Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Wheat; yield; triple-super-phosphate; sulfur; nitrogen; micro-dosing, precision-farming
Online: 21 July 2021 (08:22:32 CEST)
This research was specifically aimed at assessing the influence of sulfur in triple-super phosphate (TSP) on wheat yield. From the results, wheat showed response to sulfur (S) from gypsum (in 67%); and nitrogen (N) from urea in about 100% (of 24 sites). Based on this N was found to be the most limiting element to wheat production followed by sulfur, and then by phosphorus. TSP is tested to contain agronomically up to 2-6% by weight of S. However, wheat didn’t show response to S impurity supplied in the form of TSP. Though, not statistically significant, it is observed that there have always been yield increments by certain percent due to S from TSP in 8 out of 10 target sites, which is depicted in the increasing trends of yield response curves. From this it is learnt that, the benefits of the accidental/incidental application of such high analysis fertilizers can be many-folds in the quality attributes of wheat, if the soils of such investigation at the same time would contain significant amount of organic matter (OM). Indeed, such analysis would be vital in varietal specific nutrient requirement studies in precision-farming and/or in categorizing soils into fertility gradients and fertilizer recommendation domains.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hydraulic pump; micro-dosing; peristaltic; hyper-elasticity; viscoelasticity; holistic design methodology; elastomer compound
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:12:28 CEST)
Low pressure fluid transport (1) applications often require low and precise volumetric flow rates (2) including low leakage to reduce additional costly and complex sensors. A peristaltic pump de-sign (3) was realized, with the fluid’s flexible transport channel formed by a solid cavity and the wobbling plate comprising a rigid and a soft layer (4). In operation, the wobbling plate is driven externally by an electric motor, hence, the soft layer is contracted and unloaded (5) during pump-cycles transporting fluid from low to high pressure sides. A thorough characterization of the pump system is required to design and dimension the components of the peristaltic pump. To capture all these parameters and their dependencies on various operation-states, often complex and long-lasting dynamic 3D FE-simulations are required. We present, here, a holistic design methodology (6) including analytical as well as numerical calculations, and experimental valida-tions for a peristaltic pump with certain specifications of flow-rate range, maximum pressures, and temperatures. An experimental material selection process is established and material data of candidate materials (7) (liquid silicone rubber, acrylonitrile rubber, thermoplastic-elastomer) are directly applied to predict the required drive torque. For the prediction, a semi-physical, analyti-cal model was derived and validated by characterizing the pump prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: powder handling, flowability, dosing, transport, mixing, dispersion, piezoelectric actuators, vibrations
Online: 26 February 2018 (16:00:40 CET)
Since fine powders tend strongly to adhesion and agglomeration, their processing with conventional methods is difficult or impossible. Typically, in order to enable the handling of fine powders, chemicals are added to increase the flowability and reduce adhesion. This contribution shows that instead of additives also vibrations can be used to increase the flowability, to reduce adhesion and cohesion, and thus to enable or improve processes such as precision dosing, mixing, and transport of very fine powders. The methods for manipulating powder properties are described in detail and prototypes for experimental studies are presented. It is shown that the handling of fine powders can be improved by using low-frequency, high-frequency or a combination of low- and high-frequency vibration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0683.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: micro-actuators; micro-systems; micro-manipulators; levitation; mutual inductance
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:14:36 CEST)
This work presents the results of the experimental and theoretical study of the static pull-in of tilting actuation executed by a hybrid levitation micro-actuator (HLMA) based on the combination of inductive levitation and electrostatic actuation. A semi-analytical model to study such the pull-in phenomenon is developed, for the first time, as a result of using the qualitative technique based on the Lagrangian approach to analyze inductive contactless suspensions presented in work and a recent progress in the calculation of mutual inductance and force between two circular filaments. The obtained non-linear model, accounting for two degrees of freedom of the actuator, allows us to predict accurately the static pull-in displacement and voltage. The results of modelling were verified experimentally and agree well with measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0462.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: micro-fluidics; micro-mixer; entropy generation; micro-turbulence; electrokinetic mixer
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:50:29 CET)
While laminar flow heat transfer and mixing in microfluidic geometries has been investigated experimentally, as has the effect of geometry-induced turbulence in microfluidic flow (it is well documented that turbulence increases convective heat transfer in macrofluidic flow), little literature exists investigating the effect of electrokinetically-induced turbulence on heat transfer at the micro scale. Using recently observed experimental data, this work employed computational fluid dynamics coupled with electromagnetic simulations to determine if electrokinetically-forced, low-Reynolds number turbulence could be observed in a rectangular microchannel with using Newtonian fluids. Analysis of the results was done via comparison to the experimental criteria defined for turbulent flow. This work shows that, even with a simplified simulation setup, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software can produce results comparable to experimental observations of low-Reynolds turbulence in microchannels using Newtonian fluids. In addition to comparing simulated velocities and turbulent energies to experimental data this work also presents initial data on the effects of electrokinetic forcing on microfluidic flow based on entropy generation rates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0266.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: microchannel; micro-array; microstructure; biofilms; polydimethylsiloxane; Micro-PCR; reynolds number; micro electro mechanical systems
Online: 15 August 2018 (05:37:59 CEST)
Micro-technology has played a substantial role in bioscience, biomedical and biotechnological research due to its core advantages in modern science and engineering. It has created unique development in various sectors of bio-research and upsurges the efficacy of research at the molecular level in recent years. Microfluidic technology makes it possible to manipulate sample volumes at the micro- and nano-level (called nanofluidics) with terrific control outside in vivo cellular microenvironment, enabling the reduction of discrepancies between in vivo and in vitro environments as well as reducing reaction time and cost. In this review, we discuss various effective integrations of microfluidic technologies into biotechnology and its paradigmatic significance in bio-research, supporting mechanical and chemical in vitro cellular micro-environment. Specific innovations relating to the application of microfluidics to advance microbial life, solitary and co-cultures along with a multiple-type cell culturing, cellular communications, cellular interactions and population dynamics are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0180.v1
Online: 4 November 2020 (09:25:43 CET)
We report a 92 channel RF channelizer based on a 48.9 GHz integrated micro-comb that operates via soliton crystals, together with a passive high-Q ring resonator that acts as a periodic filter with an optical 3dB bandwidth of 121.4 MHz. We obtain an instant RF bandwidth of 8.08 GHz and 17.55 GHz achieved through temperature tuning. These results represent a major advance to achieving fully integrated photonic RF spectrum channelizers with reduced low complexity, size, and high performance for digital-compatible signal detection and broadband analog signal processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: vibration-induced flow; micro-pillar; numerical analysis; micro-PIV; acoustofluidics
Online: 7 November 2018 (14:57:56 CET)
The steady streaming (SS) phenomenon is gaining increased attention in the microfluidics community, because it can generate net mass flow from the zero-mean vibration. We developed numerical simulation and experimental measurement tools to analyze this vibration induced flow, which has been challenging due to its unsteady nature. Validity of these analysis methods is confirmed by comparing the three-dimensional (3D) flow field induced around a cylindrical micropillar under circular vibration. In the numerical modeling, we directly solved the flow in the Lagrangian frame so that the substrate with a micropillar becomes stationary, and the result was converted to the Eulerian frame to compare them with the experimental results. The present approach enables to avoid the introduction of moving boundary or small perturbation approximation. The flow field obtained by the micro particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement supported the three-dimensionality observed in the numerical results, which could be important for controlling the mass transport and manipulating particulate objects in the microfluidic systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: platelet-rich plasma; regenerative medicine; platelet dosing; neutrophils; monocytes; lymphocytes; inflammation; angiogenesis; serotonin; analgesic effects; immunomodulation; rehabilitation.
