REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0067.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: fecal microbiota transplantation; horse; gut microbiota
Online: 3 February 2023 (09:50:36 CET)
Equine fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapy for restoring gut microbiome balance in horses. An imbalance in the gut microorganisms, known as dysbiosis, can cause inflammation and metabolic disruptions. FMT, which involves transferring gut bacteria from a healthy donor to a diseased recipient, has shown positive results in treating gastrointestinal diseases in horses, but is still largely limited to research purposes due to safety concerns and lack of understanding of its mechanisms. This paper aims to shed light on the possible mechanisms of FMT in horses and discuss future perspectives for its clinical application. Further research is needed to develop more effective and safer FMT techniques for horses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: parasites; microbiota; faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT)
Online: 11 October 2021 (14:20:22 CEST)
A growing body of evidences is showing that dysbiotic gut microbiota may correlate with a wide range of disorders; hence, the clinical use of microbiota maps and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can be exploited in the clinic of some infectious diseases. Through direct or indirect ecological and functional competition, FMT may stimulate decolonization of pathogens or opportunistic pathogens, modulating immune response and colonic inflammation, and restoring intestinal homeostasis, with reduction of host damage. Herein, we discuss how diagnostic parasitology may contribute to design clinical metagenomics pipelines and FMT programs, especially in pediatric subjects. The consequences of a more specialized diagnostics in the context of gut microbiota communities may improve the clinical parasitology and extend its applications to the prevention and treatment of several communicable and even noncommunicable disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1458.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: alkylresorcinols; olivetol; gut microbiota; fecal microbiota transplantation; endocannabinoid system
Online: 21 July 2023 (13:59:22 CEST)
Background: Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are polyphenolic compounds with a wide spectrum of biological activities and potentially implicated in the regulation of host metabolism. The present study is aimed to establish whether ARs can be produced by human gut microbiota and to evaluate alterations in the content of ARs in stool samples of C57BL and db/db and LDLR (-/-) mice in dependence on diet specifications and olivetol (5-n-pentylresorcinol) supplementation in order to estimate a regulatory potential of ARs. Methods: The quantita-tive analysis of ARs levels in mice stool samples was performed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection; fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from human donor to germ-free mice was performed to explore whether the intestinal microbiota could produce ARs molecules. Results: A significant increase in the amounts of individual mem-bers of ARs homologues in stool samples was revealed in 14 days after FMT. 5-n-Pentylresorcinol supplementation to a regular-chow diet influences the amounts of sev-eral ARs in stool of C57BL/6 and LDLR (-/-), but not db/db mice. Conclusions: For the first time, we have shown that several ARs can be produced by the intestinal microbiota. Taking into account, that AR concentrations in human serum are correlated with LPS levels and with microbiota diversity indexes in human stool samples, it can be assumed that ARs may serve as quorum-sensing molecules, influencing gut microbiota composition and host me-tabolism as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0351.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: oral microbiota; gut microbiota; networks analysis; ecological niche; newborns
Online: 21 September 2021 (09:13:34 CEST)
The onset and progression of the salivary and gut microbiota, the transmission and the impact of the salivary microbiota on the development of early fecal microbial communities was herein explored. We characterized the microbiota of 82 faecal and 80 salivary samples, collected from 82 healty newborns at birth, 7, 15, 30, 90 and 180 days of life, by 16S rRNA targeted-metagenomics approach. Correlation heat-maps and co-occurrence networks were used to investigate microbial taxa relationship in saliva, gut and between the two ecosystems. In saliva microbiota, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus appeared as early commensals, dominating this ecosystem through the time, while Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Granulicatella and Veillonella were late colonizers. anaerobes as Enterobacteriace, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, were gut microbiota pioneers, followed by the anaerobic Bifidobacterium, Veillonella, Eggerthella and Bacteroides. Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Veillonella were shared by gut and saliva ecosystems (core microbiota). Early saliva and gut microbiota seem to evolve independently driven by local adaptation strategies, with the only exception for the oral Streptococcus and Veillonella genera, involved in gut microbiota development as seeding species. A more comprehensive knowledge of how oral microbiota may impact pathophysiological conditions of gut microbiota may open new avenues on the design of postbiotics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: gut microbiota; skin microbiota; inflammation; psoriasis; psoriatic arthritis; dysbiosis
Online: 12 September 2018 (07:49:33 CEST)
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by skin lesions. Psoriasis development has been associated both with genetic and environmental factors. Though skin and gut microbiota has been implicated in number of pathologies including atopic dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, allergy, obesity, its role has been poorly studied in psoriatic disease, which incorporates both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. This literature review summarizes the most recent and major findings on microbiota features in psoriatic disease as well as gives immune system role in the given condition. Despite conflicting findings, psoriasis patients were frequently found to have distinct microbial composition in both skin and guts especially in the major bacterial phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Akkermansia. Furthermore, bacterial DNA has been found in psoriatic patients both locally and systemically, and altogether suggesting role of bacteria in the chronic disease and future studies in this field.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0736.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cannabis; microbiota; cannabinoid
Online: 29 December 2020 (15:48:00 CET)
Cannabis is one of the oldest cultivated crops in the history for food, fiber and drugs for thousands of years. Extension of cannabis genetic variation developed in a wide- ranging choice of varieties with various complementary phenotypes and secondary metabolites. Cannabis grow practices is very diverse, especially indoor cultivation factors, such as different lighting conditions, pot size, humidity, fertilizers. These growth factors influence a lot on the production of cannabinoids. For medical or pharmaceutical purposes, ratio of CBD or THC is very important. Plants traits and metabolic compounds are related to various conditions produced by microbes. Investigating this crosstalk between plants and microbes can play a vital role not only for stimulating the biosynthetic and signaling pathways of the host plants for the production of agronomically or pharmaceutically essential metabolic compounds but also against pathogens. This study emphasis on decoding the crosstalk between cannabis and associated microbes in the belowground environmental niches that would unravel the complexity of stabilizing cannabinoid production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virome; microbiota; cancer; bacteriophages; fecal microbiota transplantation; checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy
Online: 3 November 2021 (14:30:14 CET)
Viral infections as well as changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and virome have been linked to cancer. Moreover, the success of cancer immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors has been correlated with the intestinal microbial composition of patients. The transfer of feces – which contains mainly bacteria and their viruses (phages) – from immunotherapy responders to non-responders, known as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), has been shown to be able convert some non-responders to responders. Since phages may also increase the response to immunotherapy, for example by inducing T cells cross-reacting with cancer antigens, modulating phage populations may provide a new avenue to improve immunotherapy responsiveness. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the human virome and its links to cancer, and discuss the potential utility of bacteriophages in increasing the responder rate for cancer immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Autism, ASD, microbiota, gut-brain-axis, microbiota-gut-brain-axis, therapy
Online: 7 November 2018 (14:45:10 CET)
New research points to a possible link between Autism Spectrum Disorder and the gut microbiota as many autistic children have co-occurring gastrointestinal problems. This review focuses on specific alterations of gut microbiota mostly observed in autistic patients. Particularly, the mechanisms through which such alterations may trigger the production of the bacterial metabolites or leaky gut in autistic people are described. Various altered metabolite levels were observed in autistic children, many of those were of bacterial origin such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), indoles and lipopolysaccharides. A less integrative gut-blood-barrier is abundant in autistic individuals. This explains the leakage of bacterial metabolites into the patients triggering new body responses or altered metabolism. Some other co-occurring symptoms such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress in the cells, altered tight junctions in the blood brain barrier and structural changes in cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum were detected. Moreover, this paper suggests that autism is associated with an unbalanced gut microbiota (dysbiosis). Although the cause-effect relationship between autism and gut microbiota is not yet well established, consumption of specific probiotics may represent a powerful tool to re-establish gut homeostasis and promote gut health. Diagnostic and therapeutic value of new biomarkers leading to the perturbation in the phenylalanine metabolism will be discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0795.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: food; microbiota; diet; health
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:24:05 CEST)
Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in the topic of gut health and food, revealing a complex interplay that affects many facets of human health beyond just digestion. This in-depth overview investigates crucial aspects of this connection, illuminating issues including the effects of processed meals, the advantages of fermented foods, individualized diets, and the harmonious relationship between gut bacteria and dietary components. In this article, we'll take a look at how processed foods affect your digestive system, and how their convenience might backfire by upsetting your body's delicate microbial balance. The effects of these diets have been studied, and the results suggest that there may be disruptions in microbial diversity, inflammation, and metabolic health. Instead, fermented foods are explored as potential allies in the fight for gut health. These foods' high probiotic content not only improves digestion and nutrition absorption, but may also have an effect on one's state of mind. There is growing evidence that eating fermented foods can help you maintain a healthy and robust gut microbiome. Recognizing that everyone has a different gut microbiota composition, the idea of individualized nutrition has come to the forefront. One novel strategy for improving digestive health is to provide nutritional advice based on a person's unique microbial profile. This paper looks at how microbiome testing can be combined with professional advice to create food programs that feed specific bacteria communities, improving both diversity and health. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the reciprocal interaction between dietary choices and the gut microbiota, and the significant impact that gut health has on numerous aspects of human health. The more we learn about the complexities of this interplay, the more we can take a holistic approach to nutrition, one that respects the uniqueness of each person's gut microbiome and encourages healthy eating habits. By taking a more all-encompassing view, we are reminded of the critical function of the gut microbiota in determining our health and of the significance of fostering this nuanced symbiotic connection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0784.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tumor; microbiota; microbiome; diagnostics
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:17:59 CEST)
Tumor-associated microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms found in tumors and is part of the larger tumor microenvironment (TME). The discovery of the complex relationship between these microbial populations and the growth of cancer has prompted the creation of cutting-edge tailored methods to cancer treatment. In recent years, microbiota profiling's potential as a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic optimization tool has been increasingly apparent. The diagnostic and prognostic use of microbiota profiling is explored in this abstract. Microbiota profiling shows potential for early cancer detection, improved risk stratification, and greater prediction of treatment outcomes by identifying different microbial signatures associated with early-stage tumors, aggressive characteristics, and responses to treatment. In addition, this method provides the way for individualized medicinal approaches based on an individual's specific microbiome.Microbiota profiling is investigated as a means of customizing treatment plans, illuminating how knowledge of an individual's microbiome might direct the development of individualized treatments and multimodal approaches. These kind of interventions have the potential to herald in a new era of patient-centered oncology care by increasing treatment efficacy while decreasing side effects. Despite significant promise, microbiota profiling has obstacles that must be overcome before it can be successfully translated into therapeutic practice. This abstract highlights the revolutionary potential of microbiota-based approaches in cancer care and the need for ongoing research and technology improvements to harness the power of the tumor-associated microbiome for improved patient outcomes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0537.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: horse; intestinal dysbiotis; microbiota
Online: 10 July 2023 (08:30:40 CEST)
Manipulation of the intestinal microbiome is an emerging area of research, especially in hind-gut fermenters such as the horse. The aim of this study was to determine whether fecal pH can provide a simple and cost-effective tool to document changes in the intestinal metabolome and microbiome following supplementation of feed with an enzyme rich malt extract (ERME). Fecal pH was determined weekly in triplicate using a commercial soil pH meter in 72 Thoroughbred racehorses in training before and during supplementation with ERME (300mls per day divided into two feeds) alongside their regular feeding schedule. No control group was included. Fecal pH increased over the 4 weeks of treatment from 6.20 (6.15-6.24) to 6.40 (6.38-6.44; P<0.0001). Changes were not observed at one-week intervals but were apparent after 2 weeks There was a significant increase in the proportion of horses with a ‘normal’ pH at the end of the study (55%) compared to the start of the study (11%; p<0.001). These data support the further validation of the use of fecal pH in large scale microbiome/metabolome studies in the horse, although comparisons with these outcomes are now warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Platelet; microbiota; TMA; Atherosclerosis
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:34:31 CET)
Emerging data have demonstrated a strong association between the gut microbiota and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as atherosclerosis, inflammation, obesity, insulin resistance, platelet hyperactivity, and plasma lipid abnormalities. Several studies in humans and animal models have demonstrated an association between gut microbial metabolites, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), short-chain fatty acids, and bile acid metabolites, amino acid breakdown products, with CVD. Human blood platelets are a critical contributor to the hemostatic process. Besides, these blood cells play a crucial role in developing atherosclerosis and, finally, contribute to cardiac events. Since the TMAO, and other metabolites of the gut microbiota, are associated with platelet hyperactivity, lipid disorders, and oxidative stress, the diet-gut microbiota interactions have become an important research area in the cardiovascular field. Platelets became hyperactive in people with diabetes mellitus, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and insulin resistance and exhibited increased sensitivity at a baseline level and in response to agonists, ultimately contributing to increased aggregation plaque development. In addition to these factors, TMAO also contributes to platelet hyperactivity. Several approaches are now suggested to reduce plasma TMAO levels, such as microbiota modulation using probiotics, prebiotics, and oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. This review describes the association between microbiota-derived metabolites and CVD development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0767.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Gut microbiota; Variants; Probiotics; gut microbiota metabolites
