school by 1.88% standard deviations. Given the empowering nature of ICT resources to youth, and the potential of both to support national as well as regional economic development initiatives, a concerted effort to ease ICT resources diffusion by member countries in the middle east region could assist not only each country in its own development path, but also the region as a whole to live up to its growth potential by the 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: research ethics; longitudinal methodology; youth; phone survey; COVID-19; low- and middle-income countries
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:17:06 CEST)
In this paper, we draw on recent experiences from the Young Lives study to discuss some of the ethical and practical challenges facing longitudinal cohort studies in low- and middle-income countries in the time of coronavirus. We argue that COVID-19 has instigated an ‘ethics of disruption’ for social researchers across the world, and for longitudinal cohort studies like Young Lives, this requires navigating three core considerations: first, managing research relationships and reciprocity within an observational study design; second, maintaining methodological continuity and consistency across time; and third, balancing an immediate short-term response to COVID-19 against the longer-term perspective. We refer to the study’s plan to implement a new COVID-19 phone survey to illustrate how the team are navigating this altered ethical terrain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0111.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: smelting slags; multianalytical study; furnace operating conditions; Roman Period; Early Middle Age; North Spain
Online: 11 January 2020 (14:24:35 CET)
Oiola archeological site, located in the mining complex of La Arboleda (Biscay, North Spain) was an important iron smelting center from the Roman Period to the Early Middle Ages and even in more current times (19th-20th centuries). Tap-slags and some plano-convex slags were identified as smelting slags. Samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron-dispersive spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to perform a mineralogical and textural characterization. Additionally, thermogravimetric and thermodiffraction analyses were carried out to determine furnace operating temperatures. The mineral assemblage reflects furnace cooling rates and temperatures and the addition of quartz as the main flux to decrease the melting temperature of the iron ore. The comparison of slags from the Roman Period and the Early Middle Age allows to observe changes in the pyrometallurgical process through time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0195.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: EUR; shale; infill wells; (re)fracturing; pressure depletion; average well; Middle Bakken; Three Forks
Online: 19 August 2019 (12:56:57 CEST)
We replace the current industry-standard empirical forecasts of oil production from hydrofractured horizontal wells in shales with a statistically and physically robust, accurate and precise approach, using the Bakken shale as an illustration. The proposed oil production forecasting method extends our previous work on predicting fieldwide gas production in the Barnett shale and merges it with our new scaling of oil production in shales. We first divide the existing 14,678 horizontal oil wells in the Bakken into 12 static samples in which depositional settings and completion technologies are similar. For each sample, we construct a purely data-driven P50 well prototype by merging the GEV distribution fits of oil production from appropriate well cohorts. We fit the parameters of our physics-based scaling curve to the statistical well prototypes, and obtain their smooth extrapolations to 30 years on production. By calculating the number of potential wells of each Bakken region, and scheduling future drilling programs, we stack up the extended well prototypes to achieve the most plausible forecast. We predict that Bakken will ultimately produce 5 billion barrels of oil from the existing wells, with the possible increments of 2 and 6 billion barrels from core and noncore areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0154.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; Low and Middle-Income Countries; Cross-Cultural; healthcare utilization; treatment barriers; child
Online: 13 September 2022 (03:18:00 CEST)
Delayed diagnosis and a lack of adequate care for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are related to worse outcomes and quality of life. This study aimed to identify the profile of service use, barriers to access care, and factors related to those barriers in Brazilian families with children with ASD. A total of 927 families with ASD children (3-17 years) from five Brazilian regions completed an online version of the Caregivers Needs Survey. Results showed that the most used services were behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy, while the most used professionals were neurologists, nutritionists, speech therapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and pediatricians. The main barriers included waiting lists, costs, and the absence of services or treatment. Service use varied according to age, the region of residence, the type of health care system used, and the parents/caregivers' education. Access to behavioral interventions was more frequent among users of the private system/health insurance and families whose caregivers had higher education. The absence of specialized services/treatments was less frequent among residents of state capitals and families whose caregivers had higher levels of education. This study highlights how families with children/adolescents with ASD in Brazil face significant barriers to access care related to sociodemographic factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0208.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Middle East; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; time series analysis; governmental policy