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:00:53 CEST)
Emerging autologous cellular therapies that utilize platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applications have the potential to play adjunctive roles in a variety of regenerative medicine treatment plans. There is a global unmet need for tissue repair strategies to treat musculoskeletal (MSK) and spinal disorders, osteoarthritis (OA), and patients with chronic complex and recalcitrant wounds. PRP therapy is based on the fact that platelet growth factors (PGFs) support the three phases of wound healing and repair cascade (inflammation, proliferation, remodeling). Many different PRP formulations have been evaluated, originating from human, in vitro, and animal studies. However, recommendations from in vitro and animal research often lead to different clinical outcomes because it is difficult to translate non-clinical study outcomes and methodology recommendations to human clinical treatment protocols. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding PRP technology and the concepts for bioformulation, and new research directives and new indications have been suggested. In this review, we will discuss recent developments regarding PRP preparation and composition regarding platelet dosing, leukocyte activities concerning innate and adaptive immunomodulation, serotonin (5-HT) effects and pain killing. Furthermore, we discuss PRP mechanisms related to inflammation and angiogenesis in tissue repair and regenerative processes. Lastly, we will review the effect of certain drugs on PRP activity, and the combination of PRP and rehabilitation protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: micro fluidic channel; micro particles; fluid flow rate; lab-on-a-chip; waveguide
Online: 23 November 2017 (11:13:24 CET)
In this work modeling and analysis of an integrated opto-fluidic sensor, with a focus on achievement of single mode optical confinement and continuous flow of micro particles in the microfluidic channel for Lab-on-a Chip (LOC) sensing application is presented. This sensor consists of integrated optical waveguides, microfluidic channel among other integrated optical components. A continuous flow of micro particles in a narrow fluidic channel is achieved by maintaining the two sealed chambers at different temperatures and by maintaining a constant pressure of 1Pa at the centroid of narrow fluidic channel geometry. The analysis of silicon on insulator (SOI) integrated optical waveguide at an infrared wavelength of 1550nm for single mode sensing operation is presented. The optical loss is found to be 0.0005719dB/cm with an effective index of 2.2963. The model presented in this work can be effectively used to detect the nature of micro particles and continuous monitoring of pathological parameters for sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0136.v1
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:52:43 CEST)
Abstract: Microstructural and mechanical properties of the eutectic Sn58Bi and micro-alloyed Sn57.6Bi0.4Ag solder alloys were compared. With the addition of Ag micro-alloy, the tensile strength was improved and this is attributed to a combination of microstructure refinement and an Ag3Sn precipitation hardening mechanism. However, ductility is slightly deteriorated due to the brittle nature of the Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs). Additionally, a board level reliability study of Ag micro-alloyed Sn58Bi solder joints produced utilising a surface-mount technology (SMT) process, were assessed under accelerated temperature cycling (ATC) conditions. Results reveal that micro-alloyed Sn57.6Bi0.4Ag has a higher characteristic lifetime with a narrower failure distribution. This enhanced reliability corresponds with improved bulk mechanical properties. It is postulated that Ag3Sn IMCs are located at the Sn-Bi phase boundaries and suppress the solder microstructure from coarsening during the temperature cycling, hereby extending the time to failure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0434.v1
Online: 23 July 2018 (21:33:29 CEST)
The tissue micro environment or milieu consists of a highly dynamic population of cellular and non-cellular components which constitute a complex regulatory network aimed at maintaining the organ homeostasis. In the modern medicine the discovery of miRNAs is undoubtedly a promising field of research and they are essential in orchestrating immune system logic and their release in the gut micro milieu can directly affect bacterial gene expression. Here, we brieﬂy review the role of microRNAs, focuses on their role on immune system components in physiological and pathophysiological gut micro milieu.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0143.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: acid-etching; micro-rough; bone regeneration; sub-micro-rough; bone integration; osseointegration; dental implants; orthopedic implants
Online: 12 August 2019 (12:35:48 CEST)
Titanium micro-scale topography results in excellent osteoconductivity and bone-implant integration. However, the biological effects of sub-micron topography are unknown. We compared osteoblastic phenotypes and in vivo bone and implant integration abilities between titanium surfaces with micro- (1–5 µm) and sub-micro-scale (0.1–0.5 µm) topographies and machined titanium. Average roughness was 12.5 ± 0.65 nm, 123 ± 6.15 nm, and 24 ± 1.2 nm for machined, micro-rough, and sub-micro-rough surfaces, respectively. The micro-rough surface showed the fewest cells attaching during the initial stage and the lowest proliferation. Calcium deposition and expression of osteoblastic genes were highest on the sub-micro-rough surface and lowest on the machined surface. Bone-to-implant integration was strongest for the micro-rough surface, consistent with it having the greatest ability to retain cells in vitro. Thus, the biological effects of titanium surfaces are not necessarily proportional to the degree of roughness in osteoblastic cultures or in vivo. Sub-micro-rough titanium ameliorates the disadvantage of micro-rough titanium by restoring cell attachment and proliferation and enhances the rate of osteoblastic differentiation over that of micro-rough titanium; however, bone integration and the ability to retain cells are compromised due to its lower interfacial mechanical locking compared to that of micro-rough titanium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0446.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: sustainable; decentralized; wastewater; treatment; micro-nanobubbles; biomedia
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:42:31 CEST)
As the scarcity of potable water increases, recycling of treated wastewater is increasing. Small-scale, decentralized treatment can be implemented to serve local populations by keeping water within their boundaries and within reach for reuse, particularly in less dense, non-urban communities. Availability of cellular networks and high-speed internet connectivity, along with significant reduction in cost, allows ongoing monitoring of decentralized treatment systems at a central location. In this paper a decentralized treatment system using micro nanobubble aeration, moving media and membranes is able to produce reusable water with low energy consumption, thereby allowing the use of solar energy in places with unreliable electrical supply. The treatment system, which uses no external chemicals, is able to operate unattended and deliver clear, disinfected water with non-detect suspended solids, BOD5 less than 10 mg/L and nutrients below 5 mg/L.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0308.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: micro-video classification; 3D CNN; multi-modal
Online: 21 July 2022 (03:09:34 CEST)
Along with the popularity of the Internet, people are exposed to more and more ways of micro-videos, and a huge amount of micro-video data has emerged. micro-videos have gradually become the Internet content preferred by the public, and a large number of micro-video apps have also emerged, such as Tiktok and Kwai. Intelligent classification and mining of micro-videos can greatly enhance user experience, improve business operation efficiency and enhance user experience. Through deep intelligent analysis and mining of micro-videos, important information in micro-videos can be extracted to provide an important basis for beautifying videos, content appreciation, video recommendation, content search, etc. In the past, content understanding for short videos often used human work annotation, but in recent years, with the great success of deep convolutional neural networks in image recognition, short video content understanding based on this method has gradually developed. Nowadays, most recognition algorithms extract the feature representation of each frame independently and then fuse them. However, while extracting the feature representation, some low-level semantic features are lost, which makes the algorithm unable to accurately distinguish the category of the video. At present, the algorithm of micro-video recognition based on deep learning has surpassed the iDT algorithm, making these traditional methods fade out of people’s view. In this paper according to the micro-video classification task, a new network model is proposed to concatenate features of each modality into the overall features of various modalities through the network, and then fuse the various modal features with the attention mechanism to obtain the whole micro-video features, which will be used for classification. In order to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed in this paper, experiments are conducted in the public dataset, and it is shown the effectiveness of our model.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: integrator; Kerr micro-comb; RF signal processing
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:05:22 CET)
We demonstrate a photonic RF integrator based on an integrated soliton crystal micro-comb source. By multicasting and progressively delaying the input RF signal using a transversal structure, the input RF signal is integrated discretely. Up to 81 wavelengths are provided by the microcomb source, which enable a large integration time window of ~6.8 ns, together with a time resolution as fast as ~84 ps. We perform signal integration of a diverse range of input RF signals including Gaussian pulses with varying time widths, dual pulses with varying time intervals and a square waveform. The experimental results show good agreement with theory. These results verify our microcomb-based integrator as a competitive approach for RF signal integration with high performance and potentially lower cost and footprint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0352.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioreactor; secondary caries; caries model; DCPD; micro-CT
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:00:11 CEST)
This study evaluated the efficacy of experimental TEGDMA-functionalized dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (T-DCPD) filler-based resin-based composites (RBC) in preventing caries lesions around the restoration margins (secondary caries”, SC). Standardized Class-II cavities were made in sound molars having the cervical margin in dentin. Cavities were filled with a commercial resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) or experimental RBCs containing a BisGMA-TEGDMA resin blend and one of the following inorganic fractions: 60 wt.% Ba glass (RBC-0); 40 wt.% Ba glass, 20 wt.% T-DCPD (RBC-20); 20 wt.% Ba glass, 40 wt.% T-DCPD (RBC-40). An open-system bioreactor produced S. mutans biofilm-driven SC. Specimens were scanned using micro-CT to evaluate demineralization depths. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy characterized the specimens’ surfaces, while antimicrobial activity, buffering effect, and ion uptake by the biofilms were also evaluated. ANOVA and Tukey’s test were applied at p<0.05. RBC-0 and RBC-20 showed SC development in dentin, while RBC-40 and RMGIC significantly reduced the lesion depth at the restoration margin (p<0.0001). Initial enamel demineralization could be observed only around RBC-0 and RBC-20 restorations. A direct antibiofilm activity could explain SC reduction by RMGIC, while a buffering effect on biofilm’s acidogenicity explained the behavior of RBC-40. Experimental RBC with CaP-releasing functionalized T-DCPD filler could prevent SC with the same efficacy as F-releasing materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: associativity; self-management; autonomy; solidarity; micro-credits; sustainability
Online: 10 August 2022 (03:50:20 CEST)
This research was carried out with the objective of analyzing the principles of social and solidarity economy in the community funds of the rural sector of Pichincha, Ecuador. Small organizations promote microcredits for local, social and economic development, representing an alternative to those managed by traditional banks. The research was descriptive, non-experimental field research. The population analyzed consisted of 220 community funds, and the size of the representative sample was 49 community organizations that practice solidarity finance. The data were collected through online questionnaires using a Likert scale, and the validity of this approach was judged by experts; the reliability of the instrument obtained was 0.95 using the Cronbach’s alpha method. The results highlight that in these organizations, the following traits prevail: associativity, self-management and organization. However, autonomy and solidarity have a negative valuation, which shows that strategies must be rethought to achieve the empowerment of the financial service. This will allow them to be sustainable and to expand with more benefits that promulgate financial activity and promote structures in rural community networks that promote local development and strengthen deficient principles as a basis for generating a greater benefit to the partners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0341.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: microfoming; energy field assisted micro/nanoforming; ultrasonic vibration
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:53:15 CET)