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:34:31 CEST)
Natural herbs and functional foods contain bioactive molecules capable of augmenting the immune system and mediating anti-viral functions. Functional foods, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and dietary fibers, have been shown to have positive effects on gut microbiota diversity and immune function. The use of functional foods has been linked with en-hanced immunity, regeneration, improved cognitive function, maintenance of gut mi-crobiota, and significant improvement in overall health. The gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and immune function, and disruptions to its balance have been linked to various health problems. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to affect gut microbiota diversity, and the emergence of variants poses new challenges to combat the virus. SARS-CoV-2 recognizes and infects human cells through ACE2 receptors prevalent in lung and gut epithelial cells. Humans are prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection because the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are rich in microbial diversity and contain high ACE2 and TMPRSS2. This review article explores the potential use of functional foods in mitigating the impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on gut microbiota diversity and the potential use of functional foods as a strategy to combat these effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0552.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: periodontitis; obstructive sleep apnea; oral microbiota; pathogenic microbiota; chronic diseases; MALDI-TOF
Online: 29 November 2022 (13:09:35 CET)
Commonly the periodontitis has been linked to periodontopathogens categorized in Socransky's microbial complexes, however, there is a lack of knowledge regarding “other microorganisms” or "cryptic microorganisms", which are rarely thought of as significant oral pathogens and are neither previously categorized nor connected to illnesses in the oral cavity. This study hypothesized that these cryptic microorganisms could contribute to the modulation of oral microbiota present in health or disease (periodontitis and/or OSA patients). For this purpose, the presence and the correlation among these cultivable cryptic oral microorganisms were identified and their possible role in both conditions was determined. Data from oral samples of individuals with or without periodontitis and with or without OSA were obtained from a previous study. Demographic data, clinical oral characteristics, and genera and species of cultivable cryptic oral microorganisms identified by MALDI-TOF were recorded. The data of 75 participants were analyzed to determine the relative frequencies of cultivable cryptic microorganisms’ genus and species, microbial clusters and correlations tests were performed. According to periodontal condition, Gingivitis - dental biofilm-induced in reduced periodontium and stage III periodontitis were found to have the highest diversity of cryptic microorganism species. Based on the experimental condition these findings showed that there are genera related to disease conditions and others related to healthy conditions, with species that could be related to different chronic diseases being highlighted as comorbidities periodontitis and OSA. The cryptic microorganisms within the oral microbiota of patients with periodontitis and OSA are present as potential pathogens, promoting the development of dysbiotic microbiota, and the occurrence of chronic diseases, which have been previously proposed to be common risk factors for periodontitis and OSA. Understanding the function of possible pathogens in the oral microbiota will take more research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0440.v1
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:55:19 CET)
This mini-review examines the complex relationship between the gut microbiota and human health, with a special focus on its role in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It explores how dietary patterns can affect the composition of the gut microbiota, thus contributing to the development of various diseases. The gut microbiota is crucial in the production of metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which play a significant role in the development of both IBD and CVD. High levels of TMAO and other metabolites, such as phenylacetylglutamine, have been linked to an increased risk of CVD. The review highlights the potential of dietary interventions and therapies designed to modulate the gut microbiota in reducing these risks. Following a Mediterranean diet may offer cardiovascular protection, emphasizing the need for further research into the molecular mechanisms of diet-related changes in the microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dyslipidemia; gut microbiota; mendelian randomization
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:54:09 CEST)
The determination of a causal relationship between gut microbiota and a range of dyslipidemia remains uncertain. To clarify these associations, we employed a two-sample mendelian randomization (MR) analysis utilizing the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method. This comprehensive analysis investigated the genetic variants that exhibited a significant association (p<1e-5) with 129 distinct gut microbiota genera, and their potential link to diverse forms of dyslipidemia. The results indicated a potential causal relationship between 22 gut microbiota genera and dyslipidemia in humans. Furthermore, these findings suggested that the impact of gut microbiota on dyslipidemia regulation is dependent on the specific phylum, family, and genus. Bacillota phylum demonstrated the greatest diversity, with 15 distinct genera distributed among 8 families. Notably, gut microbiota derived from the Lachnospiraceae and Lactobacillaceae families exhibit statistically significant associations with lipid levels that contribute to overall health (p<0.05). The sensitivity analysis indicated that our findings possess robustness (p>0.05). The findings of our investigation provide compelling evidence that supports a causal relationship between the gut microbiota and dyslipidemia in the human body. It is noteworthy to highlight the significant influence of the Bacillota phylum as a pivotal regulator of lipid levels, and the families Lachnospiraceae and Lactobacillaceae should be acknowledged as probiotics that make substantial contributions to this metabolic process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1394.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Gut microbiota; gastrointestinal illnesses; probiotics
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:46:46 CEST)
Modulating the gut microbiota with probiotics has been identified as a promising therapeutic method for the management of gastrointestinal illnesses. The effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders can only be determined by delving into their underlying mechanisms of action. Through an analysis of the underlying processes, this study hopes to provide light on the potential benefits of probiotics for treating a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. The study covers a wide variety of gastrointestinal conditions, such as IBS, IBD, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Modifying the gut microbiota composition, strengthening the gut barrier function, modulating the immune system, and producing beneficial metabolites are among mechanisms of action that have been investigated. The strain- and dose-specific variables essential to getting the best treatment results are also highlighted. This review, which synthesizes the current information, gives a thorough overview of the effectiveness of probiotics in treating a variety of gastrointestinal illnesses and illuminates potential avenues for further study and therapeutic use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1765.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Bacteria, Microbiota, Artificial intelligence, microbiome
Online: 27 July 2023 (08:16:56 CEST)
The body's billions of bacteria—the microbiota—influence health and illness. The microbiome—the genetic material of these microbes—affects digestion, immunological function, and mental health. Due to bacterial variety, complicated relationships, and research technique constraints, investigating the microbiota is difficult. AI and machine learning have expanded microbiome research. Artificial intelligence (AI) systems can efficiently scan large microbiome datasets to help researchers understand microbial populations and their functions. AI-based predictive algorithms can analyze food impacts on microbial communities and forecast illness risks based on gut microbiota composition. AI helps find microbial biomarkers linked to specific health disorders, enabling early illness identification and targeted therapy. AI-driven medication development platforms also modulate microbiome to treat microbiota-related diseases. Understanding microbial populations' involvement in health and illness requires understanding complicated microbial interactions within the microbiome and between it and the host. AI systems improve human health by comprehending these complex relationships. AI in microbiota study must overcome various obstacles. Data quality and AI model interpretability are essential for accurate findings. Diverse and representative datasets avoid biases and strengthen AI-driven conclusions. AI in microbiota research requires data protection, informed permission, and appropriate use of sensitive data. AI is improving our understanding of the human microbiome and its health effects, changing microbiota research. Overcoming difficulties and adhering to ethical norms will enable the proper use of AI-driven findings, leading to microbiome insights and precision medical breakthroughs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1093.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Bacteria; microbiota; pathogens; dysbiosis; infections
Online: 17 July 2023 (13:41:01 CEST)
The trillions of bacteria that live in and on our bodies make up the human microbiota, which is a very important part of keeping us healthy and protecting us from pathogenic infections. Dysbiosis is when there are changes in the composition and variety of the microbiota. This can upset the delicate balance between the host and its microbes, making the host more vulnerable to pathogens. Understanding the complicated link between microbiota and pathogens is important for coming up with effective ways to change microbiota and boost the body's defenses against infections. This study looks at how microbiota modulation affects the spread of pathogens and infections. It talks about how the makeup of microbiota affects how susceptible you are to pathogens. It shows how a healthy microbiota can protect you by making it hard for pathogens to grow and take over. The review also goes into detail about how the microbiota protects against pathogens, such as through competitive exclusion, the production of antimicrobial compounds, and the regulation of immune reactions. The study also looks at the idea of dysbiosis and how it is linked to pathogenic shifts. Disruptions in the microbiota can make it easier for pathogens to grow and make it harder for the host to fight off infections. It focuses on the need to recover microbial balance to improve the host's defenses and lower risks caused by pathogens. There is also talk about the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as ways to change the microbiome. The goal of these interventions is to restore the diversity and function of microbes, improve the integrity of barriers, and boost the immune system's reaction to pathogens. The review shows how these methods could be used to change the microbiota and make it easier for the body to fight off infections. In conclusion, knowing how the microbiota and pathogens work together in a complicated way can help a lot when it comes to making specific interventions for microbiota modulation. Strategies that restore the balance of microbes and boost the host's defenses could stop pathogens from taking over and making people sick. More study needs to be done in this area to improve therapeutic approaches and use the microbiota to its fullest extent to fight infectious diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiota; probiotics; formulations; immune system
Online: 14 July 2023 (16:49:09 CEST)
Probiotics have become a potential way to change the microbiota, which allows for more personalized ways to improve health results. This abstract gives an outline of the most important parts of personalized microbiota regulation through probiotics. It focuses on effectiveness and mechanisms, clinical applications, safety and tolerability, formulations and delivery methods, and customized approaches. Many studies have looked into how and why probiotics change the microbiome. These studies show that probiotics can change the makeup and function of microbial communities. Probiotics have been shown to help treat a number of health problems, such as digestive problems, immune system problems, metabolic problems, and mental health problems. It is important for the success of probiotics to find out if they are safe and can be tolerated. Studies have shown that probiotics are usually safe for most people, but there are some things that need to be taken into account to make sure they are safe, especially for people who are weak. Formulations and transport methods are very important for making sure that probiotics are alive, stable, and delivered to the right places in the GI tract. Probiotic strains work better in the gut because of improvements in how probiotic preparation technologies protect and control the release of probiotic strains. Personalized methods take into account how each person's microbiome and health are different. By using individual microbiota profiling, custom probiotic approaches can be made to address specific microbial imbalances and promote a healthier microbial environment, which could improve treatment results. Even though individual methods show promise, there are still problems, such as the need to standardize microbiota profiling techniques, figure out how to understand data, and keep track of people over time. For personalized probiotics to reach their full potential and change the way patients are cared for based on the microbiota-host relationship, more study, technological advances, and teamwork are needed. In conclusion, probiotics can be used to change your microbiome in a way that is specific to you and your health goals. By using the power of individualized microbiota profiling, personalized probiotic treatments might be able to help with certain health problems and make the microbial environment better. Putting personalized probiotics into clinical practice and changing the way patients are cared for will require more study and partnerships between different fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0231.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiota; Ecotoxicology; Symbiosis acquisition; Holobiont
Online: 14 November 2022 (02:40:58 CET)
Oryzias latipes is an important model organism for physiology, genetics and developmental studies, and has also emerged a relevant vertebrate model for aquatic ecotoxicology. Knowledge regarding its associ-ated microbiota on the other hand is still scarce and limited to adults, despite the relevance of associated microbiome to hosts biology. This study provides first insights into the establishment of bacterial mi-crobiota during early developmental stages of laboratory-reared medaka using a 16SrRNA sequenc-ing-based approach. Major shifts in community compositions are observed, from a Proteobacte-ria-dominated community in larvae and juveniles to a more phylum diverse community towards adult-hood, with no obvious difference between female and male specimens. Major bacterial taxa found in adults, including genera Cetobacterium and ZOR0006, establish progressively and are rare during early stages. Dominance shifts are comparable to those documented in another major model teleost, the zebrafish. Results from this study provide a basis for future work investigating the influence of meda-ka-associated bacteria during host development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus; epigenetics; microbiota
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:30:40 CET)
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is considered a significant and increasing problem worldwide. The growing body of evidence points out that a hostile intrauterine environment in mothers with GDM via epigenetic mechanisms induces "diabetogenic" and "obesogenic" changes in an offspring's DNA. This sets in motion a vicious intergenerational cycle of metabolic diseases gradually deteriorating the health of the human population. One of the most important players in this process seems to be altered microbiota/microbiome. There is a chance that the identification of specific epigenetic marks may provide a key for future diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic solutions/measures in the field of person-alized medicine. Given the reversibility of most epigenetic changes, an opportunity arises to improve the long-term health of the human population/race. In this manuscript, we aim to summarize available data on epigenetic changes among women suffering from GDM and their progeny in association with changes in microbiome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0045.v1
Online: 3 December 2021 (09:57:35 CET)
Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have a role in NoV and RV infections, since their presence on the gut epithelial surfaces is essential for the susceptibility to many NoV and RV genotypes. Polymorphisms in genes that code for enzymes required for HBGAs synthesis lead to secretor or non-secretor and Lewis positive and Lewis negative individuals. While secretor individuals appear to be more susceptible to RV infections, regarding NoVs infections there are too many discrepancies that prevent drawing conclusions. A second factor that influences enteric viral infections is the gut microbiota of the host. In vitro and animal studies have determined that the gut microbiota limits, but in some cases enhances, enteric viral infection. The ways microbiota can enhance NoV or RV infection include virion stabilization and promotion of virus attachment to host cells, whereas experiments with microbiota-depleted and germ-free animals point to immunoregulation as the mechanism by which the microbiota restricts infection. Human trials with live, attenuated RV vaccines and analysis of the microbiota in responders and non-responders individuals also allowed the identification of bacterial taxa linked to vaccine efficacy. As more information is gained on the complex relationships that are established between the host (glycobiology and immune system), the gut microbiota and the intestinal viruses, new avenues will be open for the development of novel anti-NoV and anti-RV therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Nutrigenomics; nutrigenentics; microbiota; nutraceutics; chrononutrition
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:36:57 CEST)
Nutrigenetics concerns individual differences in the reaction to food based on the genetic factors. Nutrigenomics analyses direct influences of nutrients on gene expression. Both terms are explained in our review article. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics require a deep understanding of nutrition, genetics and biochemistry and of new ‘omic’ technologies. It is often difficult to appreciate their relevance in the practice of preventive approaches for optimizing health, delaying onset of disease and diminishing its severity. This paper represents a review about the current research on Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics, and provide scientific data for a new integrated clinical approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1030065
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: gut microbiota; liver; metabolism; inflammation
Online: 16 December 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Toll-like receptor 5 ligand, flagellin, and Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1) are involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine whether VAP-1 mediates flagellin-induced hepatic fat accumulation. The effects of flagellin on adipocyte VAP-1 expression were first studied in vitro. Then, flagellin (100 ng/mouse) or saline was intraperitoneally injected to C57BL/6J WT and C57BL/6-Aoc3-/- (VAP-1 KO) mice on high-fat diet twice a week every two weeks for 10-weeks. After that, the effects on inflammation, insulin signaling, and metabolism were studied in liver and adipose tissues. Hepatic fat was quantified histologically and biochemically. Because flagellin challenge increased VAP-1 expression in human adipocytes, we used VAP-1 KO mice to determine whether VAP-1 regulates the inflammatory and metabolic effects of flagellin in vivo. In mice, VAP-1 mediated flagellin-induced inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and lipolysis in visceral adipose tissue. Consequently, increased release of glycerol led to hepatic steatosis in WT but not KO mice. Flagellin-induced hepatic fibrosis was not mediated by VAP-1. VAP-1 KO mice harbored more inflammation-related microbes than WT, while flagellin did not affect the gut microbiota. Our results suggest that by acting on visceral adipose tissue, flagellin increased leukocyte infiltration that induced lipolysis. Further, the released glycerol participated in hepatic fat accumulation. In conclusion, the results describe that gut microbial flagellin through VAP-1 induced hepatic steatosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1497.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Dysbiosis; Faecal microbiota transfer; Cancer; Probiotics
Online: 21 July 2023 (10:03:51 CEST)
The gut microbiota's part in colon cancer has become an exciting and hopeful area of study because it shows complex links that affect how cancer starts, spreads, and responds to treatments. Dysbiosis, which is an imbalance in the community of germs in the gut, has been linked to a higher risk of colon cancer by causing inflammation and making a place where tumours can grow. Researchers have found that some kinds of bugs can either help colon cancer grow or stop it from doing so. This shows how important it is to maintain a healthy gut bacteria. In both preclinical and clinical research, therapeutic treatments that target the microbiome in the gut have shown promise. Probiotics and prebiotics can change the environment around a tumour, change the balance of microorganisms in the gut, and boost immune responses that fight the cancer. Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is being looked at as a new way to change the bacteria in the guts of people with colon cancer. By adding microbiota-targeted drugs to standard cancer treatments, it may be possible to make the treatment more effective and lessen side effects. Microbiota-focused treatments for colon cancer are still in their early stages, but they show promise. More research needs to be done to find out how they work and show that they work in the clinic. The link between the bacteria in the gut and colon cancer opens up new ways to help patients and give them better results. This might make a difference in how colon cancer is handled in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; Gut Microbiota; Microbiome; Dysbiosis
Online: 19 July 2023 (10:06:33 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to significant global health implications. Although the respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 are widely recognized, emerging evidence suggests that the disease may also significantly affect the gut microbiota, the intricate community of bacteria that lives within the gastrointestinal system. This extensive article intends to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the gut microbiota, examining the underlying mechanisms, clinical implications, and potential therapeutic interventions. Understanding the complex interactions between COVID-19 and the gut microbiota will help us to gain valuable insights into the broader consequences of this viral infection on human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1578.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Gut Microbiota; Dysbiosis; Endocrine; Diabetes; Therapeutic
Online: 21 June 2023 (16:02:04 CEST)
Gut microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences various aspects of human health. Unfortunately, there is a lack of literature highlighting the importance of gut microbiome especially in diabetes management. This paper performs bibliometric analysis to establish the rising interest of researchers in this area and the importance of gut microbiota in diabetes management. Subsequently, the study performs a narrative review to provide an overview of the gut microbiota consisting of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses, and its diversity, composition, and variation among individuals. The paper further discusses the role of the gut microbiota in different diseases, including Clostridium difficile infection, behavioral disorders, cancer, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease, among others. It emphasizes the link between gut dysbiosis (imbalanced gut microbiota) and the development of chronic metabolic disorders. Additionally, the paper discusses the factor negatively impacting the gut microbiota. The paper concludes by explaining the mechanistic abnormalities that link dysbiosis to type 2 diabetes, including changes in short-chain fatty acid production, amino acid metabolism, bile acid regulation, and the production of specific bacterial products. Thus, the paper highlights the importance of understanding gut microbiota and related mechanisms for developing therapeutic interventions targeting the gut microbiota.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: dysbiosis; rheology; mucosal barrier; autoimmune; microbiota
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:40:16 CEST)
The inflammatory bowels diseases (IBD) are autoimmune diseases that deeply impact the patients’ quality of life. The IBD pathogenesis is not yet defined, but evidence demonstrated that the IBD chronic inflammation is related to an impaired intestinal barrier. Traditionally, two actors were considered for their contribution to this disfunction: the gut microbiota and intestinal epithelium. However, a third element, which is the intestinal mucus, should be considered as peer of the epithelium and microbiota. Indeed, mucus represents the biological interface between bacteria and cells, filtering molecules or toxins and preventing bacteria penetration exploiting both structural and compositional properties. The boosting effect of the mucus characterization towards IBD comprehension is far too underestimated, although some mucus-oriented studies are already reported in literature. This work reviews the intestinal barrier features, describing each component of the gut mucosa (i.e., epithelium, microbiota, and mucus) in a mucus-oriented perspective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; microbiota; meta-analysis
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:54:34 CEST)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with high heterogeneity and has a prevalence of 0.7% to 3.2% in children. Gut microbiota are a collection of microorganisms that inhabit in human guts, which can produce various metabolites that affect the homeostasis and functions of nervous and endocrine systems. There are many studies on the relationship between various gut microbiota and ASD, but the alteration pattern of microbial profiles in ASD children is not conclusive. In order to more robustly describe the deregulations of gut microbiota compositions in ASD, a meta-analysis was performed. The related investigations from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were collected and manually reviewed. By procedure, 26 eligible studies until 2023, with a total of 1021 ASD and 951 typically developed children and adolescents, were included for the meta-analysis. RevMan5.4 was used to assess the overall effect of 8 microbes at the phylum level and 19 microbes at the genus level. Results demonstrated relatively up-regulated abundance of Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Dorea and Sutterella, and down-regulated abundance of Proteobacteria, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, and Akkermansia in ASD children, indicating partly agreement in the ASD-associated microbes, albeit the heterogeneity of ASD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: vaginal microbiota transplantation; dysbiosis; treatment; mechanism
Online: 4 May 2023 (10:35:44 CEST)
Microbial communities inhabiting the human body play a crucial role in protecting the host against pathogens and inflammation. Disruptions to the microbial composition can lead to various health issues. Microbial transfer therapy (MTT) has emerged as a potential treatment option to address such issues. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the most widely used form of MTT and has been successful in treating several diseases. Another form of MTT is vaginal microbiota transplantation (VMT), which involves transferring vaginal microbiota from a healthy female donor to a diseased patient's vaginal cavity with the goal of restoring normal vaginal microbial composition. However, VMT has not been extensively studied due to safety concerns and a lack of research. This paper explores the therapeutic mechanisms of VMT and discusses future perspectives. Further research is necessary to advance the clinical applications and techniques of VMT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: vaginal microbiota transplantation; dysbiosis; treatment; mechanism
Online: 14 February 2023 (09:23:33 CET)
The human body is inhabited by unique microbial communities that protect and regulate the host against pathogens and inflammation. To address issues related to disrupted microbial composition, microbial transfer therapy (MTT) has emerged as a potential treatment option. The most popular form of MTT is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which has been successful in treating various diseases. Another emerging form of MTT is vaginal microbiota transplantation (VMT), transferring of the vaginal microbiota from a healthy female donor to a diseased patient's vaginal cavity, which aims to restore normal vaginal microbial composition. However, VMT is vastly unexplored due to safety concerns and lack of research. This paper explores the mechanisms involved in VMT's therapeutic effect and discusses future perspectives. Further research is needed to advance VMT's clinical applications and techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: hyperuricemia; Lactobacillus plantarum; microbiota; uric acid
Online: 4 November 2022 (06:20:30 CET)
Hyperuricemia (HC) was one of the important risk factors for gout, arteriosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies have shown that Lactobacillus plantarum can improve the microbiota, immune regulation, and inhibit the uric acid production. However, it was not clear whether L. plantarum can improve HC and intestinal microbiota. We used potassium oxonate (PO) to induce HC in male SD rats, and then treated L. plantarum TCI227 in a dose dependent (HC+LD, HC+MD, HC+HD) for 4 weeks, and examined weight organs, biochemical examination of blood and urine, and analyzed the intestinal microbiota in feces by 16s rDNA sequence analysis. In this study, TCI227 improved body weight, decreased creatinine, serum uric acid, and increased urine uric acid compared to the HC group. Furthermore, TCI227 increased short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In fecal microbiota (family), TCI227 increased the level of Lactobacillaceae, and then decreased the level of Deferribacteres and Prevotellaceae compared to the HC group. Finally, in fecal microbiota (genus), TCI227 decreased the level of Prevotella, and then increased the level of Lactobacillus and Ruminococcus compared to the HC group. This study suggested that TCI227 can improve HC and change the compositions of the intestinal microbiota in PO induced male HC SD rats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0032.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Microbiota; Microbiome; Adhesions; Pili; Curli; Enterotoxins
Online: 2 August 2022 (04:07:33 CEST)
The relationship between human health and gut microbiota is becoming more apparent. It is now widely believed that healthy gut flora plays a vital role in the overall well-being of the individual. There are spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of microbes from the esophagus to the rectum throughout an individual's lifetime. Through the development of genome sequencing technologies, scientists have been able to study the interactions between different microorganisms and their hosts to improve the health and disease of individuals. The normal gut microbiota provides various functions to the host, whereas the host, in turn, provides nutrients and promotes the development of healthy and resilient microbiota communities. Thus, the microbiota provides and maintains the gut's structural integrity and protects the gut against pathogens. The development of the normal gut microbiota is influenced by various factors. Some of these include the mode of delivery, diet, and antibiotics. In addition, the environment can also affect the development of the gut microbiota. For example, one of the main concerns of antibiotic use is the alteration of the gut microbiota, which could lead to the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. When microbes are disturbed, it can potentially lead to various diseases. Depending on the species' ability to adapt to the human body's environment, the fate of the microbes in the host and their relationship with the human body are decided. This review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of microbe, microbes-host immune interactions, and factors that can disturb their interactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0260.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: canine; fecal microbiota transplantation; treatment; mechanism
Online: 20 June 2022 (05:49:24 CEST)
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapeutic option for a variety of diseases, which is characterized as transferring fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor into the intestinal tract of a diseased receipt. In human clinics, FMT has been used for treating diseases for decades with promising results. In recent years, veterinary specialists adapted FMT in canine patients, however, compared to humans, canine FMT is more inclined to research purposes than practical applications in most cases due to safety concerns. Therefore, in order to facilitate the application of fecal transplant therapy in dogs, in this paper, we aimed to review recent application of FMT in canine clinical treatments as well as possible mechanisms that are involved in the process of therapeutic effect of FMT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; microbiota; probiotics; obesity
Online: 1 April 2021 (10:07:32 CEST)
Depression and metabolic diseases often coexist having several features in common, e.g., chronic low-grade inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Different microbiota interventions have been proposed to be used as a treatment for these disorders. In the paper we review the efficacy of probiotics in depressive disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome and its liver equivalent based on the published experimental studies, clinical trials and meta-analyses. Probiotics seem to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms when administered in addition to antidepressants. Additionally, probiotics intake may ameliorate some of the clinical components of metabolic diseases. However, standardized methodology regarding probiotics clinical trials has not been established yet. In this narrative review we discuss current knowledge on the recently used methodology with its strengths and limitations and propose criteria that may be implemented to create a new study of the effectiveness of probiotics in depressive disorders comorbid with metabolic abnormalities. We put across our choice on type of study population, probiotics genus, strains, dosages and formulations, intervention period, as well as primary and secondary outcome measures.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: probiotic; pig; poultry; microbiota; microbiome; intestine
