ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0484.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Doppler frequency shift; Angle of arrival; Microwave photonics; Sagnac loop.
Online: 26 December 2022 (10:49:47 CET)
A novel scheme that can simultaneously measure the Doppler frequency shift (DFS) and angle of arrival (AOA) of microwave signals is proposed. At the signal receiving unit (SRU), two echo signals and the reference signal are modulated by a Sagnac loop structure and sent to the central station (CS) for processing. At the CS, two low-frequency electrical signals are generated after polarization control and photoelectric conversion. The DFS without direction ambiguity and wide AOA measurement can be real-time acquired by monitoring the frequency and power of the two low-frequency electrical signals. In the simulation, an unambiguous DFS measurement with errors of ±3×10-3 Hz and a -90° to 90° AOA measurement range with errors of less than ±0.5° are realized. The safety and robustness of the system to environmental disturbance are improved, and it is more suitable for the modern electronic warfare system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Fiber optics sensors; Microwave photonics; Interferometry; Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS); optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR)
Online: 23 September 2021 (17:22:27 CEST)
A microwave-photonics method has been developed for measuring distributed acoustic signals. This method uses microwave-modulated low coherence light as a probe to interrogate distributed in-fiber interferometers, which are used to measure acoustic-induced strain. By sweeping the microwave frequency at a constant rate, the acoustic signals are encoded into the complex microwave spectrum. The microwave spectrum is transformed into the joint time-frequency domain and further processed to obtain the distributed acoustic signals. The method is first evaluated using an intrinsic Fabry Perot interferometer (IFPI). Acoustic signals of frequency up to 15.6 kHz were detected. The method was further demonstrated using an array of in-fiber weak reflectors and an external Michelson interferometer. Two piezo-ceramic cylinders (PCCs) driven at frequencies of 1700 Hz and 3430 Hz were used as acoustic sources. The experiment results show that the sensing system can locate multiple acoustic sources. The system resolves 20 nε when the spatial resolution is 5 cm. The recovered acoustic signals match the excitation signals in frequency, amplitude, and phase, indicating an excellent potential for distributed acoustic sensing (DAS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: endoscopes; medical diagnostic imaging; microwave antenna arrays; microwave imaging; colorectal cancer
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:55:21 CEST)
This study assesses the efficacy of a microwave colonoscopy algorithm to detect colorectal cancer precursors or polyps in an ex-vivo human colon model. The algorithm works with a device composed of a cylindrical ring-shaped switchable antenna array, which can be attached to the tip of a conventional colonoscope as an accessory. The accessory is connected to an external processing unit that generates an acoustic signal when a polyp is detected. Nowadays, 22% of polyps go undetected with conventional colonoscopy and the risk of cancer after a negative colonoscopy can be up to 7.9%. Fifteen ex-vivo freshly excised human colons with cancer (n=12) or polyps (n=3) were examined with the microwave-assisted colonoscopy system simulating a real colonoscopy exploration. Successive measurements of the colon were taken with the microwave-based colonoscopy device and processed with a microwave imaging algorithm. After the experiment, the dielectric properties of the specimens were measured with a coaxial probe and finally the samples underwent a pathology analysis. The results show that all the neoplasms were detected with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0152.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: microwave; green chemistry; benzimidazoles
Online: 10 February 2022 (12:10:52 CET)
A microwave assisted method for synthesis of 2-substituted benzimidazoles has been developed. The combination of molar ratio N-phenyl-o-phenylenediamine:benzaldehyde (1:1) using microwave irradiation and only 1% mol of Er(OTf)3 provide an efficient, environmental and mild access to a diversity of benzimidazoles under solvent-free conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1685.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: LIBS; microwave; isotope; plasma; emission
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:17:21 CEST)
Isotope detection and identification is paramount in many fields of science and industry, such as in the fusion and fission energy sector, in medicine and material science, and in archeology. The isotopic information provides fundamental insight on the research questions related to these fields as well as insight on product quality and operational safety. However, isotope identification with the established mass-spectrometric methods is laborious and requires laboratory conditions. In this work, Microwave-Assisted Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (MW-LIBS) is introduced for isotope detection and identification utilizing radical and molecular emission. The approach is demonstrated with stable B and Cl isotopes in solids and H isotopes in liquid using emission from BO and BO2, CaCl, and OH molecules, respectively. MW-LIBS utilizes the extended emissive plasma lifetime and molecular emission signal integration times up to 900 s to enable use of low ~4 mJ ablation energy without compromising signal intensity and, consequently, sensitivity. On the other hand, long plasma lifetime gives time for molecular formation. Increase in the signal intensity towards the late microwave-assisted plasma was prominent in BO2 and OH emission intensities. As MW-LIBS is online-capable and requires minimal sample preparation, it is an interesting option for isotope detection in various applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: microwave radiometry; postmenopausal; cancer biomarker
Online: 7 July 2022 (09:46:43 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is the third most common female genital cancer. Therefore, the timely diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of postmenopausal patients with benign ovarian tumors remains crucial in the field of gynecology. The significance of ovarian tumors depends on their frequency and their effects on the quality of life of a woman, as well as the possible development of ovarian cancer. Most ovarian cancers are diagnosed late and as a result are difficult to treat and often carry a poor prognosis. Currently there is no clear algorithm available for examining and accurately diagnosing patients with postmenopausal ovarian tumors; moreover, reliable criteria allowing dynamic observation and determining surgical access and optimal surgical intervention measures in postmenopausal patients is lacking.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0597.v1
Online: 25 September 2020 (07:46:28 CEST)
Integrated Kerr micro-combs, a powerful source of many wavelengths for photonic RF and microwave signal processing, are particularly useful for transversal filter systems. They have many advantages including a compact footprint, high versatility, large numbers of wavelengths, and wide bandwidths. We review recent progress on photonic RF and microwave high bandwidth temporal signal processing based on Kerr micro-combs with spacings from 49-200GHz. We cover integral and fractional Hilbert transforms, differentiators as well as integrators. The potential of optical micro-combs for RF photonic applications in functionality and ability to realize integrated solutions is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1541.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical microcombs; microwave photonic; signal processing
Online: 24 October 2023 (11:55:01 CEST)
Microwave photonic (MWP) signal processors, which process microwave signals based on photonic technologies, bring advantages intrinsic to photonics such as low loss, large processing bandwidth, and strong immunity to electromagnetic interference. Optical microcombs can offer a large number of wavelength channels and compact device footprints, which make them powerful multi-wavelength sources for MWP signal processors to realize a variety of processing functions. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the capability of microcomb-based MWP signal processors to handle diverse input signal waveforms. In addition, we quantify the processing accuracy for different input signal waveforms, including Gaussian, triangle, parabolic, super Gaussian, and nearly square waveforms. Finally, we analyze the factors contributing to the difference in the processing accuracy among the different input waveforms, and our theoretical analysis well elucidates the experimental results. These results provide a guidance for microcomb-based MWP signal processors when processing microwave signals of various waveforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0112.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: NiO; domain walls; microwave; antiferromagnet; Raman
Online: 3 October 2023 (10:15:44 CEST)
Effective control of domain walls or magnetic textures in antiferromagnets promises to enable robust, fast, and non-volatile memories. The lack of net magnetic moment in antiferromagnets implies the need for creative ways to achieve such a manipulation. Here, we investigate changes in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) imaging and in magnon-related mode in Raman spectroscopy of virgin NiO films under a microwave pump. After the MFM and Raman studies, a combined action of broadband microwave (0.01-20 GHz, power scanned from −20 to 5 dBm) and magnetic field (up to 3 kOe) were applied to virgin epitaxial (111) NiO and (100) NiO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 and (100) MgO substrates, following which the MFM and Raman studies were repeated. We observed a suppression of the magnon-related Raman mode subsequent to the microwave exposure. Based on MFM imaging, this effect appears to be caused by the suppression of large antiferromagnetic domain walls due to the possible excitation of antiferromagnetic spin oscillations localized within the antiferromagnetic domain walls.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: nonlinear optics; microwave; waveform generator; microcombs
Online: 15 May 2020 (09:57:38 CEST)
We report a photonic-based radio frequency (RF) arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) using a soliton crystal micro-comb source with a free spectral range (FSR) of 48.9 GHz. The comb source provides over 80 wavelengths, or channels, that we use to successfully achieve arbitrary waveform shapes including square waveforms with a tunable duty ratio ranging from 10% to 90%, sawtooth waveforms with a tunable slope ratio of 0.2 to 1, and a symmetric concave quadratic chirp waveform with an instantaneous frequency of sub GHz. We achieve good agreement between theory and experiment, validating the effectiveness of this approach towards realizing high-performance, broad bandwidth, nearly user-defined RF waveform generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0153.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwave filters; vibration sensitivity; acoustic noise
Online: 26 February 2018 (07:56:14 CET)
A novel characterization method for discrete saw filters vibrational sensitivity is presented. The proposed approach allows the characterization of filters under vibrations and the extraction of a behavioural model. Filters are assumed to be transducers so that external induced vibrational energy is partially transformed in a undesired simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation of the input RF signal. When the filter is mechanically excited with vibrations, it introduces spurious amplitude and phase modulation to the input signal that can potentially affect the link quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0044.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: dielectric properties; microwave; zinc sulfide concentrate
Online: 14 February 2017 (07:45:08 CET)
Microwave technology has a potential application in the extraction of zinc from sulphide ores, knowledge of the dielectric properties of these ores plays a major role in the microwave design and simulation for any process. The dielectric properties of zinc sulfide concentrate for two different apparent densities—1.54 and 1.63 g/cm3—have been measured by using the resonance cavity perturbation technique at 915 and 2450 MHz during the roasting process for the temperature ranging from room temperature to 850 °C. The variations of dielectric constant, the dielectric loss factor, the dielectric loss tangent and the penetration depth with the temperature, frequency and apparent density have been investigated numerically. The results indicate that the dielectric constant increases as the temperature increases and temperature has a pivotal effect on the dielectric constant, while the dielectric loss factor has a complicated change and all of the temperature, frequency and apparent density have a significant impact to dielectric loss factor. Zinc sulfide concentrate is high loss material from 450 to 800 °C on the basis of theoretical analyses of dielectric loss tangent and penetration depth, its ability of absorbing microwave energy would be enhanced by increasing the apparent density as well. The experimental results also have proved that zinc sulfide concentrate is easy to be heated by microwave energy from 450 to 800 °C. In addition, the experimental date of dielectric constant and loss factor can be fitted perfectly by Boltzmann model and Gauss model, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0283.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: carbon nanostructure; defect; heteroatom doping; catalysis; electrocatalysis; electrochemistry; supercapacitor; microwave irradiation; microwave-assisted synthesis; inorganic nanoparticle
Online: 3 August 2023 (05:33:53 CEST)
In this review, we focus on a small section of the extensive literature that deals with the materials containing pristine defective CNs and those incorporated in the hybrid materials. We will discuss only those topics that focus on structural defects related to the introduction of perturbation into the surface topology of a nanostructure. We focus mainly on the method using microwave (MW) irradiation, which is a powerful tool for synthesizing and modifying carbon-based solid materials. In addition, the simplicity of the technique, economy, and the possibility of conducting the reaction in solvents and solid phase, in the presence of components of different chemical nature, allows use in various combinations. In this review, we will emphasize the advantages of synthesis using MW-assisted heating and indicate the influence of the structure of the obtained materials on their physical and chemical properties. We will also highlight the role of the occurrence of defects in the carbon material and the implication in designing their properties and applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: addressed fiber Bragg structure; fiber Bragg grating; fiber-optic sensor; microwave photonics; microwave-photonic sensor systems
Online: 9 October 2022 (08:10:39 CEST)
Five years ago, the concept of addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) was proposed, which simultaneously perform the functions of a two-frequency radiation shaper, the difference frequency of which is the AFBS address, and a sensitive element, since the value of the difference frequency is invariant to measured physical fields, and the set of difference frequencies, moreover, is orthogonal in the array of such sensors, enabling their address multiplexing. In this article, we provide an overview of the theory and technology of AFBS, including the structures with three or more spectral components with various combinations of difference frequencies, symmetrical and asymmetric, performing the functions of the address and converting information signals to the low-frequency range at the same time, along with other functions. The subjects of interrogation of these structures, their fabrication and calibration are discussed as well. We also consider a wide range of applications in which AFBS can be used, covering such areas as oil and gas production, power engineering, transport, medicine, etc. In addition, the prospects of AFBS further development are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0813.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Microwave photonics; optical microcombs; optical signal processing