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:59:50 CET)
The spatiotemporal variability of vegetation in the Middle East was investigated for the period 2001–2019 using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 16-day/500 m composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; MOD13A1). The results reveal a strong increase in the NDVI coverage in the Middle East during the study period (R = 0.75, p-value = 0.05). In Egypt, the annual coverage exhibits the strongest positive trend (R = 0.99, p-value = 0.05). In Turkey, both the vegetation coverage and density increased from 2001 to 2019, which can be attributed to the construction of some of the biggest dams in the Middle East, such as the Atatürk and Ilisu dams. Significant increases in the annual coverage and maximum and average NDVI in Saudi Arabia are due to farming in the northern part of the country for which groundwater and desalinated seawater are used. The results of this study suggest that the main factors affecting the vegetation coverage in the Middle East are governmental policies. These policies can have a positive effect on the vegetation coverage in some countries such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Iran, and Turkey.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Coronavirus; COVID-19; Halal hospitality; Halal tourism; tourism industry; Muslim travellers; KSA; Egypt; Middle East
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:07:11 CET)
Coronavirus (COVID-19) gained and will continue to gain a lot of global attention over the coming months (and maybe the coming few years). Since its outbreak in Wuhan (China), it has turned into one of the major challenges affecting the whole world. In a comparatively short time, the virus outbreak turned into a pandemic that led to massive negative impacts not only on people health and well-being, but also on the global economy, travel industry, pharmaceutical industry, tourism industry, and many other industries. This research paper aims to investigate the different effects of coronavirus on the global Halal tourism and Halal hospitality industry and whether the coronavirus pandemic is the end of Halal tourism and hospitality as we know it or not. The paper offers an in-depth theoretical examination of the different aspect of the pandemic on Halal tourism and hospitality industry and provides guidance on how to address these different aspects. The current paper is one of very few research papers addressing coronavirus on the tourism and hospitality industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0369.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: temperature extreme; warm climate; low-and middle-income economies; COVID-19; mortality; mixed effect modelling
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:38:15 CEST)
We performed a global analysis with data from 149 countries to test whether temperature can explain the spatial variability of the spread rate and mortality of COVID-19 at the global scale. We performed partial correlation analysis and linear mixed effect modelling to evaluate the association of the spread rate and motility of COVID-19 with maximum, minimum, average temperatures and temperature extreme (difference between maximum and minimum temperature) and other environmental and socioeconomic parameters. After controlling the effect of the duration after the first positive case, partial correlation analysis revealed that temperature was not related with the spatial variability of the spread rate of COVID-19. Mortality was negatively related with temperature in the countries with high-income economies. In contrast, temperature extreme was significantly and positively correlated with mortality in the low-and middle-income countries. Taking the country heterogeneity into account, mixed effect modelling revealed that inclusion of temperature as a fixed effect in the model significantly improved model skill predicting mortality in the low-and middle-income countries. Our analysis suggest that warm climate may reduce the mortality rate in high-income economies but in low and middle-income countries temperature extreme may increase the mortality risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Hearing loos; conductive; sensorineural; outer ear; middle ear; inner ear; SNHL; Cochlear; auditory; physical examination; history
Online: 16 August 2022 (04:04:24 CEST)
Hearing loss in infancy leads to preventable speech, language, and cognitive developmental delay [1, 2]. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is caused by damages, problems, or issues related to the inner ear such as the cochlea with or without the auditory nerve; cranial nerve VIII, involvement. There are three anatomic areas which include the outer ear: composed of the auricle and external auditory canal and the middle ear: which includes the tympanic membrane, ossicles, and the middle ear space, the inner ear: composed of the cochlea, semi-circular canals, and internal auditory canals. The unique anatomical shape of the auricle catches the incoming sound waves to send them down the external auditory canal. Hearing risk assessment should be part of all health visits while regular hearing screening checks are done for all children from 4 to 21 years [1, 2]. Assessment of hearing loss includes history, physical examination and specific hearing assessment tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0736.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: middle school students, health perception, importance-performance analysis (IPA), online physical education class types, COVID-19
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:41:19 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the differences in the importance and performance of health awareness in Korean middle school students according to the types of online physical education classes they attended during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Overall, 583 participants were selected using a convenience sampling method; the data were obtained through an online survey using Google forms. Frequency analysis, reliability analysis, independent sample t-test, and importance-performance analysis were performed. First, the differences between importance and performance were found to be the most for sleep and physical activity management, and the least for disease and hygiene management. In addition, both the groups demonstrated higher importance and performance for hygiene and disease management. There were significant differences in the importance and performance of all the sub-factors. Second, hygiene, disease management, and mental health management were found in quadrant I in both the groups, while physical activity, sleep, and dietary habit management were in quadrant III. No factors were in quadrant II and IV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: India; COVID-19 pandemic; Cancellation of surgeries; Global lockdown; Low- and Middle-income country; Emergency surgeries
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:02:31 CEST)
Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown have adversely affected global health care services to varying extent. Emergency Services were also affected along with elective surgeries, which were deferred to accommodate the added burden of COVID 19 affected patients, on the healthcare systems. We aimed to assess the change in delivery of essential and emergency surgeries due to the pandemic. Methodology: A research consortium led by WHO Collaboration Centre (WHOCC) for Research in Surgical Care Delivery in Low- and Middle-Income countries (LMIC), India, conducted this retrospective cross-sectional study with 12 recruited centers. All surgeries performed during the months of April 2020 were compared with those performed in April 2019. These surgeries were stratified into emergency and elective, and further categorized based on NHS surgery prioritization documents. Results: A total of 4396 surgeries were performed at these centers in April 2019 and 1216 surgeries were performed in same month during 2020, yielding a fall of 72.3% (1216 /4396).We found a 54% reduction in emergency surgeries and a 91% reduction in the elective surgeries. Number of cesarean sections reduced by 29.7% and fracture surgeries declined by 85.3% Laparotomies and surgeries for local soft tissue infections with necrotic tissue reduced by 71.7% and 69.5% respectively. Conclusion: Our study quantifies the effects of COVID 19 pandemic on surgical care delivery in India and documents that the overall surgical volume reduced by three fourths in the pandemic period. Emergency surgeries reduced to half when compared with pre-pandemic period. Cesarean section surgeries were affected the least by pandemic, whereas the fracture surgeries and laparotomies were affected the most.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0317.v2
Subject: Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); COVID19; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; bioaerosol; aerosol
Online: 30 April 2020 (05:30:30 CEST)
A short review of the important studies was conducted to evaluate the potential of aerosol transmission of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The minimum size of droplets potentially carrying the SARS-CoV-2 was newly estimated and discussed in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: anemia; infancy and toddlerhood; low and middle-income countries; demographic and health survey; infant feeding; multilevel regression
Online: 9 July 2018 (11:14:48 CEST)
In Low and Lower-Middle-Income countries, the prevalence of anemia in infancy remains high. In early childhood anemia cause irreversible cognitive deficits and represents a higher risk of child mortality. The consequences of anemia in infancy are a major barrier to overcome poverty traps. The aim of this study was to analyze based on a multi-level approach, different factors associated with anemia in children 6–23 m old based on recent available Standard Demographic Health Surveys (S-DHS). We identified 52 S-DHS that had complete information in all covariates of interest in our analysis between 2005 and 2015. We performed traditional logistic regressions and multilevel logistic regression analyses to study the association between hemoglobin concentrations and household, child, maternal, socio-demographic variables. In our sample, 70 % of the 6–23 m old children were anemic. Child anemia was strongly associated with maternal anemia, household wealth, maternal education and low birth weight. Children fed with fortified foods, potatoes and other tubers had significantly lower rates of anemia. Improving overall household living conditions, increasing maternal education, delaying childbearing and introducing iron rich foods at six months of age may reduce the likelihood of anemia at in toddlerhood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0141.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: purine and рyrimidine bases; donor/acceptor properties; quantum-chemical calculations; frontier levels; middle energy gap; parameter φ
