ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0287.v1
Online: 6 October 2023 (05:46:11 CEST)
Transcriptional regulation constitutes a key step in gene expression regulation. Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) is a transcription factor of MADS box family involved in the early development of several cell types including muscle cells. Over the last decade a novel layer of complexity modulating gene regulation is emerging as non-coding RNAs have been identified, impacting in both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. microRNAs represent the most studied and abundantly expressed subtype of small non-coding RNAs and their functional role have been widely documented. On the other hand, our knowledge on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that drive microRNA expression is still incipient. We recently demonstrated that MEF2C is able to transactive the long, but not short, regulatory element upstream of miR-23a-miR-27a-miR-24-2 transcriptional start site. However, MEF2C over-expression and silencing, respectively, displayed distinct effects on each of the miR-23a-miR-27a-miR-24-2 mature cluster members, without affecting pri-miRNA expression levels, supporting thus additional MEF2C-driven regulatory mechanisms. Within this study we demonstrated a complex post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms directed by MEF2C in the regulation of miR-23a-miR-27a-miR-24-2 cluster members, distinctly involving different domains of the MEF2C transcription factor and the physical interaction with pre-miRNAs and RNA interacting proteins such as Ksrp, HnRNPa3 and Ddx17.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; microRNAs; Exosomes
Online: 26 April 2023 (12:44:56 CEST)
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most commonly seen in patients over 55 years of age and often results in a loss of many productive years. SAH has a high mortality rate, and sur-vivors often suffer from early and secondary brain injuries. Understanding the pathophysiology of the SAH is crucial to identifying potential therapeutic agents. One promising target for diagno-sis and prognosis of SAH is circulating microRNAs, which regulate gene expression and are in-volved in various physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we discuss the poten-tial of microRNAs as a target for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in SAH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: alcohol-associated liver cirrhosis; microRNAs; biomarker
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:31:18 CEST)
Background: Alcohol-associated Liver Disease (ALD) is the most common disorder of prolonged drinking. Mechanisms underlying cirrhosis in such patients remain unclear. MicroRNAs play regulatory role in several diseases, are affected by alcohol and may be important players in alcohol use disorders, such as cirrhosis. Methods: We investigated serum samples from heavy chronic alcohol users (80g/d (M) and 50g/d (F) for ≥10 years) that were available from our previously reported GenomALC study. A subset of drinkers with liver cirrhosis (cases, n=24) and those without significant liver disease (controls, n=23) were included. Healthy controls (HC, n=5) were volunteers in the study. Global microRNA profiling was performed using high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR to identify the microRNA signatures. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software (IPA) was utilized to identify target mRNAs of significantly altered microRNAs and molecular pathways were analysed. Identified microRNAs were analysed for correlation with traditional liver disease biomarkers and risk gene variants previously reported from GenomALC genome-wide association study. Results: The expression of 81 and 21 microRNAs was significantly downregulated in cases compared to HC and controls, respectively (p<0.05, Ct >1.5-fold). Most microRNAs showed lower abundance in alcohol users compared with HC. Seven microRNAs (miR-16, miR-19a, miR-27a, miR-29b, miR-101, miR-130a, & miR-191) had a highly significant correlation (p<0.001) with INR, bilirubin and MELD score. Three microRNAs (miR-27a, miR-130a and miR-191) significantly predicted cases with AUC-ROC 0.8, 0.78 and 0.85, respectively (P<0.020), however, INR performed best (0.97, p<0.001). A different set of 6 microRNAs (miR-19a, miR-26a, miR-101, miR-151-3p, miR-221, & miR-301) showed positive correlation (ranging 0.32-0.51, p<0.05) with rs10433937:HSD17B13 gene variant, associated with risk of cirrhosis. IPA analysis revealed mRNA targets of the significantly altered microRNAs associated with cell death/necrosis, fibrosis and increased steatosis, particularly triglyceride metabolism related mRNA targets. Conclusions: MicroRNA signatures in drinkers distinguished those with liver cirrhosis from those without liver disease. We identified mRNA targets in liver functions that were enriched for disease pathogenesis pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: obesity; prediabetes; inflammation; microRNAs; cardiovascular function
Online: 8 December 2020 (07:56:14 CET)
Background: obese pre-diabetics have altered expression of cytokines, and sirtuin-1, that might influence myocardial function via microRNAs (miRs) expression. Objectives: to evaluate inflammatory/oxidative stress, miRs’ expression and cardiovascular function in obese pre-diabetics randomly assigned to metformin therapy vs. placebo vs. normo-glycemics at 12 months of follow-up. Materials and methods: eighty-three obese patients enrolled for abdominoplastic surgery, were divided in pre-diabetics (n 55), normo-glycemics (n 28), and assigned to hypocaloric diet. Pre-diabetics were randomly assigned to metformin (n 23) or to placebo (n 22) plus hypocaloric diet. Results: at enrollment, pre-diabetics obese vs. normo-glycemic presented higher values of glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, miR-195 and miR-27, and lower values of sirtuin-1 (p<0.05). At 12 months of follow up, obese pre-diabetics with metformin vs. placebo experienced significant reduction of glucose values, HOMA-IR, and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, with significant reduction of intima-media thickness (IMT), septum and posterior wall thickness, and left ventricle mass (LVM), (p <0.05). At 12 months of follow-up, obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normo-glycemics had higher values of inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, higher values of IMT, septum and posterior wall thickness, LVM, and myocardial performance index (MPI), (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo, and obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normoglycemics, had significant differences about IMT, MPI, and LVM (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo showed significant reduction of serum miR-195 and miR-27 (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. normoglycemics showed higher expression of serum miR-195 and miR-27 ( p<0.05). Finally, we found inverse relation between IMT and insulin (R -0.351), HOMA-IR (R -0.340), miR-195 (R -0.355), miR-27 (R -0.181); between LVEF and Insulin (R -0.332), HOMA-IR (R -0.142), miR-195 (R -0.297) and miR-27 (R -0.163). We found inverse correlation between LVM and sirtuin-1 (R -0.272), Insulin (R -0.810), HOMA-IR (R-0.183), miR-195 (R -0.446) and miR-27 (R-0.433), and direct correlation with interleukin-6 (R 0.195). MPI inversely linked to miR-195 (R -0.260) and miR-27 (R -0.591). Conclusion: in obese pre-diabetics metformin therapy significantly reduces inflammation/oxidative stress, circulating miR-195 and miR-27, causing reduction of LVM, IMT and amelioration of cardiac performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: MicroRNAs; next generation sequencing; dog; melanoma
