ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; multi-microgrid; measured admittance; protection scheme
Online: 16 February 2017 (09:17:26 CET)
Multi-microgrid has many new characteristics, such as bi-directional power flows, flexible operation modes and variable fault currents with different control strategy of inverter interfaced distributed generations (IIDGs). All these featuring aspects pose challenges to multi-microgrid protection. In this paper, current and voltage characteristics of different feeders are analyzed when fault occurs in different positions of multi-microgrid. Based on the voltage and current distribution characteristics of the line parameters, a new protection scheme for the internal fault of multi-microgrid is proposed, which takes the change of phase difference and amplitude of measured bus admittance as the criterion. This scheme with high sensitivity and reliability, has a simple principle and is easy to be adjusted. PSCAD/EMTDC is used in simulation analysis, and simulation results have verified the correctness and effectiveness of the protection scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0068.v2
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:27:37 CEST)
The effective Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system can improve the reliability, safety and economic benefits of microgrid operation. In this research, the lower central controller and upper WEB monitoring system are connected by the SCADA system which is as the hub of microgrid intelligent monitoring platform. This system contains a set of specific functions programmed by Java as a middleware which can provide control and communication between the central controller and the upper monitoring system. The system realizes the real-time data acquisition and storage, the control instructions parsing and transmitting, the microgrid security and stability, the load balancing and resource recovery of the microgrid. All that functions have been tested and verified in the actual operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0265.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Microgrid; Distribution System; Generation Transfer; Reliability
Online: 12 September 2020 (07:38:16 CEST)
When a microgrid is grid-tied to a distribution system, it can provide surplus power generation to the distribution system, if any abnormality or interruption occurs in the distribution system, the microgrid can operate in standalone mode to isolate the impact of the abnormality or interruption. However, if the microgrid can not collect enough information from the distribution system, it may cause the failure of generation transferring of distribution feeders, or even further influence the stability of the distribution system. In this paper, a strategy for the resilient control of a microgrid is proposed. It can solve the above-mentioned problem, reduce the duration of the outage of loads. This strategy is experimented in the microgrid in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), the reliability is also analyzed to evaluate the unavailability of the microgrid in INER, and it is verified that the proposed strategy can reduce the duration of the outage of loads, and hence the reliability of a microgrid can be upgraded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Microgrid; Protection; bagged decision tree; Wavelet; FFT
Online: 30 March 2018 (13:57:00 CEST)
Microgrids of varying size and applications are regarded as a key feature of modernizing the power system. The protection of those systems, however, has become a major challenge and a popular research topic for the reason that it involves greater complexity than traditional distribution systems. This paper addresses the issue through a novel approach which utilizes detailed analysis of current and voltage waveforms through windowed fast Fourier and wavelet transforms. The fault detection scheme involves bagged decision trees which use input features extracted from the signal processing stage and selected by correlation analysis. The technique was tested on a microgrid model developed using PSCAD/EMTDS, which is inspired from an operational microgrid in Goldwind Sc. Tech. Co. Ltd, in Beijing, China. The results showed great level of effectiveness to accurately identify faults from other non-fault disturbances, precisely locate the fault and trigger opening of the right circuit breaker/s under different operation modes, fault resistances and other system disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1125.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: IoT, energy monitoring, energy management, ThingSpeak, photovoltaic, microgrid.
Online: 17 November 2023 (05:23:56 CET)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is experiencing exponential growth, revolutionizing various industries with its ability to connect devices and enable advanced applications. In the realm of energy production, IoT offers significant potential for optimizing processes and improving efficiency. This study presents a comprehensive monitoring and energy management strategy for the University of Cuenca's microgrid photovoltaic (PV) system, utilizing IoT and ThingSpeak as key technologies. The proposed strategy leverages intelligent environments and utilizes ThingSpeak as a robust platform for data presentation and analysis. By integrating IoT devices and sensors, real-time monitoring of PV system parameters such as solar radiation and temperature is achieved. The collected data is then analyzed using advanced algorithms and visualized through ThingSpeak, enabling effective energy management and decision-making. The developed monitoring system was rigorously tested in a laboratory microgrid setting, where the PV system is interconnected with other generation and storage systems, as well as the electrical grid. Through the seamless integration of these components, the monitoring system provides enhanced visibility and control over the microgrid's energy production. The results demonstrate the successful implementation of the monitoring system, showcasing its ability to improve the supervision, automation, and analysis of daily energy production. By leveraging IoT technologies and ThingSpeak, stakeholders can access real-time data, analyze performance trends, and optimize energy resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1716.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric vehicle; microgrid; renewable generator; V2G; management strategy
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:03:53 CEST)
The energy stored in an electric vehicle's battery would be drawn and distributed to the electrical grid to better drive energy consumption within a microgrid that includes a renewable generator(s) managed by a specific energy management strategy. This concept, known as vehicle-to-grid technology: V2G, makes the energy stored in the electric vehicle's battery more beneficial by discharging it to the public grid during periods of high demand. In this study, we will consider a vehicle system connected to a microgrid, which includes a photovoltaic generator reported from the <<PROPRE.MA>> project in the city of Tangier. We will elaborate the study of a strategy of the car connected to this V2G network. This allows electricity to be stored when rates are low (off-peak hours) and then used when prices rise (peak hours). Otherwise, the solar energy will cover the owner's needs, and the surplus will be injected into the distribution network. This strategy will manage the solar power, the load power, the state of charge of the EV battery, the time of day and the driving scenario. Using two driving profiles, we will show the performance of the proposed energy management strategy and the percentage contribution of the photovoltaic array of the <<PROPRE.MA>> project in the city of Tangier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; DNN; parallel inverters; island mode; power quality