Online: 28 September 2017 (03:13:48 CEST)
We have studied the relative positions of the frontier levels determine the main electronic properties and reaction ability, there is important necessity to compare the MO of the purine and рyrimidine bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T) and uracil (U). The donor and acceptor properties are the fundamental characteristic of the conjugated molecules and can be quantitatively estimated by relative positions of the frontier molecular orbitals. The MO’s energies can be estimated experimentally or quantum-chemically. Analysis of the relative position of the frontier levels (calibrated by the energy gap) enables the investigation of the donor/acceptor properties of the RNA/DNA bases more detailed. The index φ0 is proposed for the quantitative quantum-chemical estimation of the donor ability of the conjugated molecules: it points on the shifting of the energy gap relative to the reference electron balanced system. The RNA/DNA bases divided strictly by two groups: predominantly donors (φ0 > 0.5) and predominantly acceptors (φ0 > 0.5). Each representative base of the first group forms the stable base pair the representative base of the second group the difference of indices Δφ0 should be optimal to enables the DNA replication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: CSR drivers and barriers; corporate social responsibility; MENA; middle east; north Africa; north America; Australia; Europe; western countries
Online: 9 December 2021 (14:31:21 CET)
Although numerous articles have been published to address drivers or barriers of corporate social responsibility (CSR), some parts of the world have received less attention. In this study, I reviewed the literature, from 2010 to 2021, to identify drivers and barriers of CSR in the the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and compare them with the findings in western countries. (2) Methods: For this study, I used a structured literature review method. By setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 28 articles remained from selected database; (3) Results: The findings revealed some CSR drivers, such as leadership styles, profitability, reputation, moral commitment, and environmental conservation are common in both regions. There are also some differences between CSR drivers, for example religious beliefs, low concentration of ownership, and company characteristics are some of the drivers in the MENA region. Maintaining social license to operate, avoiding the risks of community opposition, pressure from the government, and consumer demand tend to be more important in western countries. Common barriers in both regions are lack of financial resources, cost, lack of CSR knowledge and awareness, and ownership concentration. This review also highlighted that lack of law enforcement, lack of stakeholder communication, lack of management commitment, lack of interests, corruption, and financial debts are some of the addressed barriers of CSR in the MENA region, while cost/benefit ratio, lack of customer interest, and lack of scientific frameworks are the special barriers in western countries. (4) Conclusions: While researchers in western countries have more focus on energy sector, there is a lack of research about drivers and barriers of CSR in the MENA region in several industries, including oil and gas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0065.v1
Subject: Keywords: virtual reality; immersive learning; haptics; chemistry education; organic chemistry; hydrocarbons; middle school science; introductory chemistry; hands-on learning; gamification
Online: 5 April 2018 (05:59:19 CEST)
Human-Computer Interaction, including technology-aided instruction, is beginning to focus on virtual reality (VR) technology due to its ability to support immersive learning, teaching through simulation, and gamification of learning. These systems can deliver high-level multisensory learning experiences that are important in the teaching of many subjects, especially those involving abstract concepts or requiring spatial skills, such as organic chemistry. Haptic experiences with VR, however, remain a challenge. In addition, development have focused on general entertainment/gaming; VR systems in chemistry implement simulations of the chemistry laboratory and other advanced systems whereas those that support safe, game-like, immersive and multisensory learning of organic chemistry with haptics at pre-university education levels are scarce. We developed the VR Multisensory Classroom (VRMC) as an immersive learning environment within a VR head-mounted display, where learners employ hand movements to build hydrocarbon molecules and experience haptic feedback through gloves with built-in sensors and hand-tracking with the Leap Motion system. We report here the evaluation of the first prototype by learners from diverse backgrounds who reported on the ability of the VRMC to support high engagement, motivation, interest and organic chemistry learning as well as diverse learning styles. The VRMC is a novel VR classroom that supports immersive learning in molecular organic chemistry with haptics for multisensory learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0275.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Healthcare Priority-setting; Health Technology Assessment; Essential Health Packages, Low to Middle Income Countries; Equity; Efficiency; Evidence-Informed Decision Making
Online: 12 August 2021 (13:14:51 CEST)