Online: 27 August 2019 (16:16:55 CEST)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation contribute the cancer pathogenesis. However, the miRNA profile of canine oral melanoma (COM), one of the frequent malignant melanoma in dog is still unrevealed. The aim of this study is to reveal the miRNA profile in canine oral melanoma. MicroRNAs profile of oral tissues from normal healthy dogs and COM patients were compared by next-generation sequencing. Along with tumour suppressor microRNAs (miRNAs), we report 30 oncogenic miRNAs in COM. Expression of miRNAs were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway analysis showed that deregulated miRNAs impact on cancer and signalling pathways. Three oncogenic miRNAs targets (miR-450b, 301a, and 223) from human study also were down-regulated in COM and had significant negative co-relation with their respective miRNA. Furthermore, we found that miR-450b expression is higher in metastatic cells and regulated MMP9 expression through a PAX9-BMP4-MMP9 axis. In silico analysis indicated that miR-126, miR-20b, and miR-106a regulated the highest numbers of differentially expressed transcription factors in respect to human melanoma. Chromosomal enrichment analysis revealed the X chromosome was enriched with oncogenic miRNAs. We comprehensively analyzed the miRNA’s profile in COM which will be a useful resource for developing therapeutic interventions in both species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0434.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Gut micro milieu, immunity and microRNAs
Online: 23 July 2018 (21:33:29 CEST)
The tissue micro environment or milieu consists of a highly dynamic population of cellular and non-cellular components which constitute a complex regulatory network aimed at maintaining the organ homeostasis. In the modern medicine the discovery of miRNAs is undoubtedly a promising field of research and they are essential in orchestrating immune system logic and their release in the gut micro milieu can directly affect bacterial gene expression. Here, we brieﬂy review the role of microRNAs, focuses on their role on immune system components in physiological and pathophysiological gut micro milieu.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0323.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Apoptosis; Dengue Virus; microRNAs; Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Online: 26 January 2023 (10:47:59 CET)
The World Health Organization has estimated an annual occurrence of approximately 392 million Dengue virus (DENV) infections in more than 100 countries where the virus is endemic, and this represents a serious threat to humanity. DENV is a serologic group with four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4) belonging to the genus Flavivirus, in the family Flaviviridae. Dengue is the most widespread mosquito-borne disease in the world. The ~10.7 kb DENV genome encodes three structural proteins (capsid [C], pre-membrane [prM], and envelope [E]) and seven non-structural (NS) proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). The NS1 protein is a membrane-associated dimer and a secreted, lipid-associated hexamer. Dimeric NS1 is found on membranes both in cellular compartments and cell surfaces. Secreted NS1 (sNS1) is often present in patient serum at very high levels, which correlates with severe dengue symptoms. This study was conducted to discover how NS1 protein, microRNAs-15/16 (miRNAs-15/16), and apoptosis are related during DENV-4 infection in human liver cell lines. Huh 7.5 and HepG2 cells were infected with DENV-4, and miRNAs-15/16, viral load, NS1 protein, and caspases-3/7 were quantified after different times of infection. This study demonstrated that miRNAs-15/16 are overexpressed during infection of HepG2 and Huh 7.5 cells by DENV-4 and have a relationship with NS1 protein expression, viral load, and activity of caspases-3/7, thus making these miRNAs potential injury markers during DENV infection in human hepatocytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0250.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: microRNAs; exosomes; astrocytes; hippocampal neurons; dendritic complexity
Online: 17 February 2020 (15:53:24 CET)
In the last decades, it has been established that astrocytes play key roles in the regulation of neuronal morphology. However, the contribution of astrocyte-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) to morphological differentiation of neurons has only recently been addressed. Here, we showed that cultured astrocytes expressing a GFP tagged version of the stress-regulated astrocytic enzyme Aldolase C (Aldo C-GFP) release small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) which are transferred into cultured hippocampal neurons. Surprisingly, Aldo C-GFP-containing sEVs (Aldo C-GFP sEVs) displayed an exacerbated capacity to reduce the dendritic complexity in developing hippocampal neurons compared to sEVs derived from control (i.e. GFP-expressing) astrocytes. Using bioinformatics and biochemical tools, we found that the total content of overexpressed Aldo C-GFP correlates with an increased content of endogenous miRNA-26a-5p in both total astrocyte homogenates and sEVs. Notably, neurons magnetofected with a nucleotide sequence that mimics endogenous miRNA-26a-5p (mimic 26a-5p) not only decreased the levels of neuronal proteins associated to morphogenesis regulation and also reproduced morphological changes induced by Aldo-C-GFP sEVs. Furthermore, neurons magnetofected with a sequence targeting miRNA-26a-5p (antago 26a-5p) were largely resistant to Aldo C-GFP sEVs. Our results support a novel and complex level of astrocyte-to-neuron communication mediated by astrocyte-derived sEVs and the activity of their miRNA content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Allergy; Autistic Disorder; Dermatitis; Genetics; Immunity; MicroRNAs
Online: 17 December 2018 (15:53:35 CET)
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disturbances affecting social skills, whose incidence worldwide is dramatically increasing. Together with the rise of ASD prevalence, several immune conditions are following the same trend, including Atopic Dermatitis (AD), with a possible clinical relationship with ASD. To date, their pathogenesis is still unknown, but several studies highlighted the relevance of gene-environment interactions to the onset of both disorders. Among potential contributing factors, microRNAs (miRNAs), small molecules capable of controlling gene expression and targeting mRNA transcripts, might represent one of the major circulating link, unraveling the connections between neurodevelopmental and immune conditions. We conducted a systematic literature review, under the PRISMA guidelines, trying to define the panel of common miRNAs involved in both ASD and AD. The review retrieved articles published until December 13, 2018, in PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycARTICLES and Google Scholar. We found a handful works dealing with miRNAs in ASD and AD, with the most overlapping dysregulated miRNAs being miR-146 and miR-155. Two possible compounds are abnormally regulated in both ASD and AD subjects, possibly cross-contributing to the interactions between the two disorders, setting the basis to investigate more precisely the possible link between ASD and AD from another, not just clinical, perspective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: microRNAs; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; pediatric; methotrexate; toxicity; pharmacogenetics
Online: 9 October 2023 (03:02:35 CEST)