Online: 19 November 2020 (10:26:23 CET)
The intestinal microbiota and its functions are regarded as critical for host health and disease. Probiotics can influence the gut microbiome and its interactions with the host, and are currently defined as “live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”. Probiotics have become common components of strategies to promote livestock health, welfare and productivity, not least due to restrictions on the use of antimicrobial drugs. Common probiotic organisms are considered commensals and are ‘generally recognized as safe’ (GRAS) via oral administration. This review outlines potential probiotic mechanisms, including recent findings. These mechanisms include those interactions primarily occurring between the supplemented probiotic microorganisms and the indigenous intestinal microbiota, perhaps within the gut lumen, as well as more direct interactions with the host via mucosal receptors or more distally following absorption of microbial components. There is good evidence that the gut microbiome is relatively stable in ‘healthy’ individuals and resistant to ‘colonisation’ by exogenous microbes, which helps exclude pathogens, but has implications for the establishment of probiotics, and could increase the importance of microbe-microbe interactions. However, such microbiomes may be receptive to complementary microbes or functions, while supplemented probiotics may dominate luminal populations, particularly in less populated regions of the intestine. Moreover, host-adapted microbes or microbiomes may elicit different host responses and/or be more effective. Some considerations for the interpretation of study results, including extrapolation from different models or microbial strains, are also included. In addition, notable mechanistic and/or pathogen challenge studies from pigs and poultry are highlighted to underline the recognised potential of probiotics in these species, particularly as the appropriate selection of microorganisms and their application continues to be better understood and improve.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: toxicology; microbiota; symbiosis; contaminants; resilience; environment
Online: 8 August 2020 (05:01:26 CEST)
Over the last 15 years, the advent of high-throughput ‘omics’ techniques has revealed the multiple roles and interactions occurring among hosts, their microbial partners and their environment. This microbiome revolution has radically changed our views of biology, evolution and individuality. Sitting at the interface between a host and its environment, the microbiome is a relevant yet understudied compartment for ecotoxicology research. Various recent works confirm that the microbiome reacts to and interacts with contaminants, with consequences for hosts and ecosystems. In this paper, we thus advocate for the development of a “microbiome-aware ecotoxicology” of organisms. We emphasize its relevance and discuss important conceptual and technical pitfalls associated with study design and interpretation. We identify topics such as functionality, quantification, temporality, resilience, interactions and prediction as major challenges and promising venues for microbiome research applied to ecotoxicology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: FFAR2; FFAR3; microbiota; gut; immune; SCFA
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:32:51 CEST)
Abstract: Role of gut microbiome in human health is becoming apparent. The major functional impact of gut microbiome is transmitted through the microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut and interact with host cells either in the local gut environment or get absorbed in the circulation to impact distant cells/organs. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut through fermentation of non-digestible fibers. SCFAs are known to function through various mechanism, however, their signaling through free-fatty acid receptor 2 and 3 (FFAR2/3; type of G-coupled protein receptors) is new therapeutic approach. FFAR2/3 are widely expression in diverse cell types in human and mice, and functions as sensors of SCFAs to change several physiological and cellular functions. FFAR2/3 modulates neurological signaling, energy metabolism, intestinal cellular homeostasis, immune response and hormone synthesis. FFAR2/3 functions through Gi and/or Gq signaling, that is mediated through specific structural features of SCFAs-FFAR2/3 bindings and modulating specific signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed the wide-spread expression and structural homologies between human and mice FFAR2/3, and their role in different human health conditions. This information can unlock opportunities to weigh the potential of FFAR2/3 as drug target to prevent human diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: celiac disease; gut microbiota; mendelian randomization
Online: 26 March 2020 (14:08:31 CET)
Celiac disease (CeD) is a complex immune-mediated inflammatory condition triggered by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Literature suggests that alterations in gut microbiota composition and function precede the onset of CeD. Considering that microbiota is partly determined by host genetics, we speculate that the genetic makeup of CeD patients could elicit disease development through alterations in the intestinal microbiota. To evaluate potential causal relationships between gut microbiota and CeD, we performed a Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization analysis (2SMR). Exposure data were obtained from the raw results of a previous Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of gut microbiota, and outcome data from summary statistics of CeD GWAS and Immunochip studies. We have identified a number of putative associations between gut microbiota SNPs associated with CeD. Regarding bacterial composition, most of the associated SNPs are related to Firmicutes phylum, whose relative abundance has been previously reported to be altered in CeD patients. In terms of functional units, we have linked a number of SNPs to several bacterial metabolic pathways that seem to be related to CeD. Overall, this study represents the first 2SMR approach to elucidate the relationship between microbiome and CeD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0385.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: One Health, fermented foods, microbiota, nutrition
Online: 19 September 2018 (13:50:00 CEST)
The microbioma is presently one of the hottest areas of scientific and medical research and exerts a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Fermented foods arise in the human relationship to the microbial environment. Further to the traditionally recognized effects of fermented foods and beverages on the digestive health and well-being there is now strong evidence on their general health benefits, namely the significance on the gut microbiota and brain functionality. We highlight the possibilities in this field, how little is still known, and call for a convergence of interdisciplinary research fields of One Health microbe-nutrition with fermented foods and gut-brain research. A consequence of civilisation, changes in present-day society in diets with more sugar, fat and salt, habits and lifestyle, contributes to the likelihood of an inflammatory microbiome, particularly the global epidemics of obesity and mental health. Although two recent papers claim that probiotics perturb rather than aid in microbiota recovery back to baseline after antibiotic administration in humans, consuming fermented foods has shown to reduce inflammation so improve gut health and the proper function of the body’s immune system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: LPS; microbiota; inflammation; intestinal permeability; obesity
Online: 20 July 2018 (04:56:08 CEST)
Obesity and chronic low-grade inflammation are becoming global epidemics. The dysbiosis has a specific role in the metabolism and energy stocks of the host. The discovery that a low-grade of inflammation could be directly connected to the intestinal microbiota metabolic endotoxemia (elevated levels of plasma lipopolysaccharides) has allowed the identification of novel mechanisms involved in the control of the intestinal barrier. In this review, it will analyze the latest news to explain how human symbiotic microorganisms participate in the growth of the fat reserves and promote insulin resistance as a low-grade inflammation. Besides, it will discuss new treatments with probiotics and prebiotics as a promising therapeutic approach to reverse the host's metabolic changes linked to dysbiosis observed in obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: prebiotic; microbiota; fermentation; dietary fiber; microbiome
Online: 27 October 2017 (15:33:12 CEST)
Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs. Fecal donations were collected from three healthy volunteers. Materials analyzed included: pure beta-glucan, Oatwell (commercially available oat-bran containing 22% oat β-glucan), xylooligosaccharides (XOS), WholeFiber (dried chicory root containing inulin, pectin, and hemi/celluloses), and pure inulin. Oatwell had the highest production of propionate at 12 h (4.76 μmol/mL) compared to inulin, WholeFiber and XOS samples (p<0.03). Oatwell’s effect was similar to those of the pure beta-glucan samples, both samples promoted the highest mean propionate production at 24 h. XOS resulted in a significant increase in the genus Bifidobacterium after 24 h of fermentation (0 h: 0.67 OTUs; 24 h: 5.22 OTUs; p = 0.038). Inulin and WholeFiber increased the beneficial genus Collinsella, consistent with findings in clinical studies. All analyzed compounds were fermentable and promoted the formation of beneficial SCFAs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Gut microbiota; enteric nervous system; mental health
Online: 23 November 2023 (10:33:09 CET)
Bacteria in the gut microbiome play an intrinsic part in immune activation, intestinal permeability, enteric reflex, and entero-endocrine signaling. Gut microbiota communicates with the central nervous system (CNS) through the production of bile acids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and histamine. A vast number of signals generated in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) reaches the brain via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve (VN). Signals from the CNS are returned to entero-epithelial cells (EES) via efferent VN fibers and communicate with 100 to 500 million neurons in the submucosa and myenteric plexus of the gut wall, which is referred to as the enteric nervous system (ENS). Intercommunications between the gut and CNS regulate mood, cognitive behavior, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, and schizophrenia. The modulation, development, and renewal of nerves in the ENS, and changes in the gut microbiome alter the synthesis and degradation of neurotransmitters, which ultimately influence our mental health. The more we decipher the gut microbiome and understand its effect on neurotransmission, the closer we may get to the developing of novel therapeutic and psychobiotic compounds to improve cognitive functions and prevent mental disorders. In this review, the intricate control of entero-endocrine signaling and immune responses that keep the gut microbiome in a balanced state, and the influence that changing gut bacteria have on neuropsychiatric disorders are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0408.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Probiotics; Prebiotics; Synbiotics; Gut microbiota; Fishes; Aquaculture
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:27:55 CET)
Aquaculture is a fast-emerging food-producing sector in which fishery production plays an im-perative socio-economic role, providing ample resources and tremendous potential worldwide. However, aquatic animals are exposed to the deterioration of the ecological environment and in-fection outbreaks, which represent significant issues nowadays. One of the reasons for these threats is the excessive use of antibiotics and synthetic drugs that have harmful impacts on the aquatic atmosphere. It is not surprising that functional biotic feeds such as probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, and synbiotics have been developed as natural alternatives to sustain a healthy microbial envi-ronment in aquaculture. These functional feed additives possess several beneficial characteristics, including gut microbiota modulation, immune response reinforcement, resistance to pathogenic organisms, improved growth performance, and enhanced feed utilization in aquatic animals. Nevertheless, their mechanisms in modulating the immune system and gut microbiota in aquatic animals are largely unclear. This review discusses current research advancements to fill research gaps and promote effective and healthy aquaculture production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1242.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: dietary iron; pregnancy; mother; Neonate; gut microbiota
Online: 19 October 2023 (10:34:35 CEST)
The aim of the study was to investigate the association between maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy and the gut microbiota characteristics of both the mother and neonate in a well-characterized cohort. A total of 95 mother-neonate dyads were included in our study, with basic information collected through questionnaires. A semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess maternal dietary intake during pregnancy, and maternal dietary iron intake was categorized into <20 mg/d and ≥20 mg/d groups. Fecal samples were collected from the mother in the third trimester and the neonate, allowing for assessment of the community profile and diversity of gut microbiota via 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Then, a comparison between different maternal dietary iron intake groups was conducted, adjusting for delivery mode (VD, vaginal delivery; CS, cesarean section) and other potential confounding factors. No significant differences in community profile and diversity were observed for the maternal gut microbiota in different dietary iron intake groups. In neonate fecal samples, the Shannon (P = 0.044) and Simpson (P = 0.010) diversity indices of the gut microbiota were higher in the maternal dietary iron intake ≥20 mg/d group, while Simpson diversity presented the same tendency in vaginal delivery (P = 0.041) after stratification. The relative abundance of the core genus Bifidobacterium showed a significant difference between groups (4.69 [1.19–12.77] vs. 13.98 [3.44–27.28]; P = 0.044). The abundance of Lactobacillus was different in the ≥20 mg/d group under both delivery modes (VD: beta = 2.9, w = 4.13; CS: beta = 2.77, w = 3.8). Our findings suggest that adequate dietary iron intake during pregnancy may promote beneficial bacterial colonization and increase the biodiversity of the neonate gut microbiota.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1822.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: capsaicin, pepper, diabetes, obesity, inflammation, gut microbiota
Online: 27 September 2023 (15:42:58 CEST)
Capsaicin, a lipophilic, volatile compound, is responsible for the pungent properties of chili peppers. In recent years, a significant increase in investigations into its properties has allowed the production of new formulations and the development of tools with biotechnological, diagnostic, and potential therapeutic applications. In this way, the possible clinical application of such compound is expanding every year. This opinion article aims to provide a synthesis of recent findings regarding the mechanisms by which capsaicin participates in the control of non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. This opinion review also discusses the recent findings and clinical studies of the use of capsaicin in body weight control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1970.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular health; gut microbiota; microbiome; dysbiosis; atherosclerosis
Online: 30 August 2023 (03:54:51 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), comprising heart and blood vessel disorders, persists as the foremost contributor to global morbidity and mortality. In modern times, the intricate composition of gut microbiota has garnered significant focus, particularly for its varying impact on diverse ailments. Perturbations in gut microbiota and consequent dysbiosis have demonstrated connections with the advancement and origin of CVD, including conditions like atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. This comprehensive review delves into the pivotal role of gut microbiota in maintaining cardiovascular well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0106.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Intestinal Microbiome; Gut Microbiota; Parasites; Ultrasound; Parasites
Online: 3 July 2023 (14:03:41 CEST)
Background: Globally, about 3.5 billion people are affected by intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). This study aimed to investigate the effects of IPIs on intestinal wall thickness and its potential association with hypertension in different genders. Methods: A total of 108 subjects, including 83 consecutive patients with symptomatic and laboratory-confirmed IPIs (male = 48; female = 35) and 25 healthy controls (male = 10; female = 15), were recruited. B-mode ultrasound grayscale and color images of the duodenum and colon were obtained with and without water contrast. Results: Patients with IPIs had a tendency towards greater duodenal wall thickness (DUOTHICK = 0.88 ± 0.73 cm) compared to controls (0.595 ± 0.089 cm), p = 0.056. Patients with IPIs also had significantly greater ascending colon wall thickness (ASCTHICK = 1.076 ± 0.29 cm) and descending colon wall thickness (DSCTHICK = 1.175 ± 0.366 cm) compared to controls (ASCTHICK = 0.6015 ± 0.1607 cm, DSCTHICK = 0.6223 ± 0.135 cm), p < 0.05. Men over 50 years had greater DSCTHICK (1.25 ± 0.434 cm) than post-menopausal women (0.986 ± 0.389 cm), p < 0.05. DSCTHICK significantly predicted diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.295, p < .05) and blood sodium level (β = -0.300, p < .05). Conclusion: We demonstrated the effects of IPIs on the intestinal microbiome causing intestinal wall cytoskeletal dysfunction, which led to the development of a "leaky gut syndrome."