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:13:15 CEST)
The microgrid is a small-scale, autonomous decentralized power plant with its own distributed generation, storage capacity and multiple loads, with the capacity to function in grid interconnected and an island mode. The decentralized control of microgrids with parallel operated voltage source converters (VSCs) is proposed in this paper to improve power quality using a machine learning approach. The DNN based MPPT controller is proposed and its best performance is presented. The SRF-PLL is utilized for AC side synchronization in VSC control. The proposed microgrid involves two PV arrays fed to two voltage source converters along with their independent controls, connected in parallel through LC filters and line coupling transformers and serves the loads at PCC. The proposed model is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. The dq-framed inner loop control is employed to individually regulate the real and reactive power at the point of common coupling. Furthermore, the proposed model is analyzed and compared by employing a mathematical model of AC system dynamics, inner loop control, output voltage quality, AC harmonic spectrum analysis, and total harmonic distortion (THD) in both grid interconnected and island mode. In island mode, AC harmonic spectrum and THD are accomplished within the permissible range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0461.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: microgrid; energy-management-system; quantile-forecasts; smart-building
Online: 20 September 2020 (13:58:10 CEST)
The research work hereby presented, emerges from the urge to answer the well-known question of how the uncertainty of intermittent renewable sources affects the performance of a microgrid and how could we deal with it. More specifically, we want to evaluate what could be the impact in performance of a microgrid intended to serve a smart-building (powered by photovoltaic panels and with battery energy storage), when the uncertainty of the photovoltaic-production forecasts is considered in the energy management process. For this, several objectives (or services) are targeted based in a two-step (double-objective) energy management framework, that combines optimization-based and rule-based algorithms. The performance is evaluated based on some particular services proposed as performance indicators. Simulations are performed using data of a study-case microgrid (Drahi-Xnovation center, Ecole Polytechnique, France). The use of quantile forecasts (obtained with an analog-ensemble method) is tested as a mean to deal with (i.e. decrease) the uncertainty of the solar PV production. The proposed energy management framework is compared with basic reference strategies and the results show the superior performance of the former in almost all the services and forecasting scenarios proposed. The contrasting nature among some of the target services is one of the main conclusions of this work, as well as the different requirements in terms of forecasts when optimizing for different services and seasons of the year. This fact highlights the usefulness of the quantile forecasting approach, as a tool to deal with the intrinsic uncertainty of PV power production
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC microgrid; electric vehicles; optimal sizing; station commitment
Online: 22 March 2019 (10:23:14 CET)
The diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs) can be sustained by the presence of integrated solutions offering parking and clean power supply. The recourse to DC systems allows to better integrate EV bidirectional energy exchange, photovoltaic panels and energy storage. In this paper, a methodology for optimal techno-economic sizing of a DC-microgrid for covering EV mobility needs is carried out. It is based on the definition of different scenarios of operation, according to typical EV usage outlooks and environmental conditions. In each scenario, optimal operation is carried out by means of a specific approach for EV commitment on different stations. The sizing procedure is able to handle the modular structure of microgrid devices. The proposed approach is applied to a case study of envisaged EV service fleet for Bari port authority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Optimization; Smart Metering; IoT; Microgrid; Heuristic; Sensor Networks
Online: 4 July 2018 (15:49:59 CEST)
The unpredictable increase in electrical demand affects the quality of theenergy throughout the network. A solution to the problem is the increase of distributedgeneration units which burn fossil fuels.While this is an immediate solution to theproblem the ecosystem gets affected by the emission of CO2.A promising solutionis the integration of Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) to the conventionalelectrical system, thus, introducing the concept of smart microgrids (SMG) that requirea safe, reliable and technically planned two-way communication system. This documentpresents a heuristic based on planning capable of providing a bidirectional communicationnear optimal route map, following the structure of an hybrid Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) with thepurpose of obtaining information of electrical parameters that help us to manage the useof energy by integrating conventional electrical system to SMG. A FiWi network is basedon the integration of wireless access and optical networks. This integration increases thecoverage and reliability at a lower cost. The optimization model is based on clusteringtechniques, through the construction of balanced conglomerates. The method is used forthe development of the clusters along with the Nearest-Neighbor Spanning Tree Algorithm(N-NST). Additionally, Optimal Delay Balancing (ODB) model will be used to minimizethe end to end delay of each grouping. In addition, the heuristic observes real designparameters such as: capacity and coverage. Using the Dijkstra algorithm, the routes arebuilt following the minimum shorter path. Therefore, this paper presents a heuristic able to plan the deployment of smart meters (SMs) through a tree-like hierarchical topology for theintegration of SMG at the lowest cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; real-time simulation; multiagent system; energy management system
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:53:44 CET)
This paper deals with the problem of real-time management of Smart Grids. For this sake, the energy management is integrated with the power system through a telecommunication system. The use of Multiagent Systems leads the proposed algorithm to find the best-integrated solution, taking into consideration the operating scenario and the system characteristics. The proposed technique is tested with the help of an academic microgrid, so the results may be replicated.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0431.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Formal Specification; Microgrid; Battery Energy Storage Systems; Software Engineering; Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle; Modeling; Renewable Energy; Safety-Critical systems; Microgrid Community
Online: 30 June 2022 (15:55:17 CEST)