Excitation of the acoustic field leading to the Blaha effect affects the plasticity of the material significantly in ultrasonic vibration-assisted forming. In a micro-forming field, the effects are more significant in the deformation in surface of materials -, in which reduction of the surface roughness based on the increasing of plastic deformation of surface asperity was effective . On the other hand, the effect on deformation behavior of the bulk region indicted reduction in the yield stress of materials, and not only acoustic effect , but also impact effect is found to generate a large amount of dislocation and produce plastic deformation . However, the effect on the bulk is more significant as that on the surface. Differences in the effect on the surface and the bulk are not clarified. In this study, the mechanism of the deformation in the surface of the material with ultrasonic vibration assistance is investigated and compared with that in the bulk. Forging tests using a newly developed ultrasonic vibrator were carried out on pure Cu foils with various process conditions. The longitudinal vibration frequency of the ultrasonic transducer is 60∓2kHz, and the vibration amplitude is in an adjustable range of 0~10μm. Forging test was carried out at different initial stress, specimen size and amplitude. The difference in acoustic softening and impact effects on the surface and the bulk was discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0380.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Micro-Datacenters; information and communications technology (ICT); Efficiency
Online: 6 October 2021 (15:59:04 CEST)
The rapid growth of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector requires additional infrastructure, such as more micro-datacenters and telecom stations, to support the higher internet speeds and low latency requirements of 5G net-works. The increased power requirements of the new ICT technologies necessitate the proposal of new power supplies in an attempt to retain the increase in energy demand and running costs. This work provides an in-depth theoretical analysis on the losses of the individual stages of commercially available PSU and proposes a new multicell PSU, Buck-PFC converter, which offers a higher overall efficiency at varying load levels. The theoretical results are verified using simulation results, via PSIM Thermal Module, and using experimental data. The results indicate that multi-cell structures can improve the overall PSU ef-ficiency by 1.2% at 50% rated power and more than 2.1% at full power. Finally, taking into consideration the economic implica-tions of this study, it is shown that the proposed multicell structure may increase the PSU costs by 10.78% but the payback pe-riod is in the order of just 3.3 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Micro-mobility; Ride-sharing; Agent-based modelling; Crowdsourcing
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:48:39 CEST)
Substantial research is required to ensure that micro-mobility ride sharing provides a better fulfillment of user needs. This study proposes a novel crowdsourcing model for the ride-sharing system where light vehicles such as scooters and bikes are crowdsourced. The proposed model consists of three entities: suppliers, customers, and a management party responsible for receiving, renting, booking, and demand matching with offered resources. It can allow suppliers to define the location of their private e-scooters/e-bikes and the period of time they are available for rent. Using a dataset of over 9 million e-scooter trips in Austin, Texas, we ran an agent-based simulation six times using three maximum battery ranges (i.e., 35, 45, and 60 km) and different numbers of e-scooters (e.g., 50 and 100) at each origin. Computational results show that the proposed model is promising and might be advantageous to shift the charging and maintenance efforts to a crowd of suppliers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0030.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: micro minerals, selenium, deficiency, soil-plant relationship, Kosovo
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:17:35 CEST)
Minerals play many important functions in plant and animal metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the concentration of Se and other minerals and their relationships in soils and fodder plants in Kosovo. Seventy-three samples of each soil and fodder plants (grass, maize, and wheat) from 30 farms were collected. Both soil and plant samples, after processing and digestion, were analyzed for mineral concentration by ICP-MS. Mineral concentrations in soil and fodder crops, and the best predicting/explanatory models for micro minerals concentration, achieved by stepwise linear regression, are presented. Results showed very low concentration of Se in most of the soil and all fodder samples. In addition, the concentration of Co, Zn and Fe was not sufficient to satisfy requirements for all categories of farm animals. Plant Se concentration showed a positive relationship with Se concentration in soils. Plant Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe and Pb, in general, showed no significant relationship with their concentration in soil, while plant Co and Cd showed positive relationship only in maize, and Cu in wheat grain. Among the soil properties, pH had the highest effect on the concentrations of Co, Mo, Mn, Cd and Pb in fodder crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0229.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Steel, Conversion coating; Self-healing; Micro-structural characteristics
Online: 12 January 2021 (15:47:40 CET)
A phosphate/molybdate and cerium-modified phosphate/molybdate conversion coatings were deposited on a carbon steel surface and their protective and self-healing abilities were evaluated. Surface morphology and inner structure of the coatings were examined using FE-SEM-FIB and TEM techniques, chemical composition and element distribution depth profiles in conversion layers were determined using EDX measurements, whereas XPS was applied for the analysis of Mo and Ce oxidation states. Voltammetric measurements and EIS were performed to assess the corrosion behavior of the samples. The higher protective and stronger self-healing abilities were found for phosphate/molybdate/cerium conversion coating deposited in a sulphate-containing solution. This was attributed to higher values of both: total cerium and Ce(IV) content in the conversion layer as well as to lower number of structural defects in the coating. It was demonstrated that the micro-structural characteristics of protective coatings are also important in determining self-healing abilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0520.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Micro-dissection; Ultrasonic vibration; Flexure-guided; Tissue section
Online: 21 December 2020 (12:06:42 CET)
Biological micro-dissection has a wide range of applications in the field of molecular pathology. The current laser-assisted dissection technology is expensive, and laser radiation can lead to sample contamination. As an economical and pollution-free micro-dissection method, piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection has a wide application prospect. However, the performance of the current piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection technology is unsatisfactory. In this paper, a novel piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection device based on a flexure mechanism is proposed in order to solve the problems of low dissecting precision and excessive wear of the dissecting needle caused by the harmful lateral vibration of the current piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection device. By analyzing the flexibility of flexure hinge, the type of flexure beam and the optimal design parameters are determined. Through comparing the harmonic response simulation analysis of the micro-dissection device based on a flexure mechanism and the traditional micro-dissection device without the flexure mechanism, the newly designed micro-dissection device achieves the best vibration effect when the driving frequency is 28kHz, compared with the traditional micro-dissection device, the lateral vibration suppression effect is improved by 68%. Then, based on the 3D printing technology, a prototype of a novel micro-dissection device was produced, and its performance was tested. It was found that the flexure mechanism did indeed suppress the lateral vibration of the needle tip. Finally, the experiments of 5μm thick paraffin-embedded rat liver sections were carried out, and the effects of different dissecting parameters on the dissecting effect were analyzed, and the optimal dissecting parameters were obtained. By comparing the dissecting effects of the tissue sample and the wear condition of the needle tip between the novel micro-dissection device and the traditional micro-dissection device under their optimal dissecting parameters, it is proved that the suppression of harmful lateral vibration not only significantly improves the dissecting effect, but also improves the service life and durability of the dissecting needle, which is beneficial to reduce the equipment costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: partial flipped classroom; active learning pedagogies; micro lectures
Online: 9 October 2020 (08:49:50 CEST)
The flipped classroom is gaining prominence as an active learning pedagogy to engage a new generation of students. However, all courses do not lend themselves to a fully flipped design and instructors are often reluctant to flip lectures. In this study, I experimented with a “partial” flipped classroom design in a first-year undergraduate economics course. In this partial flipped format, traditional lectures were substituted with micro-lectures and the remaining class time was devoted to activities like quizzes, group work and student presentations. The full lectures were panopto recorded and put up on the e-learning site, Blackboard. This format enabled me to combine the benefits of a traditional lecture with a flipped classroom design. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the partial flipped classroom format, I compared the final exam scores of students in the partial flipped classroom with those in the control group, which followed a traditional lecture-based approach. The key results from the analysis revealed that students in the partial flipped classroom performed better in the final exams vis-à-vis students in the traditional classroom format. Furthermore, the partial flipped classroom format was associated with lower odds of students failing in the module. This format also resulted in better student engagement, more flexibility and enhanced student-tutor interaction within the classroom.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0608.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Biogeography; Ecology; Environmental samples; Micro-organisms; Soil biodiversity
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:54:02 CEST)
The Neotropical region is one of the most diverse regions of the globe in terms of macro-organismic species. Regarding the microbial world, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography patterns of micro-organisms in the Neotropics. In this context, the study of several microbial taxonomic groups is still missing and/or incomplete, such as the protists. Our goal here was to summarize the available information of Neotropical protists, focusing on molecular data from environmental continental samples, to explore what these data evidence on their ecology and biogeography. For this, we reviewed the findings from all articles that focused on or included the terrestrial protists using metabarcoding approach and identified the gaps and future perspectives in this research field. We found that Neotropical protists diversity patterns seem to be, at least in part, congruent with that of macro-organisms and, different than plants and bacteria, just weakly explained by environmental variables. We argue that studies with standardized protocols including different biomes are necessary to fully characterize the ecology and biogeography on Neotropical protists. Furthermore, dismember evolutionary lineages and functional guilds of protists are important to better understand the relationship between diversity, dispersal abilities and functionality of particular taxa of protists in their habitats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0185.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: severe plastic deformation; iron hardness; micro/nano-structure
Online: 11 May 2020 (03:33:40 CEST)
The evolution of metals micro/nano-structure upon severe plastic deformation (SPD) is still far to be theoretically explained, while experimental datasets are persistently growing for several decades. Major problem associated with understanding of SPD is related to a fact that the latter is a synergetic product of several competing physical effects which alter the material micro/nano-structure. In attempt to find deformational boundaries, where predominantly one mechanism determines the micro/nano-structure, in this paper we propose a continuous piecewise model for the analysis of experiments on material hardness vs strain of SPD processed materials. The novelty of this approach lies in its ability to find, as free-fitting parameters, the strain breakpoints which separate different micro/nano-structure modes generated upon SPD process. The model is applied to analyse experimental data for polycrystalline samples of pure iron and two distinctive strain breakpoints are revealed with good accuracies. This finding is in a good agreement with our earlier results on TEM microscopy studies on pure iron polycrystals after SPD treatment.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Insertion torque; Pullout strength; Gripping volume; Micro-implant
Online: 10 February 2020 (11:32:53 CET)
This study evaluated the mechanical strengths of three types of orthodontic micro-implants by analyzing their structural configurations. Thirty micro-implants of three types (diameter 1.5 mm, Types A, B, C) were assessed. All micro-implants were manually driven into artificial bones at an 8-mm depth. The insertion torque (IT), pullout strength (PS), and gripping volume (GV) of each type were measured. Intergroup comparisons and intragroup correlation were investigated by statistical analysis. Type B had the greatest inner–outer diameter ratio (0.67), and Type A had the smallest (0.53). The IT of Type A (5.26 Ncm) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower than that of Type C (8.8 Ncm). There was no significant difference in the pullout strength (p = 0.868). The GV of Type A (9.7 mm3) was significant (p < 0.01) greater than Type C (8.4 mm3). Type C was significant (p < 0.01) greater than Type B (7.2 mm3). Spearman’s rho rank correlation test showed that PS of Type B was correlated significantly with GV. In conclusion, the design of thread and its GV were the important factors on the mechanical strengths of micro-implant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0285.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: additive manufacturing; biyomedikal alloy; micro structure; mechanical properties.