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:18:26 CET)
We report a dual-polarization radio frequency (RF) channelizer based on microcombs. With the tailored mismatch between the FSRs of the active and passive MRRs, wideband RF spectra can be channelized into multiple segments featuring digital-compatible bandwidths via the Vernier effect. Due to the use of dual-polarization states, the number of channelized spectral segments, and thus the RF instantaneous bandwidth (with a certain spectral resolution), can be doubled. In our experiments, we used 20 microcomb lines with ~ 49 GHz FSR to achieve 20 channels for each polarization, with high RF spectra slicing resolutions at 144 MHz (TE) and 163 MHz (TM), respectively; achieving an instantaneous RF operation bandwidth of 3.1 GHz (TE) and 2.2 GHz (TM). Our approach paves the path towards monolithically integrated photonic RF receivers (the key components—active and passive MRRs are all fabricated on the same platform) with reduced complexity, size, and unprecedented performance, which is important for wide RF applications with digital-compatible signal detection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0521.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwave photonics; optical microcombs; optical signal processing
Online: 8 November 2023 (07:12:31 CET)
In recent decades, microwave photonic channelization has developed rapidly. Characterized by low loss, high versatility, large instantaneous bandwidth, and immunity to electromagnetic interference, microwave photonic channelization techniques coincides with the requirements of modern radar and electronic warfare for receivers. The advanced microresonator-based optical frequency combs are promising platforms for the research of the photonic channelized receivers, which take full advantage of multicarrier and large bandwidth, and accelerate the integration process of microwave photonic channelized receivers. In this paper, we review the research progress and trends in microwave photonic channelization, focusing on schemes that utilize integrated microcombs. Finally, we discuss the potentials of microcomb-based RF channelization, as well as the challenges and limitations, and provide routes and perspectives for future developments in the context of on-chip silicon-based photonics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1656.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: microwave thermosphere ablation; hepatocellular carcinoma; recurrence; safety
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:59:34 CEST)
Background and aim We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent next-generation microwave thermosphere ablation (MTA). Methods A total of 429 patients with 607 HCCs (maximum tumor diameter ≤40 mm) were included. Results The primary etiologies of HCC were hepatitis-related: 259 (60.4%) cases of HCV, 31 (7.3%) cases of HBV, and two instances of both. Median maximum tumor diameter was 15.0 (interquartile range, 10.0–21.0) mm. There were 86 tumors in areas of the liver where MTA is difficult. The most common area was near the primary and secondary branches of the intrahepatic portal vein (26 nodules). The cumulative local tumor recurrence rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 4.4%, 8.0%, and 8.5%, respectively. The cumulative local tumor recurrence rate differed significantly by tumor size group: ≤20 mm group (n=483), 20–30 mm group (n=107), and ≥30 mm group (n=17) (p<0.001). The cumulative local tumor recurrence rate was similar by difficult-to-treat status (p=0.169). In the multivariable analysis, tumor size (per 1 mm) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% conﬁdence interval [CI], 1.03–1.11; p<0.001) and ablative margin (per 1 mm) (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70–0.92; p=0.002) were significantly associated with local tumor recurrence. Only tumor size (per 1 mm) (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02–1.15; p=0.015) was significantly associated with complications. Conclusions MTA is a safe and effective local ablation therapy for HCC, even for tumors located in areas of the liver where local ablation therapy is difficult.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1976.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Microwave photonics; optical microcombs; optical signal processing
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:30:53 CEST)
Microwave transversal filters, which are implemented based on the transversal filter structure in digital signal processing, offer a high reconfigurability for achieving a variety of signal processing functions without changing hardware. When implemented using microwave photonic (MWP) technologies, also known as MWP transversal filters, they provide competitive advantages over their electrical counterparts, such as low loss, large operation bandwidth, and strong immunity to electromagnetic interference. Recent advances in high-performance optical microcombs provide compact and powerful multi-wavelength sources for MWP transversal filters that require a larger number of wavelength channels to achieve high performance, allowing for the demonstration of a diverse range of filter functions with improved performance and new features. Here, we present a comprehensive performance analysis for microcomb-based MWP spectral filters based on the transversal filter approach. First, we investigate the theoretical limitations in the filter spectral response induced by finite tap numbers. Next, we analyze the distortions in the filter spectral response resulting from experimental error sources. Finally, we assess the influence of input signal’s bandwidth on the filtering errors. These results provide a valuable guide for the design and optimization of microcomb-based MWP transversal filters for a variety of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0556.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Microwave photonics; optical microcombs; optical signal processing
Online: 31 March 2023 (15:55:34 CEST)
Microwave photonic (MWP) transversal signal processors offer a compelling solution for realizing versatile high-speed information processing by combining the advantages of reconfigurable electrical digital signal processing and high-bandwidth photonic processing. With the capability of generating a number of discrete wavelengths from micro-scale resonators, optical microcombs are powerful multi-wavelength sources for implementing MWP transversal signal processors with significantly reduced size, power consumption, and complexity. By using microcomb-based MWP transversal signal processors, a diverse range of signal processing functions have been demonstrated recently. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis for the processing inaccuracy that are induced by the imperfect response of experimental components. First, we investigate the errors arising from different sources including imperfections in the microcombs, the chirp of electro-optic modulators, chromatic dispersion of the dispersive module, shaping errors of the optical spectral shapers, and noise of the photodetector. Next, we provide a global picture quantifying the impact of different error sources on the overall system performance. Finally, we introduce feedback control to compensate the errors caused by experimental imperfections and achieve significantly improved accuracy. These results provide a guide for optimizing the accuracy of microcomb-based MWP transversal signal processors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bandpass filters; microwave; EHF; wideband transistor stages
Online: 14 April 2022 (12:20:33 CEST)
The article shows that active RC- and RLC- filters based on the simplest wideband SiGe transistor stages are quite promising for RF and microwave frequency ranges. The results of computer simulation of the RC- and RLC-filters proposed by the authors of this article, which are oriented for use in communication and telecommunications devices, incl. with tunable and adaptive parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: radio frequency; microwave; spectrum analyzer; integrated; photonic
Online: 26 January 2021 (09:57:01 CET)
We report an all-optical radio-frequency (RF) spectrum analyzer with a bandwidth greater than 5 terahertz (THz), based on a 50-cm long spiral waveguide in a CMOS-compatible high-index doped silica platform. By carefully mapping out the dispersion profile of the waveguides for different thicknesses, we identify the optimal design to achieve near zero dispersion in the C-band. To demonstrate the capability of the RF spectrum analyzer, we measure the optical output of a femtosecond fiber laser with an ultrafast optical RF spectrum in the terahertz regime.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: heterogenous catalyst; biodiesel; agrowaste; microwave; optimization; transesterification
Online: 30 November 2019 (12:10:38 CET)
Application of solid catalysts synthesized from agricultural wastes provides an environmentally benign and low-cost process route to the synthesis of biodiesel. An ash containing equal mixture of cocoa pod husk, plantain peel and kola nut pod husk ashes (CPK) which was obtained by open combustion of each biomass in air and calcined at 500 oC for 4 h. The calcined CPK ash was characterized to determine its catalytic potential. Two-level transesterification technique was used to synthesize biodiesel using the developed catalyst. The process parameters involved were optimized for the microwave-aided transesterification of a blend of honne, rubber seed and neem oils in volumetric ratio 20:20:60, respectively. The study showed that ash derived from combination of various biomass wastes provides a catalyst which consists all necessary catalytic ingredients in their relative abundance. The calcined CPK consists of 47.67% of potassium, 5.56% calcium and 4.21% magnesium attesting to its heterogenous status. The physisorption isotherms reveals that it was dominantly mesoporous in structure made up of nanoparticles. Maximum of 98.45 wt.% biodiesel was obtained through MeOH:oil blend of 12:1, CPK concentration of 1.158 wt.% and reaction time of 6 min under microwave irradiation. Quality of the synthesized biodiesel satisfied the requirements stipulated by standard specifications. Thus, this work demonstrates that blend of agrowastes and mixture of non-edible oils could be used to synthesize quality and sustainable biodiesel that can replace fossil diesel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: dielectric fingerprint; dielectric spectroscopy; microwaves; gastrointestinal; microwave imaging
Online: 19 October 2023 (11:31:11 CEST)
Digitization of tissues allows examination of tissue morphologies in new ways enabling patient stratification for effective treatments. Current slide-scanning techniques capture the visible details of the tissue as whole-slide images and digitally record them in the form of spatial and color relationships. Specialized experimental techniques like Dielectric spectroscopy can also be used to investigate a tissue’s response to an applied electric field. This study used the dielectric spectroscopy method to collect the complex permittivity of healthy and abnormal biopsy tissues excised during gastroenterology procedures. A single pole Cole-Cole model is fitted to the measurements dataset to extract the parameters which are used as features in machine learning binary classification models. The models achieved high accuracy, demonstrating the feasibility of using microwave-based spectroscopy measurements to create a digital dielectric fingerprint for tissues under investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0508.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Carbon Nanotube Paper; bucky paper; diode; microwave; filter
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:16:17 CEST)
This study aims to exploit the distinctive properties of carbon nanotube materials, which are particularly pronounced at the microscopic scale, by deploying fabrication techniques that allow their features to be observed macroscopically. Specifically, we aim to create a semiconductor device that exhibits flexibility and the ability to modulate its electromagnetic wave absorption frequency by means of biasing. Initially, we fabricate a sheet of carbon nanotubes through a vacuum filtration process. Subsequently, phosphorus and boron elements are separately doped into the nanotube sheet, enabling it to embody the characteristics of a PN diode. Measurements indicate that, in addition to the fundamental diode's current-voltage relationship, the device also demonstrates intriguing transmission properties under the TEM mode of electromagnetic waves. It exhibits a frequency shift of approximately 2.3125 GHz for each volt of bias change. The final result is a lightweight and flexible carbon-based semiconductor microwave filter, which can conform to curved surfaces. This feat underscores the potential of such materials for innovative and effective electromagnetic wave manipulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: shared load; four-channel; wide dynamic; microwave rectification
Online: 16 June 2023 (09:43:55 CEST)
This paper has designed a four-channel wide dynamic microwave rectifier circuit for the shortcomings of uneven output voltage of each branch of the multi-channel rectification technology. A voltage-doubling rectifier circuit with identical structure was used in each branch. The four rectifier branches shared the same load at the output terminal, allowing the rectifier circuit to have an RF-DC conversion efficiency greater than 50% over the input power range from 12mW to 274mW, widened by 274% compared to a single channel. Not only the advantages of multi-channel technology with wide dynamics were retained, but also the output voltage was highly consistent and could be directly output in parallel without complex power electronics conversion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0052.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: metal-ceramic; microwave sintering; susceptor; phase modulation; nanostructures
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:42:02 CET)
This study provides a novel method to prepare metal-ceramic composites from magnetically selected iron ore using microwave heating. By introducing three different microwave susceptors (Activated Carbon, SiC, and a mixture of Activated Carbon and SiC) during the microwave process, effective control of the ratio of metallic and ceramic phases has been achieved easily. The effects of the three susceptors on the microstructure of the metal-ceramics and the related reaction mechanisms were also investigated in detail. The results show that the metal phase (Fe) and ceramic phase (Fe2SiO4, FeAl2O4) can be maintained, but the metal phase to ceramic phase changed significantly. In particular, the microstructures appeared as well-distributed nanosheet structures with diameters of ~400 nm and thicknesses of ~20 nm when SiC was used as the microwave susceptor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0004.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: hydrological changes; wetlands; Arctic; Subarctic; microwave remote sensing
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:32:31 CET)
Specific emissivity features of swamps and wetlands of Western Siberia were studied for changing seasonal conditions with the use of daily data of satellite microwave sounding. The research technique involved the analysis of brightness temperatures of the underlying surface at the test sites. Variations in seasonal dynamics of brightness temperatures were mainly caused by different rates of seasonal freezing of the upper waterlogged layer of the underlying surface and dielectric characteristics of water containing natural media (water body, soil, vegetation). We analyzed long-term trends in seasonal and annual dynamics of brightness temperatures of the underlying surface and estimated hydrological changes in the Arctic and Subarctic. The findings open up new possibilities for using satellite data in the microwave range for studying natural seasonal dynamic processes and predicting hazardous hydrological phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0563.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Radar imaging; target detection; experimental measurements; Microwave imaging.