Electrical microgrids are deemed to be the future of modern power systems. Microgrids are sophisticated, decentralized, and self-sufficient small-scale power systems consisting of various resources ranging from wind turbines, solar photovoltaics, electric vehicles, smart energy storage, and complex communication infrastructure. However, renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics and wind-based generators are highly intermittent, and if not appropriately planned, they can compromise the stability of the grid. Formal methods can define and analyze the functionality and behavior of any system and show if the system design is correct before the actual system is implemented. Although formal methods have been around for many years, it is surprising that little to none are utilized in the design of safety-critical electrical power systems. Currently, in modeling microgrids, few to no attempts of formalization are being used to improve the design reliability and reduce system operating costs and time. This work demonstrates how complex systems such as microgrids can be modeled elegantly using a formal specification method. In this work, the Z state-based formal specification language (Z-Method) is used to model and verify microgrid designs. In this work, 3-interconnected microgrid systems with a high penetration level of solar and wind-based renewable energy sources with plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) as battery energy storage systems (BESS) are modeled using the Z-method. To the best of authors, the knowledge presented formal method is one of the first reported attempts in modeling microgrid communities using Software Engineering formalism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC Microgrid; DC-DC converter; stability analysis; stability boundary; CPL
Online: 9 December 2022 (07:19:54 CET)
In this paper, the authors consider the influence of the type of power supply and the internal parameters of the DC-DC converter on the stability of the system at constant power load. The stability of the system under consideration is important in the design and development of the power supply system for an autonomous consumer. Such a typical system can be a DC microgrid. In the work, when analyzing the stability of the system, the power source is not considered an ideal voltage source, but the active-inductive nature of the voltage source is taken into account, which is equivalent to using a synchronous machine with permanent magnets. The Rauss-Hurwitz algebraic criterion was used as a criterion for analyzing the stability of the system. This will make it possible to build and analyze the areas and boundaries of the system's stability. As a result, the areas and boundaries of the stability of the system were presented. The general trend towards the behavior of the zone of instability of the system was given. At the same time, dependences describing the boundaries of instability are presented, which are combinations of parameters of the DC-DC converter, beyond which the system becomes unstable. The presented definitions of the instability limits can be used as a corrective device of the control system to ensure the stability of the system in the upper limits of the power consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0382.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: IP traceback; smart mesh Microgrid; NS-3; real secure testbed
Online: 22 August 2022 (11:16:04 CEST)
Today's major challenge for smart Microgrids is to ensure the security of communications in a large number of changing data sets that are vulnerable to attacks by denial of services in constant evolution. The Internet Protocol Traceback defines a set of methods that help identify the source of an attack with minimal requirements for memory and processing. However, the concept of Traceback is not yet being used in smart Microgrids. As a result, the main challenge of this article is to incorporate a new Traceback approach into the cybernetic system of a smart mesh Microgrid, which can be tested using a network simulator (NS-3) based on delay, debit, and packet loss rate parameters. In fact, the simulation results show the efficacy of this approach compared to others existing in the literature. Furthermore, using the proposed Traceback technique and the mesh nodes, we were able to create a smart meshed Microgrid. Moreover, using the Traceback approach given for merging Intel Galileo Gen.1 nodes with the Compex WLE200NX.11a/b/g/n to establish a secure test bench, which is deployed as a prototype at the Sfax Digital Research Center in Tunisia, we were able to create an intelligent Microgrid. In fact, by identifying all attack vectors and revealing their origins, we could boost the efficiency of our operation by 100%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0030.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; classification; simulation; optimization; renewable energy sources; storage; electric vehicles
Online: 6 December 2016 (07:52:50 CET)
The expansion of renewable energies is progressing strongly. The influence on the power supply networks by the volatility of the infeed must be met with new concepts. In this paper we investigate the possibilities of integrating microgrids as a cooperating unit in the power supply network to support further expansion of RES power plants. In this paper a differentiation of microgrids from similar network structures is established, a classification of proposed groups is made. Then, after the description of simulation of components in a microgrid, with practical advice, an example model is shown, which aids the dimensioning of the components within a microgrid to achieve a specified goal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Collaborative planning; electric vehicles; grid-connected PV-storage microgrid; HOMER simulation; multiple scenarios
Online: 30 June 2023 (08:50:37 CEST)
Microgrid is one of the important ways to accommodate distributed PV generation. However, the optimal planning scheme of microgrids is closely related to solar resources, load characteristics, and the key components of microgrid systems. This paper uses HOMER software to conduct collaborative planning for grid-connected PV-storage microgrids with electric vehicles in multiple scenarios. Specifically, we construct a multi-scenario capacity optimization model for PV generation, energy storage, and converters, considering both the cleanliness and economic performance of microgrids. The performance is quantified using indices such as net present cost, levelized cost of electricity, and carbon dioxide emission under multiple scenarios. Finally, we conduct extensive case studies on a business park in Wuhan, China, to compare and discuss the planning performance under multiple scenarios, as well as sensitivity analysis with specific cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1774.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: power smoothing; photovoltaic generation system; low pass filter; moving average; monitoring control; microgrid
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:45:45 CEST)
Nowadays, energy decarbonization due to the integration of renewable energy sources presents important challenges to overcome. The intermittent nature of photovoltaic systems reduces power quality by producing voltage variations and frequency deviations in electrical systems networks, especially, in weak and isolated distribution systems in developing countries. This paper presents a power smoothing method improving the low pass filter and moving average for grid-connected photovoltaic system, the novel method includes state-of-charge monitoring control of the supercapacitors energy storage system to reduce the fluctuations of photovoltaic power at the point of common coupling. A case study for a microgrid in a high-altitude city in Ecuador is presented with exhaustive laboratory tests using real data. The ultimate goal of this research is to improve energy power quality in electrical distribution systems to cope with the growth of renewable penetration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0527.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Microgrid; DC/DC converter; Lithium-ion battery; PV array; solar cell; MPPT controller.
Online: 28 December 2022 (03:38:34 CET)
Microgrids offer flexibility in power generation in a way of using multiple renewable energy sources. In the past few years, microgrids become a very active research area in terms of design and control strategies. Most of the microgrids use DC/DC converters to connect renewable energy sources to the load. In this paper, the simulation model of a DC microgrid with three different energy sources (Lithium-ion battery (LIB), photovoltaic (PV) array, and fuel cell) and external variant power load is built with MATLAB/Simulink and the simulative results show that the stability of DC microgrid can be guaranteed by the proposed maximum power point controller MPPT. The three energy sources are connected to the load through DC/DC converters, one for each. This type of topology ensures protection for each energy source as well as optimum stability at the load.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0300.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: cold ironing; electrification; operation management; renewable energy source; seaport microgrids; shipboard microgrid; maritime
Online: 21 October 2021 (07:34:49 CEST)
Seaports are well known as the medium that has evolved into the central link between sea and land for complex marine activities. The growth in maritime logistics especially necessitates a large volume of energy supply to maintain the operation of sea trade, resulting in an imbalance between the generation and demand sides. Future projections for three major concerns show an increase in load demand, cost of operation, and environmental issues. In order to overcome these problems, integrating microgrids as an innovative technology in the seaport power system appears to be a vital strategy. It is believed that microgrids enhance the seaport operation by providing sustainable, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective energy. Despite the fact that microgrids are well established and widely used in a variety of operations on land, their incorporation into the seaport is still limited. The involvement of a variety of heavy loads such as all-electric ships, cranes, cold ironing, and buildings infrastructure makes it a complicated arrangement task in several aspects, which necessitate further research and leave space for improvement. In this paper, an overview of the seaport microgrids in terms of their concepts, requirements, and operation management is presented. It provides the perspectives of integrating the microgrid concept into a seaport from both shore side and seaside as a smart initiative for the green ports vision. Future research directions are discussed towards the development of more efficient marine power system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: fault location; service restoration; particle swam optimization; microgrid; power flow; short-circuit fault
Online: 12 September 2019 (03:59:27 CEST)
This work aims to develop an integrated fault location and restoration approach for microgrids (MGs). This work contains two parts. Part I presents the fault location algorithm, and Part II shows the restoration algorithm. The proposed algorithms are implemented by particle swarm optimization (PSO). The fault location algorithm is based on network connection matrices, which are the modifications of bus-injection to branch-current and branch-current to bus-voltage (BCBV) matrices, to form the new system topology. The backward/forward sweep approach is used for the prefault power flow analysis. After the occurrence of fault, the voltage variation at each bus is calculated by using the Zbus modification algorithm to modify Zbus. Subsequently, the voltage error matrix is computed to search for the fault section by using PSO. After the allocation of the fault section, the multi-objective function is implemented by PSO for optimal restoration with its constraints. Finally, the IEEE 37-bus test system connected to distributed generations is utilized as the sample system for a series simulation and analysis. The outcomes demonstrated that the proposed optimal algorithm can effectively solve the fault location and restoration problem in MGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0374.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: hybrid microgrid system; renewable energy sources; energy storage; levelised cost of energy; rural electrification
Online: 4 August 2023 (10:54:12 CEST)
Energy poverty is a severe electrification challenge in Nigeria that has affected the country's economic development. The gap between electricity demand and supply continues to increase, and a large percentage of the populace affected are rural dwellers. With the prevailing electricity inaccessibility in rural, renewable energy sources (RES) present viable option for addressing rural electrification challenge. However, RES like solar have intermittency challenges since they are weather dependent. Thus, a hybrid microgrid system (HMS) comprising solar, hydropower and battery storage was sized as a feasible solution for electrifying rural areas in Nigeria. For the HMS sizing, a site was selected, whose residential load demand was estimated. The renewable energy generation potential for the selected resources at the site as well as grid reliability were assessed. Hybrid Optimisation Model for Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) was used to size the HMS. An economic analysis was performed to determine the levelised cost of energy (LCOE) and net present cost (NPC). For the sized HMS, two scenarios were considered: off-grid and grid-connected HMS configurations. The results showed that the LCOE of the off-grid and grid-connected configurations are $0.101/kWh and $0.046/kWh, respectively. The NPC of the off-grid and grid-connected configurations are $227,307 and $145,282, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1929.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: onboard microgrid; intelligent transportation; energy management; artificial intelligence; digital twin; machine learning; reinforcement learning
Online: 28 July 2023 (07:35:21 CEST)
In the past decades, the world is actively working towards the global goal of net-zero emission. To decrease emissions, there is a notable trend of electrification in transportation, which is a transition from traditional fuel-based systems to electrical power systems onboard different transportation platforms. For this transition, it is important to study the electrical structure, specifically the onboard microgrid, powered by various energy sources. In this paper, traditional energy management strategies for onboard microgrid systems are discussed, which usually require complicated optimization algorithms and high computation capabilities. Driven by the recent advancements in information technologies, artificial intelligence and digital twin have gained much interest within the transportation sector. These technologies can effectively utilize data to achieve intelligent decision-making, optimize resource utilization, and save energy consumption. This paper presents an overview of the usage of these emerging information technologies in energy management strategies, providing an overall summary and classification of the practical applications. In addition, after examining the potential challenges associated with artificial intelligence and digital twin, this paper also discusses future trends in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: microgrid; combined heat and power; hybrid renewable energy; solar PV; Wind energy; energy storage
Online: 17 July 2023 (11:31:52 CEST)
This research paper presents a comprehensive study on the optimal planning and design of hybrid renewable energy systems for microgrid (MG) applications at Oakland University. The HOMER Pro platform analyzes the technical economic and environmental aspects of integrating renewable energy technologies. The research also focuses on the importance of addressing unmet load in the MG system design to ensure the university's electricity demand is always met. By optimizing the integration of various renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaic (PV), energy storage system (ESS), combined heat and power (CHP), and wind turbine energy (WT), the study aims to fulfill the energy requirements while reducing reliance on traditional grid sources and achieving significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The proposed MG configurations are designed to be scalable and flexible, accommodating future expansions, load demands changes, and technological advancements without costly modifications or disruptions. By conducting a comprehensive analysis of technical, economic, environmental factors, and addressing unmet load, this research contributes to the advancement of renewable energy integration within MG systems. It offers a complete guide for Oakland University and other institutions to effectively plan, design and implement hybrid renewable energy solutions, fostering a greener and more resilient campus environment. The findings demonstrate the potential for cost-effective and sustainable energy solutions, providing valuable guidance for Oakland University in its search of energy resilience and environmental surveillance which has a total peak load of 9.958MW. The HOMER simulation results indicate that utilizing all renewable resources, the estimated net present cost (NPC) is a minimum of 30M$, with a levelized energy cost (LCOE) of 0.00274$/kWh. In addition, the minimum desired load will be unmeted on some days of September.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; re-synchronization; voltage stability; electric vehicles; electric vehicles chargers; virtual impedance; particle swarm optimization.
Online: 1 December 2023 (13:30:17 CET)
In this research, the concept of the instability of tension in Microgrid still becomes the focus of study and purpose. Scrutinously, First-Swing Instability occurs in the system in noted changes with properties of making the system unstable or restore to a state of stability. The latter calls itself as a phenomenon of re-synchronization. Allied to aspects of system instability, it is evident that by connecting fast electric chargers for battery-electric vehicles to the distribution system from microgrids, they increase the necessary basic electrical charges and reduce the stability of the electrical energy system. Transient electrical currents have the characteristic of severely impacting microgrids not prepared in connected states or island of the main system. The occurrences of the electromagnetic incompatibility of the inrush current, due to their unpredictability and intermittent characteristic, have complex identification studies. With the elevation of electricity demand by battery-electric vehicle chargers, concerns about the effects of the integration of the electricity grid increase proportionally. The research described in this article emphasizes the influence of fast chargers’ initialization on the power variation related to the re-synchronization phenomenon and its mitigation of the stability of electricity microgrid. An optimization algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) implements the development of virtual impedances. The PSO optimization algorithm analyzes all possible operating points and aims to maximize the stability index of microgrid, maintaining reactive energy incompatibilities at the minimum level supported. The fractional objective function facilitates the service to these goals simultaneously. The optimization algorithm is implemented in a case study and the corresponding virtual impedance is incorporated into the microgrid. Voltage levels are verified as a condition in the optimization process, comparing system effectiveness.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC grid; Distortion; Electromagnetic compatibility; Inrush; Microgrid; Power Quality; Pulsed power loads; Resonance; Ripple; supraharmonics; Transients
Online: 2 August 2021 (16:11:02 CEST)
The work addresses the problem of Power Quality (PQ) metrics (or indexes) suitable for DC grids, encompassing Low and Medium Voltage applications, including electric transports, all-electric ships and aircrafts, electric vehicles, distributed generation and microgrids, modern data centers, etc. The two main pillars on which such PQ indexes are discussed and built are: i) the physical justification, so the electric phenomena affecting DC grids and components (PV panels, fuel cells, capacitors, batteries, etc.), causing e.g. stress of materials, ageing, distortion, grid instability; ii) the existing standardization framework, pointing out desirable coverage and extension, similarity with AC grids standards, but also inconsistencies. The first point is made more clear and usable by a graphical overview of the discussed phenomena. On this basis PQ is interpreted beyond the usual low-frequency range, including thus supraharmonics and common-mode disturbance, and filling the gap with the Electromagnetic Compatibility domain. However, phenomena typical of EMC and electrical safety (such as various types of overvoltages and fast transients) are excluded. Suitable PQ indexes are then reviewed, suggesting integrations and modifications, to cover the relevant phenomena and technological progress, and to better follow the normative exigencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0051.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generation; LV microgrid; negative-sequence current; zero-sequence current; power sharing; unbalance load; voltage control
Online: 5 September 2018 (05:55:55 CEST)