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:24:36 CEST)
The Wolfram (W), Silicium (Si) and Molybdenum (Mo) doped Co-Cr biomedical alloy were fabricated by additive manufacturing method, which is part of powder metadology. The mixture of Wolfram (W), Silicium (Si), Chrome (Cr) and Cobalt (Co) alloy is known good wear and corrosion resistance among of biomedical applications. By addition of Molybdenum (Mo) into the structure of alloy, the structure become more stbale also increase the corrosion and wear resistance. In addition, the effects of secondary annealing process on the alloy were investigated. The microstructure of the produced alloy was analyzed by X-ray diffraction method XRD, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis EDX and scanning electron microscope SEM. Moreover, Electrochemical corrosion test, micro hardness and density measurements were performed to investigate the mechanical properties of the alloy. As a result of the analyzes, the effects of Molydenum (Mo) doped and secondary annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of bioalloying were determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0576.v1
Online: 26 November 2018 (08:37:55 CET)
Optical micro-angiography (OMAG) is a new method of detecting flow rate and widely used for in vivo imaging. Although OMAG can distinguish between flowing and stationary parts, it cannot obtain accurate flow rate information. This study proposed a range formula for OMAG and the ultrahigh-sensitivity OMAG (UHS-OMAG) method to quantify the measurement range of an entire system. The parameters of the angle between beam scanning and flow directions, the angular velocity of the galvanometer, and the offset of incident light were introduced, and a formula for calculating the range was derived. Experiments were conducted to measure fine and ultra-fine flow rates by using OMAG and UHS-OMAG methods. The minimum measured flow rate was approximately 30 μm/s, and the maximum measured flow rate was approximately 8 mm/s. Experimental results are in good agreement with the preset results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0071.v1
Online: 21 August 2017 (09:55:55 CEST)
Natural events such as floods, fires, tsunamis, earthquakes and others have nowadays caused serious damage to human beings and nature. The precise detection of these natural events and especially the earthquake has nowadays become the focus of many computer and geoscientific researchers. Computer science and machine learning algorithms have revolutionized early detection and prediction of these events. Hence, a fuzzy method has been initially used in this article to enhance the authenticity of data based on application of effective variables and then combination of neural network algorithms of the MLP perceptron and radial network of RBF in form of a collective learning system in order to more accurately identify seismic events on a small scale. It was observed after simulating the proposed method that the proposed method has significantly improved based on actual error and root-mean-square error (RMSE) criteria compared to basic methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0072.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: micro-arc oxidation; antibacterial ability; Ag; Cu; Zn
Online: 14 March 2017 (07:49:40 CET)
Ti and its alloys are the most commonly used materials for biomedical applications. However, bacterial infection after implant placement is still one of the significant rising complications. Therefore, the application of the antimicrobial agents into implant surfaces to prevent implant-associated infection has attracted lots of attention. Scientific papers have shown that inorganic antibacterial metal element (e.g. Ag, Cu, Zn) can be introduced to implant surfaces with the addition of metal nanoparticles or metallic compounds into electrolyte via micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technology. In this review, the effects of the composition and concentration of electrolyte and process parameters (e.g. voltage, current density, oxidation time) on morphological characteristics (e.g. surface morphology, bonding strength), antibacterial ability and biocompatibility of MAO antimicrobial coating were discussed in detail. Anti-infection and osseo-integration can be simultaneously accomplished with the selection of the proper antibacterial elements and operating parameters. Besides, MAO assisted by magnetron sputtering (MS) to endow Ti-based implant materials with superior antibacterial ability and biocompatibility was also discussed. Finally, the development trend of MAO technology in the future was forecasted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: micro-Doppler; FMCW radar; through-the-wall; classification
Online: 31 August 2016 (09:02:32 CEST)
The ability to detect the presence as well as classify the activities of individuals behind visually obscuring structures is of significant benefit to police, security and emergency services in many situations. This paper presents the analysis from a series of experimental results generated using a through-the-wall (TTW) Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) C-Band radar system named Soprano. The objective of this analysis was to classify whether an individual was carrying an item in both hands or not using micro-Doppler information from a FMCW sensor. The radar was deployed at a standoff distance, of approximately 0.5 m, outside a residential building and used to detect multiple people walking within a room. Through the application of digital filtering, it was shown that significant suppression of the primary wall reflection is possible, significantly enhancing the target signal to clutter ratio. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) signal processing techniques were then applied to the micro-Doppler signatures from different individuals. Features from the SVD information have been used to classify whether the person was carrying an item or walking free handed. Excellent performance of the classifier was achieved in this challenging scenario with accuracies up to 94%, suggesting that future through wall radar sensors may have the ability to reliably recognize many different types of activities in TTW scenarios using these techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0392.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Laser induced forward transfer; high entropy alloys; micro-particles
Online: 26 September 2022 (10:32:29 CEST)
Controlled deposition of CoCrFeNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy (HEA) micro-particles was achieved using laser induced forward transfer (LIFT). Ultra-short laser pulses, 230 fs of 515 nm wavelength, were tightly focused into ∼ 2.4 μm focal spots on the ∼50 nm thick plasma-sputtered films of CoCrFeNiMo0.2. The HTA films were transferred onto glass substrates by magnetron sputtering in vacuum (10−8 atm) from the thermal spray coated substrates. The absorption coefficient of CoCrFeNiMo0.2 α ≈ 6 × 105 cm−1 was determined at 600 nm wavelength. The real and imaginary parts of refractive index (n + iκ) of HEA were determined from reflectance and transmittance using nano-films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0708.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Micro-grid, Rural Electrification, HOMER, Control strategy, Sensitivity analysis
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:27:25 CEST)
Around 14% of the global population does not have access to electricity. About 95% of those are living in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Often in these regions, diesel generators are the only source of electricity. The operating cost of these diesel generators is high. However, solar and wind energy are available in most of African countries. This study presents the analysis of designing an off-grid hybrid system with a wind turbine, PV, diesel generator, and battery to power a hospital, school, and 200 household village in four locations across Somalia. The research investigated the availability of wind-solar resources in selected locations. Designing of the system and economic-technical calculations were performed using HOMER. The selection of the optimum design was based on the Cost of Electricity and Net Present Cost. The results show that for Kabaal and Ceel Buur, a WT-PV-DG-Battery is the optimal system as the wind resource in these regions is high. For Saakov and Baki, a PV-DG-Battery system proves to be optimum as the wind resource is limited here. The study also evaluated the control strategy and proved that combined dispatch was the most cost-effective for these locations. The study concluded that hybrid systems are more economical than diesel systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0563.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Single crystal diamond; micro-water jet guided laser; microchannel
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:05:14 CEST)
Two types of trenches cross-section in conventional vertical and brand new reverse-V-shape have fabricated on SCD substrate by micro-jet water-assist laser, the epitaxial lateral overgrowth technique has applied by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system in forming multiple micrometer-size channels. Raman and SEM techniques have applied in analyze both types growth layer characterization. Optical microscope has used to test microchannels hollowness. As a result, with the brand new reverse-V-shape trench, epitaxial lateral overgrowth layer reaches higher SCD surface morphology and crystal quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0154.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Garnierite, Phase transformation, TGA/DSC, XRD, micro Raman spectroscopy
Online: 8 January 2021 (12:59:34 CET)
This study deals with vibrational and crystallographic aspects of the thermally induced transformation of serpentine-like garnierite into quartz, forsterite, and enstatite occurring at about 620 °C. Powder specimens of garnierite have been annealed in static air between room temperature and 1000 °C. The resulting products from the transformations detected based on thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, have been extensively characterized via microRaman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Our study shows that serpentine-like garnierite consists of a mixture of different mineral species. Furthermore, these garnierites and their composition can provide details based on the mineralogy and the crystalline phases resulting from the thermal treatment.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; microwave photonics; micro-ring resonators; RF sideband generation
Online: 10 November 2020 (11:52:59 CET)
We review recent work on narrowband orthogonally polarized optical RF single sideband generators as well as dual-channel equalization, both based on high-Q integrated ring resonators. The devices operate in the optical telecommunications C-band and enable RF operation over a range of either fixed or thermally tuneable frequencies. They operate via TE/TM mode birefringence in the resonator. We achieve a very large dynamic tuning range of over 55 dB for both the optical carrier-to-sideband ratio and the dual-channel RF equalization for both the fixed and tunable devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: micro segmented genetic algorithm; multicore embedded system; parallel processing
Online: 5 March 2020 (03:23:59 CET)
This paper presents a novel micro-segmented genetic algorithm (μsGA) to identify the best solution for the locomotion of a quadruped robot designed on a rectangular ABS plastic platform. We compare our algorithm with three similar algorithms found in the specialized literature: a standard genetic algorithm (GA), a micro-genetic algorithm (μGA), and a micro artificial immune system (μAIS). The quadruped robot prototype guarantees the same conditions for each test. The platform was developed using 3D printing for the structure and can accommodate the mechanisms, sensors, servomechanisms as actuators. It also has an internal battery and a multicore embedded system (mES) to process and control the robot locomotion. This research proposes a μsGA that segments the individual into specific bytes. μGA techniques are applied to each segment to reduce the processing time; the same benefits as the GA are obtained, while the use of a computer and the high computational resources characteristic of the GA are avoided. This is the reason why some research in robot locomotion is limited to simulation. The results show that the performance of μsGA is better than the three other algorithms (GA, μGA and AIS). The processing time was reduced using a mES architecture that enables parallel processing, meaning that the requirements for resources and memory were reduced. This research solves the problem of continuous locomotion of a quadruped robot, and gives a feasible solution with real performance parameters using a μsGA bio-micro algorithm and a mES architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0186.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: TSV, nanoindentation, FIB, micro-cantilever beam, mixed-mode, fracture
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:01:04 CET)
In-situ nanoindentation experiment has been widely adopted to characterize material behaviors of microelectronic devices. This work introduces the latest developments of nanoindentation experiment in characterizing nonlinear material properties of 3D integrated microelectronic devices with through-silicon-vias (TSVs). The elastic, plastic, and interfacial fracture behavior of the copper via and matrix-via interface have been characterized using small scale specimens prepared with focused-ion-beam (FIB) and nanoindentation experiment. A brittle interfacial fracture was found at the Cu/Si interface under mixed-mode loading with a phase angle ranging from 16.7 to 83.7 degrees. The mixed-mode fracture strengths were extracted using the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis and a fracture criterion was obtained by fitting the extracted data with the power-law function. The vectorial interfacial strength and toughness were found to be independent with mode-mix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: microfluidics; micro-injection-moulding; femtosecond laser micromachining; optical manipulation.