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; gut microbiota; diversity; diabetes; metformin
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:06:36 CEST)
The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining host health and has a significant impact on human health and disease. In this study, we investigated the alpha diversity of gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients and analyzed the impact of COVID-19 variants, antibiotic treatment, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metformin therapy on gut microbiota composition and diversity. We used a culture-based method to analyze the gut microbiota and calculated alpha-diversity using the Shannon H' and Simpson 1/D indices. We collected clinical data, such as length of hospital stay (LoS), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). We found that patients with T2D had significantly lower alpha-diversity than those without T2D. Antibiotic use was associated with a reduction in alpha-diversity, while metformin therapy was associated with an increase. We did not find significant differences in alpha-diversity between the Delta and Omicron groups. Length of hospital stay, CRP levels, and NLR showed weak to moderate correlations with alpha diversity. Our findings suggest that maintaining a diverse gut microbiota may benefit COVID-19 patients with T2D. Interventions aimed at preserving or restoring gut microbiota diversity, such as avoiding unnecessary antibiotic use and promoting metformin therapy, may improve patient outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0413.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Coral; Holo-omics; Omics; Meta-omics; microbiota
Online: 23 March 2023 (11:15:45 CET)
This mini-review discusses the importance of microorganisms in various biological processes and the paradigm shift in researchers' perception of microorganisms' biology and genetics. Microorganisms are now understood to interact with their associated microorganisms, and advanced sequencing technology is used to study these interactions. The article highlights the importance of careful study design to efficiently generate and integrate data derived from meta-omics approaches such as (meta)genomics, (meta)transcriptomics, (meta)proteomics, and (meta)metabolomics to fully explore the extent of interactions between host organisms and their associated microbiota. The article also discusses the usefulness of metabarcoding and metagenomics in studying coral holobiont diversity and composition. While metabarcoding can comprehensively explore the genetic diversity of various biological taxa, it has limitations in classifying prokaryotes based on 16S rRNA amplicons. On the other hand, metagenomics generates vast amounts of short reads sequencing data that can be used to examine microbial diversity with greater precision and predict the possible functions of the gene set that is presented in the sample. However, the ability to link species to their functional capabilities is challenging, especially for microbes with uncertain evolutionary relationships, hidden microbes, and microeukaryotes. Finally, the article highlights the potential usefulness of these approaches in conservation biology and molecular and environmental science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Gut microbiota; Dysbiosis; Demography; Firmicutes; Proteobacteria; Actinobacteria
Online: 2 March 2023 (10:06:05 CET)
The gut microbiome offers numerous advantages to the hosts, through a variety of physiological mechanisms like firming up gut integrity or shaping the intestinal epithelium. Studies showed 2172 species are identified and isolated from human beings, ordered into twelve different phyla, of which 93.5% belonged to Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Out of the 12, three phyla are identified. Human microbial communities are affected by the host external factors like dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, antibiotic usage, internal factors gender, host genotype, age and race. To analyze the dysbiosis and bacterial variation in different areas of District Faisalabad 10,000 individuals of age 25–35 years were recruited from the two different rural and urban localities. The oral swab and fecal sample were collected according to prescribed manner. The collected samples from demographically and geographically distinct regions of District Faisalabad were subjected to DNA extraction and quantification. The amplification of 16s rRNA was carried out by PCR and visualized through a transilluminator. The results revealed significant elevated, % abundance of fecal microbial profile Blautia spp, Firmicutes, Ruminococcaceae, in rural population however non-significant difference % abundance of total Bifido, E. coli, Faecali bacteria, total Lactobacillus were identified in both demographically distinct regions. The pathogenic Gamma Protebacteria, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter coli were not detected in both study areas. Out of five orally detected microbial profiles, elevated % abundance of Firmicutes was detected in rural population however non-significant difference was observed in % abundance of total Bifido and E. coli in both populations. Total Lactobacillus and Fusobacterium were not detected in oral sample of both urban and rural population. Conclusively, this research accomplished the potential effects of demographic and geographical induced dysbiosis in the normal microbiome of the oral cavity and intestine that might cause dysbiosis associated disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: fecal microbiota transplant; domestic cat; chronic enteropathies
Online: 10 January 2023 (02:15:25 CET)
There is growing interest in the application of fecal microbiota transplants (FMTs) in small animal medicine, but there are few published studies that have tested their effectiveness in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Here we use 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine fecal microbiome changes in 68 domestic cats with chronic digestive issues that underwent FMT treatment using lyophilized stool that was delivered in oral capsules. Fecal samples were collected from FMT recipients before and two weeks after treatment, as well as from their stool donors, and healthy animals. We found that according to their owners, 77% of cats were reported to show improvement in their clinical signs (termed ‘Responders’), and 23% were reported to exhibit no change or a worsening of their clinical signs (termed ‘Non-Responders’). Variation in the fecal microbiomes of FMT recipients most strongly correlated with host clinical signs, diet, and IBD diagnosis. The relative abundances of Collinsella, Negativibacillus, Parabacteroides, and Peptoclostridium changed differentially in FMT recipients. Overall, on average 13% of the bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) were shared between stool donors and FMT recipients (excluding ASVs already present in FMT recipients prior to treatment). The most commonly shared ASVs were classified as Prevotella 9, Peptoclostridium, Bacteroides, Collinsella and unclassified Lachnospiraceae. Lastly, FMT recipients that had recently taken antibiotics exhibited increases in microbiome similarity to an age-matched healthy reference set compared to other cats. Cats that had diarrhea or diarrhea with vomiting became more similar to healthy cats than did cats exhibiting other clinical signs. Overall, our results suggest that oral capsule FMT treatment was effective in this group of cats and microbiome responses may be modulated by the FMT recipient’s initial presenting clinical signs, prior IBD diagnosis, recent antibiotic use, and their diet.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0289.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mitochondria; reactive species; eustress; distress; bioenergetic; microbiota
Online: 23 May 2022 (09:41:06 CEST)
From oxidative eustress and distress, to bioenergetic metabolism, and cell death, the reactive species interactome (RSI) and mitochondria are two connected metabolisms that require further investigation improving redox medicine. The step before, finding new clues needs a comprehensive discussion of the two metabolisms, and their relationship. Here, the review focuses on the RSI-mitochondria axis, from mitochondrial roles to crosstalk between mitochondria and other organelles, and the major implication of the RSI in mitochondrial roles. Specifically, the review discussed the apoptosis-necroptosis-ferroptosis death traingle, mitochondrial protein quality control system, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial metabolome. Through mitochondrial diseases, and mitochondrial dysfunction associated with diseases, the RSI-mitochondria axis is proposed as a brand-new perspective, including with the involvement of bacterial microbiota, on redox signaling, and redox medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: PirAB; Vibrio parahaemolyticus; AHPND; shrimp; microbiota change
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:12:55 CET)
PirAB is a binary protein complex secreted by specific strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) that harbor the pVA1 virulence plasmid and express PirAVp and PirBVp toxins. PirABVp causes acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), a newly emergent penaeid shrimp disease that can cause 70–100% mortality and has resulted in great economic losses since its appearance. The cy-totoxic effect of PirABVp on the epithelial cell of the shrimp hepatopancreas has been extensively reported. Our studies found that the PirBVp subunit has lectin activity and recognizes mucin-like O-glycosidic structures in the shrimp hepatopancreas. The PirAVp subunit may have a stabiliza-tion function of the binary complex. However, we also found that Vp AHPND changes the water microbiota community structure and causes a significant reduction in several bacteria, especially Neptuniibacter spp. We propose that the PirABvp toxin could exhibit a dual role: damage the shrimp hepatopancreas and kill surrounding bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Gallic acid; Chlorogenic acid,; Microbiota; Trimethylamine
Online: 5 April 2021 (16:28:50 CEST)
Choline is metabolized by the gut microbiota into trimethylamine (TMA), the precursor of pro-atherosclerotic molecule trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Reduction of TMA formation has been shown to provide to cardioprotective effects, and some phytochemicals may produce such reduction. This study aimed to develop an optimized, high-throughput anaerobic fermentation methodology to study inhibition of choline microbial metabolism into TMA by phenolic compounds with healthy human fecal starter. Optimal fermentation conditions were: 20 % fecal slurry (1:10 in PBS), 100 M choline, and 12 h fermentation. Also, 10 mM of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB) was defined as a positive TMA production inhibitor, achieving a ~50 % reduction in TMA production. Gallic acid and chlorogenic acid reported higher TMA inhibitory potential (maximum of 80 -90 % in. TMA production inhibition), with IC50 around 5 mM. Nor DMB neither gallic acid and chlorogenic acid reduced TMA production through cytotoxic effects, indicating mechanisms such as altered TMA lyase activity or expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Stool; Fecal; Microbiome; Microbiota; Heterogeneous; Homogeneous; Sample
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:29:00 CET)
Background. Inferior quality of biological material compromises data, slows discovery, and wastes research funds. The gut microbiome plays a critical role in human health and disease, yet little attention has been given to optimizing collection and processing methods of human stool. Methods. We collected the entire bowel movement from 2 healthy volunteers: one to examine stool sample heterogeneity and one to test stool sample handling parameters. Sequencing and bi-oinformatic analyses were used to examine the microbiome composition. Results. The microbiome profile varied depending on where the subsample was obtained from the stool. The exterior cortex of the stool was rich in specific phyla and deficient in others while the interior core of the stool revealed opposite microbiome profiles. Sample processing also re-sulted in varying microbiome profiles. Homogenization and stabilization at 4°C gave superior microbial diversity profiles compared to the fresh or frozen subsamples of the same stool sample. Bacterial proliferation continued in the fresh subsample when processed at ambient temperature. Bacteroidetes proliferated and Firmicutes diminished during the 30-minute processing of fresh sample. The frozen sample had good overall diversity but Proteobacteria diminished likely be-cause of the freeze/thaw. Conclusions. The microbiome profile is specific to the section of the stool being sampled. Stool sample collection, homogenization, and stabilization at 4°C for 24 hours provides a “neat”, high-quality sample of sufficient quantity that can be banked into aliquots with nearly identical microbial diversity profiles. This collection pipeline is essential to accelerate our understanding of the gut microbiome in health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: intestine microbiota; Cattle Egret; Pied Crows; Kinshasa
Online: 5 August 2020 (09:59:45 CEST)
Purpose: Our study focused on Pied Grow and Cattle Egret, two commensal and ubiquitous birds feeding in dumps and frequenting our homes. Our aim was to identify the bacteria that birds bring to our homes and could be a potential risk to Congolese health. Method: We have done bacteriological analyses of bird feces for to explore its gut micriobiota composition. The feces were collected in the uricotelic cloaca by using a swab in 52 Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and 23 Pied Crows (Corvus albus) from Kinshasa city. Results: Bacteriological analyses revealed the presence of Proteus vulgaris (3.8%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.8%) on Cattle Egret, Salmonella sp. (8.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.7%), Proteus vulgaris (30.4%) on Pied Crow, Citrobacter spp and Escherichia coli (100%) on both Cattle Egret and Pied Crow respectively. Conclusion: The presence of these pathogenic germs, suggesting these commensal and ubiquitous birds may be potential vectors of various Diseases which pose serious health problems in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: milk; human; microbiota; microbiome; extracellular vesicle; breastfeeding
Online: 23 April 2020 (05:11:19 CEST)
The microbiota of human breast milk (HBM) contributes to infant gut colonization; however, whether bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in HBM or might contribute to this process remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized the HBM microbiota of healthy Korean mothers and measured the key bacteria likely affecting infant gut colonization by analyzing both the microbiota and bacterial EVs. A total of 22 HBM samples were collected from lactating mothers. The DNA of bacteria and bacteria-derived EVs was extracted from each sample. Gene analysis was performed using Illumina MiSeq. Firmicutes accounted for the largest portion among the phyla, followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, and Actinobacteria in both bacteria and bacterial EV samples. At the genus level, Streptococcus (25.1%) and Staphylococcus (10.7%) were predominant in bacterial samples, whereas Bacteroides (9.1%), Acinetobacter (6.9%), and Lactobacillaceae(f) (5.5%) were prevalent in bacterial EV samples. Several genera including Bifidobacterium were significantly positively correlated between the two samples. Our findings reveal the diverse bacterial communities in HBM of healthy lactating mothers and suggest the presence of key bacteria with metabolic activity in HBM and that EVs derived from these bacteria may contribute to the vertical transfer of gut microbiota from mother to infant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gut microbiota; ADHD; 16S rRNA gene; Inattention
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:25:29 CET)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. Given the growing evidence of gut microbiota being involved in psychiatric (including neurodevelopmental) disorders, we aimed to identify differences in gut microbiota composition between participants with ADHD and controls and to investigate the role of the microbiota in inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Fecal samples were collected from 107 participants (NADHD=42; Ncontrols=50; NsubthreholdADHD=15; range age: 13-29 years). The relative quantification of bacterial taxa was done using 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. Beta-diversity revealed significant differences in bacterial composition between participants with ADHD and healthy controls, which was also significant for inattention, but showing a trend in case of hyperactivity/impulsivity only. Ten genera showed nominal differences (P < 0.05) between both groups, of which seven genera were tested for their association with ADHD symptom scores (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, time delay between feces collection and symptoms assessment, medication use and family relatedness). Our results show that variation of a genus from the Ruminococcaceae family (Ruminococcaceae_UCG_004) is associated (after multiple testing correction) with inattention symptoms, and suggest a role of gut microbiota in ADHD pathophysiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Lactobacillus; piglet; weaning; gut microbiota; growth enhancement.