This paper reports a new control strategy to improve sharing of unbalanced currents in islanded LV microgrids. This technique provides fast and effective sharing of positive-, negative- and zero-sequence currents, and is the first example of zero-sequence current sharing in the literature. The controllers are designed in the stationary frame. The control structure consists of four loops; 1)~the current controller; 2)~the voltage controller; 3)~the droop controller and the 4)~negative and zero sequence current controllers. The output current is considered unknown for the controller and is added to the control system as a disturbance. The proposed controller features a high gain in fundamental and harmonic frequencies, hence a good voltage quality is obtained in the presence of unbalanced and nonlinear loads. To this aim, a proportional-resonant (PR) controller is adopted as the current controller. By using a multi-resonant controller as current controller, a unified control structure is obtained which is suitable for both grid-connected and islanded modes. The voltage controller is designed using a resonant controller so that the voltage can have low VUF and THD in the presence of unbalanced and nonlinear loads. Furthermore, in this paper droop method is applied to the control structure to share real and reactive powers. Simulation studies show that the conventional droop method cannot share the oscillatory part of the output power that is due to the presence of unbalanced loads in the microgrid. This paper relies on using zero and negative sequence virtual impedance controller to share the oscillatory part of output power. By using zero-sequence virtual impedance controller (ZSVIC) and negative-sequence virtual impedance controller (NSVIC), the zero and negative sequence currents in the microgrid are controlled and shared effectively. By compensating zero- and negative-sequence currents locally, the flow of these currents in the microgrid is minimized, and the overall power quality of the islanded LV microgrid is improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0150.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Internet of things; complex problem solving; Critical IoT systems; Microgrid; Nanogrid; Optimization; Scheduling; Task modeling; Task orchestration
Online: 10 February 2022 (11:00:39 CET)
The present era of the Internet of Things (IoT) having intelligent functionalities in solving problems pertaining to realtime mission-critical systems has brought an immense revolution in diverse fields including healthcare and navigation systems. However, to the best of our knowledge, the potential of IoT has not been fully exploited yet in the field of the energy sector. We argue that there is an immense need to shift the traditional mission-critical electric power system architecture to IoT-based fully orchestrated architecture in order to increase efficiency, as billions of investment is reserved for the energy sector globally. Since network orchestration deals with auomating the interaction between multiple components involved to execute a particular service, therefore, scheduling the relevant processes within strict deadlines becomes the core pillar of the architecture. The mission-critical systems with urgent task execution often suffer from issues of missing task deadlines. In this study, we present a novel IoT task orchestration architecture for efficient energy management of a nanogrid system that focuses on minimizing the use of nonrenewable energy resources and maximizing the use of renewable energy resources. Moreover, major components of IoT task orchestration such as task mapping and task scheduling are also enhanced using NLP and PSO optimization modules. The proposed task scheduling algorithm incorporates the optimized surplus time, and efficiently executes the energy management-related tasks contemplating to their types. The study utilizes sensors to obtain data from physical IoT devices, including photovoltaic (PV), Energy Storage System (ESS), and diesel generator (DG). The performance of the proposed model is evaluated using data set of nanogrid houses. The outcomes revealed that IoT-task orchestration has played a pivotal role in efficient energy management for nanogrid mission-critical system. Furthermore, the comparison with state-of-the-art scheduling algorithms showed that the task starvation rate is reduced to 16% and 12% when compared with RR and FEF algorithms, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: sliding mode control; constant power load; negative incremental impedance; robustness analysis; chattering reduction; microgrid stability; noise rejection
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:45:56 CEST)
To implement renewable energy resources, microgrid systems have been adopted and developed into the technology of choice to assure mass electrification in the next decade. Microgrid systems have a number of advantages over the conventional utility grid systems, however, it faces severe instability issues due to continually increasing constant power loads. To improve the stability of the entire system, load side compensation technique is chosen because of its robustness and cost effectiveness. In this particular occasion, a sliding mode controller is developed for microgrid system in the presence of CPL to assure certain control objective of keeping the output voltage constant at 480V. After that, the robustness analysis of the sliding mode controller against parametric uncertainties is presented. The sliding mode controller robustness against parametric uncertainties, frequency variations, and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are illustrated in this paper. Later, the performance of the PID and sliding Mode controller is compared in case of nonlinearity, parameter uncertainties, and noise rejection to justify the selection of Sliding Mode controller over PID controller. All the necessary calculations are reckoned mathematically and results are verified in the virtual platform such as MATLAB/Simulink with the appreciable outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Keywords: Microgrid; small hydropower plant; wind farm; battery energy storage systems; grid-connected; stand-alone mode; power quality
Online: 20 September 2023 (13:59:40 CEST)
Besides the increase in global energy demand, access to clean energy, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions caused by conventional power generation sources, energy security, and availability of electricity in remote villages in emerging nations are some of the factors that foster the use of renewable energy sources (RESs) in generating electricity. One of the aims of initiating microgrids (MGs) is to maximize the benefits of RES and alleviate the associated grid integration issues. Microgrids are made up of RES connected to electrical loads within clearly delineated electrical limits that operate as individual controllable units on the electrical network. It can operate in-dependently as well as in connection with the grid. The paper presents an overview of microgrids and investigates the system's performance when connected to and disconnected from the grid. Furthermore, in both modes of operation, the functioning and behavior of system components such as the bidirectional DC-DC converter and energy storage system (ESS) were evaluated. The architecture of the proposed microgrid consists of a small hydropower plant, a wind farm, and a battery energy storage system (BESS). The microgrid under investigation is modeled and simu-lated using MATLAB and Simulink.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solid-state DC circuit breaker; Coupled inductor; Pole-to-ground fault protection; LVDC(Low voltage DC) microgrid protection