Methotrexate (MTX), a structurally related substance to folic acid, is an important chemotherapeutic agent used for decades in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and other types of cancer as non Hodgkin lymphomas and osteosarcomas. Despite the successful outcomes observed, the primary drawback is the variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between patients. The main adverse events related to its use are mainly nephrotoxicity, mucositis and myelosuppression especially when used in high doses. The potential adverse reactions and toxicities associated with MTX are a cause for concern and may lead to dose reduction or treatment interruption. Genetic variants in MTX transport genes have been linked to toxicity. Pharmacogenetic studies conducted in the past focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding and 5′-regulatory regions of genes. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant role of miRNAs in the transport and metabolism of drugs, and in the regulation of target genes. The last few years, the number of annotated miRNAs is continually rising, as well as the studies of miRNA polymorphisms and MTX toxicity. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to investigate the role of miRNA variants related to MTX adverse effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; MicroRNAs; Sorting mechanism; Biomarkers; Heart failure
Online: 20 July 2023 (02:49:03 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging mediators of intracellular and inter-organ communications in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), especially in the pathogenesis of heart failure through the transference of EV-containing bioactive substances. microRNAs (miRNAs) are contained in EV cargo and are involved in the progression of heart failure. Over the past several years, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the biogenesis of miRNAs and EVs are tightly regulated, and the sorting of miRNAs into EVs is highly selective and tightly controlled. Extracellular miRNAs, in particular circulating EV-miRNAs, have shown promising potential as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for heart failure and as therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize the latest progress concerning the role of EV-miRNAs in HF and their application in a therapeutic strategy development for heart failure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA methylation; histone modification; epigenetic diet; microRNAs; prediabetes
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:08:11 CEST)
Epigenetics refers to the DNA chemistry changes that result in the modification of gene transcription and translation independently of the underlying DNA coding sequence. Epigenetic modifications are reported to involve various molecular mechanisms, including classical epigenetic changes affecting DNA methylation and histone modifications and small RNA-mediated processes, particularly that of microRNAs. Epigenetic changes are reversible and are closely interconnected. They are recognised to play a critical role as mediators of gene regulation, and any alteration in these mechanisms has been identified to mediate various pathophysiological conditions. Moreover, genetic predisposition and environmental factors, including dietary alterations, lifestyle or metabolic status, are identified to interact with the human epigenome, highlighting the importance of epigenetic factors as underlying processes in the etiology of various diseases such as MetS. This review will reflect on how both the classical and microRNA regulated epigenetic changes are associated with the pathophysiology of Metabolic syndrome. We would then focus on the various aspects of epigenetic-based strategies used to modify MetS outcomes, including epigenetic diet, epigenetic drugs, epigenome editing tools, and miRNA-based therapies.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: MicroRNAs (miRNAs); gastric cancer; angiogenesis; VEGF; ramucirumab; biomarkers
Online: 31 December 2020 (07:20:49 CET)
Gastric Cancer (GC) is the fifth most frequently diagnosed malignant tumor and the third cause of cancer mortality worldwide. For advanced GC, a large number of novel drugs and combinations have been tested, but results are still disappointing and the disease incurable in the majority of cases. In this regard, it is critical to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying GC development. Angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of cancer with a fundamental role in GC growth and progression and ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody binding to vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (VEGFR-2) is approved in the treatment of advanced and pretreated GC. However, no predictive biomarkers for ramucirumab have been identified so far. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionally conserved single-stranded noncoding RNAs playing an important role, via post-transcriptional regulation, in essentially all biologic processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, survival, invasion, and migration. Notably, in our review, we focused on miRNAs involved in angiogenic pathways in GC. Moreover, we evaluated the possible prognostic and predictive role of angiogenesis-related miRNAs as novel biomarkers of GC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: green anole; tail autotomy; regeneration; microRNAs; Anolis carolinensis
Online: 23 August 2016 (11:25:42 CEST)
Regeneration of lost tail is of great importance to lizards. Anolis carolinensis, a green lizard, is capable of regenerating its tail efficiently after autotomy. Hence, it is considered as a model organism in regeneration study. A. carolinensis shed its tail in order to distract the predator’s attention and thus makes a way to escape. Restoring of the amputated tail takes several days and the mechanism is currently clearly understood. Although save its life, tail regeneration is associated with the impairment of several vital functions in Anoles. In addition, various differences have been observed between original and regenerated tail in terms of mechanism and structure. To date, very little work has been conducted on tail autotomy and regeneration at molecular and genetic level. The genes responsible for regeneration in anoles are identified recently. These genes are evolutionarily conserved through all tetrapod vertebrates. They are, however, in a state of ‘switched-off’ in other vertebrates including humans. Consequently, a throughout study of these so called ‘switched-off’ genes may provide a way of restoring lost organs in human, and thus could revolutionize the modern medical science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0577.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: carotid atherosclerosis; pre-diabetes mellitus; microRNAs; inflammation; metformin therapy
Online: 25 February 2021 (11:43:02 CET)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE—Atherosclerotic plaque instability and rupture in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS) is a leading cause of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). This could be mainly evidenced in patients with pre-diabetes. Indeed, the altered glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance could cause over-inflammation of atherosclerotic plaque, favoring its conversion to unstable phenotype with rupture and MACE. Notably, the metformin therapy reducing the metabolic distress and the inflammatory burden, could lead to reduction of MACE in ACAS patients with pre-diabetes. In this setting, microRNAs (miRs) could be used as molecular biomarkers of atherosclerosis progression, plaque rupture and worse prognosis in normoglycemics (NG) vs. pre-diabetics metformin users (PDMU) vs. pre-diabetics non metformin users (PDNMU). However, the aim of our study was to investigate a wide miRNA panel in peripheral blood exosomes from patients with ACAS divided in NG vs. PDMU vs. PDNMU, and to associate the circulating miRNA expression profiles with MACE at 2 years of follow-up after endarterectomy. METHODS—The study included 234 patients with ACAS divided in NG (n 125), PDNMU (n 73) and PDMU (n 36). The miRs’ expression profiles of circulating exosomes were determined at baseline and at 2 years of follow-up by Affymetrix microarrays from plasma samples of the patients from any study cohort. Then we collected and analyzed MACE at 2 years of follow-up in NG vs. PDMU vs. PDNMU. RESULTS—prediabetics vs. NG had over-inflammation (p<0.05) and over expressed miR 24 and miR 27 at baseline. At 2 years of follow-up PDNMU vs. NG, PDMU vs. NG and PDNMU vs. PDMU over-expressed inflammatory markers and miR 24, miR 27, miR 100, miR 126 and miR 133 (p<0.05). Finally, at follow-up end we observed a significant difference about MACE comparing PDNMU vs. NG (n 27 (36.9%) vs. n 8 (6.4%); p<0.05), PDNMU vs. PDMU (n 27 (36.9%) vs. n 6 (16.6%); p <0.05), and PDMU vs. NG (n 6 (16.6%) vs. n 8 (6.4%); p<0.05). Admission glucose values (HR 1.020, CI 95% [1.001-1.038], p 0.029), atheromatous carotid plaque (HR 5.373, CI 95% [1.251-11.079], p 0.024), and miR 24 (HR 3.842, CI 95% [1.768-19.222], p 0.011) predicted MACE at 2 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS—Specific circulating miRs could be over-expressed in pre-diabetics and specifically in PDNMU vs. PDMU after endarterectomy. MiR24, hyperglycemia and atheromatous plaque could predict MACE at 2 years of follow-up.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0019.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: surrounding microRNAs; low-density lipoprotein; atherosclerosis; APOB; PCSK9; LDLR
Online: 1 May 2017 (11:30:17 CEST)
The atherosclerosis, a chronic and inflammatory disease that occurs when there are high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on plasma. This important risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death worldwide. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as potential biomarkers and therapeutic target for lipid metabolism disorders. In this review, we will provide profile of surrounding miRNAs that have demonstrated being regulators of PCSK9, LDLR and APOB100 genes. Recent work has identified the mir-148, mir-128, mir-27a/b, mir-185, mir-301, mir-130 as important regulators of this pathway because they decrease supply of LDL receptors through interaction with PCSK9. Inhibition of LDLR expression cause elevation of plasma LDL levels which induces atherosclerosis. While mir-30c, mir-122, mir-34 decrease MTTP, which promotes degradation of APOB100 preventing assembly and secretion of VLDL. We conclude that, when overexpressed, mir-148a, mir128 and mir-27a/b, mir-122 and mir-34 are related to decrease in LDLR, facilitating occurrence of atherosclerosis. While mir-30 has been linked to decreased atherosclerosis. Detection of miRNAs profile could be used in the future as a biomarker for disturbs linked to c-LDL uptake and in future anti-miRNAs therapies may be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Hepatocellular carcinoma; microRNAs; Biomarker
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:56:55 CEST)
Extracellular vesicle-derived microRNAs (EV-miRNAs) are promising circulating biomarkers for chronic liver disease. In this study, we explored the potential significance of plasma EV-miRNAs in non-hepatitis B-, non-hepatitis C-related HCC (NBNC-HCC). We compared plasma EV-miRNA profiles between NBNC-HCC and control groups including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and healthy controls using NanoString method. The differentially expressed EV-miRNAs were validated in another set of plasma samples by qRT-PCR. A total of 66 significantly differentially expressed EV-miRNAs between the HCC and control groups were identified in the discovery set. In the validation cohort including plasma samples of 70 NBNC-HCC, 70 NAFLD and 35 healthy controls, 5 plasma EV-miRNAs were significantly elevated in HCC, which included miR-19-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-30d-5p, and miR-451a. These miRNAs were found to participate in several cancer-related signaling pathways based on bioinformatic analysis. Among them, EV-miR-19-3p exhibited the best diagnostic performance and displayed a high sensitivity for detecting AFP-negative HCC and early-stage HCC. In multivariate analysis, high EV-miR-19-3p level was demonstrated as an independently unfavorable predictor of overall survival in patients with NBNC-HCC. In conclusion, our data have indicated for the first time that EV-miR-19-3p could serve as a novel circulating biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of NBNC-HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: hormone-dependent cancers; ceRNAs; lncRNAs; microRNAs; pseudogenes; multiple sensitivity correlation
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:22:45 CEST)
The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) has fundamentally transformed our understanding of gene regulation. The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) hypothesis postulates that not only messenger RNAs but also other RNA transcripts, such as long non-coding RNAs and pseudogenes, can act as natural miRNA sponges. These RNAs influence each other’s expression levels by competing for the same pool of miRNAs through miRNA response elements on their target transcripts, thereby modulating gene expression and protein activity. In recent years, these ceRNA regulatory networks have gained considerable attention in cancer research. Several studies have identified cancer-specific ceRNA networks. Nevertheless, prior bioinformatic analyses have focused on long non-coding RNAs-associated ceRNA networks. Here, we identify an extended-ceRNA network (including both long non-coding RNAs and pseudogenes) shared across a group of four hormone-dependent (HD) cancers, i.e., prostate, breast, colorectal, and endometrial cancers, using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We performed a functional enrichment analysis for differentially expressed genes in the shared ceRNA network of HD cancers, followed by a survival analysis to determine their prognostic ability. We identified two long non-coding RNAs, nine genes, and seventy-four miRNAs in the shared ceRNA network across four HD cancers. Among them, two genes and forty-one miRNAs were associated with at least one HD cancer survival. This study is the first to investigate pseudogene associated ceRNAs across a group of related cancers and highlights the value of this approach to understanding shared molecular pathogenesis in a group of related diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1663.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: MicroRNA; miRNA biomarker; microRNAs functions; acute coronary syndrome; coronary artery disease
Online: 25 July 2023 (07:53:02 CEST)
The discovery of microRNAs and their role in disease today represents a substantial breakthrough that has inspired and propagating research on microRNAs as targets for diagnosis and therapy. Cardiovascular disease is an area where the limitations of early diagnosis and conventional pharmacotherapy are evident and deserve attention. Thus microRNA-based drugs have substantial potential for development. Research and its application can progress considerably as witnessed in preclinical and clinical trials. The use of miRNAs remains experimental at the time of writing but has a promising role in the diagnosis and prognosis of a variety of acute coronary syndrome presentations. Its use, alone or in combination with currently available biomarkers, could be adopted soon, especially if diagnostic ambiguity exists. In this review, we explore the current state of knowledge about microRNAs as potential targets for diagnosis and therapy in the cardiovascular system. We report recent improvements in the acknowledgment and characterization of microRNAs focusing on clinical translation. The new dares and outlooks toward clinical application are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: autoantibodies; autoimmune; biomarker; biosensor; chronic disease; cytokines; microRNAs; Point-of-Care