Online: 9 July 2018 (11:47:29 CEST)
Micro Injection molding combined with the use of removable inserts is one of the most promising manufacturing process for microfluidic devices, such as Lab-on-a-chip, that have the potential to revolutionize the healthcare and diagnosis system. In this work we have designed, fabricated and tested a compact and disposable plastic optical stretcher. To produce the mould inserts, two micro manufacturing technologies have been used. Micro Electro Discharge machining was used to reproduce the inverse of the capillary tube connection characterized by high aspect ratio. Thanks to the high accuracy of femtosecond laser machining, instead, we manufactured insert with perfectly aligned microfluidic channels and fiber slots, facilitating the final composition of the optical manipulation device. The optical stretcher operation is tested using microbeads and red blood cells solutions. The prototype presented in this work demonstrates the feasibility of this approach that should guarantee a real mass production of ready-to-use- Lab-on-a-chip.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0200.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO); Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO); Titanium
Online: 23 March 2018 (15:16:33 CET)
In the paper, the effect of voltage increasing (from 500 VDC up to 650 VDC) on the structure and chemical composition of porous coating on titanium made by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, is presented. In the present paper, phosphates based coatings enriched with calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper in electrolyte based on 1 L of 85% concentrated H3PO4 with additions of Ca(NO3)2·4H2O, and Mg(NO3)2∙6H2O, and Zn(NO3)2∙6H2O, and Cu(NO3)2∙3H2O, are described. The morphology, chemical and phase composition, are evaluated using SEM, EDS, XRD, XPS, GDOES. Based on all the analyses, it was found out that the PEO coatings are porous and enriched with calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper. They consist mainly of the amorphous phase, which is more visible for higher voltages, and it is correlated with the increasing of the total PEO coating thickness (the higher the voltage, the thicker the PEO coating). However, for 650 VDC an amorphous phase and titanium substrate was also recorded with a signal from Ti2P2O7 crystalline, that was not observed for lower voltages. It was also found out that all the obtained coatings may be divided in three sub-layers, i.e. porous, semiporous, and transition one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: seismic events; seismic classification; boost learning; micro seismic detection
Online: 21 August 2017 (10:08:19 CEST)
Various natural disasters such as floods, fires, earthquakes, etc. have affected human life. Detection and classification of large and small earthquakes caused by natural or abnormal events have been always important to Earth scientist. One of the most important research challenges in this field is the lack of an effective method for identifying and categorizing various types of seismic events at less important and important levels. Based on latest achievements of Data Mining international institutions such as Rexer-KDnugget-Gartner and also newest authentic articles, SVM, KNN, C4.5, MLP are from most important and popular and leading classifiers in data world.Therefor in present study, a boost learning system consisting support vector machine algorithms with linear regression, MLP Neural Network ، C4.5 decision tree and KNN near neighborhood have been utilized in a combined form to detect and categorize micro seismic events. In general, the steps involved in the proposed method are: 1) performing artificial seismic tests, 2) data gathering and analysis, 3) conducting preprocessing and separating training and testing samples, 4) generating relevant models with training samples and detecting and categorizing test samples and 5) extracting a cluster with the maximum candidate using boost learning. After simulations, it was observed that the accuracy of proposed boost method to the best answer was about 6.1% higher compare to other methods and the error rate was 0.082% of recalling. Accuracy of detection and classification to the best answer were also improved compare to other methods up to 2.31% and 6.34%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: thin film nitinol; carotid artery; micro mesh stent; micropatterning
Online: 1 November 2016 (06:54:40 CET)
Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. However, stenting is associated with a higher risk of procedural stroke secondary to distal thromboembolism. Hybrid stents with a micromesh layer have been proposed to address this complication. We developed a micropatterned thin film nitinol (M-TFN) covered stent designed to prevent thromboembolism during carotid intervention. This innovation may obviate the need or work synergistically with embolic protection devices. The proposed double layered stent is low-profile, thromboresistant, and covered with a M-TFN that can be fabricated with fenestrations of varying geometries and sizes. The M-TFN was created in multiple geometries, dimensions, and porosities by sputter deposition. The efficiency of various M-TFN to capture embolic particles was evaluated in different atherosclerotic carotid stenotic conditions through in vitro tests. The covered stent prevented emboli dislodgement in the range of 70-96% during 30min duration tests. In vitro vascular cell growth study results showed that endothelial cell elongation, alignment and growth behaviour silhouettes significantly enhance specifically on the diamond-shape M-TFN with the dimensions of 145µm×20µm and a porosity of 32%. Future studies will require in-vivo testing. Our results demonstrate that M-TFN has a promising potential for carotid artery stenting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0025.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: Cross border electroniceletronic commerce(CBEC); Export Marketing Strategy(EMS); Marketing Mix; Micro, Small and Medium sized enterprise(MSMEs); Aid for Trade; Micro Entrepreneur
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:07:48 CEST)
Cross-border e-commerce is an opportunity for micro, small and medium sized enterprise (MSMEs) in developing countries. Based on a resource-based approach, this research studied how to support resource lacking enterprises with export marketing strategy. It dealt with actual business cases of Mongolian entrepreneurs trying to export Mongolian products to Korean market. Multiple source data including interviews, internal documents, and group discussions, were matched with theories to come up with strategies and validated by supporting organizations in Mongolia and Korea. The research suggests that MSMEs should rely on third party digital platforms rather than setting up their own. For product strtategy of the marketing mix, sellecting competitive product categories and supporting them adjusting to foreign markets and quality assurance is needed. For price strategy, loccally high priced products should use a price penetration strategy with a lower price compared to competing foreign products. For place strategy, supporting organizations should partner with exporters for collective delivery. For promotion strategy, they need to support the capacity of MSMEs enabling them to use digital marketing tools effectivly. These strategies were validated and adopted by supporting organizations in Monglia and Korea.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: prostate cancer; ultrasonography; biopsy; micro-ultrasound; elastography; contrast-enhanced ultrasound
Online: 21 March 2022 (04:26:46 CET)
The purpose of this review is to present the current role of ultrasound-based techniques in the diagnostic pathway of prostate cancer (PCa). With overdiagnosis and overtreatment of a clinically insignificant PCa over the past years, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) became recommended for every patient suspected of PCa before performing a biopsy. It enabled targeted sampling of the suspicious prostate regions, improving the accuracy of the traditional systematic biopsy. However, mpMRI is associated with high costs, relatively low availability, long and separate procedure or exposure to the contrast agent. The novel ultrasound modalities such as shear wave elastography (SWE), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) or high frequency micro-ultrasound (MicroUS) may be capable of maintaining the performance of mpMRI without its limitations. Moreover, the real-time lesion visualization during biopsy would significantly simplify the diagnostic process. Another value of these new techniques is the ability to enhance the performance of mpMRI by creating the image fusion of multiple modalities. Such models might be further analyzed by artificial intelligence to mark the regions of interest for investigators and help to decide about the biopsy indications. The dynamic development and promising results of new ultrasound-based techniques should encourage researchers to thoroughly study their utilization in prostate imaging.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biodegradable labeling; Decomposition; Fibre; Micro plastic; PVAL; PHA; Shotgun wad
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:35:36 CEST)
Parts of shotgun cartridges are a significant source of plastic litter in the marine environment. Empty cartridge shells may not be picked up by the hunter who fired them, and plastic wads that serve to separate the propellant from the shot load, are lost down-range when a shot is fired. Such litter items constitute a cosmetic and aesthetic problem on coastlines and may cause harm to marine animals and in the later stages of decomposition break down into harmful micro plastic particles. There exists no reliable estimate of the global exposure of marine ecosystems to this plastic source. However, in some countries it has been subject to closer examination, including for example, Denmark where the annual contribution of plastic wads into marine systems was estimated to 600,000 pieces (c2 tonnes), and the accumulated density of washed-up items (both wads and shells) was 3.7 items per 100 m coastline. Increasing awareness of this problem has caused scientists, hunters’ communities and governments to suggest altered practice including transition to the use of biodegradable cartridge components, first and foremost wads as this item is invariable lost during hunting. Several manufacturers provide shotgun cartridges containing biodegradable wads based on different types of materials, including fibers and various types of plastics, for example PVAL (poly(vinyl alcohol)) and PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate). In this paper, we review the most recent literature on the amounts and related environmental hazards of plastic dispersed from hunting ammunition into marine ecosystems. We summarize the market availability of shotgun cartridges with biodegradable wads and discuss chemical, technical, economical and legal aspects of a transition to the use of such products.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ST-elevation myocardial infarction; Thrombus; Thrombus aspiration; Micro-CT; ceramides
Online: 5 January 2021 (13:43:37 CET)
ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The identification of novel metabolic and imaging biomarkers could unveil key pathophysiological mechanisms at the molecular level and promote personalized care in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We studied 38 patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. We sought to correlate serum ceramide levels with micro-CT quantified aspirated thrombus volume and relevant angiographic outcomes, including modified TIMI thrombus grade and pre- or post-procedural TIMI flow. Higher ceramide C16:0 levels were significantly, but weakly correlated with larger aspirated thrombus volume (Spearman r=0.326, p=0.046), larger intracoronary thrombus burden (Nagelkerke R2=0.236, p=0.030) and worse pre- and post-procedural TIMI flow (Nagelkerke R2=0.210; p=0.049 and Nagelkerke R2=0.277; p=0.039, respectively). Ceramides C24:0 and C24:1 were also significantly associated with larger intracoronary thrombus burden (Nagelkerke R2=0.311; p=0.008 and Nagelkerke R2=0.423; p=0.001, respectively). In conclusion, serum ceramide levels (mainly C16:0 and C24:1) were higher among patients with larger intracoronary and aspirated thrombus burden. This suggests that quantification of serum ceramides might improve risk-stratification of patients with STEMI and facilitate a more individualized approach in everyday clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0188.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Plant biomechanics; turgor pressure; micro-compression; AFM; Arabidopsis thaliana; differentiation
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:42:19 CET)
Individual plant cells are the building blocks for all plantae and artificially constructed plant biomaterials, like biocomposites. Secondary cell walls (SCWs) are a key component for mediating mechanical strength and stiffness in both living vascular plants and biocomposite materials. In this paper, we study the structure and biomechanics of cultured plant cells during the cellular developmental stages associated with SCW formation. We use a model culture system that induces transdifferentiation of Arabidopsis thaliana cells to xylem vessel elements, upon treatment with dexamethasone (DEX). We group the transdifferentiation process into three distinct stages, based on morphological observations of the cell walls. The first stage includes cells with only a primary cell wall (PCW), the second covers cells that have formed a SCW, and the third stage includes cells with a ruptured tonoplast and partially or fully degraded PCW. We adopt a multi-scale approach to study the mechanical properties of cells in these three stages. We perform large-scale indentations with a micro-compression system and nanoscale indentations through atomic force microscopy (AFM), in three different osmotic conditions. We introduce a spring-based model to deconvolve the competing stiffness contributions from turgor pressure, PCW, SCW and cytoplasm in the stiffness of differentiating cells. Prior to triggering differentiation, cells in hypotonic pressure conditions are significantly stiffer than cells in isotonic or hypertonic conditions, highlighting the dominant role of turgor pressure. Plasmolyzed cells with a SCW reach similar levels of stiffness as cells with maximum turgor pressure. The stiffness of the PCW in all of these conditions is lower than the stiffness of the fully-formed SCW. Our results provide the first experimental characterization of the mechanics of SCW formation at single cell level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: horn design; ultrasonic welding; nonwoven fabric; micro-structure; tensile strength