There is a systematic exclusion of gender-based violence, safe abortion, reproductive cancers, infertility services, comprehensive sexuality education, sexuality services, and STI’s other than HIV in essential health packages in LMICs. To accelerate progress on sexual reproductive health (SRH), the Guttmacher–Lancet Commission proposed the adoption of these interventions into an essential health package of SRH services that should be universally available. In this commentary, we use a healthcare priority-setting processes lens to review the importance of these services for universal health coverage. We isolate inherent challenges in social value judgments for terminal, process and content evidence for their healthcare priority-setting. We then advance promising emerging practical examples from low to middle-income countries on evidence-informed decision-making processes. We recommend capacity development through regional support, generating equity and efficiency evidence and strengthening political and publicly acceptable processes to institutionalise and operationalise evidence-informed decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Residual Renal Function, Middle Molecules, Beta 2 Microglobulin, Cystatin C, Population Kinetic Model, Dialysis, Simulator Calibration Framework, Equation, Biomarkers, Urea Clearance
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:42:07 CEST)
In this study, we introduce a novel framework for the estimation of residual renal function (RRF), based on the population compartmental kinetic behavior of Beta 2 Microglobulin (B2M) and its dialytic removal. Using this model, we simulated a large cohort of patients with various levels of RRF receiving either conventional high-flux hemodialysis or on-line hemodiafiltration. These simulations were used to estimate a novel population kinetic (PK) equation for RRF (PK-RRF) that was validated in an external public dataset of real patients. We assessed the performance of the resulting equation(s) against their ability to estimate urea clearance using cross-validation. Our equations derived entirely from computer simulations and advanced statistical modeling, and had extremely high discrimination (AUC 0.808 – 0.909) when applied to a human dataset of measurements of RRF. A clearance-based equation that utilized pre and post dialysis B2M measurements, patient weight, treatment duration and ultrafiltration had higher discrimination than an equation previously derived in humans. Furthermore, the derived equations appeared to have higher clinical usefulness as assessed by Decision Curve Analysis, potentially supporting decisions that for individualizing dialysis frequency in patients with preserved RRF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0361.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Common Middle Point; Propagator; Spatial Reflector; small-scale heterogeneities; diffraction/scattering imaging; finite-difference simulation; local grid refinement in time and space.
Online: 15 November 2018 (11:18:18 CET)
Computation of Common Middle Point seismic sections and their subsequent time migration and diffraction imaging provides very important knowledge about the internal structure of 3D heterogeneous geological media and are key elements for successive geological interpretation. Full-scale numerical simulation, that computes all single shot seismograms, provides a full understanding of how the features of the image reflect the properties of the subsurface prototype. Unfortunately, this kind of simulations of 3D seismic surveys for realistic geological media needs huge computer resources, especially for simulation of seismic waves’ propagation through multiscale media like cavernous fractured reservoirs. In order to significantly reduce the query of computer resources we propose to model these 3D seismic cubes directly rather than the shot-by-shot simulation with subsequent CMP stacking. To do that we modify the well known "exploding reflectors principle" for 3D heterogeneous multiscale media by use of the finite-difference technique on the base of grids locally refined in time and space. To be able to simulate realistic models and acquisition we develop scalable parallel software, which needs reasonable computational costs. Numerical results for simulation of Common Middle Points sections and their time migration are presented and discussed.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C status; hypovitaminosis C; vitamin C deficiency; low and middle income countries; LMIC; dietary intake; supplement; non-communicable disease; communicable disease; infection
Online: 24 May 2020 (18:16:25 CEST)
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that must be obtained through the diet in adequate amounts to prevent hypovitaminosis C and the potentially fatal deficiency disease scurvy. Global vitamin C status and prevalence of deficiency has not previously been reported, despite vitamin C’s pleiotropic roles in both non-communicable and communicable disease. This review highlights the global literature on vitamin C status and the prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and deficiency. Related dietary intake is reported if assessed in the studies. We also explore if global vitamin C status has changed over time. Overall, the review illustrates the shortage of high quality epidemiological studies of vitamin C status in many countries, particularly low- and middle-income countries. The available evidence indicates that vitamin C deficiency is common in low- and middle-income countries and not uncommon in high income settings. Further high quality studies are required to confirm these findings, including in the countries not yet represented, and to fully understand associations with a range of disease processes. Our findings suggest a need for interventions to prevent deficiency in a range of at risk groups and regions of the world.