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:25:35 CEST)
Although relatively rare, affecting 8% of the general population, autoimmune disorders are causative linked with chronic diseases and morbidity. Control of the course of the disease is closely dependent on the ability to monitor its onset as well as response to treatment. In the present report, we review the progress in the development of biosensor-based approaches and related tools for the Point-of-Care diagnosis and monitoring of biomarkers related to several autoimmune diseases, such as Myasthenia Gravis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, Systemic Erythematosus Lupus, Crohn’s Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Behcet’s disease, Psoriasis and Celiac Disease. Various biosensing technologies are discussed, including electrochemical, optical and mechanical ones, along with the use of advanced nanomaterials and immobilization techniques for the biorecognition elements. The need for innovative devices with unique features of rapid, low-cost, real-time detection is considered in the context of preventing permanent organ and tissue damage from chronic autoimmune diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: microRNAs; Precision livestock science; animal welfare; livestock health; biomarkers; biosensor; pandemics
Online: 13 July 2022 (13:12:32 CEST)
Early disease detection in livestock allows for target treatment decreasing antibiotics use and allow advancements in precision veterinary medicine. MicroRNA (miRNA) -driven signaling cascades play a crucial role in the context of farm animal disease diagnostics and prediction, and their proper understanding remains a challenge. In livestock farm animals, only a small number of miRNAs have been fully validated with respect to disease conditions and physiological or behavioral traits. Low abundance of miRNAs in blood and bodily fluids, along with a small number of nucleotides, makes detection and discrimination tedious and challenging task in. miRNAs usually are homologous, owing to which detection specificity becomes next to impossible when screening for multiple miRNAs in the same analyte sample. Hence, a concurrent, multiplexing, approach becomes crucial for the development of on-farm point-of-care based detection systems. Comprehensive screening methods demand broad dynamic range and enhanced specificity. For on-farm handheld platform development, the ability to screen for multiple varieties of miRNA is essential. In this review paper, I provide an overview of the recent developments of miRNA sensing and the current bottlenecks in the realization of the sensors for detecting miRNAS as target analyte for various livestock disease detection applications. Due to the nascent stages of this research, the possibilities of exploiting miRNAs as a biomarker opens up ways to move from reactive to predictive possibilities in diseases detection in the modern digital livestock farming.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0294.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: general anesthesia; redox; inflammation; antioxidants; hypermetabolism; microRNAs; biomarkers; oxidative stress; Vitamin C
Online: 6 June 2022 (05:09:14 CEST)
Worldwide, the prevalence of surgery under general anaesthesia has increased significantly, on one hand because of modern anaesthetic and pain control techniques, and on the other hand because of better diagnosis and increased complexity of surgical technique. Together with the development of new concepts in the surgical field, the attention of researchers and clinicians turned to minimizing the impact of surgical trauma and offering minimal invasive procedures. This fact is due to the recent discoveries in the field of cellular and molecular mechanisms, that have revealed a systemic inflammatory and pro-oxidative impact that not only lasts in the perioperative period, but also impacts the long term, contributing to more difficult recovery, increased morbidity, and mortality, and finally a negative financial impact. Detailed molecular and cellular analysis have shown an overproduction of inflammatory and pro-oxidative species, that are responsible for an augmentation of the systemic inflammatory status and more difficult postoperative recovery. Moreover, it was shown that there are a series of changes in certain epigenetic structures, the most important being the microRNAs. Based on these findings, a series of modern, targeted therapeutic approaches have been proposed, with the final goal of blocking these mechanisms and reducing the redox state. Recent studies carried out had a positive clinical impact regarding antioxidant therapy and have shown that it can be used in the perioperative period with beneficial clinical impact. This review describes and details the most important molecular and cellular mechanisms that impact the surgical patient undergoing general anaesthesia, and it presents a series of antioxidant therapies that can reduce systemic inflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cotton; Fiber initiation; Genomics; Epigenomics; Phytohormones; Transcription factors; MicroRNAs; Gene expression regulation
Online: 2 November 2020 (15:50:39 CET)
The epidermal cells on the surface of the cotton ovules undergo differentiation to produce fibers, which are single-celled hair-like protrusions resembling the plant trichomes. The initiation of these unicellular fibers from the cotton ovule surface is a complex and tightly regulated process. The initiation step is the cell fate-determining stage, which leads to the commitment of cells that eventually developed into fibers, thus becomes the most crucial phase in fiber development. The in-depth knowledge of molecular regulation is a prerequisite to get a clear view of the fiber initiation process's genetic and epigenetic control. The identification and functional validation of cotton fiber initiation-related genes, few fibreless mutants, transcription factors, microRNAs, epigenetic regulators, as well as the elucidation of the role of phytohormones as signaling molecules, has played a significant role in understanding the cotton fiber initiation process at the molecular level. This review focuses on the comprehensive information regarding the genetic and epigenetic regulation of cotton fiber initiation. Thus, the review will provide readers insight into mechanistic details that operate during cotton fiber initiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; microRNAs; 2D cell culture; 3D cell culture; organotypic 3D cell culture
Online: 1 September 2023 (07:47:04 CEST)
Background. Currently, most of the research in breast cancer has been carried out in conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture due to its practical benefits, however, the three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is becoming the model of choice in cancer research because it allows cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, mimicking the native microenvironment of tumors in vivo. Methods. in this work, we evaluated the effect of 3D cell organization on the expression pattern of miRNAs (by Small-RNAseq) and mRNAs (by microarrays) in the breast cancer SKBR3 cell line and analyzed the biological processes and signaling pathways regulated by the differ-entially expressed protein-coding genes (DE-mRNAs) and miRNAs (DE-microRNAs) found in the organoids. Results. We obtained well-defined cell-aggregated organoids with a grape cluster-like morphology with a size up to 9.2×105 μm3. The transcriptomic assays showed that cell growth in organoids significantly affected (all p < 0.01) the gene expression patterns of both, miRNAs and mRNAs, finding 20 upregulated and 19 downregulated DE-microRNAs, as well as 49 upregulated and 123 downregulated DE-mRNAs. In