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:01:01 CEST)
Nonwoven fabrics have been widely used in textile manufacturing industry as a sheet or web structure because of soft, water-repellent, recycle, ecological and resilient functions. Ultrasonic welding method has been applied for bonding nonwoven fabrics due to clean, fast and reliable approach. In this work, the ultrasonic stepped horn is designed to generate uniform amplitudes on the working surface by using finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. Chromium carbon steels are utilized to produce ultrasonic horns due to high wear resistant and hardness. Isotactic polypropylene nonwoven fabrics fabricated by spunbond process were bonded by continuous ultrasonic sewing machine. Ultrasonic horn with 70 mm in diameter working at 20 kHz, polypropylene (PP) nonwoven density of 80 gsm and various design of welding joints were applied. A typical image in the case of number one was investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of inter-facial micro-structure. However, welding joints of totally eight roller patterns was test the tensile strength of the ultrasonic welding joints on PP nonwoven fabrics. The tensile strength of the welding joints is proportional to the area ratio between the welding area and cycling area. The results showed that the melted zone without welding defects such as crack or blowhole can be seen. Furthermore, the tensile strength of welding joints in eight cases of roller patterns (No.1-No.8) was described in details. The ultrasonic welding joints with brick structures give higher tensile strength while the solid line in the pattern gave less strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0320.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: diffusion bonding; Hastelloy B; corrosion; sulfuric acid; micro process device
Online: 23 February 2020 (12:00:15 CET)
Sulphuric acid is a widely used raw material in the chemical industry. Its corrosive effect on materials varies considerably, depending on impurities, temperature and water content. Accordingly, good corrosion resistance under all conditions is very difficult to achieve. This is especially an issue for micro process apparatus with very thin walls. Furthermore, such devices are often joint by diffusion bonding what may alter materials properties due to high temperatures and long dwell times. In fact, for each new material, the diffusion bonding parameters must be optimized and the impact on mechanical as well as corrosion properties must be investigated. In this paper, two high molybdenum alloys, namely Hastelloy B3 and BC-1, were evaluated. Diffusion bonding tests were performed using ten layers of sheet material in between round stock. Corrosion tests were performed in 70 % sulphuric acid at 100°C for 1000 h. Tensile tests on both alloys were carried out for different material conditions, to determine the change in mechanical strength and elongation at fracture values. In general, independent of the condition of the materials, the fracture behavior of both alloys was found to be ductile and the specimens show the typical dimple structure, in the case of diffusion bonded samples, interrupted by weak spots or rather non-bonded areas. These areas are obviously causing the onset of material failure and thus, a degradation of mechanical properties. Tensile samples, that were aged in 70% sulphuric acid at 100°C for 1000 hours showed local corrosion attacks at the grain boundaries at the circumferential surfaces and especially at the joining planes – for Hastelloy B3 much more pronounced than for Hastelloy BC-1. Accordingly, a further decrease of both, the stress- and elongation at fracture values is observed. However, the typical material parameters like 0.2 % yield strength used for dimensioning components are found to be sufficient high, even when operating the materials under such harsh conditions. When concluding the results, at least Hastelloy BC-1 reveals both sufficient good mechanical properties and an excellent corrosion resistance, regardless of the heat treatment, and could be considered for manufacturing micro-process engineering apparatuses operated in a sulphuric acid environment. This is a significant advance compared to the results obtained within a AiF project, previously carried out on four different materials to investigate the corrosion resistance in sulphuric acid.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: viscoelasticity; anelasticity; creep function; forced-oscillation methods; micro creep methods
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:55:05 CEST)
There is an important complementarity between experimental methods for the study of high-temperature viscoelasticity in the time and frequency domains, that has not always been fully exploited. Here we show that parallel processing of forced-oscillation data and microcreep records, involving consistent use of either Andrade or extended Burgers creep-function models, yields a robust composite modulus-dissipation dataset spanning a broader range of periods than either technique alone. In fitting this dataset, the alternative Andrade and extended Burgers models differ in their partitioning of strain between the anelastic and viscous contributions. The extended Burgers model is preferred because it involves a finite range of anelastic relaxation times, and accordingly a well-defined anelastic relaxation strength. The new strategy offers the prospect of better constraining the transition between transient and steady-state creep, or equivalently, between anelastic and viscous behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0052.v1
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:56:36 CEST)
Direct laser writing based on non-linear 3D nanolithography (also known as 3D laser lithography, 3DLL) is a powerful technology to manufacture polymeric micro-optical components. However, practical applications of these elements are limited due to the lack of knowledge of their optical resilience and durability. In this work, we employ 3DLL for the fabrication of bulk (i.e. fully filled) and woodpile structures out of different photopolymers. We then characterize them using S-on-1 laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) measurements. In this way, quantitative data of LIDT values can be collected. Furthermore, this method permits to gather damage morphologies. The results presented in this work demonstrate that LIDT values depend on the material and the geometry of the structure. Bulk non-photosensitized hybrid organic-inorganic photopolymer SZ2080 structures are found to be the most resilient with a damage threshold being of 169±15 mJ/cm2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fall detection; vital signs monitoring; ultra-wideband radar; micro-Doppler
Online: 17 October 2017 (11:45:13 CEST)
Continuous in-home monitoring of older adults living alone aims to improve their quality of life and independence, by detecting early signs of illness and functional decline or emergency conditions. To meet requirements for technology acceptance by seniors (unobtrusiveness, non-intrusiveness, privacy-preservation), this study presents and discusses a new smart sensor system for the detection of abnormalities during daily activities, based on ultra-wideband radar providing rich, not privacy-sensitive, information useful for sensing both cardiorespiratory and body movements, regardless of ambient lighting conditions and physical obstructions (through-wall sensing). The radar sensing is a very promising technology, enabling the measurement of vital signs and body movements at a distance, and thus meeting both requirements of unobtrusiveness and accuracy. In particular, impulse-radio ultra-wideband radar has attracted considerable attention in recent years thanks to many properties that make it useful for assisted living purposes. The proposed sensing system, evaluated in meaningful assisted living scenarios by involving 30 participants, exhibited the ability to detect vital signs, to discriminate among dangerous situations and activities of daily living, and to accommodate individual physical characteristics and habits. The reported results show that vital signs can be detected also while carrying out daily activities or after a fall event (post-fall phase), with accuracy varying according to the level of movements, reaching up to 95% and 91% in detecting respiration and heart rates, respectively. Similarly, good results were achieved in fall detection by using the micro-motion signature and unsupervised learning, with sensitivity and specificity greater than 97% and 90%, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0353.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cancer stem cells; competing endogenous RNAs; ceRNA; lncRNA; micro-RNA; miRNA
Online: 25 July 2022 (06:18:30 CEST)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the cell types that account for cancer heterogeneity. They arrest in the G0 phase and generate non-CSC progeny by self-renewing and pluripotency activity, resulting in tumor recurrence, metastasis, and chemoresistance. One CSC can stimulate tumor relapse and can re-grow a metastatic tumor. So, CSC is a promising target for eradicating tumors, and developing an anti-CSC method has become a top priority in cancer therapy. In recent years competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) have emerged as an important class of post-transcriptional regulators that affect gene expression via competition for microRNA (miRNA) binding. Furthermore, aberrant ceRNA expression is associated with tumor progression. To overcome therapeutic resistance due to CSCs, we need to improve our existing understanding of the mechanisms by which ceRNAs are implicated in CSC-related relapse. Thus, this review was designed in order to discuss the role of ceRNAs in CSCs function. We reviewed the role of ceRNAs in acquiring CSCs characteristics in the form of different pathways including Rho GTPase/F-actin_ Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) (Hippo), Wnt/β-catenin pathway, transforming growth factor (TGF)-b–urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1)–Slug pathway, etc. Finally, considering the comprehensive impacts of the ceRNA network on different pathways, a treatment strategy driving the ceRNA network might be effective. Targeting ceRNAs may open the path for new cancer therapeutic targets and can be used in clinical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Pervious pavement; Polyurethane binder; Micro-CT analysis; Mechanical properties; Microscopic characteristics
Online: 12 July 2021 (08:01:39 CEST)
Conventional pervious pavement materials (PPM) consist of cement and aggregate materials and are known for poor durability due to their brittle behavior. Herein, we fabricated polymeric PPMs from durable and abundant polyurethane (PU) to enhance the durability of the material and undertook mechanical and microscopic characterizations. PU-based PPM samples with varying aggregate sizes were produced and the compressive strength and water permeability of each were examined. The pore and tortuosity characteristics of the specimens were analyzed using X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Through the micro-CT analysis, the morphological characteristics of the internal structures of PPM were identified and the correlations between the pore size distribution, connectivity, and tortuosity within the specimen were quantitatively analyzed. The microstructures derived from micro-CT were generated as a finite element model and the stress distribution generated inside was numerically determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0199.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Microfluidics; Micro-Jet; Sub-millisecond mixing; Simulation; Sample delivery for XFEL
Online: 8 February 2021 (12:12:47 CET)
Microfluidic devices which integrate both rapid mixing and liquid jetting for sample delivery are an emerging solution for studying molecular dynamics via X-ray diffraction. Here we use finite element modelling to investigate the efficiency and time-resolution achievable using microfluidic mixers within the parameter range required for producing stable liquid jets. Three-dimensional simulations, validated by experimental data, are used to determine the velocity and concentration distribution within these devices. The results show that by adopting a serpentine geometry, it is possible to induce chaotic mixing, which effectively reduces the time required to achieve a homogeneous mixture for sample delivery. Further, we investigate the effect of flow rate and the mixer microchannel size on the mixing efficiency and minimum time required for complete mixing of the two solutions whilst maintaining a stable jet. In general, we find that the smaller the cross-sectional area of the mixer microchannel, the shorter the time needed to achieve homogeneous mixing for a given flow rate. The results of these simulations will form the basis for optimised designs enabling the study of molecular dynamics occurring on millisecond timescales using integrated mix-and-inject microfluidic devices.