Online: 24 December 2019 (10:59:14 CET)
The composition of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets is easily affected by environmental changes, particularly during the weaning period. Compound strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius were supplemented to piglets during pre- and post-weaning to determine their effects in improving the growth performance and ameliorating the diarrhea rate and stress caused by antioxidation in piglets. A larger number of L. reuteri and L. salivarius colonized the distal segment of the ileum and the total numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium were higher in the ileal mucous membrane and cecal lumen with probiotics supplementation. The numbers of antioxidative and immune molecules were increased in the plasma following compound bacteria (CL) supplementation, whereas cortisol and endotoxin levels were lower and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 were higher. Spearman’s and KEGG analysis of the bacterial operational taxonomic unit and antioxidative and immune indices and metabolic genes indicated that the body growth modulation by CL supplementation could be attributed to optimization of the intestinal bacterial composition. Collectively, these results suggest that supplementation with CL could reduce stress and improve the growth performance of piglets during weaning by optimizing the intestinal bacterial composition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0554.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: gut brain axis; microbiota; functional gastrointestinal disorders
Online: 24 October 2018 (07:41:58 CEST)
The central nervous system (CNS) and the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract communicate through the gut-brain axis (GBA). Such communication is bi-directional and involves neuronal, endocrine and immunological mechanisms. The scientific data are mounting that gut microbiota is a source of a number of neuroactive and immunocompetent substances, which shape the structure and function of brain regions involved in control of emotions, physical activity and cognition. Most of GI maladies are associated with altered transmission within the GBA and influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Current treatment protocols widely advocated for the treatment of GI disorders may positively or adversely affect the composition of intestinal microbiota with diverse impact on therapeutic outcome. The alterations of gut microbiota have been associated with mood and depressive disorders. and mental health is frequently altered in the course of many GI and non-GI ailments. Deregulation of the GBA may constitute a grip point for the development of diagnostic tools and personalized microbiota-based therapy. For example next generation sequencing (NGS) offers detailed analysis of microbiome footprints in patients with mental and GI disorders. Psychobiotics are new class of beneficial bacteria, with documented efficacy in the treatment of gut-brain axis disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0404.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbiota; kynurenine pathway; serotonin; inflammation; gut motility
Online: 22 June 2018 (06:29:42 CEST)
The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by trillions of commensal bacteria collectively known as the gut microbiota. Our recognition of the significance of the complex interaction between the microbiota, and its host has grown dramatically over the past years. A balanced microbial community is a key regulator of the immune response, and metabolism of dietary components, which in turn, modulates several brain processes impacting mood and behavior. Consequently, it is likely that disruptions within the composition of the microbiota would remotely affect the mental state of the host. Here, we discuss how intestinal bacteria and their metabolites can orchestrate gut-associated neuroimmune mechanisms that influence mood and behavior leading to depression. In particular, we focus on microbiota-triggered gut inflammation and its implications in shifting the tryptophan metabolism towards kynurenine biosynthesis while disrupting the serotonergic signaling. We further investigate the gaps to be bridged in this exciting field of research in order to clarify our understanding of the multifaceted crosstalk in the microbiota-gut-brain interphase, bringing about a novel microbiota-targeted therapeutics for mental illnesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: diet, gut microbiota, epigenetics, inflammatory bowel diseases
Online: 15 July 2017 (00:46:37 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent a growing public health concern due to increasing incidence worldwide. The current notion on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental triggers. Among the environmental factors associated to IBD, diet plays an important role in modulating the gut microbiome, influencing epigenetic changes and, therefore, could be applied as a therapeutic tool to improve the disease course. Nevertheless, the current dietary recommendations for disease prevention and management are scarce and of weak evidence. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the complex interactions among diet, microbiome and epigenetics in IBD. Whereas over-abundance of calories and some macronutrients increases gut inflammation, several micronutrients have the potential to modulate it. Immunonutrition has emerged as a new concept putting forward the importance of vitamins such as vitamins A, C, E, D, folic acid and beta-carotene and trace elements such as zinc, selenium, manganese and iron. However, when assessed in clinical trials, specific micronutrients exerted a limited benefit. Beyond nutrients, anti-inflammatory dietary patterns as a complex intervention approach have become popular over the recent years. Hence, exclusive enteral nutrition in pediatric Crohn’s disease is the only nutritional intervention currently recommended as a first-line therapy. Other nutritional interventions or specific diets including the Specific Carbohydrate Diet, the low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyol diet and most recently the Mediterranean diet have shown strong anti-inflammatory properties and provide a promise for improving disease symptoms. Definitely, more work is required to evaluate the role of individual food compounds and complex nutritional interventions with potential to decrease inflammation as means for prevention and management of IBD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0691.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: faecal microbiota transplantation; autologous faecal microbiota transplantation; autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; HSCT; bone marrow transplantation, multiple myeloma, gut microbiome, gut microbiota; supportive care, supportive oncology
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:56:32 CET)
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative approach for blood cancers, yet its efficacy is undermined by a range of acute and chronic complications. In light of mounting evidence to suggest that these complications are linked to a dysbiotic gut microbiome, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) delivered during the acute phase after HSCT. Of note, this trial opted for FMT prepared using the individual’s own stool (autologous FMT) to mitigate risks of disease transmission from donor stool. Adults (>18 years) with multiple myeloma were recruited from a single centre. Stool was collected prior to starting first-line therapy. Patients that progressed to HSCT were offered FMT via 3 x re-tention enemas before day +5 (HSCT = day 0). Feasibility was determined by recruitment rate, number and volume of enemas administered, and retention time. Longitudinally collected stool samples were also col-lected to explore the influence of auto-FMT using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. N=4 (2F:2M) participants received auto-FMT in 12 months. Participants received an average of 2.25(1-3) enemas (43.67(25-50)mL total, retained for an average of 60.78(10-145)minutes). No AEs, attributed to the FMT, were identified. Although minimum requirements were met for the volume and retention of auto-FMT, recruitment was significantly impacted by the logistical challenges of pre-therapy stool collection. This ultimately under-mined the feasibility of this trial and suggests that third party (donor) FMT should be prioritised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: by-product; glutamine peptide; intestinal health; gut microbiota
Online: 31 October 2023 (11:06:04 CET)
China faces a persistent deficiency in feed protein resources. Enhancing the utilization efficiency of indigenous feed protein resources emerges as a viable strategy to alleviate the current deficit in protein feed supply. Corn gluten meal (CGM), characterized by high proportion of crude protein and glutamine, is predominantly employed in animal feed. Nonetheless, the water-insolubility of CGM protein hampers its protein bioavailability when utilized as feed material. This study aimed to augment protein bioavailability, liberate glutamine peptides from CGM, and produce gluta-mine-enriched CGM fermented feed. We executed a co-fermentation protocol using Bacillus subtilis A5, Lactobacillus 02002, and acid protease to generate the CGM fermented feed. Subsequent in vivo experiment with broilers were conducted to assess the efficacy of the fermented product. Findings revealed that the soluble protein, glutamine, small peptides, and lactic acid contents in the fer-mented feed increased by 69.1%, 700%, 47.6%, and 125.9%, respectively. Incorporating CGM fermented feed into the diet markedly enhanced the growth performance and intestinal health of broilers, positively modulated the cecal microbiota structure, and augmented the population of beneficial bacteria, specifically Lactobacillus. These results furnish both experimental and theoretical foundations for deploying CGM fermented feed as an alternative protein feed resource.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Stroke; gut microbiota; butyric acid; microglia; astrocytes; NLRP3
Online: 20 October 2023 (11:53:16 CEST)
Ischemic stroke (IS) is a group of vascular disease concomitant with high morbidity and mortality. Berberine is a bioactive substance and it has known to improve stroke, but the mechanism is yet to be proven. Mice were fed with BBR for 14 days. Then, mice were made into MCAO/R models. Neurological score, infarct volume, neuronal damage and markers associated with inflammation were detected. We tested the changes of intestinal flora in model mice after BBR administration by 16SrRNA sequencing. Chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect butyrate chemically. Tissue immunofluorescence was used to detect the changes of microglia and astroglia in mice brain. Our findings suggest that berberine improves stroke outcomes by modulating gut microbiota. Specifically, after MCAO/R mice were given berberine, beneficial bacteria producing butyric acid increased significantly, and the mice also had significantly higher levels of butyric acid. Administration of butyric acid and an inhibitor of butyric acid synthesis, heptyl-coA, showed that butyric acid improved stroke outcomes in model mice. In addition, butyric acid could inhibit the activation of microglia and astrocytes in the brain of model mice, thereby inhibiting the release of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and improving stroke outcomes. Our results suggest that berberine may improve stroke outcomes by modulating the gut flora to increase the abundance of butyric acid. These findings elucidate the mechanisms by which berberine improves stroke outcomes and provide some basis for clinical treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: endometriosis; the endocannabinoid system; CB1; CB2; gut microbiota
Online: 4 October 2023 (10:52:24 CEST)
There is a growing interest in the endocannabinoid system and the gut microbiota. Both areas have been suggested to play a role in endometriosis, however this is yet to be studied comprehensively. The purpose of this narrative review is to identify the gaps in endometriosis research in the context of these two areas. It underscores the limited knowledge regarding the involvement of the endocannabinoid system and gut microbiota in endometriosis. Further research in these areas is essential to unlock the therapeutic potential of cannabis and enhance the understanding of endometriosis pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0183.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: bacterial diversity; gut microbiota; prolactin receptor; lactation; weaning
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:46:06 CEST)
Maternal milk supports offspring development by providing microbiota, macronutrients, micronutrients, immune factors, and hormones. The hormone prolactin (PRL) is an important component of milk with protective effects against chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Because maternal milk regulates microbiota composition and microbiota protect against NCDs, we aimed to investigate whether PRL regulates gut microbiota in newborn mice. 16SrRNA sequencing of feces and bioinformatics analysis were performed to evaluate gut microbiota in mice null for the PRL receptor (Prlr-KO) at the onset of weaning (postnatal day 21). The normalized colon and cecal weights were higher and lower, respectively, in Prlr-KO mice relative to wild-type mice (Prlr-WT). Relative abundance (Simpson Evenness Index), phylogenetic diversity, and bacterial concentration in gut contents were lower in the absence of the PRL receptor. Eleven bacteria species, out of 470, differed between Prlr-KO and Prlr-WT mice with two bacterial genera (Anaerotruncus and Lachnospiraceae) related to NCD development being the most common in Prlr-KO. Furthermore, a higher metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides was predicted in Prlr-KO mice compared to Prlr-WT mice; these metabolites have antimicrobial properties and are present in microbe-associated pathogenicity. In summary, the absence of the PRL receptor changes intestinal microbiota composition, resulting in lower microbiota abundance and richness, which could contribute to NCD development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1671.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: fermentation; sour bamboo shoots; volatile compounds; core microbiota
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:43:09 CEST)
Fermented bamboo shoots are a distinctive ingredient in Southern cuisine. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology (HTS) were employed to investigate the relationship among physicochemical properties, characteristic volatile compounds, and core microbial communities. The results show that the chewiness, fracturability, hardness, and pH decreased, while total acidity increased during 60d-fermentation. The contents of reducing sugar and nitrite reached the peak on the 14th day of fermentation and then decreased. A total of 80 volatile compounds were detected during sour bamboo shoot fermentation, with 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol having the highest concentration. Among them, 12 volatile compounds (VIP ≥ 1) were identified as characteristic aroma substances of sour bamboo shoots. The dominant bacterial phyla in sour bamboo shoots were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, while Bacillus and Acinetobacter were the dominant genus. Correlation analysis showed that Firmicutes positive correlation with 3,6-Nonadien-1-ol, (E,Z)-, Oxalic acid, isobutyl hexyl ester ,(-)-O-Acetylmalic anhydride, TA Bacillus was negative correlation with Silanediol, dimethyl-, and Oxime-, methoxy-phenyl-. This study provides a theoretical basis for screening flavor-enhancing microorganisms as fermentation agents in sour bamboo shoots, which can contribute to the improvement of their quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0583.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: cosmetics; skin microbiota; Staphylococcus epidermidis; lactic acid; PCA
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:09:58 CEST)
Cosmetics have various characters, but there have been no studies which classified the properties of cosmetics based on their effects on skin-domesticated bacteria. In this study, we established an anaerobic culture and short-chain fatty acid measurement system using Staphylococcus epidermidis, a representative bacterium of indigenous skin bacteria. Furthermore, this system was used to extract and classify the characteristics of 9 cosmetics. Cosmetics containing ferments of rice and soy were clustered in the vicinity, although one cosmetic containing soy ferment was clustered distant from other similar cosmetics. Cosmetics from South Asia and those containing natural plant extracts were clustered in the vicinity. These results show that this method can be utilized as a cosmetics pattern map, and will provide a method to prevent growth of opportunistic bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: NAFLD; Gut Microbiota; Inflammation; Metagenomics; Live Biotherapeutic Product
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:59:14 CEST)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects about 20–40% of the adult population in high-income countries and is now a leading indication for liver transplantation and can drive to hepatocellular carcinoma. The link between gut microbiota dysbiosis and NAFLD is now clearly established. Through analyses of the gut microbiota with shotgun metagenomics, we observed that compared to healthy controls, Adlercreutzia equolifaciens is depleted in patients with liver diseases such as NAFLD. Its abundance also decreases as the disease progresses and eventually disappears in the last stages indicating a strong association with disease severity. Moreover, we show that A. equolifaciens possesses anti-inflammatory properties, both in vitro and in vivo in a humanized mouse model of NAFLD. Therefore, our results demonstrate a link between NAFLD and the severity of liver disease and the presence of A. equolifaciens and its anti-inflammatory actions. Counterbalancing dysbiosis with this bacterium may be a promising live biotherapeutic strategy of liver diseases..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: ASVs; diet habit; Gekko japonicus; gut microbiota; sex
Online: 3 March 2023 (01:31:32 CET)
Numerous studies have demonstrated that multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors shape the structure and composition of gut microbiota in a host. The disorder of gut microbiota may trigger various host diseases. Here, we collected fecal samples from wild-caught Japanese geckos (Gekko japonicus) and captive conspecifics fed with mealworms (mealworm-fed geckos) and fruit flies (fly-fed geckos), aiming to examine dietary and sexual correlates of gut microbiota. We used the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology to determine the composition of gut microbiota. The dominant phyla with a mean relative abundance higher than 10% were Verrucomicrobiota, Bacteroidota and Firmicutes. Gut microbial community richness was higher in mealworm-fed geckos than in fly-fed and wild geckos, and community diversity was higher in mealworm-fed geckos than in wild geckos. Neither alpha nor beta diversity of gut microbiota differed among wild, mealworm-fed and fly-fed geckos. The beta rather than alpha diversity of gut microbiota was sex-dependent. Based on the relative abundance of gut bacteria and its gene functions, we concluded that gut microbiota contributed more significantly to the host’s metabolic and immune functions. Higher diversity of gut microbiota in mealworm-fed geckos could result from higher chitin contents of insects of the order Coleoptera. This study not only provides basic information about the gut microbiota of G. japonicus, but also shows that gut microbiota correlates with dietary habit and sex in the species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Obesity; gut microbiota; placenta; brain development; fatal development
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:15:21 CEST)