silico analysis showed that a subset of 11 upregulated DE-microRNAs target 70 downregulated DE-mRNAs. These genes are involved in 150 gene on-tology (GO) biological processes such as regulation of cell morphogenesis, regulation of cell shape, regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway, morphogenesis of epithelium, regulation of cy-toskeleton organization, as well as in the MAPK and AGE-RAGE signaling KEGG-pathways. In-terestingly, hsa-mir-122-5p (Fold Change (FC)=15.4), hsa-mir-369-3p (FC=11.4), and hsa-mir-10b-5p (FC=20.1) regulated up to the 81 % of the 70 downregulated DE-mRNAs. Conclu-sion, the organotypic 3D cell-organization architecture of breast cancer SKBR3 cells impacts the expression pattern of miRNAs-mRNAs network mainly through overexpression of hsa-mir-122-5p, hsa-mir-369-3p, and hsa-mir-10b-5p. All these findings suggest that the interaction between cell-cell and cell-ECM as well as the change in the culture architecture impacts gene ex-pression, and therefore, support the pertinence of migrating breast cancer research from conven-tional cultures to 3D models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: A-to-I RNA editing; ADAR; microRNAs; microRNA targeting; detection; quantification; functional characterization
Online: 10 February 2021 (12:33:42 CET)
RNA editing involves the insertion, deletion or substitution of single nucleotides within a RNA molecule, without altering the DNA sequence. Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing consists of an RNA modification where single adenosines along the RNA sequence are converted into inosines. Such a biochemical transformation is catalyzed by enzymes belonging to the family of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) and occurs either co- or post-transcriptionally. Initially, the A-to-I RNA editing phenomenon was discovered and studied in messenger RNAs (mRNAs), where it can influence RNA splicing and cause the recoding of codon sequences. The employment of more powerful, high-throughput detection methods has recently revealed that A-to-I editing widely occurs in non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) acting as translation inhibitors, known to exert relevant roles in controlling cell cycle, proliferation, and cancer development. Indeed, a growing number of recent researches have evidenced the importance of miRNA editing in cancer biology by exploiting various detection and validation methods. Herein, we briefly overview early and currently available A-to-I miRNA editing detection and validation methods and discuss the significance of A-to-I miRNA editing in human cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0334.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Rubber tree capillovirus 1; microRNAs; plant-virus interaction; RNAi: computational algorithms; gene silencing, minimum free energy
Online: 22 July 2022 (09:52:38 CEST)
Tapping panel dryness (TPD) syndrome is a complex disease of Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.) which causes cessation of latex drainage upon tapping of rubber tree. Rubber tree virus (RTV1) was identified as a novel pathogen associated with rubber tree and a potential causal agent of TPD. RTV1 is a monopartite RNA virus that is linear, non-enveloped and has a single-stranded (ss) positive RNA genome of approximately 6081 nucleotides and is composed of two major open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 (polyprotein), and ORF2 (movement protein. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of rubber genome encoded tree microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel therapeutic targets against RTV1 using in silico algorithms. Mature rubber tree miRNAs are retrieved from the miRBase database and are used for hybridization of RTV1 using five different five different computational algorithms including miRanda, RNA22, RNAhybrid and psRNATarget. A total of eleven common rubber tree miRNAs were identified based on consensus genomic positions. The consensus of four algorithms predicted the hybridization sites of hbr-miR396a and hbr-miR398 at common locus positions 6676, 1840 respectively. To validate the prediction, secondary structures of the consensual rubber tree miRNAs and free energy of duplex binding were calculated using the RNAfold and RNAcofold algorithms respectively. We created a plot between rubber tree miRNAs and RTV1 ORFs by using Circos algorithm. In this study, we predicted eleven consensual rubber tree miRNAs. Among these miRNAs, hbr-miR398 was identified as the most effectual miRNA that may target the ORF1 gene of the RTV1 genome. The predicted data will be important in the development of rubber trees resistant to RTV1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: MicroRNAs; miR-126; mir-197; mir-223; Cardiometabolic Disease; Diabetes; Cardiovascular disease; Atherosclerosis; Inter Media Thickness
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:52:25 CET)
We aim to investigate if serum levels of microRNAs: miR-126, mir-197 and mir-223, previously implicated in cardiometabolic disease, are reproducibly associated with incident-diabetes (inc-DM), incident-cardiovascular disease (inc-CVD) and with carotid atherosclerosis (measured for the maximum thickness of the intima-media of the carotid bulb (IMT)). The microRNAs were measured, one: in serum of 553 subjects from the baseline exam of the Swedish prospective cohort, Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC-CC), with 169 subjects who developed CVD and 140 DM (16 years follow-up) and, two: in 1221 subjects from the Malmö Offspring Study (MOS), with 14 de-veloped CVD and 12 DM (3.7 years follow-up). Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship of serum-concentrations of the microRNAs and inc-DM, inc-CVD, IMT-bulb respectively. In MDC-CC, miR-126 showed significant positive association with inc-DM (p= 0.01) whereas in fully adjusted model, the association was borderline significant (p= 0.05). The results were not replicated in MOS. There was no consistent significant association between the microRNAs with IMT or inc-CVD in any cohort. Our results do not support previous reports on significant associations between these microRNAs and the risk of CMD, as they were not reproducible in our cohorts. In addition, the directionality of any associations found were not consistent with those previously reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; xylo-oligosaccharides; metabolites; gut microbiota; biclustering; high fat diet; microRNAs; rats
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:28:31 CET)
We have shown that prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) increased beneficial gut microbiota (GM) and prevented high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, but the mechanisms behind these effects are not clear. We studied whether XOS affects adipose tissue inflammation and insulin signaling, and whether the GM and fecal metabolome explain associated patterns. XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat diet for 12-weeks in male Wistar rats (n = 10/group). Previously analyzed GM and fecal metabolites were biclustered to reduce data dimensionality and identify interpretable groups of co-occurring genera and metabolites. Based on our findings, biclustering provides a useful algorithmic method for capturing such joint signatures. On the HFD, XOS-supplemented rats showed lower number of adipose tissue crown-like structures, increased phosphorylation of AKT in liver and adipose tissue as well as lower expression of hepatic miRNAs. XOS-supplemented rats had more fecal glycine and less hypoxanthine, isovalerate, branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids. Several bacterial genera were associated with the metabolic signatures. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of XOS on hepatic steatosis involved decreased adipose tissue inflammation and likely improved insulin signaling, which were further associated with fecal metabolites and GM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1992.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus; microRNAs; RNA interference; prediction; computational algorithms; target binding sites; host-virus interaction
Online: 28 September 2023 (18:36:58 CEST)
Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) (genus, Begomovirus; family, Geminiviridae) is highly infectious, widespread and the most dangerous pathogen of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that is responsible to a serious disorder, cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD). Begomoviruses are spread very efficiently by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci cryptic species, causing economic losses to cotton crop, all over the world. The ‘Lucknow’ strain of CLCuKoV has emerged as a divergent isolate that could cause CLCuD. The monopartite ssDNA genome of CLCuKoV-Lu (2.7 Kb) contains six open reading frames (ORFs) that was shown to encode four major proteins. RNA interference (RNAi)-based antiviral innate immunity is a sequence-specific biological phenomenon and a powerful tool to control plant viruses. The present study aims to determine cotton locus-derived microRNAs (ghr-miRNAs) that are identified for targeting the CLCuKoV-Lu ss-DNA-encoded mRNAs using a predictive approach that involves four computational algorithms, miRanda, RNA22, psRNATarget and RNAhybrid. Mature ghr-miRNA sequences (n=80) from allotetraploid upland cotton (2n = 4x = 52) were selected from the miRBase and were tested for alignment with the CLCuKoV-Lu genome. Among the 80 cotton locus-derived ghr-miRNAs evaluated, only one consensus cotton locus-derived ghr-miRNA (ghr-miR2950) was concluded to have effective ghr-miRNA target site at common nucleotide position 82 in the CLCuKoV-Lu genome respectively, using a stringent criterion, identified by all the algorithms used. The miRNA targeting is reliant on base pairing of miRNA-mRNA target pairings. Conservation of the hybridization binding site of the predicted ghr-miR2950 was validated using multiple sequence alignment within all the strains of CLCuKoV. We constructed a regulatory interaction network of miRNA–mRNA to identify novel targets. The efficacy of the predicted miRNAs against CLCuKoV-Lu was evaluated by RNAi-mediated targeted mRNA cleavage. The current investigated miRNA targets provide evidence for the development of CLCuD-resistant cotton plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1976.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); CD4+ T cells; next generation sequencing (NGS); long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs); microRNAs (miRNAs)
Online: 29 May 2023 (05:23:24 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and the main cause of cancer-related death globally. Immune dysregulation of CD4+ T cells has been identified as a role in the development of HCC. Nevertheless, the underlying molecular pathways of CD4+ T cells in HCC are not completely known. Thus, a better understanding of the dysregulation of lncRNA-miRNA/mRNA network might yield novel insights into the etiology or progression of HCC. In this study, circulating CD4+ T cells were isolated from the whole blood of 10 healthy controls and 10 HCC patients for next-generation sequencing of the expression of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs. Our data showed that there was different expression of 34 transcripts (two lncRNAs, XIST and MIR222HG, 29 mRNA, and 3 other types of RNA) and 13 miRNAs in the circulating CD4+ T cells of HCC patients. The expression of the lncRNA XIST-related miRNAs and their target mRNAs was confirmed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on samples from 100 healthy controls and 60 HCC patients. The lncRNA–miRNA/mRNA regulation network was created using interaction data generated from ENCORI and revealed there are positive correlations in the infiltration of total CD4+ T cells and negative correlations in the infiltration of Th1 CD4+ T cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0529.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: Finitely generated group; SL(2,C) character variety; algebraic surfaces; schemes; exotic R4; topological quantum computing; microRNAs.
Online: 14 February 2023 (01:43:07 CET)
Revealing the time structure of physical or biological objects is usually performed thanks to the tools of signal processing like the fast Fourier transform, Ramanujan sum signal processing and many other techniques. For space-time topological objects in physics and biology, we propose a type of algebraic processing based on schemes in which the discrimination of singularities within objects is based on the space-time-spin group SL(2,C). Such topological objects possess an homotopy structure encoded in their fundamental group and the related SL(2,C) multivariate polynomial character variety contains a plethora of singularities somehow analogous to the frequency spectrum in time structures. Our approach is applied to an Akbulut cork in exotic R4, to an hyperbolic model of topological quantum computing based on algebraic surfaces and to microRNAs in genetics. Such diverse topics reveal the manifold of possibilities of using the concept of a scheme spectrum.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0112.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Epitranscriptomics, Immune checkpoint blockage (ICB) therapy, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 drug resistance, Personalized medicine, CISH, microRNAs
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:02:22 CEST)
Cellular immunotherapy has recently emerged as a fourth pillar in cancer treatment co-joining surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Where, the discovery of immune checkpoint blockage or inhibition (ICB/ICI), anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA4-based, therapy has revolutionized the class of cancer treatment at a different level. However, still some cancer patient escape this immune surveillance mechanism and become resistant to ICB-therapy. Therefore, a more advanced or an alternative treatment is required instantly. Despite the functional importance of epitranscriptomics in diverse clinico-biological practices, its role in improving the efficacy of ICB therapeutics has been limited. Consequently, our study encapsulates the evidences, as a possible strategy, to improve the efficacy of ICB-therapy by co-targeting molecular checkpoints especially N6A-modification machineries which could be reformed into RNA modifying drugs (RMD). Here, we have explained the mechanism of individual RNA-modifiers (editor/writer, eraser/remover and effector/reader) in overcoming the issues associated with high-dose antibody toxicities and drug-resistance. Moreover, we have shed light on the importance of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS/CISH) and microRNAs in improving the efficacy of ICB-therapy, with brief insight on the current monoclonal antibodies undergoing clinical trials or already approved against several solid tumor and metastatic cancers. We anticipate our investigation will encourage researchers and clinicians to further strengthen the efficacy of ICB-therapeutics by considering the importance of epitranscriptomics as a personalized medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0596.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: biogenesis; microRNAs; ribosomal RNA-derived fragment (rRF); ribosomes; small ribosomal RNA (srRNA); ribosomal DNA (rDNA); small RNAs
Online: 25 October 2018 (05:59:58 CEST)