Subject: Keywords: Kerr micro-combs; microwave photonics; signal channelization; integrated optical frequency combs
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:53:59 CET)
We review recent work on broadband RF channelizers based on integrated optical frequency Kerr micro-combs combined with passive micro-ring resonator filters, with microcombs having channel spacings of 200GHz and 49GHz. This approach to realizing RF channelizers offers reduced complexity, size, and potential cost for a wide range of applications to microwave signal detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0459.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Simulated annealing; Unit commitment; Micro grid; Smart Area; fuzzy number; Optimization
Online: 22 October 2020 (10:46:56 CEST)
The optimization problem of two or more special-purpose functions of the energy system is subjected to an analysis. Based on experience of our research and general knowledge of partial solutions of energy system optimization at the level of control of production and power energy supply by energy companies in the Czech Republic, a special-purpose (cost) function has been defined. By analysing the special-purpose function, penalty and limitations have been defined. Using the fuzzy logic, a set of suitable solutions for the special-purpose function is accepted. An optimum of the special-purpose function is looked for using the simulated annealing method. The history of electricity consumption is sorted by day and by hour, representing the multidimensional data. When using the cluster analysis, type daytime diagrams of consumption are defined. Type daytime diagrams form prototypes of identified clusters. The so-called self-organizing neural network with Kohonen map attached is used to perform the cluster analysis. The result of our research is presented by an experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0447.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nano- and micro-sized TiO2; photocatalytic efficiency; photoelectrochemical characterization; environmental remediation
Online: 19 September 2020 (05:11:43 CEST)
The size of TiO2 (either nanometric or micrometric) can significantly affect both its photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties, thus altering the photooxidation of organic pollutants in air or water. The purpose of this work is to give an account of the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic features of some nano- and micro-sized TiO2 commercial powders towards a model reaction, the photooxidation of acetone. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) of TiO2 particulated electrodes under UV illumination experiments were carried out in either saturated O2 or N2 solutions for a direct correlation with the photocatalytic process. In addition, the effect of different reaction conditions on the photocatalytic efficiency under UV light in both aqueous and gaseous phases was also investigated. CV curves with the addition of acetone under UV light showed a negative shift of the photocurrent onset, confirming the efficient transfer of photoproduced reactive oxygen species (ROSs), e.g., hydroxyl radicals, or holes to acetone molecules. The photocatalytic experiments showed that the two nano-sized samples exhibit the best photocatalytic performance. The different photoactivity of the micro-sized samples is probably attributed to their morphological differences, affecting both the amount and distribution of free ROSs involved in the photooxidation reaction.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Hypereosinophilic Syndrome; PDGFR-A; Balínt Syndrome; micro-emboli; chronic eosinophilic leukaemia
Online: 15 June 2020 (13:22:06 CEST)
Balínt Syndrome is an acquired disorder manifesting in the inability to recognize several objects at once (simultagnosia), inaccurate visually guided limb movements despite intact motor function (optic ataxia) and the inability to make accurate voluntary saccades to visual targets despite demonstrating unrestricted range of eye movements (ocular motor apraxia). Here we report the first case of a patient presenting with Balínt Syndrome caused by a platelet-derived growth factor receptor A mutation (PDGFRA)-induced Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Fully-autonomous; AC micro-grid; AC/DC/AC converter; Seamless switching
Online: 22 May 2019 (08:44:26 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel micro-grid structure, which can operate fully-autonomously with inherent seamless switching. It can operate independently in both grid-connected and islanded mode as a self-governed entity without relying on the utility grid. An AC/DC/AC converter is employed as the interface between the micro-grid and the utility grid, which enables the two entities to have different voltages in grid-connected mode. Seamless switching between operation modes can be achieved naturally. The micro-grid is regulated to exchange predefined amount of power with the utility grid in grid-connected mode. This will benefit the power dispatching algorithm of the power system. The predefined power is estimated based on power forecasting of local renewable generations and loads with consideration of the Sate of Charge (SOC) of the battery, and is updated and broadcasted every certain period. A small scale AC micro-grid with a rotating generator, battery storage and solar arrays etc. is built for investigation. Matlab/Simulink results are provided to validate the robustness and flexibility of proposed micro-grid and its operation strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0074.v4
Subject: Keywords: Hybrid phosphite; X-Ray crystal structure; FTIR; Thermal behavior; Biological activities; Antimi-crobial; micro-organisms
Online: 22 November 2021 (08:43:49 CET)
A novel hybrid cobalt phosphite, (H2DAB)[Co(H2PO3)4]·2H2O, has been synthesized by using slow evaporation method, in the presence of cobalt nitrate, phosphorous acid and 1,4- dia-minobutane (DAB= 1,4- diaminobutane) as a structure-directing agent. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the compound crystallizes in the P-1(n.2) triclinic space group, with the following unit cell parameters (Å, °) a = 5.4814 (3), b = 7.5515 (4), c = 10.8548 (6), α = 88.001 (4), β = 88.707 (5), γ = 85.126 (5), and V= 447.33 (4) Å3. The crystal structure was built up from cor-ner-sharing [CoO6] octahedra, forming chains parallel to , which are interconnected by H2PO3 pseudo-tetrahedral units. The deprotonated cations, residing between the parallel chains, interacted with the inorganic moiety via hydrogen bonds leading thus to the formation of the 3D crystal structure. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic bands corresponding to the phosphite group and the organic amine. The thermal behavior of the compound consisted mainly of the loss of its organic moiety and the water molecules. The biological tests exhibited significant activity against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli strains in all used concentrations, while less inhibitory activity was pronounced against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in the case of multi-cellular organisms, no activity against the nematode model Steinernema feltiae was detected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hydro-power; hydro-power plant; micro-energy; renewable energy; water energy
Online: 11 February 2019 (09:05:34 CET)
The conceptual reconstruction of Neiwan powerhouse is one of the key activities under the current ongoing mapping project of Taiwanese hydropower plants that mainly took place between 2013 and 2015 and is now focused on micro, pico, and historical power plants. Judging from the fact that the oldest hydropower plant in Taiwan named Guishan starts its operation in 1905, Neiwan powerhouse was among the very first powerhouses that were built across the island to support the electrification of Taiwan. However, the main function of the single turbine equipped Neiwan micro powerhouse was to support mainly the military needs and protect the territories occupied by Japanese troops. Since the powerhouse was built in 1909 and operates only something about 10 year there are very little physical materials or evidence along with contemporaries. Therefore the further reconstruction is based mainly on physical observation of the remains located at the site, old photographs, related articles, treatises and typology of mechanical and civil constructions of other hydropower plant cases in Taiwan hence this paper´s main intention is to pitch a concept reconstruction rather than definite conclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydro-power; hydro-power plant; micro-energy; renewable energy; water energy
Online: 11 December 2018 (10:46:08 CET)
This research paper is part of the wider project concerning the very first detailed mapping of the overall Taiwanese hydro-power plants that took place from 2013 up to 2015 and it is currently in evaluation and finalization stage. The case of Shanping hydro-power plant has been carefully studied, photographed, documented and mapped in situ. It was one of the isolated hydro-power plant projects originally built to supply the remote area with the specific designation. Shanping hydro-power plant, as well as the other units from the early hydro-power generation era in Taiwan, are considered to be the technological heritage of civil and mechanical engineering that reflects later in all the further projects up to nowadays modern Taiwanese hydro-power plants. Unfortunately, most of the hydro-power houses from the older periods were severely damaged or destroyed by natural causes which were also the case of Shanping unit. The research is trying to reconstruct the original location of the powerhouse and its supporting structures based on available historical documents, previous studies, comparative methodology, and the current on-site observation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0337.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Web API; SPARQL; micro-service; Data Integration; Linked Data; REST; Biodiversity
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:59:31 CET)
In recent years, Web APIs have become a de facto standard for exchanging machine-readable data on the Web. Despite this success though, they often fail in making resource descriptions interoperable due to the fact that they rely on proprietary vocabularies that lack formal semantics. The Linked Data principles similarly seek the massive publication of data on the Web, yet with the specific goal of ensuring semantic interoperability. Given their complementary goals, it is commonly admitted that cross-fertilization could stem from the automatic combination of Linked Data and Web APIs. Towards this goal, in this paper we leverage the micro-service architectural principles to define a SPARQL Micro-Service architecture, aimed at querying Web APIs using SPARQL. A SPARQL micro-service is a lightweight SPARQL endpoint that provides access to a small, resource-centric, virtual graph. In this context, we argue that full SPARQL Query expressiveness can be supported efficiently without jeopardizing servers availability. Furthermore, we demonstrate how this architecture can be used to dynamically assign dereferenceable URIs to Web API resources that do not have URIs beforehand, thus literally ``bringing'' Web APIs into the Web of Data. We believe that the emergence of an ecosystem of SPARQL micro-services published by independent providers would enable Linked Data-based applications to easily glean pieces of data from a wealth of distributed, scalable and reliable services. We describe a working prototype implementation and we finally illustrate the use of SPARQL micro-services in the context of two real-life use cases related to the biodiversity domain, developed in collaboration with the French National Museum of Natural History.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0576.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Micro Small and Medium Enterprises, Transaction costs, Small businesses, Credit accessibility
Online: 24 October 2018 (12:05:42 CEST)
This study investigated the roles of transactions cost in MSMEs access to finance. This was done by investigating the impact of transactions cost on access to credit from both MSMEs and financial institutions (commercial banks and microfinance banks). From the MSMEs’ side, borrowing experience, decision lag, firm size and borrowers’ distance to the loan office were investigated. On the financial institution’s side, the costs of information gathering, loan administration, monitoring and loan enforcement were investigated. We used the questionnaire survey method, in-depth interviews and case studies, as well as the annual financial statements of the banks. We identified interest rate and collateral value as constraints to access to finance for MSMEs. We also found financial institutions’ attitude to MSMEs access to credit was not friendly. Financial institutions need to do more to bring down transaction cost of lending. This hopefully can be achieved by investing more in agent banking which would lower operating costs, as well as spreading risk, and ultimately increase credit intermediation to small businesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0141.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: micro language planning; educator agency; Chinese kindergarten; sustainable language policy and planning
Online: 12 September 2022 (09:48:41 CEST)
Micro-level language policy and planning (LPP) primarily concerns local actors' decision-making on matters in relation to language(s) and its users. Despite a growing body of literature focusing on micro language planning in educational settings, there is a scarcity of research examining early childhood education settings such as micro-level LPP context for young English language learners. By adopting a case study approach, the present study examined the educators' enactment of agency in micro-planning the English language education policy (LEP) in one Chinese kindergarten and the associated factors shaping their agency. Our study revealed that the sustainable implementation of the kindergarten English LEP depended on the principal, native English-speaking teachers, and the Chinese assistant teachers' different degrees of agency. Also, the research findings indicated an array of contextual and individual factors nested in a hierarchical structure that facilitated, guided, and constrained the educators' agency in a role-and circumstance-dependent manner. This study contributes to the pertinent literature by casting nuanced light on the different educators' contributions to the micro-level LPP against a national policy that does not endorse early-year English language education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0064.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Computer vision; Google Street View; Built Environment; Walkability; Micro-scale; Deep learning
Online: 3 March 2022 (13:49:08 CET)
The study purpose was to train and validate a deep-learning approach to detect micro-scale streetscape features related to pedestrian physical activity. This work innovates by combining computer vision techniques with Google Street View (GSV) images to overcome impediments to conducting audits (e.g., time, safety, and expert labor cost). The EfficientNETB5 architecture was used to build deep-learning models for eight micro-scale features guided by the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes-Mini tool: sidewalks, sidewalk buffers, curb cuts, zebra and line crosswalks, walk signals, bike symbols, and streetlights. We used a train--correct loop, whereby images were trained on a training dataset, evaluated using a separate validation dataset, and trained further until acceptable performance metrics were achieved. Further, we used trained models to audit participant (N=512) neighborhoods in the WalkIT Arizona trial. Correlations were explored between micro-scale features and GIS-measured- and participant reported-macro-scale walkability. Classifier precision, recall, and overall accuracy were all >84%. Total micro-scale was associated with overall macro-scale walkability (r=0.300,p<.001). Positive associations were found between model-detected and self-reported sidewalks (r=0.41,p<.001) and sidewalk buffers (r=0.26,p<.001). Computer vision model results suggest an alternative to trained human raters, allowing for audits of hundreds or thousands of neighborhoods for population surveillance or hypothesis testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0115.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: de Broglie phase; de Sitter geometry; micro-cosmology; third quantization; Higgs mechanism