Obesity in pregnancy induces metabolic syndrome, low-grade inflammation, altered endocrine factors, placental function, and the maternal gut microbiome. All these factors impact fetal growth and development, including brain development. The lipid metabolic transporters of the maternal-fetal-placental unit are dysregulated in obesity. Consequently, the transport of essential long-chain PUFAs for fetal brain development is disturbed. The mother’s gut microbiota is vital in maintaining postnatal energy homeostasis and maternal-fetal immune competence. Obesity during pregnancy changes the gut microbiota, affecting fetal brain development. Obesity and a high-fat diet in pregnancy can induce placental and intrauterine inflammation and thus influence the neurodevelopmental outcomes of the offspring. Several epidemiological studies observed an association between maternal obesity and adverse neurodevelopment. This review discusses the effects of maternal obesity and gut microbiota on fetal neurodevelopment outcomes. In addition, the possible mechanisms of the impacts of obesity and gut microbiota on fetal brain development are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human milk; DNA extraction; PCR; DNA quality, microbiota
Online: 14 October 2022 (03:19:46 CEST)
Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have shown that the human milk microbiota of healthy women varies substantially. The gDNA extraction method may influence the observed variation, biasing the microbiological reconstruction after all. In this study, a genomic DNA extraction method for DNA isolation from human milk samples was standardized and compared with commercial and standard hose make methods. Spectrophotometric measurements, gel electrophoresis, and PCR amplifications were used as criteria for evaluating the quantity, quality, and functionality of the extracted DNA. Furthermore, the standardized method of extracting gDNA from human milk was evaluated for its ability to isolate functional DNA from gram-positive, and gram-negative bacteria and fungi, to improve the reconstruction of microbiological profiles. The novel DNA extraction method increased the quantity and quality of the gDNA extracted compared with commercial and standard house-make protocols. This method even allowed PCR amplification of the V3-V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal gene in all samples, and the ITS-1 region of the fungal 18S ribosomal gene in 95 % of the samples as well. It is concluded that the proposed method provides better performance for the extraction of gDNA from complex samples such as human milk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Organoids; IBD; Inflammation; Target therapy; microbiota; immune system
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disease caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microbiota that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. IBD encompasses two major clinical entities: ulcerative colitis (UC), which is limited to the colonic mucosa, and Crohn disease (CD), which might affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the prevalence of IBD is increasing worldwide, therapy remains suboptimal, largely because the variability of causative mechanisms, raising the need to develop individualized therapeutic approaches targeted to each individual patient. In this context, patients-derived intestinal organoids represent an effective tool for advancing our understanding on IBD’ s pathogenesis. Organoid 3D culture systems offer a unique model for dissecting epithelial mechanisms involved IBDs and test individualized therapy, although the lack of a functional immune system and a microbiota, two driving components of the IBD pathogenesis, represent a major barrier for their exploitation in clinical medicine. In this review we have examined how to improve the translational utility of intestinal organoids in IBD and how co-coltures of 3D or 2D organoids and immune cells and/or intestinal microbiota might help to overcome these limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aging; intestinal microbiota; dysbiosis; probiotics; microbial co-occurrences
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:59:55 CET)
Age-related alterations in the gut microbiome composition and its impacts on the host’s health have been well described; however, detailed analyses of the gut microbial structure defining ecological microbe-microbe interactions is limited. One of the ways to determine these interactions is by understanding microbial co-occurrence patterns. We previously showed promising abilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 on the aging gut microbiome and immune system. However, the potential of the DDS-1 strain to modulate microbial co-occurrence patterns is unknown. Hence, we aimed to investigate the ability of L. acidophilus DDS-1 to modulate the fecal, mucosal and cecal-related microbial co-occurrence networks in young and aging C57BL/6J mice. Our Kendall’s tau correlation measures of co-occurrence revealed age-related changes in the gut microbiome, which were characterized by reduced number of nodes and associations across sample types when compared to younger mice. After four-week supplementation, L. acidophilus DDS-1 differentially modulated the overall microbial community structure in fecal and mucosal samples as compared to cecal samples. Beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Akkermansia acted as connectors in aging networks in response to L. acidophilus DDS-1 supplementation. Our findings provided the first evidence of the DDS-1-induced gut microbial ecological interactions revealing the complex structure of microbial ecosystems with age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0318.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Chronic rhinosinusitis; probiotics; microbiome; nasal microbiota; microbiome therapy
Online: 21 October 2021 (23:00:15 CEST)
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a significant health problem. It affects 5%–12% of the general population. The causes that underlie the onset of CRS are not yet well known. However, many factors may contribute to its onset, such as environmental factors and the host’s condition. Medical treatment mainly uses local corticosteroids, nasal irrigation, and antibiotics. In recent years, a new therapeutic approach that employs the use of probiotics emerged. Probiotics have been extensively studied as a therapy for dysbiosis and inflammatory pathologies of various parts of the body . We aimed to examine the studies in the existing literature to update probiotics’ role in rhinosinusitis chronic medical treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: gut microbiota; critically ill; faecal microbial transplantation; multiorgan
Online: 14 September 2021 (09:52:56 CEST)
The human gut microbiota consists of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. It is a dynamic ecosystem shaped by several factors, which play an essential role in both healthy and diseased states of humans. A disturbance of the gut microbiota, also termed “dysbiosis,” is associated with increased host susceptibility to a range of diseases. Because of splanchnic ischaemia, exposure to antibiotics, and/or underlying the disease critically ill patients loose 90% of the commensal organisms in their gut within hours after the insult. This is followed by a rapid overgrowth of potentially pathogenic and pro-inflammatory bacteria altering metabolic, immune, and even neurocognitive functions and turning the gut into the driver of systemic inflammation and multiorgan failure. Indeed, restoring healthy microbiota by means of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the critically ill is an attractive and plausible concept in intensive care. Yet, available data from controlled studies are limited to probiotics and FMT for severe C. difficile infection or severe inflammatory bowel disease. Case series and observational trials generate hypothesis that FMT might be feasible and safe in immunocompromised patients, refractory sepsis, or severe antibiotic-associated diarrhea in ICU. There is a burning need to test these hypotheses in randomized controlled trials powered for determination of patient-centered outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: petroleum; metagenomics; core microbiota, functional potential, oil fields
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:29:57 CEST)
Microorganisms inhabiting subsurface petroleum reservoirs are key players in biochemical transformations. The interactions of microbial communities in these environments are highly complex and still poorly understood. This work aimed to assess publicly available metagenomes from oil reservoirs and implement a robust pipeline of genome-resolved metagenomics to deci-pher metabolic and taxonomic profiles of petroleum reservoirs worldwide. Analysis of 301,2 Gb of metagenomic information derived from heavily flooded petroleum reservoirs in China and Alaska to non-flooded petroleum reservoirs in Brazil enabled us to reconstruct 148 MAGs of high and medium quality. At the phylum level, 74% of MAGs belonged to bacteria and 26% to ar-chaea. The profiles of these MAGs were related to the physicochemical parameters and recovery management applied. The analysis of the potential functional core in the reservoirs showed that the microbiota was specialized for each site, with 31.7% of the total KEGG orthologies annotated as functions (1,690 genes) common to all oil fields, while 18% of the functions were site-specific, i.e., present only in one of the oil fields. The oil reservoirs with lower level of intervention were the most similar to the potential functional core, while the oil fields with longer history of water in-jection had greater variation in functional profile. These results show how key microorganisms and their functions respond to the distinct physicochemical parameters and interventions of the oil field operations such as water injection and expand the knowledge of biogeochemical trans-formations in these ecosystems.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: consciousness; microtubule; Orch OR; brain; microbiota; quantum entanglement
Online: 23 July 2021 (12:32:42 CEST)
It is proposed to incorporate the concepts of brain microbiota and microbial consciousness in the Orchestrated Objective Reduction (Orch OR) theory of human consciousness with the goal of increasing its explanatory and predictive powers. If consciousness arises from quantum computations in cytoskeletal structures inside human neurons, there is no theoretical impediment at hypothesizing that it might also occur in the cytoskeletal structures of the microbes resident in the human brains. If the concept of the brain microbiota is integrated in a general Orch OR theory, its explanatory and predictive powers would be vastly increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0183.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: phenylpyruvate; growth performance; intestinal morphology; immunity; cecal microbiota
Online: 8 July 2021 (09:52:23 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to see how dietary supplementation with phenylpyruvate affected broiler chicken growth, slaughter performance, gut health microbiota, and immunity. A total of 288 day old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to one of four groups (6 replicates each with 12 chicken). NC (basal diet), PC (basal diet plus antibiotic virginiamycin 15ppm), LCP and HCP (basal diet plus phenylpyruvate 1kg/t and 2kg/t, respectively). Results showed that PC had higher ADFI during the first 21 days, and better FCR than the NC, the LCP and HCP also improved broilers’ FCR 0.001 and 0.037% in relation to NC respectively. HCP has a higher all-eviscerated ratio than NC and less abdominal fat than LCP. HCP has increased villus length and crypt depth in the ileum compared to the NC. Bursa was lower in HCP and thymus was lower in LCP and PC. In contrast HCP have lower pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1, as well as lower TLR4. The phenylpyruvate improved family Selenomonadaceae, genus Megamonas Bacteroides species that are known for beneficial effects like for maintenance of the cell surface structure, regulating aromatic amino acids and C. jejuni-suppressive treatment respectively. Finally, phenylpyruvate feed supplement can be utilized to improve growth performance and positively modulate gut microbiota, however this is less efficient than antibiotics in improving growth performance, although more efficient in improving productive performance and gut morphology. Moreover, high dose of phenylpyruvate is more effective than low dose
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0493.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Chronic diarrhea, idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, microbiota, dysbiosis
Online: 21 June 2021 (08:56:30 CEST)
The long-term impact of treatment of dogs with steroid-responsive enteropathy (SRE) on the fe-cal microbiome and metabolome has not been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the fecal microbiome and metabolome of dogs with SRE before, during, and following treatment with standard immunosuppressive therapy and an elimination diet. We retrospec-tively selected samples from 9 dogs with SRE enrolled in a previous clinical trial, which received treatment for 8 weeks, and had achieved remission as indicated by the post-treatment clinical scores. Long-term (1 year) samples were obtained from a subset (5/9) of dogs. Samples from 13 healthy dogs were included as controls (HC). We evaluated the microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing and qPCR. To evaluate the recovery of gut function, we measured fecal metabolites using an untargeted approach. While improvement was observed for some bacterial taxa after 8 weeks of treatment, several bacterial taxa remained significantly different from HC. Seven-ty-five metabolites were altered in dogs with SRE, including increased fecal amino acids and vitamins, suggesting malabsorption as a component of SRE. One year after treatment, however, all bacterial species evaluated by qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and all but thirteen me-tabolites were no longer different from healthy controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0339.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: microbiota; microbiome; manipulation; fiber; diet; prebiotic; nutrition; supplement
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:19:54 CEST)
Consumption of prebiotic fibers to modulate the human gut microbiome is a promising strategy to positively impact health. Nevertheless, given the compositional complexity of the microbiome and its inter-individual variances, generalized recommendations on the source or amount of fiber supplements remain vague. This problem is further compounded by availability of tractable in vitro and in vivo models to validate certain fibers. We employed a gnotobiotic mouse model containing an a priori characterized 14-member synthetic human gut microbiome (SM) for their ability to metabolize a suit of fibers in vitro; the SM contains 14 different strains belonging to five distinct phyla. Since soluble purified fibers have been a common subject of studies, we specifically investigated the effects of concentrated raw fibers (CRFs)—containing fibers from pea, oat, psyllium, wheat and apple—on the compositional and functional alterations in the SM. We demonstrate that, compared to a fiber-free diet, CRF supplementation increased the abundance of fiber-degraders namely Eubacterium rectale, Roseburia intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus and decreased the abundance of the mucin-degrader Akkermansia muciniphila. These results were corroborated by a general increase of bacterial fiber-degrading α-glucosidase enzyme activity. Overall, our results highlight the ability of CRFs to enhance the microbial fiber-degrading capacity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Co-infection; Drug resistance; Gut microbiota; Salmonellosis; Schistosoma
Online: 7 May 2021 (12:02:03 CEST)
Antibiotic inefficacy in treating bacterial infections is largely studied in the context of developing resistance mechanisms. However, little attention has been paid to combined diseases mechanisms, interspecies pathogenesis and the resulting impact on antimicrobial treatment. This review will consider the co-infections of Salmonella and Schistosoma mansoni. It summarises the protective mechanisms that the pathophysiology of the two infections confer, which leads to an antibiotic protection phenomenon. This review will elucidate the functional characteristics of the gut microbiota in the context of these co-infections, the pathogenicity of these infections in infected mice, and the efficacy of the antibiotics used in treatment of these co-infections over time. Salmonella-Schistosoma interactions and the mechanism for antibiotic protection are not well established. However, antimicrobial drug inefficacy is an existing phenomenon in these co-infections. The treatment of schistosomiasis to ensure the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections should be considered in co-infected patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Ulcerative colitis; Ileoanal pouch Inflammatory bowel disease; Microbiota
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:52:58 CET)
The gut microbiome is important in the homeostasis of gut health and has pivotal roles in digestion, immune regulation, and metabolic processes. The gut microbiome has been implicated in range of diseases and there is a rapidly growing understanding of this ecosystem’s importance in inflammatory bowel disease. We have yet to identify a single microbe that causes either ulcerative colitis or pouchitis, however, perturbations in the gut microbiome are associated with disease states. Importantly, we can manipulate the gut microbiome using dietary interventions, medications, and faecal microbiota transplantation. This review will summarise our knowledge of gut microbiome therapies in ulcerative colitis and pouchitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; probiotics; microbiota; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:20:26 CET)
There is a huge need to search for new treatment options and potential biomarkers of therapeutic response to antidepressant treatment. Depression and metabolic syndrome often coexist while pathophysiological overlap, including microbiota changes, may play a role. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of probiotic supplementation on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, metabolic parameters, inflammation and oxidative stress markers, and faecal microbiota in adult patients with depressive disorders depending on the co-occurance of MetS. The trial will be a four-arm, parallel group, prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled design that will include 200 participants and will last 20 weeks. The probiotic preparation will contain Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell®-52, Bifidobacterium longum Rosell®-175. We will assess the level of depression, anxiety and stress, quality of life, blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference, white blood cells count, serum levels of C-reactive protein, HDL cholesterol, triglicerides, fasting glucose, faecal microbiota composition and the level of some faecal microbiota metabolites, as well as inflammation markers and oxidative stress parameters in serum. The trial may establish a safe and easy-to-use treatment option as an adjunct in a subpopulation of depressive patients only partially responsive to pharmacologic treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: diabetes; microbiota; yogurt; milk; dairy; probiotic; prebiotic; synbiotic
Online: 13 January 2021 (17:23:07 CET)
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is increasing worldwide and there are no long-term preventive strategies to stop this growth. Emerging research shows that perturbations in the gut microbiome significantly contribute to the development of T2D, while microbiome modulators may be beneficial for T2D prevention. However, microbiome modulators that are effective, safe, affordable, and able to be integrated daily in the diet are not yet available. Based on our previous pro- and prebiotic studies, we developed a novel synbiotic yogurt comprised of human-origin probiotics and plant-based prebiotics and investigated its impact on diet- and streptozotocin-induced T2D in mice. We compared the effects of our synbiotic yogurt to those of a commercially-available yogurt (control yogurt). Interestingly, we found that feeding of this synbiotic yogurt significantly reduced the development of hyperglycemia (diabetes) in response to high-fat diet feeding and streptozotocin compared to milk-fed controls. Surprisingly, the control yogurt exacerbated diabetes progression. Synbiotic yogurt beneficially modulated the composition of gut microbiota compared to milk; conversely, the control yogurt negatively modulated the gut microbiota by significantly increasing the abundance of detrimental bacteria like Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. In addition, the synbiotic yogurt protected intact pancreatic islet morphology compared to the milk control, while the commercial yogurt demonstrated worse effects on pancreatic physiology. These results suggest that our newly developed synbiotic yogurt protects against diabetes in mice and can be used as a modality to prevent diabetes progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Microbiota; mycobiota; interactions; host; NGS; metagenomics; culturomics; metabarcoding