The advent of RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies has markedly improved our knowledge and expanded the compendium of small non-coding RNAs, most of which derive from the processing of longer RNA precursors. In this review article, we will discuss about the biogenesis and function of small non-coding RNAs derived from eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA), called rRNA fragments (rRFs), and their potential role(s) as regulator of gene expression. This relatively new class of ncRNAs remained poorly investigated and underappreciated until recently, due mainly to the a priori exclusion of rRNA sequences—because of their overabundance—from RNA-Seq datasets. The situation surrounding rRFs resembles that of microRNAs (miRNAs), which used to be readily discarded from further analyses, for more than five decades, because we could not believe that RNA of such a short length could bear biological significance. As if we had not yet learned our lesson not to restrain our investigative, scientific mind from challenging widely accepted beliefs or dogmas, and from looking for the hidden treasures in the most unexpected places.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1713.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Breast Cancer (BC); MicroRNAs (miRNAs); non-coding RNA; competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA); personalized medicine; ethical and legal challenges
Online: 25 September 2023 (16:47:32 CEST)
According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (data of year 2020), Breast Cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancer types worldwide, with large geographical variations occurring between countries and world regions and highest incidence rates in countries that have undergone economic transition. The risk factors for BC include women ageing, genetic mutations, reproductive history, dense breast tissues, personal history of BC or specific non-cancerous breast diseases, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, previous treatment using radiation therapy, and exposure to hormone-like drugs such as diethylstilbestrol (DES). Additional risk factors include being overweight or having obesity after menopause, and taking hormones. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that have an essential role in gene expression and are significantly linked to the tumor development and angiogenesis process in different types of cancer, including BC. In the last years, the knowledge about miRNAs role in BC has significantly improved, and complex interactions among coding and non-coding RNA has been elucidated. In this context, an increasing number of papers had been published regarding the role of miR-125 in BC. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art about this research topic in addition to elaborating on the need to set novel ethical and legal standards for the governance of such innovations in healthcare.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: COX-2; breast cancer; PGE2; EP receptors; stem-like cells; metastasis; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis; MicroRNAs; triple negative breast cancer
Online: 13 February 2018 (09:16:54 CET)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, also called seven-transmembrane or heptahelical receptors) are a superfamily of cell surface receptor proteins that bind to many extracellular ligands and transmit signals to an intracellular guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). When a ligand binds, the receptor activates the attached G-protein by causing the exchange of Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) for guanosine diphosphate (GDP). They play a major role in many physiological functions as well as in the pathology of many diseases including cancer progression and metastasis. Only a few GPCR members have been exploited as targets for developing drugs with therapeutic benefit in cancer. Present review deals with the Prostaglandin E receptor EP4, a member of the EP family of GPCR, as a promising newer therapeutic target for treating breast cancer. We show that aberrant over-expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an inflammation-associated enzyme, occurring in 40-50% of breast cancer patients leads to tumor progression and metastasis due to multiple cellular events resulting from an increased prostaglandin (PG) E2 production in the tumor milieu. They include inactivation of host anti-tumor immune (NK and T) cells, increased immuno-suppressor function of tumor-associated macrophages, promotion of tumor cell migration, invasiveness and tumor-associated angiogenesis (due to upregulation of VEGF-A), lymphangiogenesis (due to upregulation of VEGF-C/D) and a stimulation of stem-like cell (SLC) phenotype in cancer cells. All these events were primarily mediated by activation of the PGE receptor EP4 on tumor or host cells. We show that selective EP4 antagonists (EP4A) could mitigate all these events tested with cells in vitro as well as in vivo in syngeneic COX-2 expressing mammary cancer bearing mice or immune-deficient mice bearing COX-2 over-expressing human breast cancer xenografts. We suggest that EP4A can avoid thrombo-embolic side effects of long term use of COX-2 inhibitors by sparing cardio-protective roles of PGI2 via IP receptor activation or PGE2 via EP3 receptor activation. Furthermore, we identified two COX-2/EP4 induced oncogenic and SLC-stimulating microRNAs - miR526b and miR655, one of which (miR655) appears to be a potential blood biomarker in breast cancer patients, for monitoring SLC-ablative therapies such as with EP4A. We suggest that EP4A will likely produce the highest benefit in aggressive breast cancers such as COX-2 expressing triple-negative breast cancers, when combined with other newer agents such as PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver failure; microRNAs (miRNAs); placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs); phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 (PRL-1); regenerative medicine; stem cells homing; vascular remodeling
Online: 1 July 2019 (17:00:18 CEST)
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have been highlighted as therapeutic sources in several degenerative diseases. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were mediated one of the therapeutic mechanisms of PD-MSCs in regenerative medicine. To enhance the therapeutic effects of PD-MSCs, we established functionally enhanced PD-MSCs with phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 overexpression (PRL-1(+)). However, the profile and functions of miRNAs induced by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs in a rat model with hepatic failure prepared by bile duct ligation (BDL) remained unclear. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to analyze the expression of miRNAs and investigate their therapeutic mechanisms for hepatic regeneration via PRL-1(+) in a rat model with BDL. We selected candidate miRNAs based on microarray analysis. Under hypoxic conditions, compared with invaded naïve PD-MSCs, invaded PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs showed improved integrin-dependent migration ability through RHO family-targeted miRNA expression (e.g., hsa-miR-30a-5p, 340-5p, and 146a-3p). Moreover, rno-miR-30a-5p and 340-5p regulated engraftment into injured rat liver by transplanted PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs through the integrin family. Additionally, an increase in PDGFRA by suppressing rno-miR-27a-3p improved vascular structure in rat liver tissues after PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs transplantation. Furthermore, decreased rno-miR-122-5p was significantly correlated with increased proliferation of hepatocytes in liver tissues by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs by activating IL-6 signaling pathway through the repression of rno-miR-21-5p. Taken together, these findings improve the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms based on miRNA-mediated stem cell therapy in liver diseases.