Online: 23 June 2021 (10:25:26 CEST)
In microwave imaging it is often of interest to inspect electrically large spatial regions. In these cases, data must be collected over a great deal of measurement points which entails long measurement time and/or costly, and often unfeasible, measurement configurations. In order to counteract such drawbacks, we have recently introduced a microwave imaging algorithm which looks for the scattering targets in terms of equivalent surface currents supported over a given reference plane. While this method is suited to detect shallowly buried targets, it allows to independently process each frequency data, hence the source and the receivers do not need to be synchronized. Moreover, spatial data can be reduced at large extent, without incurring in aliasing artefacts, by properly combining single-frequency reconstructions. In this paper, we validate such an approach by experimental measurements. In particular, the experimental test site consists of a sand box in open air where metallic plate targets are shallowly buried (few cm) under the air/soil interface. The investigated region is illuminated by a fixed transmitting horn antenna whereas the scattered field is collected over a planar measurement aperture at a fixed height from the air-sand interface. The transmitter and the receiver share only the working frequency information. Experimental results confirm the feasibility of the method.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Microwave hearting; CO2 conversion; Semi-coke; Boudouard reaction
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:26:34 CET)
The conversion of CO2 into more synthetically flexible CO is an effective and potential method for CO2 remediation, utilization and carbon emission reduction. In this paper, the reaction of carbon-carbon dioxide (Boudouard reaction) was performed in a microwave fixed bed reactor using semi-coke (SC) as both the microwave absorber and reactant and was systematically compared with that heated in a conventional thermal field. The effects of the heating source, SC particle size, CO2 flow rate and additives on CO2 conversion and CO output were investigated. By microwave heating (MWH), CO2 conversion reached more than 99 %, while by conventional heating (CH), the maximum conversion of CO2 was approximately 29% at 900 °C. Meanwhile, for the reaction with 5 wt% Barium Carbonate added as a promoter, the reaction temperature was significantly reduced to 750 °C with almost quantitative conversion of CO2. Further kinetic calculations showed that the apparent activation energy of the reaction under microwave heating was 46.3 kJ/mol, which was only one-third of that observed under conventional heating. The microwave-assisted Boudouard reaction with catalytic barium carbonate is a promising method for carbon dioxide utilization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0617.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: zeolite T; offretite; erionite; hydrothermal; microwave; secondary growth
Online: 29 January 2021 (12:34:58 CET)
Synthesis of zeolite T with a variety of desired characteristics necessitate extensive work in the formulation and practical experiments either by conventional hydrothermal methods or aided with different approaches and synthesis techniques such as secondary growth or microwave irradiation. The objectives of this review are to adduce the potential work in zeolite T (Offretite-Erionite) synthesis evaluating determining factors affecting the synthesis and quality of the zeolite T crystals. Attention is given to the extensive studies that interconnect with other significant findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0234.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: cannabis; THC; CBD; microwave assisted extraction; continuous flow
Online: 11 July 2020 (09:04:17 CEST)
Cannabis is a flowering plant that has long been used for medicinal, therapeutic, and recreational purposes. Cannabis contains more than 500 different compounds, including a unique class of terpeno-phenolic compounds known as cannabinoids; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most prevalent cannabinoids and have been associated with the therapeutic and medicinal properties of the cannabis plant. In this paper, continuous flow microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is presented and compared with other methods for commercial cannabis extraction. The practical issues of each extraction method are discussed. The main advantages of MAE are: continuous-flow method which allows for higher volumes of biomass to be processed in less time than existing extraction methods, improved extraction efficiency leading to increased final product yields, improved extract consistency and quality because the process does not require stopping and restarting material flows, and ease of scale-up to industrial scale without the use of pressurised batch vessels. Moreover, due to the flexibility of changing the operation conditions, MAE eliminates additional steps required in most extraction methods, such as biomass decarboxylation, winterisation, which typically adds at least a half day to the extraction process. Another factor that sets MAE apart is the ability to achieve high extraction efficiency even at the industrial scale. Whereas the typical recovery of active compounds using supercritical CO¬2 remains around 70-80%, via MAE up to 95% of the active compounds from cannabis biomass can be recovered at the industrial scale.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwave photonic; signal channelization; integrated optical frequency comb
Online: 26 March 2020 (02:19:45 CET)
We report a broadband radio frequency (RF) channelizer with up to 92 channels using a coherent microcomb source. A soliton crystal microcomb, generated by a 49 GHz micro-ring resonator (MRR), is used as a multi-wavelength source. Due to its ultra-low comb spacing, up to 92 wavelengths are available in the C band, yielding a broad operation bandwidth. Another high-Q MRR is employed as a passive optical periodic filter to slice the RF spectrum with a high resolution of 121.4 MHz. We experimentally achieve an instantaneous RF operation bandwidth of 8.08 GHz and verify RF channelization up to 17.55 GHz via thermal tuning. Our approach is a significant step towards the monolithically integrated photonic RF receivers with reduced complexity, size, and unprecedented performance, which is important for wide RF applications ranging from broadband analog signal processing to digital-compatible signal detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0147.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: MSQ aerogel; mesoporous structure; sol-gel; microwave drying
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:30:09 CET)
Methylsilsesquioxane aerogels with uniform mesopores have been facilely prepared via a sol–gel process followed by microwave drying with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as precursor, hydrochloric acid (HCl) as catalyst, water and methanol as solvents, hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as surfactant and template and propylene oxide (PO) as gelation agent. The microstructure, chemical composition and pore structures of the resultant MSQ aerogels were investigated in detail to achieve controllable preparation of MSQ aerogels, and the thermal stability of MSQ aerogels was also analyzed. The gelation agent, catalyst, solvent and microwave power have important roles on pore structures of MSQ aerogels. Meanwhile, microwave drying method is found to not only have a remarkable effect on improving production efficiency, but also be conducive to avoid the collapse of pore structure especially micropores during drying. The resulting MSQ aerogel microwave-dried at 500 W possesses a specific surface area up to 821 m2/g and a mesopore size of 20 nm, and displays good thermal stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0505.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: renewable energy, microwave, free fatty acid, crude oil
Online: 26 September 2018 (10:31:20 CEST)
A novel method proposed in the production of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been investigated experimentally. In this study, we report the results of biodiesel processing with electromagnetic induction technology. The method used is to compare the results of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel processing between conventional, microwave and electromagnetic induction. The degumming, transesterification, and esterification process of the 3 methods are measured by stopwatch to obtain time comparison data. Characteristics of viscosity, density, and Fatty Acid Metil Ester (FAME) were obtained from testing of a Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GCMS) at the Polytechnic Chemistry Laboratory of the State of Malang. The results show that the biodiesel produced by this method satisfies the biodiesel standards and their characteristics are better than the biodiesel produced by conventional and microwave methods. The electromagnetic induction method also offers a fast and easy route to produce biodiesel with the advantage of increasing the reaction rate and improving the separation process compared to other methods. This advanced technology has the potential to significantly increase biodiesel production with considerable potential to reduce production time and costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0018.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: SSPCM, Vacuum Drying, Microwave Acid Treatment, Solar Applications
Online: 3 September 2018 (09:57:39 CEST)
Today with enhancement in technology, sciences, there is also an increase in global heating rate. There is an urgent need of any alternate efficient source to reduce the wastage of energy and to utilize it efficiently. The advanced preparation of Expanded graphite ,lauric acid, stearic acid as shape stabilized phase change material deals with different energy harvesting applications. The main reason behind the need for synthesis of this matrix is to prepare a material that can be used in low temperature energy storage applications. Mixture of lauric acid , stearic acid impregnated in expanded graphite through vacuum impregnation followed by Vacuum Drying and Microwave acid treatment serves as novel shape stabilized phase change material of its type. The microwave acid treatment was done in order to increase the removal of moisture from the sample thus initiating proper bonding of its constituents. The mixture was produced in 1:1:1 ratio where all expanded graphite, lauric acid , stearic acid has one proportions of each other. The product obtained after microwave acid treatment was subjected to SEM, DSC analysis
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0600.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Remote Sensing; Climate Data Record; Passive Microwave; Hydrology
Online: 30 July 2018 (22:11:39 CEST)
Passive microwave measurements have been available on satellites dating back to the 1970s on research satellites flown by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Since then, several other sensors have been flown to retrieve hydrological products for both operational weather applications (e.g., the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager–SSM/I; the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit–AMSU) and climate applications (e.g., the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–AMSR; the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager–TMI; the Global Precipitation Mission Microwave Imager–GMI). Here the focus is on measurements from the AMSU-A, AMSU-B and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS). These sensors have been in operation since 1998 with the launch of NOAA-15, and are also on board NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19 and the MetOp-A and -B satellites. A data set called the “Hydrological Bundle” is a Climate Data Record (CDR) that utilizes brightness temperatures from Fundamental CDRs to generate Thematic CDRs (TCDR). The TCDR’s include: Total Precipitable Water (TPW), Cloud Liquid Water (CLW), Sea-Ice concentration (SIC), Land surface temperature (LST), Land surface emissivity (LSE) for 23, 31, 50 GHz, rain rate (RR), snow cover (SC), ice water path (IWP), and snow water equivalent (SWE). The TCDR’s are shown to be in general good agreement with similar products from other sources such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2). Because of the careful intercalibration of the FCDR’s, little bias is found among the different TCDR’s produced from individual NOAA and MetOp satellites, except for normal diurnal cycle differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0243.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: acrylamide; microwave assistance; intrinsic viscosity; flocculant; phenol removal
Online: 18 April 2018 (15:48:27 CEST)
A composite flocculant P(AM–DMDAAC) was synthesized by the copolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC). Using microwave (MV) assistance with ammonium persulfate as initiator, the synthesis provided short reaction time and better solubility product. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR and 13C NMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analysis-thermo gravimetric analyzer (DTA-TGA) were used to determine the structure and morphology of P(AM–DMDAAC). Parameters affecting the intrinsic viscosity ([η]) of P(AM–DMDAAC), such as microwave time, mass ratio of DMDAAC to AM, initiator ammonium persulfatedosage, sodium benzoate dosage, bath time, reaction temperature and pH value were examined. Results showed that the optimum synthesis conditions were microwave time 1.5 min, m(DMDAAC): m(AM) is 4:16, 0.5 wt‰ initiator, 0.4 wt‰ EDTA, 0.3 wt‰ sodium benzoate, 2 wt‰ urea, 4 h bath time, 4.0h reaction time and pH 2. To study the removal of phenol by P(AM–DMDAAC), the influence of flocculant dose, pH value and the stirring speed were investigated, with optimization providing 99.8 % removal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0148.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: ground penetrating radar; microwave tomography; time-reversal technique
Online: 23 October 2017 (11:08:34 CEST)
This paper provides a comparative study between microwave tomography and synthetic time-reversal imaging techniques as applied to ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. The comparison is carried out by processing experimental data collected at a controlled test site, with various types of buried targets at given subsurface depths and representative soil conditions. It is shown that the two techniques allow us to obtain complementary information about position, depth and size of the targets from a single GPR survey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1322.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Microwave Brightness Temperature (MBT); Earthquake; Wavelet maxima; Seismic Anomalies
Online: 21 November 2023 (13:46:50 CET)
This study develops a wavelet maxima-based methodology to extract anomalous signals from microwave brightness temperature (MBT) observations for seismic estimation. MBT, acquired via satellite microwave radiometry, enables subsurface characterization penetrating clouds. Five earthquake categories were defined contingent on locale (oceanic/terrestrial) and ambient traits (soil hydration, vegetal covering). Continuous wavelet transform was applied to preprocess annualized MBT readings preceding and succeeding prototypical events of each grouping, utilizing optimized wavelet functions and orders tailored to individualized contexts. Wavelet maxima graphs visually portraying signal intensity variations facilitated identification of aberrant phenomena, including pre-seismic accrual, co-seismic perturbation, and postsismic remission signatures. Casework found 10GHz horizontal-polarized MBT optimally detected signals for aquatic and predominantly humid/vegetative settings, whereas 36GHz horizontal-polarized performed best for arid, vegetated landmasses. This preliminary investigation establishes an analytical framework, albeit reliant on qualitative appraisals. Quantitative machine learning methods are warranted to statistically define selection standards and augment empirical forecasting leveraging lithospheric stress state inferences from sensitive MBT parametrization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1880.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); microwave absorber; reduced graphene oxide
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:44:44 CEST)
In the work the enhanced security of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) electronics in RF environment was investigated. UAVs are commonly used in many areas and the cellular networks as the parallel helping networks for systems: LTE, 5G or especially for future 6G are very perspective and needed. For effective communications in channels: “air-to-ground” as well as “drone-to-drone” the important task is undisturbed work of transportation platforms, ie. UAV. However, high level of outside electromagnetic radiation can affect the correct electronics work. The problem is due to non-conformity of RF environment regulations. The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards guarantee correct electronics work when the radiation level is not higher than established EMC levels. In case of commercially available devices, like UAVs, this level is 3 V/m. On the other hand, permissive exposure level, treated as RF environment emitted by cellular base stations, can reach the level of 61 V/m. Such level of electromagnetic wave pollution, can damage unprotected electronics with fatal consequences. This can cause the unchecked drone flight or unchecked fall down. As a result, due to unchecked flight, the UAV can cause the sudden communication interruption with operator or other drones. To reduce the level of damaging RF field we propose to cover the UAV housing with microwave absorber. In this case absorber must ensure good electromagnetic protection as well as lightweight and resistant on weather conditions. The shielding property of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as an absorber was investigated. For proposed material the shielding effectiveness (SE) was investigated in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 10 GHz. It has been proved that such material can be a good candidate as an absorber for UAV having low reflection coefficient and high absorption ability. In this work the shielding effectiveness of RGO was analyzed for two layers of 3 and 5 mm at typical frequencies as RF environment, ie. 3.6 GHz (5G system) and 5.8 GHz (LTE). Investigated absorber guarantees the value of SE of 25 dB and 30 dB for 3 mm layer at 3.6 GHz and 5.8 GHz respectively and of 29 dB and 39.5 dB for 5 mm layer at these frequencies respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1533.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Date palm; CSRR; metamaterials; microwave sensor; red palm weevil
Online: 21 June 2023 (11:33:59 CEST)
This paper presents for the first time the design of a microwave sensing setup for the potential monitoring and identification of red palm weevil (RPW) gender type. The microwave sensor consists of a planar two-port transmission line (TL) with a single complementary split-ring resonant (CSRR) inclusion etched from the bottom metallic layer. The CSRR sensor is placed on top of a customized non-conductive container. The microwave sensing setup has been designed, numerically demonstrated, fabricated and tested experimentally. Simulated results correlate quite well with the experimental data. Moreover, the sensitivity of the CSRR sensor when in close proximity to different RPW gender has been evaluated both numerically and experimentally. Based on the measured results from 15 RPW collected samples with different body sizes, different RPW gender types showed unique microwave signatures. Notable shift to the sensor's resonance frequency has been achieved, where on average a resonant frequency shift of 10% for adult RPWs was achieved, while 2.4% frequency change was obtained for larvae (young) RPWs. Hence, the proposed microwave sensing setup can be adopted in field trials to examine and differentiate between various RPW genders at various development stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0114.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Quantum Non-Locality; Cosmic Microwave Background; Ether Drift Experiments
Online: 7 July 2022 (07:44:37 CEST)
“Non-Locality is most naturally incorporated into a theory in which there is a special frame of reference. One possible candidate for this special frame of reference is the one in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is isotropic. However, other than the fact that a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics requires a preferred frame and the CMB provides us with one, there is no readily apparent reason why the two should be linked” (L. Hardy). Starting from this remark we first argue that, given the present view of the vacuum, the basic tenets of Quantum Field Theory cannot guarantee that Einstein Special Relativity, with no preferred frame, is the physically realized version of relativity. Then, to try to understand the nature of the hypothetical preferred Σ−frame, we consider the so called ether-drift experiments, those precise optical measurements that try to detect in laboratory a small angular dependence of the two-way velocity of light and then to correlate this angular dependence with the direct CMB observations with satellites in space. By considering all experiments performed so far, from Michelson-Morley to the present experiments with optical resonators, and analyzing the small observed residuals in a modern theoretical framework, the long sought Σ− frame tight to the CMB naturally emerges. Finally, if quantum non-locality reflects some effect propagating at vastly superluminal speed vQI→∞, its ultimate origin could be hidden somewhere in the infinite speed cs→∞ of vacuum density fluctuations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0477.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rain cells; atmospheric attenuation; microwave radar; Ka-band; altimetry
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:32:59 CEST)
The impact of large atmospheric attenuation events on data quality and availability is a critical aspect for future altimetry missions based on Ka-band altimetry. The SARAL/AltiKa mission and its Ka-band nadir altimeter offer a unique opportunity to assess this impact. Previous publications (Tournadre et al. 2009, 2015) already analyzed the impact of rain on the waveforms at Ka-band and proposed a definition of an elaborate rain flag. This notion tends to give a simpler black and white view of the atmospheric attenuation when the effect on the altimeter measurement is intense. But in practice, there is continuum of measurements that may be partially distorted or corrupted by rain events. The present study proposes a wider point of view , the ACECAL approach providing statistics on rain cells occurrences as well as their amplitude and their size, as guidelines for future Ka-band missions concerning the impact of the atmosphere. At global scale, 1 % of the measurements are affected by an attenuation larger than 23 dB and 10 % of the atmospheric attenuation events have a size larger than 40 km. This study demonstrates that the data quality and availability over some regions of particular interest for oceanography as Gulf Stream, North Pacific and Brazil currents could be affected compared to global statistics. It also opens some perspectives on the benefits that the community could be drawn from the systematic distribution of the rain cells parameters as secondary products of altimetry missions.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; microwave photonics; micro-ring resonators; RF sideband generation
Online: 10 November 2020 (11:52:59 CET)
We review recent work on narrowband orthogonally polarized optical RF single sideband generators as well as dual-channel equalization, both based on high-Q integrated ring resonators. The devices operate in the optical telecommunications C-band and enable RF operation over a range of either fixed or thermally tuneable frequencies. They operate via TE/TM mode birefringence in the resonator. We achieve a very large dynamic tuning range of over 55 dB for both the optical carrier-to-sideband ratio and the dual-channel RF equalization for both the fixed and tunable devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1469.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: microwave-assisted extraction; cellulose extraction; hemicellulose; lignin; wood wastes; sustainability
Online: 23 November 2023 (05:44:05 CET)
An enormous interest in the development of efficient protocols for cellulose extraction has been demonstrated in the last years, however, they were usually based on non-sustainable chemical and thermal approaches. In this work we describe a new and more sustainable method for cellulose extraction from eucalyptus and pine tree wood waste products exclusively performed using microwave-assisted radiation. The methodology includes 3 main steps: i) alkaline treatment; ii) bleaching I, using H2O2; and iii) bleaching II, an acidic treatment. Samples obtained in each step were characterized by Fourier-transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results were compared with those of starting materials, with the commercially available microcrystalline cellulose and with an industrial paper pulp. Results confirmed that for both type of wood wastes, cellulose was retained during the extractions procedures and that the removal of hemicellulose was achieved at the last step as seen by the FTIR spectra and TGA curves. The developed protocol is innovative since it constitutes an easy and quick approach to extract cellulose, from eucalyptus and pine tree wood waste using mild chemical and thermal conditions, microwave irradiation, and environmentally friendly purification steps. This approach offers the possibility of a future scale-up study to potentially apply the develop protocol to the extraction of cellulose in an industrial scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0492.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: microwave; ultrasound; saponins; carbohydrates; polyphenols; antioxidant activity; in vitro cytotoxicity.
Online: 7 November 2023 (17:01:04 CET)
Phytochemicals from Hedera helix L. lead to extracts with good biological properties which are beneficial to human health and can be used to protect plants against different diseases. The aim of this research was to find the most suitable extraction method and the most favorable parameters for different bioactive compounds extraction from ivy leaves. Different extraction methods, namely microwave assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), and conventional heating extraction (CHE), were used. The most suitable method for saponins extraction is MAE with an extraction efficiency of 58%, while for carbohydrates and polyphenols the best results were achieved by UAE with an extraction efficiency of 61.7% and 63.5%, respectively. The antioxidant activity (AA) of the extracts was also determined. The highest AA was obtained by UAE (368.98±9.01 µmol TR/gDM). Better results were achieved at 50 °C for 10 min of extraction, using 80% ethanol in water as solvent. In order to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity, the extracts richest in bioactive compounds were tested on NCTC fibroblasts. Their influence on the DNA content of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was also tested. Until 200 µg/mL, the extracts obtained by UAE and MAE were cytocompatible with NCTC fibroblasts at 48 h of treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: antipodal vivaldi antenna; food inspection; microwave imaging; non-invasive diagnostic
Online: 31 October 2023 (06:53:12 CET)
In food industry, there is a growing demand for cost-effective methods for inline inspection of food items able to non-invasively detect small foreign bodies which may have contaminated the product during the production process. Microwave imaging may be a valid alternative to the existing technologies, thanks to its inherently low-cost and its capability of sensing low-density contaminants. In this paper, a low-complexity microwave imaging system specifically designed to enable the inspection of a large variety of food products is presented. The system consists of two Circularly Loaded Antipodal Vivaldi Antennas, having a very large operative band, from 1 to 15 GHz, thus allowing a suitable spatial resolution for different food products from mostly fatty to high water-content ones. The antennas are arranged in such a way to collect the signal useful to exploit a recently proposed real-time microwave imaging strategy, leveraging the inherent symmetries usually characterizing food items. The system is experimentally characterized, and the achieved results compare favorably with the design specifications and the numerical simulations. Relying on these positive results, a first experimental proof of the effectiveness of the whole system is presented, which confirms its efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1948.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Microwave; Foaming Bone Scaffold; Sodium Trisilicate; Hydroxyapatite; In Vitro Tests
Online: 30 October 2023 (14:44:12 CET)
In this work we present a versatile, rapid, and low-cost manufacturing technique to develop bioceramic scaffolds that could enhance bone tissue regeneration via microwave preparation using a commercial microwave oven. The scaffolds were prepared combining hydroxyapatite and water glass (sodium trisilicate solution), foamed by using a microwaves oven and then characterized by means of SEM-EDS, mechanical properties, infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), density and stability test in water. Furthermore, in vitro tests were performed to verify the affinity of osteoclast cells versus the so prepared scaffold. The morphology of the samples showed interconnected pores suitable for promoting tissue regeneration and vascularization while specific mechanical properties were preserved. The physicochemical characterization and the in vitro tests presented promising results for bone regenerative applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0682.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: photocatalytic activity; microwave plasma; zinc oxide; antibiotic; dinitrophenol; solar radiation
Online: 11 October 2023 (10:51:16 CEST)
The presented work studies the processes of synthesis of nitrogen-containing structures of ZnO using atmospheric pressure microwave nitrogen plasma and investigates their photocatalytic activity in the processes of degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin when irradiated with sunlight. The work proposes an effective method for formation of photosensitive ZnO powders. Due to the features of plasma treatment in the open atmosphere of zinc metal microparticles, ZnO structures are formed with sizes from hundreds of nanometers to several micrometers with various micromorphologies. High photoactivity was demonstrated (rate constants 0.036 min-1 and 0.051 min-1) of synthesized ZnO structures during photo-degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol and ciprofloxacin, respectively, when exposed to solar radiation. Photo-active structures of ZnO synthesized using microwave nitrogen plasma can find application in processes of mineralization of toxic organic compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1521.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: ultrasound pre-treatment; microwave hydro-distillation; thyme; essential oil; thymol
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:37:49 CEST)