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:27:41 CET)
The nature of the relationship between the communities of microorganisms making up the microbiota in and on a host body has been increasingly explored in recent years. Microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, viruses, parasites, and fungi, have often long co-evolved with their hosts. In human, the structure and diversity of microbiota vary according to the host’s immunity, diet, environment, age, physiological and metabolic status, medical practices (e.g. antibiotic treatment), climate, season, and host genetics. The recent advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies enhanced observational capacities and allowed for a better understanding of the relationship between distinct microorganisms within microbiota. The interaction between the host and their microbiota has become a field of research into microorganisms with therapeutic and preventive interest for public health applications. This review aims at assessing the current knowledge on interactions between prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities. After a brief description of the metagenomic methods used in the studies analysed, we summarise the findings of available publications describing the interaction between the bacterial communities and protozoa, helminths, and fungi, either in vitro, in experimental models, or in humans. Overall, we observed the existence of a beneficial effect in situations where some microorganisms can improve the health status of the host, while the presence of other microorganisms has been associated with pathologies, resulting in an adverse effect on human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: prebiotic; oligosaccharides; gut microbiota; fatty liver; metabolism; mitochondria
Online: 11 September 2020 (04:17:52 CEST)
Understanding the importance of gut microbiota (GM) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has raised the hope for therapeutic microbes. We have shown that high hepatic fat associated with low abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in humans and further, administration of F. prausnitzii prevented NAFLD in mice. Here, we aimed to target F. prausnitzii by prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) to treat NAFLD. First, the effect of XOS on F. prausnitzii growth was assessed in vitro. Then, XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat-diet for 12-weeks in Wistar rats (n=10/group). XOS increased F. prausnitzii growth having only minor impact on the GM composition. When supplemented with HFD, XOS prevented hepatic steatosis. The underlying mechanisms involved enhanced hepatic β-oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. 1H-NMR analysis of caecal metabolites showed that compared to HFD, LFD group had healthier caecal short-chain fatty acid profile and the combination of HFD and XOS was associated with reduced caecal isovalerate and tyrosine, metabolites previously linked to NAFLD. Caecal branched-chain fatty acids associated positively and butyrate negatively with hepatic triglycerides. In conclusion, our study identifies F. prausnitzii as a possible target to treat NAFLD with XOS. The underlying preventive mechanisms involved improved hepatic oxidative metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: bacteriophage; Bifidobacterium; gut microbiota; intestinal health; microbiome; probiotic
Online: 15 July 2020 (12:32:41 CEST)
Probiotics are increasingly used by consumers and practitioners to reduce gastrointestinal (GI) distress and improve gut function. Here, we sought to determine whether addition of supplemental bacteriophages (PreforPro) could enhance the effects of a common probiotic, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) on GI health. We conducted a 4-week, randomized, parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial where primary outcomes included self-assessments of GI health, a daily stool log, and 16s rRNA analysis of gut microbial populations. We observed within group improvements in GI inflammation (p=0.01) and a trending improvement in colon pain (p=0.08) in individuals consuming B. lactis with PreforPro, but not in the group consuming only the probiotic. There was also a larger increase in Lactobacillus and short chain fatty acid-producing microbial taxa detected in stool of participants taking PreforPro with B. lactis compared to the probiotic alone. Overall, these results suggest the addition of PreforPro as a combination therapy may alter gut ecology to extend the GI benefits of consuming B. lactis or other probiotics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; leaky gut; microbiota; cytokines; neuroimmunomodulation; oxidative stress
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:30:36 CET)
There is robust evidence that major depression (MDD) is accompanied by a low-grade activation of the immune-inflammatory response system, which is involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. It is also becoming apparent that glia cells are in reciprocal communication with neurons and orchestrate various neuromodulatory, homeostatic, metabolic, and immune mechanisms and have a crucial role in neuroinflammatory mechanisms in MDD. Those cells mediate the central nervous system (CNS) response to systemic inflammation and psychological stress, but at the same time, they may be an origin of the inflammatory response in the CNS. The sources of activation of the inflammatory response in MDD are immense, however, in recent years, it is becoming increasingly evident that the gastrointestinal tract with gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and increased intestinal permeability to bacterial LPS and food-derived antigens contribute to activation of low-grade inflammatory response with subsequent psychiatric manifestations. Furthermore, an excessive permeability to gut-derived antigenic material may lead to subsequent autoimmunities which are also known to be comorbid with MDD. In this chapter, we discuss fascinating interactions between the gastrointestinal tract, increased intestinal permeability, intestinal microbiota, and glia-neuron crosstalk, and their roles in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory hypothesis of MDD. To emphasize those crucial intercommunications for the brain functions, we propose the term of microbiota-gut-immune-glia (MGIG) axis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: trilactic glyceride; intestinal function; gut microbiota; weaned piglet
Online: 18 September 2019 (07:28:51 CEST)
Both lactic acid and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) play important roles in maintenance of intestinal epithelial structure and function. Trilactic glyceride (TLG) obtains both excellences of lactic acid and SCFA. This study was to investigate the effects of trilactic glyceride on growth performance, blood parameters, liver function, intestinal morphology and intestine function of piglets. Twelve weaned piglets (21±2 d) were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: 1) control group, piglets fed the basal diet; 2) TLG group, piglets fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5 % TLG. On day 21 of the trial, D-xylose (0.1 g/kg·BW) was orally administrated to all piglets and blood samples were collected 1 h thereafter. Then, all the piglets were sacrificed to examine intestinal mucosal morphology and collect fatty tissue, liver and intestinal mucosa for further analysis. The results showed that: compared with the control group, TLG group decreased blood ALB and GGT on day 10 and 20, TLG group decreased blood TP and increased blood TG on day 20 of the trail (p < 0.05); TLG group decreased blood D-xylose and LDL, increased blood HDL (p < 0.05). These data suggested that supplementing trilactic glyceride had beneficial impacts on promoting nutrients’ metabolism, maintaining intestinal integrity, and alleviating oxidative stress and diarrhoea. Further research of molecular mechanisms showed changing expression levels of related proteins and genes, suggesting that these could be involved in the regulation of the impact. The community composition of the gut microbiota was also found to be altered in several operational taxonomic units within the genus, Prevotella (order Bacteroidales), and the order, Clostridiales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0294.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: core microbiota; ecosphere; streptomyces; strawberry; three kingdom partnership
Online: 24 May 2019 (11:55:22 CEST)
Microbe-plant interactions are linked with the core microbiota, and both the plant and the microbial partners depend on one other to thrive in nature. However, why and how the below-ground core microbiota become established aboveground is poorly understood. We tracked the movement of a probiotic Streptomyces endophyte throughout a managed strawberry ecosystem. Probiotics in the rhizosphere and anthosphere were genetically identical, yet these niches were segregated in space and time. The probiotic in the rhizosphere moved upward via the vascular bundle, relocated to aboveground plant parts, and protected against Botrytis cinerea. It also moved from flowers to roots, and among flowers via pollinators that were protected against pollinator pathogens. Our results reveal a solid evidence in tripartite interaction with Streptomyces exploiting plant and pollinator partners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bacillus coagulans; intestinal function; gut microbiota; weaned piglet
Online: 4 May 2018 (05:31:44 CEST)
This research was to investigate beneficial impact and molecular mechanism of B. coagulans on piglets intestine. Twenty-four 21 days old weaned piglets were allotted to three treatments: control group (basal diet), B6 group (basal diet + 2×106 CFU/g B. coagulans), B7 group (basal diet + 2×107 CFU/g B. coagulans). The results showed that compared with control group, B6 and B7 group significantly decreased diarrhea rate and the concent of CHOL, GGT and DAO in plasma; decreased villus height and increase crypt depth in jejunum and ileum; increased the activities of SOD and CAT and decreased the concent of MDA and H2O2 in intestine. These data suggested that supplementing B. coagulans had beneficial impacts on promoting nutrients metabolism, maintaining intestinal integrity and alleviating oxidative stress and diarrhea. Futher research of molecular mechanisms showed that, these beneficial impacts were regulated by changing expression levels of related proteins (including HSP70, Caspase-3, Bax, Villin and Occludin), and genes (including RPL4, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, MX1, MX2, OAS1, IL-1β, IL-4, CXCL-9, CCL-2, AQP3, SGLT-1, LPL, INSR and b0,+AT), and altering community composition of gut microbiota (particularly family Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Veillonellaceae and genus Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Lactobacillus).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0683.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: gut microbiota; early-life gut microbiota; gut dysbiosis; long-term health and disease; Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)
Online: 27 November 2020 (11:22:07 CET)
Abstract: Early life gut microbiota have been increasingly recognized as major contributors to short and/or long-term human health and diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human gut microbial colonization begins at birth but continues to develop a succession of taxonomic abundances for two to three years until the gut microbiota reaches adult-like diversity and proportions. Several factors, including gestational age (GA), delivery mode, birth weight, feeding types, antibiotic exposure, maternal microbiome and diet influence the diversity, abundance and function of the early life gut microbiota. Gut microbial life is essential for assisting with the digestion of food substances to release nutrients, exerting control over pathogens, stimulating or modulating the immune system and influencing many systems such as the liver, brain, and endocrine system. Microbial metabolites play multiple roles in these interactions. Furthermore, studies provide evidence supporting that imbalances of the gut microbiota in early life, referred to as dysbiosis, are associated with specific childhood or adult disease outcomes, such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, diabetes, allergic diseases, obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and neurological disorders. These findings support that the human gut microbiota may play a fundamental role in the risk of acquiring diseases that may be programmed during the early life stage. In fact, it is critical to explore the role of the human gut microbiota in early life. In this review, we summarize the general understanding of the colonization and development of the gut microbiota in early life, highlighting the recent findings regarding the relationship between the gut microbiota composition and their metabolites, and immune functions, which could significantly influence long-term health and disease. We then review known pathophysiological interactions of the early gut microbiome with a number of well characterized diseases and pose potential etiological mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0019.v1
Subject: Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: broiler; chitin; immune response; insect meal; insect oil; microbiota
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:11:33 CET)
Insect meal as a protein source has been considered a sustainable way to feed animals. H. illucens and T. molitor larvae meal are considered high protein sources for poultry, also presenting considerable amounts of fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. However, other potential components in insect meal and insect oil have been more studied nowadays. Chitin, lauric acid, and antimicrobial peptides can present antimicrobial and prebiotic functions, indicating that low inclusions of insect meal can beneficially affect broilers` health and immune responses. This systematic review was developed to study the impact of insect products on health parameters of broilers, and a metanalysis was conducted to evaluate the effects on performance. A database was obtained based on a selection of manuscripts from 2016 to January 2023, following the mentioned parameters. There were positive effects of both H. illucens and T. molitor meal or oil products on poultry health status, especially in microbiota population, immune responses, and antimicrobial properties. The average daily gain was greater in broilers fed T. molitor meal compared to H. illucens meal (p = 0.002). The results suggest that low levels of insect meal were suitable for broilers, without result in negative effects on performance, while the insect oil can totally replace soybean oil without negative impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Holstein calf; Growth; Gut microbiota; Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:36:34 CEST)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) can potentially promote gastrointestinal growth and immunity in young livestock. However, reports within the existing literature on the effects of SCFP supplements on calves have been inconsistent; therefore, we perform the following experiments to resolve the inconsistencies. A total of 22 Holstein calves [10 d after birth, BW = 48.93 ± 3.99 kg (mean ± SD)] were assigned randomly into two groups, namely the control group (CON) and SCFP group, each having 11 replicas. The calves in the CON were fed a basal diet, while the SCFP group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 5g/head/d SCFP (NutriTek, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA52404, United States) incorporated into feed. All the calves were regularly fed thrice daily at 08:00, 14:30, and 21:00 and had free access to water. A 5-day adaptation phase was followed by a 45-day experimental period. The results showed that compared to the CON, at the end of the d-45 trial, the body weight was significantly greater in the SCFP group (p < 0.05), and during the 1-45 days, the ADG was higher (p < 0.05). The FCR in the 30-45 days SCFP group was higher (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the apparent digestibility of DM, CP, EE, ADF, Ca, and P were significantly increased in the SCFP group, except for NDF (p < 0.05). The concentration of GH and IGF-1 in serum showed a tremendous increase (p < 0.05) with SCFP supplementation on d 15 and d 45. On d 15, SCFP supplementation significantly increased the serum IgA contents (p < 0.05). Notably, on d 15 and d 45, the serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α reduced (p < 0.001). Moreover, the Actinobacteriota in the SCFP group were significantly lower than those in the CON group (p = 0.034). SCFP significantly increased the abundance of Butyricimonas, Parabacteroides, and Ruminococcus. The differences among sob, Chao1, and PD-tree groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SCFP supplementation improved ADG, apparent digestibility and serum hormone, enhanced immunity, and regulated gut microbiota, thereby jointly promoting the growth of pre-weaning calves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: vaginal microbiota; D3-embryos; D5-blastocysts; ICSI; FIVET; ART
Online: 4 October 2023 (09:32:29 CEST)
Aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate whether the oral administration of L. crispatus (M247) could increase pregnancy and live birth rates in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology procedures. Enrolled women (N=160) were divided into two groups: treated (N=80) or untreated (N=80) with the probiotic strain. The odds ratio for a treated woman to get a positive pregnancy test (PPT) was 1.56. In women aged 30–40 years, M247 increased the probability of a PPT in correlation with the progressive rise in BMI, reaching 47% (35% in controls) with a BMI of 35 (odds ratio: 2.00). The CAID statistics showed that in a woman of the blastocyst subgroup, below 43 years, with a BMI over 18.6, treatment with M247 increased the chance of a PPT from 28.4% to 44.5% (odds ratio: 2.08; p<0.05). Considering live births, rate of probiotic group was 12.5% versus 7.5% (odds ratio=1.76). Considering only the blastocyst subgroup, the treatment increased the number of live births by 200% (odds ratio: 3.64; p=0.05). As confirmed also by statistical indices like NNT, NNH and LHH, the use of M247 demonstrated a risk-benefit ratio to the full advantage of the benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1837.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: colorectal cancer; risk factors; oncogenesis; lifestyle; gut microbiota; prognosis
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:44:19 CEST)
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Numerous pathophysiological mechanisms, such as abnormal cell proliferation, cell differentiation, resistance to apoptosis, invasion of structures adjacent to colorectal tumor cells, and distant metastasis, are involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. These processes are initiated by the complex interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking or gut microbiota. Despite the significant progress achieved in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with colorectal cancer, there has been recently a noteworthy increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in individuals below the age of 50 years. Early-onset colorectal cancer has a different frequency of oncogenic mutations, a higher prevalence of mucinous histology, a distinct deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation profile, a more distal location, and lower survival rates. A significant improvement in the prognosis of these patients can be achieved through the detection and removal of modifiable risk factors, along with the implementation of personalized screening strategies for individuals at high risk for this malignancy. Furthermore, gaining comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms by which these risk factors contribute to the process of oncogenesis may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets.