REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microcystin; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxin; structural elucidation; toxicology
Online: 3 October 2019 (03:43:55 CEST)
Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are the most widespread class of cyanotoxins and the one that has most often been implicated in cyanobacterial toxicosis. One of the main challenges in studying and monitoring MCs is the great structural diversity within the class. The full chemical structure of the first MC was elucidated in the early 1980s and since then the number of reported structural analogues has grown steadily and continues to do so, thanks largely to advances in analytical methodology. The structures of some of these analogues have been definitively elucidated after chemical isolation using a combination of techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance, amino acid analysis and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Others have only been tentatively identified using liquid chromatography-MS/MS without chemical isolation. An understanding of the structural diversity of MCs, the genetic and environmental controls for this diversity and the impact of structure on toxicity are all essential to the ongoing study of MCs across several scientific disciplines. However, because of the diversity of MCs and the range of approaches that have been taken for characterizing them, comprehensive information on the state of knowledge in each of these areas can be challenging to gather. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature surrounding the identification and toxicity of known MCs and present here a concise review of these topics. At present, at least 269 MCs have been reported. Among these, about 20% (54 of 269) appear to be the result of chemical or biochemical transformations of MCs that can occur in the environment or during sample handling and extraction of cyanobacterial, including oxidation products, methyl esters, or post-biosynthetic metabolites. The toxicity of many MCs has also been studied using a range of different approaches and a great deal of variability can be observed between reported toxicities, even for the same congener. This review will help clarify the current state of knowledge on the structural diversity of MCs as a class and the impacts of structure on toxicity, as well as to identify gaps in knowledge that should be addressed in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Drinking water; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Harmful algal blooms; Microcystin
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:25:15 CEST)
Clean, fresh, and safe drinking water is essential to human health and well-being. Occasionally, chemical pollutants taint surface water quality used for consumption. Microcystins (MCs) are toxic heptapeptides produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. These secondary metabolites can reach hazardous concentrations, impairing surface drinking water supplies. Inconsistent screening of MCs is not uncommon in Florida waters as no provisional guidance value is established to protect public health. The occurrence of MCs in Lake Manatee and Lake Washington was monitored over the potential peak algae bloom season (June-August). An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) quantified total MCs in two drinking water systems. Varied concentrations occurred between June and July, whereas concentrations peaked in August. Overall, MC prevalence was higher in Lake Manatee than Lake Washington. Colorimetric assays measured phosphate and nitrite in environmental water samples. Phosphate and nitrite concentrations strongly correlated with total MCs (p < 0.01). The results indicate the intrinsic nature of environmental MCs in surface drinking water supplies and the need to examine hepatotoxin dynamics to preserve drinking water quality in community served areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1859.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Oryza sativa L.; microcystin-LR; bioaccumulation; physio-biochemical index; superoxide anion; NOS
Online: 29 November 2023 (08:17:03 CET)
Irrigation with water containing a variety of microcystins (MCs) may pose potential threat to normal growth of agricultural plants. The mechanism of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) induced phytotoxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) at environmental concentrations is still unknown. Rice seedlings were exposed to MC-LR at concentrations of 0.10, 1.0, 10.0 and 50.0 μg·L−1 in hydroponic nutrient solutions for 7, 15, 20, and 34 days in the current study. The absorption and accumulation in leaf and root tissues, as well as a series of key physio-biochemical process changes in leaves of rice at different exposure time points were measured. Results showed that MC-LR could be detected in rice leaves and roots in all exposure groups, however, a significant accumulation trend of MC-LR in plants (BCF > 1) was only found in the lowest group (0.10 μg·L−1). The time-course study revealed a biphasic response of O2•- levels in rice leaves to the exposure of MC-LR, which was more pronounced in higher concentration groups, which could be attributed to the combined effects of antioxidant and detoxification mechanisms in rice. Exposure to 1.0 - 50.0 μg·L−1 MC-LR resulted in significant depletion of GSH and MDA contents in rice leaves at later exposure times. The changes of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rice leaves under MC-LR exposure were firstly investigated in the current study. Low MC-LR concentrations promoted NOS activity, whereas high concentrations inhibited NOS activity during the later exposure times, implying that NO may play a role in MC-LR toxicity in rice. Reduced sucrose synthase (SS) activities in rice exposed to MC-LR can reduce the plant's ability to accumulate carbon and thus may be directly related to the reduction in vegetative growth. These findings suggest that even at low concentrations of MC-LR, terrestrial plants' normal physiological status is disrupted, which, when combined with previous findings, helps reveal the mechanism of MC-LR-induced phytotoxicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0231.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cyanotoxin; cyanobacterial bloom; cylindrospermopsin; microcystin; inflammation; diarrhea; gastrointestinal illness; lipopolysaccharide; innate immune system
Online: 26 March 2019 (09:31:44 CET)
Cyanobacterial blooms occur with increasing frequency in freshwater ecosystems, posing a hazard to human and environmental health. Exposure of human to cyanobacterial metabolites occurs mostly via accidental ingestion through contaminated drinking water or during recreational activities and, most frequently, results in gastrointestinal symptoms. Despite the clinical manifestation, cyanobacterial metabolites are rather investigated for their toxicity towards specific organs or tissues, especially hepato-, nephro- and neurotoxicity, then for effects on the gastrointestinal tract and the associated lymphoid tissue. The aim of this review was to systematically summarize available literature on the effects on the gastrointestinal tract and the mucosal innate immune system and compile the data from both, in vitro and in vivo studies, focusing on human-health relevant models. Our systematic literature review revealed significant data gaps in the understanding on metabolites breaching the gastrointestinal barrier and the role of the immune system in the establishment of clinical symptoms. Microcystins and cylindrospermopsin were linked to gastrointestinal symptoms, immune system effects or both. Furthermore, implications for cyanobacterial bloom lipopolysaccharides in gastrointestinal inflammation were reported in several cases, while other metabolites received only minor attention. The collected data indicate the need for a reassessment of potential enterotoxicity of microcystins and cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the carcinogenic potential of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins, has to be clarified, as an increasing amount of epidemiological studies show correlations between cyanobacterial blooms and gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Furthermore, other, often highly abundant bioactive metabolites like aeruginosins, have to be toxicologically evaluated at levels also accounting for (sub-)chronic exposure to low concentrations and in combination with naturally co-occurring metabolites, as can be expected in drinking water supplies. studies, focusing on human-health relevant models. Our systematic literature review revealed significant data gaps in the understanding on metabolites breaching the gastrointestinal barrier and the role of the immune system in the establishment of clinical symptoms. Microcystins and cylindrospermopsin were linked to gastrointestinal symptoms, immune system effects or both. Furthermore, implications for cyanobacterial bloom lipopolysaccharides in gastrointestinal inflammation were reported in several cases, while other metabolites received only minor attention. The collected data indicate the need for a reassessment of potential enterotoxicity of microcystins and cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the carcinogenic potential of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins, has to be clarified, as an increasing amount of epidemiological studies show correlations between cyanobacterial blooms and gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Furthermore, other, often highly abundant bioactive metabolites like aeruginosins, have to be toxicologically evaluated at levels also accounting for (sub-)chronic exposure to low concentrations and in combination with naturally co-occurring metabolites, as can be expected in drinking water supplies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0204.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: groundwater; pre-treatment; contact filtration; infiltration ponds; nutrients removal; TP; Cyanobacteria; Cyanotoxin; microcystin-LR; eutrophic lakes; TOC
Online: 19 August 2019 (04:08:58 CEST)
Artificial groundwater recharge is commonly used for drinking water supply. The resulting water quality is highly dependent on the raw water quality. In many cases, pre-treatment is required. Pre-treatment improves the drinking water quality, although how and to what extent it affects the subsequent pond water quality and infiltration process, is still unknown. We evaluated two treatment systems by applying different pre-treatment methods for raw water from a eutrophic and temperate lake. An artificial recharge pond was divided into two parts, where one received raw water, only filtered through a micro-screen with 500 µm pores (control treatment), while the other part received pre-treated lake water using chemical flocculation with polyaluminium chloride (PACl) combined with sand filtration, i.e. continuous contact filtration (contact filter treatment). Water quality such as cyanobacterial biomass, microcystin-LR as well as organic matter and nutrients were measured in both treatment processes. We found cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin-LR level after the contact filter treatment was significantly different from the control treatment and also significantly different in the pond water. In addition, with contact filter treatment, total phosphorus (TP) and organic matter removal were significantly improved in the end water, TP was reduced by 96 % (< 20 µg/L) and the total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced by 66 % instead of 55 % (TOC content around 2.1 mg/L instead of 3.0 mg/L). This full-scale onsite experiment demonstrated effective pre-treatment would benefit a more stable water quality system, with less variance and lower cyanotoxin risk. In a broader drinking water management perspective, the presented method is promising to reduce cyanotoxin risk, as well as TP and TOC, which are all predicted to increase with global warming and extreme weather.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: cyanotoxins; cyanobacteria; harmful algae bloom; neurodegenerative disease; microcystin; BMAA; non-proteogenic amino acids; mistranslation; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 19 January 2023 (11:46:59 CET)
Cyanobacteria produce a wide range of structurally diverse cyanotoxins and bioactive cyanopeptides in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. The health significance of these metabolites, which include genotoxic- and neurotoxic agents, is confirmed by continued associations between the occurrence of animal and human acute toxic events and, in the long term, by associations between cyanobacteria and neurodegenerative diseases. One of the implicated mechanisms includes a misincorporation of cyanobacterial non-proteogenic amino acids leading to mistranslation and protein misfolding. A better understanding of the interaction between the cyanopeptide metabolism and the nervous system will be crucial to target or to prevent pathogenic response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: microcystin; saxitoxin; cylindrospermopsin; anatoxin-a; anatoxin-a(S); cyanobacteria; organic anion transporting polypeptide; phosphatase inhibitor; acetylcholinesterase; neurotoxicity; water quality; eutrophication; drinking water
Online: 20 March 2017 (06:17:48 CET)
Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous phototrophic bacteria that inhabit diverse environments across the planet. They dominate many eutrophic lakes impacted by excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forming dense accumulations of biomass known as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms or cyanoHABs. Their dominance in eutrophic lakes is attributed to a variety of unique adaptations including N and P concentrating mechanisms, N fixation, colony formation that inhibits predation, vertical movement via gas vesicles, and the production of toxic or otherwise bioactive molecules. While some of these molecules have been explored for their medicinal benefits, others are potent toxins harmful to humans, animals, and other wildlife known as cyanotoxins. In humans these cyanotoxins affect various tissues, including the liver, central and peripheral nervous system, kidneys, and reproductive organs among others. They induce acute effects at low doses in the parts-per-billion range and some are tumor promoters linked to chronic diseases such as liver and colorectal cancer. The occurrence of cyanoHABs and cyanotoxins in lakes presents challenges for maintaining safe recreational aquatic environments and the production of potable drinking water. CyanoHABs are a growing problem in the North American (Laurentian) Great Lakes basin. This review summarizes information on the occurrence of cyanoHABs in the Great Lakes, toxicological effects of cyanotoxins, and appropriate numerical limits on cyanotoxins in finished drinking water.