In this paper, the extraction of essential oil (EO) from thyme by consecutive use of ultrasound and microwave treatments is presented. The aim of the study was to apply an ultrasound pre-treatment of thyme leaves to enhance the thymol content and the extraction yield of the EO obtained by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MWHD). Compared with the conventional hydro-distillation (CHD), the consecutive use of ultrasound and microwave treatments resulted in a 72% lower extraction time. When the ultrasound pre-treatment (using the ultrasonic processor with an amplitude of 70%) was applied, the EO content was 23% higher compared to the extraction without pre-treatment. The EO samples were analyzed by GC/MS. The results showed that the major component, thymol, varied from 43.54% (by CHD) to 65.94% (by consecutive use of ultrasound and microwave treatments).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1141.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Phase shifter; Circular polarizer; High-power microwave (HPM); Waveguide component
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:38:27 CEST)
This paper presents a novel high-power rotary waveguide phase shifter based on circular polarizers specifically engineered for high-power microwave (HPM) applications. The phase shifter is capable of performing a precise 360° linear phase shift through rotation and consists of three parts: a linear polarized to left-handed circular polarized (LP-LHCP) mode converter, a left-handed to right-handed circular polarized (LH-RHCP) mode converter, and a linear polarized to right-handed circular polarized (LP-RHCP) mode converter. The paper analyzes the phase shifting principle, optimizes the three parts of the X-band rotary waveguide phase shifter, and conducts simulation studies on the entire phase shifter made of aluminum. The results show that the reflection is less than -20dB and the transmission efficiency is over 95% within 9.5GHz to 10.2GHz. The phase shift has a linear relationship with the rotation angle by a factor of two within this frequency range. Specifically, the phase shifter can achieve a linear phase shift of 360° when rotated from 0° to 180°, with a maximum deviation of less than 1.2°. Moreover, the power-handling capacity of the phase shifter in vacuum exceeds 242mW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0545.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Flatness problem; horizon problem; cosmic microwave background anisotropy; isothermization; thermalization
Online: 28 December 2022 (12:46:45 CET)
The cosmological model presented here rests on the postulate that the universe can be described as an interacting attraction (exerted by matter) and repulsion (exerted by the excitation energy of the quantum vacuum) system in virial equilibrium. The basic parameters of the model, the matter density and the excitation energy of the quantum vacuum are determined by observations and are not adjusted to the model. The model requires only a few assumptions that can be deduced from the laws of conventional physics and from the rules of quantum field theory. Existing problems in standard cosmology, such as the flatness and the horizon problems, among others, can be resolved in a straightforward way without inflation and without recourse to dark matter and dark energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Breast cancer; early diagnostics; passive microwave radiometry (MWR); MicroRNA (miRNA)
Online: 19 October 2022 (04:11:29 CEST)
Breast cancer prevention is very important for a woman's health worldwide. We have demonstrated a correlation between mammography and ultrasound with diagnoses using passive microwave radiometry (MWR) and a miRNA oncopanel. While mammography screening dynamics could be completed in 3-6 months, MWR will provide us with a prediction in a matter of weeks or even days with the potential for complementary miRNA diagnostics. An early breast cancer diagnosis may be accomplished using either one of these novel techniques alone or in conjunction with more established techniques
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0180.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: microwave photonics; RF channelizer; micro-ring resonators; Kerr micro-combs
Online: 4 November 2020 (09:25:43 CET)
We report a 92 channel RF channelizer based on a 48.9 GHz integrated micro-comb that operates via soliton crystals, together with a passive high-Q ring resonator that acts as a periodic filter with an optical 3dB bandwidth of 121.4 MHz. We obtain an instant RF bandwidth of 8.08 GHz and 17.55 GHz achieved through temperature tuning. These results represent a major advance to achieving fully integrated photonic RF spectrum channelizers with reduced low complexity, size, and high performance for digital-compatible signal detection and broadband analog signal processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0238.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land surface temperature; all-weather; infrared; microwave; surface energy balance
Online: 20 November 2019 (11:12:02 CET)
An all-weather land surface temperature (LST) product derived at the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) is presented. The product is based on clear-sky LST retrieved from MSG/SEVIRI infrared (IR) measurements, complemented by LST estimated with a land surface energy balance (EB) model to fill gaps caused by clouds. The EB model solves the surface energy balance mostly using products derived at LSA-SAF. The new product is compared with in situ observations made at 3 dedicated validation stations, and with a Microwave (MW) based LST product derived from AMSR-E measurements. The validation against in-situ LST indicates an accuracy of the new product between -0.8 K and 1.1 K and a precision between 1.0 K and 1.4 K, generally showing a better performance than the MW product. The EB model shows some limitations concerning the representation of the LST diurnal cycle. Comparisons with MW LST generally show higher LST of the new product over desert areas, and lower LST over tropical regions. Several other imagers provide suitable measurements for implementing the proposed methodology, which offers the potential to obtain a global, nearly gap-free LST product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0142.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: soil moisture; AMSR2; remote sensing; downscale; SCAN-NRCS; passive microwave
Online: 28 September 2017 (03:37:51 CEST)
A continuous spatio-temporal database of accurate soil moisture (SM) measurements is an important asset for agricultural activities, hydrologic studies, and environmental monitoring. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), launched in May 2012, has been providing SM data globally with a revisit period of two days. It is imperative to assess the quality of this data before performing any application. Since resources of accurate SM measurements are very limited in Puerto Rico, this research will assess the quality of the AMSR2 data by comparing with ground-based measurements and perform a downscaling technique to provide a better description of how the sensor perceives the surface soil moisture as it passes over the island. The comparison consisted of the evaluation of the mean error, root mean squared error, and the correlation coefficient. Two downscaling techniques were used and their performances were studied. The results revealed that AMSR2 products tend to underestimate. This is due to the extreme heterogeneous distributions of elevations, vegetation densities, soil types, and weather events on the island. This research provides a comprehensive study on the accuracy and potential of the AMSR2 products over Puerto Rico. Further studies are recommended to improve the AMSR2 products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0112.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: carbonyl iron; composites film; external magnetic field; microwave absorption properties
Online: 28 September 2016 (10:32:52 CEST)
The carbonyl iron particles were dispersed in a polychloroprene rubber (CR) matrix under an external magnetic field for practical application as microwave absorption composites film. The film prepared under external magnetic field with a thickness of only 0.54 mm showed least reflection loss of -15.98 dB and the reflection loss value less than -10.0 dB over the frequency range of 11.4~14.8 GHz. In comparison with the microwave absorption properties of calculation by transmission line theory based on the tested relative complex permittivity and permeability and film prepared by general route without external magnetic field, the film made with external magnetic field exhibited more excellent microwave absorption properties, strongly depending on the increment of anisotropy and rearrangement of magnetic particles. The results indicated the composite film made under external magnetic field have excellent microwave absorption properties, which suggest that the composites thin film could be used as a thinner and lighter microwave absorber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0076.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: assimilation; FY-4A AGRI; ground-based microwave radiometer; Heavy Rainfall; Kaifeng
Online: 1 November 2023 (11:19:57 CET)
This study aims to evaluate the combined assimilation of AGRI infrared radiance and ground-based MWR (Microwave Radiometer) data for predicting short-duration heavy rainfall. The WRFDA 4.3 framework is utilized to establish the data assimilation interface. The structural characteristics of this joint assimilation approach are analyzed using a typical heavy rainfall event in the Kaifeng region of Central China. The findings indicate the following: (1) The joint assimilation of FY-4A AGRI and ground-based MWR data effectively corrects the initial moisture content in model simulations. Data assimilation significantly improves the simulation of 24-hour accumulated rainfall. Furthermore, the joint assimilation of AGRI radiance and MWR data outperforms assimilating either of them individually; (2) In the heavy rainfall stage, from the low level to the high level, strong upward movement occurs in the center of the rainstorm. The water vapor in the process of this rainstorm mainly comes from the westward air transport in front of the high trough. The water vapor is continuously transported to the heavy rainfall belt through this channel, providing sufficient water vapor for the maintenance of the rainstorm; (3) The combination of the interaction between high and low level vorticity and divergence in the atmosphere and the vertical upward movement, the emergence of low level jet and the generation of unstable energy in the atmospheric environment jointly lead to the occurrence of the rainstorm process; and (4) The terrain-sensitive experiment results show that, the existence of the topography of Taihang Mountain changes the precipitation in Kaifeng area, and reducing the terrain height will lead to a 50%-60% decrease in the overall precipitation of the precipitation center, and the precipitation range will also be greatly reduced. An increase of more than 50% in terrain height will lead to an increase in precipitation center, precipitation range and precipitation intensity, and an increase of 10%-20% in overall precipitation; An increase of more than 75% in the terrain height will cause the rain belt to shift eastward by about 0.5°E, and the precipitation center will shift significantly eastward. When the terrain height increased by more than 100%, the precipitation did not continue to increase, which was basically the same as the control test. This paper provides a valuable basis for further improving the application of FY-4A AGRI radiance and ground-based microwave radiometer in numerical weather models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0822.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: microwave irradiation; red wine; particle size distribution; rheological characteristic; fluorescence property
Online: 12 October 2023 (12:05:49 CEST)
In this paper, the effects on the rheological properties, particle size distribution, and fluorescence properties of red wine were investigated under microwave irradiation, and the mechanism of the effects of microwave irradiation on the sensory properties of red wine was discussed. The results showed that the effect of microwave on the rheological properties in red wine could be fitted by the Power-law model and Carson model, through the analysis of the rheological constants, yield stress, and viscosity coefficient of wine, it was found that microwave treatment could improve leg phenomenon and thickening effect by the change of rheological properties; the particle size distribution in wine indicated that microwave irradiation did change the particle size distribution through friction effect and oxidative polymerization, resulting in the wine’s visual effect and mouthfeel; the wine quality could be improved by enhancing the fluorescence intensity under different microwave conditions, which meant that microwave technology could speed up the formation of fluorescent substances, such as the polymerization of flavan-3-ols. In conclusion, microwave treatment could modify the sensory characteristics of wine, and further provide the theoretical basis for the application of microwave in winemaking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0550.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Microwave irradiation; CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst; Isomorphous substitution; Methanol steam reforming
Online: 8 September 2023 (02:54:21 CEST)
CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst is a commonly used catalyst for rea methanol steam reforming reaction. Oxalic acid was as precipitant in preparing oxalate precursor of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst by co-precipitation, deionized water and ethanol were as solvents, microwave irradiation and water bath were as aging heating manner respectively. It indicated that ethanol selected crystal phase composition of oxalate precursors and restricted their growth. Microwave irradiation prompted the isomorphous substitution between Cu2+ of CuC2O4 and Zn2+ of ZnC2O4 in mother liquid, forming the master phase (Cu,Zn)C2O4 in precursor, the solid solution Cu-O-Zn formed after calcination, which exhibited nano-fibriform morphology. It possessed small CuO grains, large surface area and strong synergy between CuO and ZnO, which is beneficial to improve the catalytic performance of methanol steam reforming, the STY of H2 reached 516.7 mL·g-1·h-1, and the selectivity of CO was only 0.29%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0374.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Commercial microwave links; Power level; SNMP protocol; Acquisition system; Rainfall estimation
Online: 26 September 2022 (02:05:11 CEST)
Since the 1990s, mobile telecommunication networks have gradually become denser around the world. Nowadays, large parts of their backhaul network consist of commercial microwave links (CMLs). Since CML signals are attenuated by rainfall the exploitation of records of this attenua-tion for precipitation monitoring purposes is an innovative and inexpensive solution. Performance data from mobile operators' networks is crucial for the implementation of this technology. And, moreover for near real-time quantification. To meet this requirement, a real-time system for col-lecting and storing CML power levels from the cellular phone operator "Telecel Faso" in Burkina Faso was implemented. This new acquisition system, which uses the Simple Network Manage-ment Protocol (SNMP) can simultaneously record the transmitted and received power levels from all the CML to which it has access, with a time resolution of one minute. Installed at “Laboratoire des Matériaux et Environnement de l’Université Joseph KI-ZERBO (Burkina Faso)”, this acquisi-tion system is dynamic and has gradually grown from eight to more than 1000 radio links Tele-cel Faso CML links between 2019 and 2021. The system covers the capital Ouagadougou and the main cities of Burkina Faso (Bobo Dioulasso, Ouahigouya, Koudougou and Kaya) as well as the axes connecting Ouagadougou to these cities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: juvenile idiopathic arthritis; X-Ray; ultrasound; MRI; passive microwave radiometry (MWR).