Online: 5 July 2021 (07:58:00 CEST)
Ensuring a protection scheme in DC distribution is more difficult to achieve against pole-to-ground fault than in AC distribution system because of the absence of zero crossing points and low line impedance. To complement the major obstacle of limiting the fault current, several compositions have been proposed related to mechanical switching and solid-state switching. Among them, solid-state circuit breakers(SSCBs) are considered a possible solution to limit fast fault current. However, they may cause problems in circuit complexity, reliability and cost-related troubles due to the use of multiple power semiconductor devices and additional circuit configuration to commutate current. This paper proposes the SSCB with a coupled inductor(SSCB-CI) which has symmetrical configuration. The circuit is comprised of passive components like commutation capacitors, a CI and damping resistors. Thus, proposed SSCB-CI offers the advantages of simple circuit configuration and fewer utilized power semiconductor devices than another typical SSCBs in LVDC microgrid. For analysis, six operation states are described for the voltage across main switches and fault current. The effectiveness of the SSCB-CI against a short-circuit fault is proved via simulation and experimental results in a lab-scale prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0368.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: battery energy storage system (BESS); PV; micro CHP; microgrid; islanded operation; distribution network; network outage; reliability; underground cable
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:06:44 CEST)
Microgrids can be used for securing power supply during network outages. Underground cabling of distribution networks is another effective, but conventional and expensive alternative to enhance reliability of power supply. This paper presents firstly an analysis method for the determination of microgrid power supply adequacy during islanded operation, and secondly, a comparison method for overall cost calculation of microgrids vs. underground cabling. The microgrid power adequacy during a rather long network outage is required in order to indicate high level of reliability of supply. The overall cost calculations consider the economic benefits and costs incurred combined for both the distribution network company and the consumer. Whereas the microgrid setup determines the islanded operation power adequacy and thus the reliability of supply, the economic feasibility results from the normal operations and services. The methods are illustrated by two typical, and even critical, case studies in rural distribution networks: an electric-heated detached house and a dairy farm. These case studies show that even in case of a single consumer, a microgrid option could be more economical than network renovation by underground cabling of a branch in order to increase reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0940.v3
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: auto-regressive; control and optimization; energy management; recurrent neural network; long short-term memory; microgrid; switched model predictive control
Online: 9 October 2023 (09:41:16 CEST)
Switched model predictive control (S-MPC) and recurrent neural network with long short-term memory (RNN-LSTM) are powerful control methods that have been extensively studied for energy management in microgrids (MGs). These methods are complementary in terms of constraint satisfaction, computational demand, adaptability, and comprehensibility, but typically one method is chosen over the other. The S-MPC method selects optimal models and control strategies dynamically based on the system’s operating mode and performance objectives. On the other hand, integration of auto-regressive (AR) with these powerful control methods improves prediction accuracy and system conditions’ adaptability. This paper compares the two approaches to control and proposes a novel algorithm called Switched Auto-regressive Neural Control (S-ANC) that combines their respective strengths. Using a control formulation equivalent to S-MPC and the same controller model for learning, the results indicate that pure RNN-LSTM cannot provide constraint satisfaction. The novel S-ANC algorithm can satisfy constraints and deliver comparable performance to MPC while enabling continuous learning. Results indicate that S-MPC optimization increases power flows within the MG, resulting in efficient utilization of energy resources. By merging the AR and LSTM, the model’s computational time decreased by nearly 47.2%. Also, this study evaluated our predictive model’s accuracy: (i) R-squared error is 0.951, indicating strong predictive ability, and (ii) mean absolute error (MAE) and mean square error (MSE) values of 0.571 indicate accurate predictions with minimal deviations from actual values.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: microgrid; distribution network; distributed energy resources; automatic control system; protection system; information and communications technology infrastructure; power electronic converter
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:29:43 CEST)
The process of building microgrids on top of existing passive distribution networks warrants a multi-criteria analysis. Besides the calculation of investment outlays needed for the modernization of distribution networks, such an analysis covers an assessment of the technological and economic effects of building microgrids. The resulting effects depend on the topology and configuration of distribution networks, specific microgrid features, the choice of current type for the entire microgrid or its individual parts, the ways of connecting distributed energy resources (DER), the availability and condition of information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure, and other factors. Complete input data allow one to design an optimal microgrid configuration, but the main technological and economic effects are determined by the algorithms of operation and the parameters setting of the automatic control system (ACS) and the protection system. Known approaches to designing microgrids focus on addressing basic tasks while minimizing investment required for their implementation. The above is fully justified when constructing new microgrids, but building microgrids on top of existing distribution networks, given the uniqueness of their topology and configuration, does not allow the use of standardized solutions. The development of approaches to the design