Online: 24 November 2021 (16:11:24 CET)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a disease with unknown causes within all forms of arthritis in children under 16 years of age. The diagnosis is made when another joint pathology is excluded. Difficulties in early and differential diagnosis lead to the rapid disability of patients and an unfavourable life prognosis. Therefore, timely diagnosis is necessary to prevent irreversible damage to the joints and preserve their function. Due to the widespread use of new technologies, modern multimodal imaging has gained recognition, which includes X-ray, ultrasound, and MRI. The combination of methods plays a key role in confirming the diagnosis, monitoring disease activity, prognosis during the course, and outcome in children with JIA. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. The introduction of the method of passive microwave radiometry (MWR), in combination with other imaging methods, makes it possible to expand the possibilities of screening the disease in the preclinical and early clinical phases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0425.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: chirality; microwave spectroscopy; electroweak force; precision measurement; differential spectroscopy; parity violation
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:37:44 CET)
Observation of parity-violating effects in chiral molecules is a long-standing challenge of the molecular spectroscopy community. In the microwave regime, the difference in transition frequencies between enantiomers is predicted to be below the mHz level, which is considerably beyond current experimental capabilities. The most promising future efforts combine vibrational spectroscopy, buffer gas cooling, and carefully chosen molecular candidates with large predicted parity-violating shifts. Here, we demonstrate for the first time high-precision differential microwave spectroscopy, achieving sub-Hz precision by coupling a cryogenic buffer gas cell with a tunable microwave Fabry-Perot cavity. We report statistically limited sub-Hz precision of (0.08±0.72) Hz, observed between enantiopure samples of (R)-1,2-propanediol and (S)-1,2-propanediol at frequencies near 15 GHz. We confirm highly repeatable spectroscopic measurements compared to traditional pulsed-jet methods, opening up new capabilities in probing subtle molecular structural effects at the 10−10 level and providing a platform for exploring sources of systematic error in parity-violation searches. We discuss dominant systematic effects at this level and propose possible extensions of the technique for higher precision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0350.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: microwave heating; cavity; reflector; double-waveguide; uniform heating; high heating efficiency
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:51:39 CEST)
To reduce the carbon emissions during heating in the manufacturing process, microwaves have attracted significant attention. Microwave has a lot of advantages rather than traditional heating method such as rapid heating, lower thermal damage and eco-friendly process. In order to apply microwaves to manufacturing process, uniform and efficient heating is required. We have analyzed the effect of various design parameters such as cavity heights, the application of the reflector, and the number and positions of waveguides for uniform and efficient heating by numerical simulation and verified that by experiment. The results showed that a slight change in the cavity height altered the electromagnetic field distribution and heating parameters, such as the coefficient of variance and power absorption efficiency. With reflectors installed, uniform heating was achieved and power absorption was improved, with the spherical reflector showing the maximum efficiency. The use of double waveguides heated the target material in a uniform manner. An increase in the power supply also led to uniform heating. This large-scale analysis will be helpful in applying microwaves to actual industrial sites.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Kerr micro-combs; microwave photonics; signal channelization; integrated optical frequency combs
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:53:59 CET)
We review recent work on broadband RF channelizers based on integrated optical frequency Kerr micro-combs combined with passive micro-ring resonator filters, with microcombs having channel spacings of 200GHz and 49GHz. This approach to realizing RF channelizers offers reduced complexity, size, and potential cost for a wide range of applications to microwave signal detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: ultrasonic wave; microwave; instant green tea; extraction rate; active components; aroma
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:38:20 CET)
The production of instant green tea requires hot-water extraction, which is time consuming and contributes to losses in aromatic compounds. In this study, an ultrasonic-assisted technology was used to improve the extraction efficiency of green tea, thereby shortening extraction time from 45 to 15 min. In pure water, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but total catechin dissolution increased by 0.23 mg/mL and total tea polyphenol dissolution decreased by 3.2 mg/mL. In 76.2% ethanol, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but total catechin dissolution increased by 1.57mg/mL and total tea polyphenol dissolution decreased by 1.5 mg/mL. Additionally, we used microwave-assisted technology to further improve the extraction efficiency of green tea, which shortened the extraction time to 2 min. However, the extraction rate remained unchanged. In pure water, the dissolution of caffeine and theanine did not change significantly, but the dissolution of total catechins increased by 0.41 mg/mL and the dissolution of tea polyphenols decreased by 2.9 mg/mL. Ultrasonic treatment increased the proportion of 3-hydroxybutan-2-one, (5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-one and 2-phenylethanol, which were the main aroma compounds in tea. Microwave treatment changed the aroma compounds in tea, causing losses in aroma compounds with low boiling point and maintaining (5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-one. The taste and aroma of instant green tea improved based on sensory evaluation results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0458.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Suzuki coupling reaction; Layered double hydroxides; Solid base catalyst; Microwave irradiation
Online: 8 January 2019 (15:13:46 CET)
Suzuki cross-coupling reaction has developed one of the furthermost effectual approaches for the synthesis of biaryls or substituted aromatic moieties from aryl halides and arylboronic acids with a palladium-catalyst in the past two era’s. Herein, Pd-free layered double hydroxide containing nickel catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method under ultrasonic irradiation and N2 atmosphere with different molar ratios of Ni: Mg: Al and coded as (1NiLDHs-Dr), (1.5NiLDHs-Dr) and (2NiLDHs-Dr). A series of reduced catalysts under 5%H2/N2 at different temperatures were coded as 1NiLDHs-R200, 1.5NiLDHs-R200 and 2NiLDHs-R200. As-synthesized 2NiLDHs-Dr was the superlative catalyst when coupling different aryl halides with different boronic acids derivatives. Deep investigation of all catalysts was done using different techniques such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) connected with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) and N2-physisorption at -196 ℃. The results attained verified that ɑ-Ni(OH)2 was fashioned for 2NiLDHs-Dr catalyst and the enclosure of nickel ions in the cationic sheet of layered structure were responsible for the fascinating catalytic efficacy rather than the basic nature of material. The Ni-containing LDHs catalysts encourage forthcoming studies in Pd-free catalyzed C-C coupling reactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: noninvasive glucose measurement; IR spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy; photoacoustic spectroscopy; microwave sensing
Online: 1 October 2018 (14:04:05 CEST)
Diabetic patients need long-term and frequent glucose monitoring to assist in insulin intake. The current finger-prick devices are painful and costly which make noninvasive glucose sensors highly demanded. In this review paper, we discuss several advanced electromagnetic (EM) wave based technologies for noninvasive glucose measurement, including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence, optical coherent tomography (OCT) and microwave sensing. Development and progress of each method are discussed regarding fundamental principle, system setup and experimental results. Despite the promising achievements reported previously, there is no established product to obtain FDA approval or survive marketing test. Limitations and prospects of these techniques are discussed at the end of this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0604.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: backscattering; L-band; SAR polarimetry; microwave; Chapman-Richards model; tropical forest
Online: 31 July 2018 (05:02:29 CEST)
Secondary forests (SF) are important carbon sinks, removing CO2 from the atmosphere through the photosynthesis process and storing photosynthates in their aboveground live biomass (AGB). This process occurring at large-scales partially counteracts C emissions from land-use change, playing, hence, an important role in the global carbon cycle. The absorption rates of carbon in these forests depend on forest physiology, controlled by environmental and climatic conditions as well as on the past land use, which is rarely considered for retrieving AGB from remotely sensed data. In this context, the main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of full polarimetric ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 data for estimating AGB by taking into account the past-land use of SF areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We surveyed a chronosequence of 42 SF plots (20 ha) near the Tapajós National Forest in Pará state to quantifying AGB growth rates. We explored the full polarimetric data testing three regression models including non-linear (NL), multiple linear regressions models (MLR), and the semi-empirical extended water cloud model (EWCM). The results showed that the intensity of previous use has affected the structure of SF by reducing the AGB accumulation and being noticeable by several polarimetric attributes. The combination of multiple prediction variables with MLR improved the AGB estimation by 70% comparing amongst other models (R² adj. = 0.51; RMSE = 13.2 Mg ha-1) bias = 2.1 ± 37.9 Mg ha-1. The error propagation of the MLR model was estimated to be 15%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0004.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: microwave irradiation; rock comminution, quartz response, chert gravel, reuse of quarry area
Online: 1 December 2023 (10:15:13 CET)
Chert rock is a by-product of sand quarrying (about 40% in the geological section). All attempts to use ordinary technologies for aggregate production from chert have been economically unsuccessful, resulting in significant chert "waste" accumulation covering vast quarry areas. This paper presents the study results of the effect of microwave irradiation on the mechanical properties of chert gravel, which is mineralogically relatively homogenous and consists of fine quartz grains. The results show that an increase in irradiation time decreases the strength of chert gravel (by a factor of 4-6 for the 2.5 min of irradiation), while the quenching changes the fractional content of the samples after the crushing test, decreasing the Gravel-to-Sand ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0321.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: activated carbon; metal ions; Phoenix dactylifera L.; isotherm; kinetic; microwave irradiation; biochar
Online: 6 September 2023 (05:06:51 CEST)
Date palm trees generate large amounts of various types of waste, including leaf sheath fibers which can be used as a low-cost, precursor for production of biochar including activated carbon (AC) that can be employed for adsorption of contaminants. In the current study, activated carbon was made from leaf sheath fibers of date palm (LSDPFAC) by use of chemical activation with K2CO3, combined with microwave irradiation, characterized and evaluated for its adsorptive capacity of lead ions (Pb2+). The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, Langmuir surface area, total pore volume and average pore diameter of LSDPFAC were 560.20 m2/g, 744.31 m2/g, 0.29 cm3/g and 2.47 nm respectively. When the initial concentrations of Pb2+ were increased from 1 to 10 mg/L, Pb2+ adsorption increased from 0.97 to 8.76 mg/g, dry mass (dm) while the percent of Pb2+ removed decreased from 96.70 to 87.60%. The greatest removal of Pb2+ occurred at pH 13 with adsorption capacity of 9.15 mg/g, dm. Results of isotherm and kinetic studies demonstrated that adsorption of Pb2+ onto LSDPFAC was best described by the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second order (PSO) models. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity, Qm was 14.10 mg/g. Thermodynamic parameters of H°, S°, G° and Ea were 6.39 kJ/mol, 0.12 kJ/mol.K, -31.28 kJ/mol and 15.90 kJ/mol, respectively, which demonstrated that adsorption of Pb2+ by LSDPFAC was endothermic, spontaneous and governed by physisorption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1304.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Early Universe; Cosmic Microwave Background; Power Spectrum; Anisotropy; Scalar Fileds; Data Analysis
Online: 19 July 2023 (07:18:00 CEST)
Our comprehension of fundamental cosmological principles hinges on a thorough understanding of the early universe. The Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model has emerged as a valuable framework for elucidating various cosmic phenomena, uniting a cosmological constant (Λ) with cold dark matter (CDM). Nevertheless, recent observations, particularly data from the Planck, WMAP, and DES missions that probe the early universe, alongside local measurements of the Hubble constant, have unveiled significant inconsistencies. These inconsistencies have magnified the perplexing issue known as the Hubble Tension, thereby challenging our current understanding of the universe. To address this conundrum, we adopt a comprehensive approach encompassing a review of cosmological fundamentals, an exploration of the ΛCDM model, an examination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), power spectrum, and perturbation theory, a thorough review of existing research, and finally, an investigation of real data. By undertaking these early universe processes, we aim to understand more about Hubble constant and its consequence in ΛCDM model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: microwave electromagnetic field; waveguide; slot-type radiators; standing wave ratio; radiation efficiency
Online: 30 June 2023 (11:42:27 CEST)
The microwave field is used for drying and disinfection of grain, during pre-sowing seed treat-ment. The use of a microwave field in these installations leads to an increase in their productivity and a decrease in the energy consumed by them. One of the principal problems of microwave field use for treatment of dense grain layers is to insure sufficient distribution uniformity of the field. In this article, waveguide design options have been discussed that serve to introduce microwave radiation into the grain layer. Mathematical simulation of the electromagnetic field distribution was performed with the use of CST Microwave Studio software in order to evaluate and compare horn-type, rectangular and semicircular waveguides. The data on the standing wave ratio and radiation efficiency for these types of waveguides have been reported. Specific features of the microwave electromagnetic field distribution and radiation power in the output of those wave-guides have been described. Results of mathematical simulations enabled to make out that sem-icircular waveguides with slot-type radiators are preferable for processing dense grain layers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0295.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Metasurface; Materials characterization; Sensing; Microwave sensors; Powders; Materials science; Millimeter wave devices
Online: 16 December 2022 (05:45:54 CET)
A novel technique using a W-band metasurface for the purpose of transmissive fine powder layer sensing is presented. The proposed technique may allow for the detection, identification, and characterization of inhomogeneous ultrafine powder layers which are effectively hundreds of times thinner than the incident wavelengths used to sense them. Such a technique may be useful during personnel screening processes (i.e., at an airport) and in industrial manufacturing environments where early detection and quantization of harmful airborne particulates can be a matter of security or safety. To our knowledge, the requisite science involved in such a novel W-band metasurface sensing technique has not been fully explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microwave assisted extraction (MAE); canolol; sinapine; high temperature; de-oiled canola; processing
Online: 21 November 2022 (11:45:34 CET)
Canola is the major oilseed crop of Canada. The de-oiled material is an important by-product due to its rich phenolic profile and high protein content. This co-processing stream from canola is primarily utilized as animal feed but represents an invaluable source of nutraceuticals. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MAE), as a green extraction method, has received considerable attention in recent times. The ease of use and application of many solvents at the same time makes the MAE one of the best methods for studying multiple solvents at the same time. The formation of canolol, from sinapine and sinapic acid, is primarily dependant on temperature which favors the decarboxylation reaction. Hence, MAE using green extractants can be used to enhance the yield of canolol. This study examined the effects of different pre-treatment temperature-time combinations of 140, 150, 160, and 170℃ for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes on the extraction of canolol and other canola endogenous phenolic compounds. Three antioxidant assays assessed the antioxidant activity of the different extracts obtained by MAE confirming the microwave as a novel and versatile instrument for enhancing the yield of canolol. Improvements in the antioxidant activity of the different extracts further established the efficacy of the current method for isolating important natural phenolic derivatives for utilization by the nutraceutical industry.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: dried Chinese sausage; fat replacement; mango peel pectin; microwave-assisted extraction technique
Online: 11 March 2020 (03:07:13 CET)
In this research, low-fat dried Chinese sausage was formulated with mango peel pectin (MPP) extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w). The extractable yield of pectin attained from peel of Nam Dok Mai variety was achieved at 13.85% using 700-watt power. The extracted MPP were of high equivalent weight (1,485.78 mg/mol), degree esterification (77.19%) and methoxyl content (19.33%) with the structure of more porosity as compared to that of the conventional method. Spectrum scans by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) advised that the extracted MPP gave the similar wave number profiles as the commercial pectin. Quality attributes of the Chinese sausages were accessed and compared with the control formula (CTRL). At higher concentrations of MPP, the product had positively increased colour intensity. The texture profile of the sausage illustrated that only the hardness value was comparable with the CTRL, while springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were statistically lower (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the sensory evaluation by experienced panellists (n=12) indicated that 5% MPP similarly represented overall acceptability with the CTRL. Consequently, MPP can be effectively applied at low level as fat replacement in Chinese sausage allowing colour improvement and product of healthier option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0188.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: porous silicon nitride ceramics; microwave sintering technology; agglomeration process; law of influence
Online: 18 August 2019 (02:30:04 CEST)
In this paper, the preparation methods of porous silicon nitride materials with controllable dielectric constant and pore structure were systematically studied. By using microwave sintering technology, porous silicon nitride materials with high closed pore ratio were prepared by adjusting the content of sintering additives and sintering process parameters, and controlling the grain boundary phase and pore structure and size. The effects of sintering conditions on the total porosity, closed porosity, pore structure and dielectric properties of materials were systematically studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0126.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwave technique; transmittance; soil moisture; microstrip patch antennas; rhizobox; roots; plant phenotyping
Online: 13 February 2019 (16:49:06 CET)
Interactions of soil moisture with plant root systems are very important for plant growth. For non-invasive determination of volumetric soil moisture in a rhizobox, a microwave system based on transmittance of electromagnetic waves in the microwave frequency range was developed using microstrip patch antennas. Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs) were used to measure the S-parameters at frequency ranges close to 5 GHz. A transmission system with microstrip patch antennas was developed. The result of this attenuation is in the frequency domain. The antennae were designed as resonant microstrip antennae. The antennae were placed on both sides of a rhizobox, which allowed non-invasive measuring soil moisture in the box. The attenuation (S21(dB)) was used to measure the effect of temperature, and different types of soil; as well as sensitivity, reproducibility and repeatability of the system. In this work we present quantitative results of soil moisture in rhizobox. The microwave technique, using microstrip patch antennas, is a reliable and accurate system, and showed very promising potential applications for rhizobox-based investigations of root performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0046.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Soil Moisture; Remote Sensing; Landsat; SMAP; Random Forest; Machine Learning; Downscaling; Microwave
Online: 5 February 2019 (08:01:58 CET)
If given the correct remotely sensed information, machine learning can accurately describe soil moisture conditions in a heterogeneous region at the large scale based on soil moisture readings at the small scale through rule transference across scale. This paper reviews an approach to increase soil moisture resolution over a sample region over Australia using the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) sensor and Landsat 8 only and a validation experiment using Sentinal-2 and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) over Nevada. This approach uses an inductive localized approach, replacing the need to obtain a deterministic model in favor of a learning model. This model is adaptable to heterogeneous conditions within a single scene unlike traditional polynomial fitting models and has fixed variables unlike most learning models. For the purposes of this analysis, the SMAP 36 km soil moisture product is considered fully valid and accurate. Landsat bands coinciding in collection date with a SMAP capture are down sampled to match the resolution of the SMAP product. A series of indices describing the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Triangle (SVAT) relationship are then produced, including two novel variables, using the down sampled Landsat bands. These indices are then related to the local coincident SMAP values to identify a series of rules or trees to identify the local rules defining the relationship between soil moisture and the indices. The defined rules are then applied to the Landsat image in the native Landsat resolution to determine local soil moisture. Ground truth comparison is done via a series of grids using point soil moisture samples and air-borne L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) observations done under the SMAPEx-5 campaign. This paper uses a random forest due to its highly accurate learning against local ground truth data yet easily understandable rules. The predictive power of the inferred learning soil moisture algorithm did well with a mean absolute error of 0.054 over an airborne L-band retrieved surface over the same region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0577.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: waste tire recycling; bitumen plasticization; microwave treatment; synergistic effects; structure-property relationships
Online: 29 September 2018 (04:50:58 CEST)
In this paper, ground tire rubber (GTR) was mechano-chemically modified with road bitumen 160/220 and subsequently treated using a microwave radiation. The combined impact of bitumen 160/220 content and microwave treatment on short-term devulcanization of GTR were studied by thermal camera, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WD-XRF), static headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS), thermogravimetric analysis combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR), oscillating disc rheometer and static mechanical properties measurements. The obtained results showed that bitumen plasticizer prevent oxidation of GTR during microwave treatment and simultaneously improves processing and thermal stability of obtained reclaimed rubber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: wild strawberry leaves; microwave-assisted extraction; accelerated solvent extraction; phenolic profile; antioxidant activity
Online: 17 November 2023 (15:29:30 CET)
Wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) leaves possess diverse antioxidant properties, mainly due to the different classes of phenolics. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of wild strawberry phenolics were carried out to understand the impact of extraction temperature, extraction time and solvent-to-sample ratio (SSR) on the quantitative and qualitative properties of the obtained extracts. The highest total phenolic content (8027 mg GA/100 g DW), as well the highest DPPH• antiradical activity (903 mol TE/g DW) was obtained with ASE at 150 °C, static time 5 min and SSR of 40:1; while the highest ABTS•+ antiradical activity (681 mol TE/g DW,) and FRAP (2389 mol TE/g DW) was obtained with MAE after 5 min at 80 °C and a SSR of 40:1. The correlation analysis showed that phenolics largely contributed to the antioxidant properties of the studied MAE extracts, while correlation was not found in ASE extracts. A total of 54 different phenolics were identified by UPLC/MS-MS in MAE and ASE extracts obtained at optimal extraction conditions. MAE extract was shown to have a higher content of phenolic acids (40%), but lower content of proanthocyanidins (88%), flavonols (29%), flavan-3-ols (50%) and flavones (39%) than ASE extract.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0565.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: reductive amination; process intensification; microwave-assisted reactions; transition-metal catalysts; ractopamine:HCl; raspberry ketone
Online: 7 August 2023 (12:20:08 CEST)
Reductive amination is a powerful tool in sustainable organic synthesis that allows chemists to access a wide range of valuable amine products using renewable feedstocks, mild reaction con-ditions, and with minimal waste generation. Practical applications can be found in various fields, including pharmaceuticals, contributing to greener and more sustainable chemical processes. In this work we present a heterogeneous (Rh and Pt) catalysed protocol for the fast and efficient synthesis of ractopamine hydrochloride (-adrenergic drug) under MW-assisted reductive ami-nation protocol starting from raspberry ketone and octapamine. Microwave (MW) successfully accelerated the hydrogenation reaction and reduced the reaction time from 13 hours to only 3 hours under mild conditions (50°C at 10 bar). The best catalysts were Pt/C and Rh/C, which led to high conversion and selectivity towards ractopamine:HCl. The solvent has a significant effect on the reaction outcome. The replacement of methanol with other solvents had a negative impact on the reaction yield. We also replaced the raspberry ketone with other ketone substrates, especially cyclohexanone. These preliminary experiments may be useful for further process improvements in the synthesis of β-adrenergic agonists and related structures.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2133.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: metasurface; metasurface sensing; electrophoresis; nanoparticles; sensing; microwave sensors; materials science; millimeter wave devices
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:23:02 CEST)
A novel electrophoretic technique to improve the sensing capabilities of charged particles in solution is presented. The proposed technique may improve the ability of metasurfaces to sense charged particles in solution by forcing them to preferentially sediment within metasurface regions of greatest sensitivity. Such a technique may be useful in various sensing applications, such as in biological, polymer, or environmental sciences, where low concentration particles in solution are of interest. The electrophoretic technique was simulated and experimentally tested using latex nanoparticles in solution. The results suggest that, using this technique, one may theoretically increase the particle density within the metasurface regions of greatest sensitivity by nearly 1900% in comparison to random sedimentation due to evaporation. Such an increase in particle density within the regions of greatest sensitivity may facilitate more precise material property measurements and enhance identification and detection capabilities of metasurfaces to low concentration particles in solution. It was experimentally verified that the electrophoretic technique enabled the preferential gathering of latex nanoparticles within the most sensitive metasurface regions, resulting in 900% - 1700% enhancements in metasurface sensing capabilities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0016.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Integrated photonics; microcombs; microwave photonics; optical communications; precision measurements; neuromorphic computing; quantum optics
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:00:03 CET)
Optical microcombs represent a new paradigm for generating laser frequency combs based on compact chip-scale devices, which have underpinned many modern technological advances for both fundamental science and industrial applications. Along with the surge in activity related to optical micro-combs in the past decade, their applications have also experienced rapid progress ‒ not only in traditional fields such as frequency synthesis, signal processing, and optical communications, but also in new interdisciplinary fields spanning the frontiers of light detection and ranging (LiDAR), astronomical detection, neuromorphic computing, and quantum optics. This paper reviews the applications of optical microcombs. First, an overview of the devices and methods for generating optical microcombs is provided, which are categorized into material platforms, device architectures, soliton classes, and driving mechanisms. Second, the broad applications of optical microcombs are systematically reviewed, which are categorized into microwave photonics, optical communications, precision measurements, neuromorphic computing, and quantum optics. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0090.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: machine learning/artificial intelligence; precipitation type classification; passive microwave; precipitation radar; retrieval algorithm
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:46:06 CEST)
Precipitation type is a key parameter used for better retrieval of precipitation characteristics as well as to understand the cloud-convection-precipitation coupling processes. Ice crystals and water droplets inherently exhibit different characteristics in different precipitation regimes (e.g., convection, stratiform), which reflect on satellite remote sensing measurements that help us distinguish them. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory’s Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) together provide ample information on global precipitation characteristics. As an active sensor, DPR provides an accurate precipitation type assignment, while passive sensors like GMI are traditionally only used for empirical understanding of precipitation regimes. Using collocated precipitation type flags from DPR as the “truth”, this paper employs machine learning (ML) models to train and test the predictability and accuracy of using passive GMI-only observations together with ancillary information from reanalysis and GMI surface emissivity retrieval products. Out of six ML models, four simple ones (Support Vector Machine, Neural Network, Random Forest, and Gradient Boosting) and the 1-D convolutional neural network (CNN) model are identified to produce 90% - 94% prediction accuracy globally for 5 types of precipitation (convective, stratiform, mixture, no precipitation, and other precipitation), which is much more robust than previous similar effort. One novelty of this work is to introduce data augmentation (subsampling and bootstrapping) to handle extremely unbalanced samples in each category. Careful evaluation of Impact matrices demonstrate that polarization difference (PD) and surface emissivity at high-frequency channels dominate the decision process, which are consistent with the physical understanding of polarized microwave radiative transfer over different surface types, as well as in snow and liquid clouds with different microphysical properties. Furthermore, the view-angle dependency artifact that DPR precipitation flag bears with does not propagate into the conical-viewing GMI retrievals. This work provides a new and promising way for future physics-based ML retrieval algorithm development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0250.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: acid dissolution; neodymium magnet; open system; microwave sample preparation system; ICP-MS analysis
Online: 11 May 2021 (15:06:50 CEST)
The separation of rare earth metals (REM) from a neodymium magnet has been widely studied in the last year. We have shown that the waste of computer hard disk contains 25.41 % neodymium, 64.09 % iron, and <<1 % boron. To further isolate rare-earth metals, the magnet was acidically dissolved in open and closed systems. In both methods of dissolution was used concentrated nitric acid. The difference between these methods are the conditions of dissolution of magnet. The magnet was dissolved in a microwave sample preparation system at different temperatures and pressures in a closed system. In the open system, the acid dissolution of the magnet conducted at room temperature. 0.2 g of the neodymium magnet sample was taken under two conditions, and the dissolution process in the closed system lasted 1 hour, and in the open system-30-40 minutes. The open system is a non-laborious, simple and cheap method of dissolving the magnet by comparing both systems. Therefore, an open sample preparation system is used for further work. To remove the iron in the magnet, oxalic acid was used and precipitated as oxalates under both conditions. According to the result of the ICP-MS method, it is shown that the neodymium and iron contents in the precipitate are 24.66 % and 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that the iron has almost completely passed to the filtrate. Thus, it is possible to remove the iron from the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0627.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Fiber Bragg Structure; microwave photonics; vibration; fiber optic sensor; Address Fiber Bragg Grating
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:56:51 CET)
The paper presents the results of a study of the concept of address fiber Bragg structures in the problem of vibration control. The mathematical model of measuring transformation is presented; the experimental study of a vibration diagnostics system based on Address Fiber Bragg Gratings is carried out; the quantitative and qualitative comparative assessment with electronic accelerometers is made; the gain by an order of magnitude in some parameters is shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0068.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Soil moisture; Fengyun-3C; Passive microwave; Chinese Automatic Soil Moisture Observation Stations; NDVI
Online: 5 December 2018 (14:05:35 CET)