of microgrids under such constraints, with minimized investment for the modernization of existing distribution networks, is an urgent task. The use of different types of current for microgrid segments determines the choice of particular ACS and protection system, which depends on the availability of information and communications technology infrastructure. This article contributes a review of approaches to designing AC and AC-DC microgrids to maximize their technological and economic effects. We review techniques for analyzing existing distribution networks aimed at choosing the type of current for the entire microgrid or its individual parts, the optimal connection points of microgrids to distribution networks, the mix and capacity of DERs, with such choices informed by the condition of switching devices and information and communications technology infrastructure. The article presents the results of the analysis of approaches to choosing the optimal configuration of microgrids, microgrid ACS and protection system, with an evaluation of the technological and economic effects subject to minimization of investment for the modernization of existing distribution networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: cooling; heating and power (CCHP) microgrid; kernel learning machine (KELM); particle swarm optimization (PSO); shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA)
Online: 11 July 2020 (09:00:22 CEST)
An optimal scheduling strategy for cooling, heating and power (CCHP) joint-power-supply system is proposed to improve energy utilization and minimize costs in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model of CCHP system is established. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to optimize the regularization coefficient C and the kernel parameter λ which can affect the prediction accuracy of KELM(PSO-KELM). Then PV generation and load prediction model are established by PSO-KELM. In order to jump out of local optimal solution, Cauchy variation is introduced in SFLA local update, and adaptive mutation operation is carried out on SFLA individuals. The predictions of PV generation and load power by PSO-KELM are imported into the objective function, and the microgrid dispatching model is solved by the improved SFLA algorithm. Compared with the traditional GA-KELM and KELM, PSO-KELM has faster convergence and prediction accuracy. Compared with the power supply division, the operation cost of the power grid is reduced by the proposed optimization dispatching strategy of CCHP micro-grid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: adaptive protection; decentralized protection; microgrid protection; backup protection; instantaneous relays characteristic curve; instantaneous relays coordination; DG; GOOSE message; IEC 61850
Online: 23 July 2019 (07:50:46 CEST)
In this paper a protection scheme is provided to protect microgrid by considering the problems that are generated by addition of distributed generators to distribution networks and change these networks from passive to active. At first, changes in microgrid conditions that can affect short-circuit current is explained. Then Based on these changes, an algorithm is proposed to update relays settings. The algorithm can be used for both instantaneous and inverse time relays. In this protection scheme, central unit has no place and relays are responsible for monitoring microgrid and update their settings. In other words, this protection scheme is an adaptive and decentralized microgrid protection scheme. Instantaneous overcurrent relays are used in this paper. To avoid storing large amounts of setting data in relays memory, a method for calculating pickup current of instantaneous relay is provided. Since digital relays used, a new characteristic curve for instantaneous relay for better performance in the field of backup protection is defined. This new characteristic curve has two peakup currents: one of them for main protection and the other one for backup protection. Then coordination of instantaneous relay using the new characteristic curve is explained. At the end, this protection scheme is implemented on a microgrid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Deep reinforcement learning; Demand Response; Dynamic pricing; Energy management system; Microgrid; Neural networks; Price-responsive loads; Smart grid; Thermostatically controlled loads
Online: 7 October 2020 (11:21:03 CEST)
In this paper, we study the performance of various deep reinforcement learning algorithms to enhance the energy management system of a microgrid. We propose a novel microgrid model that consists of a wind turbine generator, an energy storage system, a set of thermostatically controlled loads, a set of price-responsive loads, and a connection to the main grid. The proposed energy management system is designed to coordinate among the different flexible sources by defining the priority resources, direct demand control signals, and electricity prices. Seven deep reinforcement learning algorithms were implemented and are empirically compared in this paper. The numerical results show that the deep reinforcement learning algorithms differ widely in their ability to converge to optimal policies. By adding an experience replay and a semi-deterministic training phase to the well-known asynchronous advantage actor-critic algorithm, we achieved the highest model performance as well as convergence to near-optimal policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Grid resilience; Power outage prediction; Monte Carlo simulation; LSTM forecasting; Hybrid LSTM-PSO model; Battery State of Charge; Microgrid integration; Techno-economic analysis; Renewable energy; Energy independence
Online: 31 August 2023 (04:18:56 CEST)
This article presents a comprehensive study on enhancing grid resilience through advanced forecasting and optimization techniques in the context of power outages. Power outages pose significant challenges to modern societies, affecting various sectors such as industries, households, and critical infrastructures. The research combines statistical analysis, machine learning algorithms, and optimization methods to address this issue to develop a holistic approach for predicting and mitigating power outage events. The proposed methodology involves the use of Monte Carlo simulations in MATLAB for future outage prediction, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks for forecasting solar irradiance and load profiles, and a hybrid LSTM-Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) model to improve accuracy. Furthermore, the role of Battery State of Charge (SoC) in enhancing system resilience is explored. The study also assesses the techno-economic advantages of a grid-tied microgrid integrated with solar panels and batteries over conventional grid systems. The results highlight the potential of the proposed approach in strengthening grid resilience, reducing downtime, and fostering sustainable energy utilization.