Soil moisture (SM) products derived from passive satellite missions are playing an increasingly important role in agricultural applications, especially in crop monitoring and disaster warning. Evaluating the dependability of those products before they can be used on a large scale is crucial. In this study, we assessed the level 2 (L2) SM product from the Chinese Fengyun-3C (FY-3C) radiometer against in situ measurements collected from the Chinese Automatic Soil Moisture Observation Stations (CASMOS) during a one-year period from January 1 to December 31, 2016 in Henan, which is an agricultural province in China. Four statistical parameters were used to evaluate the products’ reliability: mean difference, root-mean-square error (RMSE), unbiased RMSE (ubRMSE), and the correlation coefficient. These statistical indicators revealed that the FY-3C L2 SM product generally did not agree with the in situ SM data from CASMOS. The time-series analysis further indicated that the correlations and estimated error were highly related to the growing periods of the crops in our study area. FY-3C L2 SM data tended to overestimate soil moisture during May, August, and September, when the crops reach their maximum vegetation density, and tended to underestimate the soil moisture content during the rest of the year. The averaged correlation coefficient between FY-3C SM and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index was 0.55, which demonstrates that the vegetation water content of the crops considerably influences the SM product. To improve the accuracy of the FY-3C SM product, an improved algorithm that can filter out the influences of the crops should be applied in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0120.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: NDIR; methane; sensor; infrared; thin film; III-V; heterostructure; bandpass; microwave; sputter; MBE
Online: 7 October 2018 (10:52:34 CEST)
In this work performance improvements are described of a low power consumption non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) methane (CH4) gas sensor using customised optical thin film bandpass filters (BPF). BPF’s shape the spectral characteristic of the combined mid infrared III-V based light emitting diode (LED)/ photodiode (PD) light source/detector optopair, enhancing NDIR CH4 sensor performance. The BPF, deposited using a novel microwave plasma assisted pulsed DC sputter deposition process, is deposited at room temperature directly onto the temperature sensitive PD heterostructure. BPF’s comprise germanium (Ge) and niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) alternating high and low refractive index layers respectively. Two different optical filter designs are progressed; with BPF bandwidths (BWs) of 160 nm and 300 nm. Comparison of modelled and measured NDIR sensor performance is described, highlighting maximized signal to noise ratio (SNR) and minimized cross talk performance benefits. BPF spectral stability for various environmental temperature and humidity conditions is demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0544.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Snowfall Retrieval; Snow Water Equivalent; Cloud Liquid Water; Emissivity; Brightness Temperature; Passive Microwave; GPM
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:22:16 CEST)
Falling snow alters its own microwave signatures when it begins to accumulate on the ground, making retrieval of snowfall challenging. This paper investigates the effects of snow-cover depth and cloud liquid water content on microwave signatures of terrestrial snowfall using reanalysis data and multi-annual observations by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite with particular emphasis on the 89 and 166 GHz channels. It is found that over shallow snow cover (snow water equivalent (SWE) ≤ 100 kg m-2) and low values of cloud liquid water path (LWP 100–150 g m-2), the scattering of light snowfall (intensities ≤ 0.5 mm h−1) is detectable only at frequency 166 GHz, while for higher snowfall rates, the signal can also be detected at 89 GHz. However, when SWE exceeds 200 kg m-2 and the LWP is greater than 100–150 g m-2, the emission from the increased liquid water content in snowing clouds becomes the only surrogate microwave signal of snowfall that is stronger at frequency 89 than 166 GHz. The results also reveal that over high latitudes above 60°N where the SWE is greater than 200 kg m-2 and LWP is lower than 100–150 g m-2, the snowfall microwave signal could not be detected with GPM without considering a priori data about SWE and LWP. Our findings provide quantitative insights for improving retrieval of snowfall in particular over snow-covered terrain.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: cosmic microwave background; cosmological parameters; cosmology: observations; cosmology: redshift; cosmology: theory; large-scale structure
Online: 14 June 2020 (16:16:26 CEST)
The notion that dust might have formed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been strongly refuted on the strength of four decades of observation and analysis, in favour of recombination at a redshift z ~ 1080. But tension with the data is growing in several other areas, including measurements of the Hubble constant H(z) and the BAO scale, which directly or indirectly impact the physics at the surface of last scattering (LSS). The R_h=ct universe resolves at least some of this tension. We show in this paper that---if the BAO scale is in fact equal to the acoustic horizon---the redshift of the LSS in this cosmology is z_cmb ~ 16, placing it within the era of Pop III star formation, prior to the epoch of reionization at 15 > z > 6. Quite remarkably, the measured values of z_cmb and H_0 = H(0) in this model are sufficient to argue that the CMB temperature today ought to be ~ 3 K, so H_0 and the baryon to photon ratio are not independent free parameters. This scenario might have resulted from rethermalization of the CMB photons by dust, presumably supplied to the interstellar medium by the ejecta of Pop III stars. Dust rethermalization may therefore yet resurface as a relevant ingredient in the R_h=ct universe. Upcoming high sensitivity instruments should be able to readily distinguish between the recombination and dust scenarios by either (i) detecting recombination lines at z ~ 1080, or (ii) establishing a robust frequency-dependent variation of the CMB power spectrum at the level of ~ 2-4% across the sampled frequency range.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: dark energy; dark matter; cosmic microwave background; large numbers hypothesis; varying fundamental constants; symmetry
Online: 14 June 2019 (09:53:08 CEST)
Recent observations of the dark energy density have demonstrated the fine-tuning problem, and the challenges faced by theoretical modeling. In this study, we apply the self-similar symmetry (SSS) model, describing the hierarchical structure of the universe based on the Dirac large numbers hypothesis, to Einstein's cosmological term. We introduce a new similarity dimension, DB, in the SSS model. Using the DB SSS model, the cosmological constant Λ is simply expressed as a function of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature. The result shows that both the gravitational constant G and Λ are coupled with the CMB temperature, which simplifies the solution of Einstein's field equations for the variable Λ-G model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0388.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: cosmic microwave background; cosmic infrared background; cosmic background detector; Planck Surveyor; Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey
Online: 26 October 2021 (13:53:29 CEST)
In this research, the other reasonable explanations for the cosmic microwave background radiation is revealed. Due to the microwave resolution, it very roughly shows the image of galaxies in the universe. Moreover, the intensity measurement on each pixel of the image is the sum of the incident microwaves from different directions, so the microwave image cannot represent the microwave sources clearly far away from the Earth. Hence, we propose a simulation after removing several strongest microwave sources, the remaining microwave radiation sources can establish a very uniform intensity distribution over a range of several ten light years. On the other hand, Sloan Digital Sky Survey reveals 200 million galaxies in the universe and, in fact, only to eliminate the contributions of all galaxies from the microwave image is impossible. The way to further obtain the fine-scale structure by only removing the few strongest microwave sources as the foreground effect will keep the other contributions from all the rest galaxies and stars. Therefore, the Cosmic Microwave Background cannot be uniquely explained the radiation which was left after the initial formation of the universe. Moreover, it is the mainly residual radiation from the un-calculated galaxies and inaccurate estimation of the microwave source strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0120.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: IMERG; Stage IV; Infrared; Passive microwave; Snow; Ice; Precipitation; GPM; Wet-bulb temperature; AMSR-2
Online: 3 June 2021 (14:59:21 CEST)
Various products of the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and passive mi-crowave (PMW) sensors are assessed with respect to near-surface wet-bulb temperature (Tw), precipitation intensity, and surface type (i.e., with and without snow and ice on the surface) over the CONUS and using Stage-IV product as reference precipitation. IMERG products include precipitation estimates from infrared (IR), combined PMW, and their combination. PMW products generally have higher skills than IR over snow- and ice-free surfaces. Over snow- and ice-covered surfaces (1) PMW products (except AMSR-2) show a higher correlation coefficient than IR, (2) IR and PMW precipitation products tend to overestimate precipitation, but at colder temperatures (e.g., Tw<-10oC) PMW products tend to underestimate and IR product continues to show large overestimations, and (3) PMW sensors show higher overall skill in detecting precipitation oc-currence, but not necessarily at very cold Tw. The results suggest that the current approach of IMERG (i.e., replacing PMW with IR precipitation estimates over snow- and ice-surfaces) may need to be revised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1080.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: UV-C cathodoluminescence; X-ray excited luminescence; LaPO4; Pr3+; hydrothermal conditions; microwave heating; colloidal solution; ultramicroscopy
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:14:38 CET)
A hydrothermal technique with microwave heating (200 °C, 2 hours, 2 magnetrons, 2.45 GHz) was modified to obtain UV-C luminescent LaPO4: Pr3+ colloidal nanorods for the potential use in X-ray cancer theranostics. For further possible biofunctionalization, a compound of tartaric acid formed under basic conditions was used as a coating and stabilizing agent to provide colloidal properties to the surface of nanoparticles in basic to neutral aqueous media, which was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. In addition, the colloidal properties and clustering processes of synthesized LaPO4:Pr3+ nanorods in aqueous solutions with different pH values were studied in real time using a highly sensitive laser ultramicroscope operating according to the “light-sheet” scheme. A comparative analysis of the transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and high-energy spectroscopy showed the different effects of synthesis parameters on the morphological, crystalline and luminescent properties of the obtained nanorods. Through optimization of the synthesis parameters, stable aqueous solutions of m-LaPO4:Pr3+ nanorods with sizes less than 30 nm and an intensity of UV-C luminescence equal to 5-10% of the unmodified nanofibers were obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0936.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: planar microwave sensor; humidity sensor; microstrip technology; detection of sweat; detection of urine leakage; enuresis; hyperhidrosis
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:20:36 CEST)
A planar microwave sensor devoted to the detection of humidity in underwear and clothes in general is proposed. The ultimate goal of the sensor is to detect the presence of liquids in fabrics, of interest to aid patients that suffer from certain pathologies, such as hyperhidrosis and enuresis. The main target in the design of the sensor, considering the envisaged application, is simplicity. Thus, the sensor operates at a single frequency, and the working principle is the variation in the mag-nitude of the transmission coefficient of a matched line loaded with an open-ended quar-ter-wavelength sensing stub resonator. The stub, which must be in contact with the so-called fabric under test (FUT), generates a notch in the transmission coefficient with a resonance frequency that depends on the humidity level of the fabric. By designing the stub with a moderately high quality factor, the variation in the resonance frequency causes a significant change in the magnitude level at the operating frequency, the resonance frequency when the sensing stub is loaded with the dry fabric, and the presence of liquid can be detected by means of an amplitude detector. A prototype device is proposed and experimentally validated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0540.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: food processing; packaging; UHT; high-pressure; pulsed-electric fields; pasteurization; microwave; consumer research; farm-to-fork
Online: 22 June 2021 (12:06:04 CEST)
Given the increasing public interest in how ingredients are processed and the growing demand for organic food products, it is critical to understand consumers’ expectations about the process-related quality of organic products. In the minds of consumers, organic food is a concept related to either natural or less processed food, which leads them to prefer products obtained with careful processes. The main objective of this paper is to propose a working definition of "careful processing" for organic products and test its consistency while being used in scoring different processing methods by consumers. Results show that the proposed definition allows to consistently rate alternative processing methods. Consumers tend to score novel processing methods such as pulsed electric fields and microwave as less careful, supporting the idea that organic consumers want the least man-made interference with their food products. Results show that a simple but effective definition of careful processing may help consumers to distinguish further organic food products from conventional ones, no matter which communication scheme is used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0707.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Grape processing waste; Polyphenols; Green extraction; Microwave-hydrodiffusion and gravity, Enocyanin; Resveratrol; Flavonoids; Anthocyanins; Wine pomace
Online: 29 March 2021 (16:06:18 CEST)
The extraction of grape processing waste (wine pomace) via microwave-hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) from three different cultivars grown in Sicily (Syrah, Perricone and Nero d’Avola) rapidly affords aqueous extracts highly concentrated in valued biophenols including flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The method does not employ organic solvent, acid or base and does not require grinding or freeze drying of the wine pomace nor separation of the grape skins from seeds and stem. All the extracts have a pronounced stability as shown by their red-violet color fully retained after storage for more than a year (15 months) in freezer under air. Concentrations of phenolics up to 2000 ppm were detected in the aged extracts of Sicily’s local cultivar Perricone, which also has the highest content of flavonoids. These findings provide a simple and economically viable extraction route to biophenol-rich red extracts that can be used as food colorants as well as to formulate nutraceutical, cosmetic and personal care products starting from an agricultural by-product available in >10 million tonne yearly amount.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: microwave photonic sensor system; numerical simulation; addressed fiber Bragg structures; load sensing bearings; vehicle dynamics control
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:11:45 CEST)
The work presents an approach to instrument the load sensing bearings for automotive applications for estimation of the loads acting on the wheels. The system comprises fiber-optic sensors based on addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) with two symmetrical phase shifts. A mathematical model for load-deformation relation is presented, and the AFBS interrogation principle is described. The simulation includes (i) modeling of vehicle dynamics in a split-mu braking test, during which the longitudinal wheel loads are obtained, (ii) the subsequent estimation of bearing outer ring deformation using a beam model with simply supported boundary conditions, (iii) the conversion of strain into central wavelength shift of AFBS, and (iv) modeling of the beating signal at the photodetector. The simulation results show that the estimation error of the longitudinal wheel force from the strain data acquired from a single measurement point was 5.44% with root-mean-square error of 113.64 N. A prototype load sensing bearing was instrumented with a single AFBS sensor and mounted in a front right wheel hub of an experimental vehicle. The experimental setup demonstrated comparable results with the simulation during the braking test. The proposed system with load-sensing bearings is aimed at estimation of the loads acting on the wheels, which serve as input parameters for active safety systems, such as automatic braking, adaptive cruise control, or fully automated driving, in order to enhance their effectiveness and safety of the vehicle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0290.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbial antioxidants; bioactive compounds; microwave extract; aspergillus flavus; rice, antioxidant compounds; free radical; phenolic compounds; temperatures
Online: 26 September 2019 (03:39:00 CEST)
The current study aims to study the optimal fermentation conditions for producing microbial bioactive compounds. The microwave parameters consist on 2450 MHz, and 500-watt for 20, 30, and 40 seconds. The solubility of solvents was tested for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from fermented rice (Koji) by A. flavus, Ethyl acetate was the best solvent used for extraction purposes. Antioxidant properties were differentiated by blocking the oxidation of the linoleic acid with an inhibition rate of 73.13% at a concentration of 200 mg/mL, in addition to increasing its effectiveness for free radical extraction and reduction strength by increasing concentrations gradually. The bond ability to irons was lower compared to the EDTA-2Na, in addition to the obtained total content corresponding to phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate extract of fermented rice (Koji) by A. flavus was 232.11 mg, on the basis of galic acid/mg. The stability of the antioxidant compounds of the ethyl acetate extract of fermented rice (Koji) by A. flavus was also studied; showing stability under neutral conditions, as well as at high temperatures (185 °C during two hours). However, no stability was obtained under acidic and alkaline conditions.