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:58:36 CET)
A theoretical description of quantum jumps at the level of elementary particles is proposed, based on a micro-cosmological interpretation of their de Broglie phase. The third quantization formalism proposed in current literature for the description of baby universes in quantum cosmology is used here to describe the breakdown of unitarity in the transition from the pre-jump to the post-jump wave function. The corpuscular aspect manifested by the particle in the micro-interaction that originates the jump is represented by a pair of evanescent "micro-universes", respectively pre- and post-jump, connected by a wormhole. The latter represents the actual implementation of the interaction that leads to the projection on the outgoing state; this interaction is always local, even when the selected outgoing state is entangled. Therefore, the decoherence which leads to the emergence of classicality is originated by the same fundamental interactions of the Standard Model involved in the unitary evolution of the wave function. The objective nature of the reduction process admits implications on the possibility of using the formalism in the cosmological context, which are briefly discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0362.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: 3D reconstruction; 3D data smoothing; mesh simplification; high resolution micro-CT images
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:34:27 CEST)
Three-dimensional reconstruction plays an important role in assisting doctors and surgeons in diagnosing bone defects’ healing progress. Common three-dimensional reconstruction methods include surface and volume rendering. As the focus is on the shape of the bone, volume rendering is omitted. Many improvements have been made on surface rendering methods like Marching Cubes and Marching Tetrahedra, but not many on working towards real-time or near real-time surface rendering for large medical images, and studying the effects of different parameter settings for the improvements. Hence, in this study, an attempt towards near real-time surface rendering for large medical images is made. Different parameter values are experimented on to study their effect on reconstruction accuracy, reconstruction and rendering time, and the number of vertices and faces. The proposed improvement involving three-dimensional data smoothing with convolution kernel Gaussian size 0.5 and mesh simplification reduction factor of 0.1, is the best parameter value combination for achieving a good balance between high reconstruction accuracy, low total execution time, and a low number of vertices and faces. It has successfully increased the reconstruction accuracy by 0.0235%, decreased the total execution time by 69.81%, and decreased the number of vertices and faces by 86.57% and 86.61% respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; ordered probit; micro-econometric analysis; marginal effects; lockdown measures
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:48:09 CET)
During March and April 2020, the European Union (EU) was the center of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many National Governments imposed severe lockdown policies to mitigate the health crisis. The European Parliament commissioned a survey to analyse the citizens’ attitudes over a number of issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic. 21804 European citizens in 21 EU countries responded the survey between 23 April and 1 May 2020. The paper analyses empirically the individual satisfaction that European citizens have experienced over the measures taken by the respective National Governments to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis is based on a micro-econometric model (ordered probit) that explains the citizens’ satisfaction by a number of attitudes and sociodemographic factors. Our results reveal that Spaniards are the least satisfied citizens in comparison with Danes, Irelanders, Greeks and Croats who are the most satisfied nationals. The years of education and the social class also play a determinant role. We also find that the most important determinant is the political support to the Government, and that those who are more worried by the economy and the protection of individual rights are usually more critic with the measures than those who are more worried by the health consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; micro-cogeneration; exergy; multi-objective optimization; PVT collector; PV panel
Online: 10 September 2020 (04:42:24 CEST)
A photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collector is a solar-based micro-cogeneration system which generates simultaneously heat and power for buildings. The novelty of this paper is to conduct energy and exergy analysis on PVT collector performance under two different European climate conditions. The performance of the PVT collector is compared to a PV panel. Finally, the PVT design is optimized in terms of thermal and electrical exergy efficiencies. The optimized PVT designs are compared to the PV panel performance as well. The main focus is to find out if the PVT is still competitive with the PV panel electrical output, after maximizing its thermal exergy efficiency. The PVT collector is modelled into Matlab/Simulink to evaluate its performance under varying weather conditions. The PV panel is modelled with the CARNOT toolbox library. The optimization is conducted using Matlab gamultiobj-function based on Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The results indicated 7.7% higher annual energy production in Strasbourg. However, the exergy analysis revealed a better quality of thermal energy in Tampere with 72.9% higher thermal exergy production. The electrical output of the PVT is higher than from the PV during the summer months. The thermal exergy- driven PVT design is still competitive compared to the PV panel electrical output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0025.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: macro-minerals; micro-minerals; environmental-minerals; beef quality; beef production; multivariate analysis
Online: 3 November 2019 (17:38:11 CET)
Mineral profile of beef interests human health, but also animal performance and meat quality. This study analyzes the relationships of 20 minerals in beef (ICP-OES) with 3 animal performance and 13 meat quality traits analyzed on 182 samples of Longissimus thoracis. Animals’ breed and sex showed limited effects. The major sources of variation (farm/date of slaughter, individual animal within group and side/sample within animal) differed greatly from trait to trait. Mineral contents were correlated to animal performance and meat quality being significant 52 out of the 320 correlations at the farm/date level, and 101 out of the 320 at the individual animal level. Five latent factors explained 69% of mineral co-variation. The most important, “Mineral quantity” factor correlated with age at slaughter and with the meat color traits. Two latent factors (“Na+Fe+Cu” and “Fe+Mn”) correlated with performance and meat color traits. Two other (“K-B-Pb” and “Zn”) correlated with meat chemical composition and the latter also with carcass weight and daily gain, and meat color traits. Meat cooking losses correlated with “K-B-Pb”. Latent factor analysis appears be a useful means of disentangling the very complex relationships that the minerals in meat have with animal performance and meat quality traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0448.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Micro-Scale Abrasion; Ultra Low Temperature Process (ULTP) Tool Steel AISI D2;
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:32:44 CET)
Ultra Low Temperature Process (ULTP) involve the material cooling in temperatures close to the liquid nitrogen (-196 °C), which is different from the cold-treatment (CT) made in temperatures close to -80 °C. ULTP treatments could raise the tool steel wear resistance through microstructural change that occurs on the material, enhancing, that way, the tools and dies lifetime. To investigate the impact on the wear resistance of tool steel AISI D2, micro abrasive wear tests were carried out and an analysis based on the Archard’s law was considered, evaluating specimen mass loss by laser interferometry. Micro hardness tests, X-ray diffractometry, scanning and optical microscopy and quantitative evaluation of carbides with image analysis were carried out aiming material characterization. Micro-scale abrasion tests shown a wear coefficient k about 1.73E-7 e 2.61E-7 mm3/N.mm to the specimens that received the ULTP phase and 3.12E-7 mm3/N.mm to the conventional thermal treatment, representing a wear resistance increase of 16.3 – 44.5% to cryogenically treated specimens. The results demonstrated a micro hardness improvement, ranging from 0.9 - 4.7% for the cryogenically treated specimens, when compared to the bulk material. This effect is related, mainly, to the retained austenite transformation in martensite and to the increase in the amount of fine secondary carbides dispersed in the martensitic matrixes of cryogenically treated specimens with ULTP. The best wear resistance improvements, on micro-scale, were achieved when the ULTP step is performed immediately after tempering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0608.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Unmanned Air Vehicles; Micro Gas Turbine Performance; Low Pressure Compressor; Preliminary Design
Online: 25 October 2018 (13:09:17 CEST)
In this study, the on-going research into the improvement of micro-gas turbine propulsion system performance and the suitability for application as propulsion systems for small tactical UAVs (<600 kg) is investigated. The study is focused around the concept of converting existing micro turbojet engines to turbofan with the use of a continuously variable gearbox, thus maintaining a single spool configuration and relative design simplicity. This is an effort to reduce the initial engine development cost, whilst improving propulsive performance. The BMT 120 KS micro turbojet engine is selected for performance evaluation of the conversion process using gas turbine performance software, GasTurb13. The preliminary design of a matched low-pressure compressor (LPC) for the proposed engine is then performed using meanline calculation methods. According to the analysis carried out, an improvement in the converted micro gas turbine engine performance in terms of thrust and specific fuel consumption is achieved. Furthermore, with the introduction of a CVT gearbox, fan speed operation may be adjusted independently of the core, allowing increased thrust generation or better fuel consumption. Therefore, enabling a wider gamut of operating conditions and enhances the performance and scope of tactical UAV.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: micro – structured optical fibers; hollow core waveguides; optical vortices; Poynting vector; phase dislocations.
Online: 14 September 2021 (11:44:42 CEST)
This paper discusses the basic concepts of phase dislocations and vortex formation in the electric fields of fundamental air core mode of hollow core waveguides with specific types of rotational symmetry of the core – cladding boundary. Analysis of the behavior of the electric field phase in the transmission bands shows that the mechanism of light localization in the hollow core waveguides with discrete rotational symmetry of the core – cladding boundary cannot be completely described by the ARROW model. For an accurate description of the phase behavior, it is necessary to account for phase jumps of the magnitude of π when passing through the phase dislocations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Droop control; micro-grid inverter; grid-connected mode; instantaneous frequency detection; incomplete derivation
Online: 4 June 2021 (10:48:27 CEST)
This paper presents an improved droop control strategy for grid-connected inverter power stability and power quality under distorted with consideration of grid fluctuation and inter-harmonics. An instantaneous frequency without PLL and amplitude of capacitor voltage feed-forward control strategy is given to power stability control, meanwhile a grid current feedback control is given by an incomplete derivation with a high-pass filter, so that the harmonics and inter-harmonics current can be suppressed. These approaches can provide both good active and reactive power dynamic response under fluctuation of frequency, and rejection ability against harmonic and inter-harmonic voltage. Based on model of inverter, the proposed control strategies are designed in detail. Simulations and experiments are present to validate the effectiveness of proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0412.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hydronium jarosite; potassium jarosite; micro particles; pH; aging time; energy storage; euhedral morphology
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:41:15 CET)
Structural and morphological properties of the hydronium-potassium jarosite microstructures were investigated in this work, and their electrical properties were evaluated. All microstructures were synthesized at a reasonable temperature of 343 K with a reduced reaction time of 3 hours. Increase in the pH from 0.8 to 2.1 decreased the particle sized from 3 µm to 200 nm and increasing the aging time from 0, 3 to 7 days resulted in semispherical, spherical and euhedreal jarosite structures, respectively. A Rietveld analysis also was done, finding that increasing pH, the amount of hydronium substitution by potassium in the cationic site also increases, having a 77.72 % of hydronium jarosite (JH) plus 22.29 % potassium jarosite (JK) at pH 0.8; 82.44 % (JH) and 17.56 % (JK) at pH 1.1, and 89.98 % (JH) plus 10.02 % (JK) at pH 2.1. The results obtained in this work show that the obtained hydronium potassium jarosite microstructures with reduced particle size and euhedreal morphology can be used as anode materials for improving the life time of lithium ion batteries, due that during the analysis of the voltage obtained using electrodes made with this particles and graphite, this ranged from 0.89 to 1.36 V.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0351.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Optical biopsy; Raman spectroscopy; Micro-optics; Ultrafast laser assisted etching; Femtosecond laser micromaching
Online: 29 January 2020 (10:38:18 CET)
Optical biopsy describes a range of medical procedures in which light is used to investigate disease in the body, often in hard-to-reach regions via optical fibres. Optical biopsies can reveal a multitude of diagnostic information to aid therapeutic diagnosis and treatment with higher specificity and shorter delay than traditional surgical techniques. One specific type of optical biopsy relies on Raman spectroscopy to differentiate tissue types at the molecular level and has been used successfully to stage cancer. However, complex micro-optical systems are usually needed at the distal-end to optimise the signal-to-noise properties of the Raman signal collected. Manufacturing these devices remains a critical challenge, particularly in a way suitable for large scale adoption. In this paper, we describe a novel fibre-fed micro-optic system designed for efficient signal delivery and collection during a Raman spectroscopy based optical biopsy. Crucially, we fabricate the device using a direct-laser-writing technique known as ultrafast laser assisted etching which is scalable and allows components to be aligned passively. The Raman probe has a sub-millimetre diameter and offers confocal signal collection with 71.3 ± 1.5% collection efficiency over a 0.8 numerical aperture. Proof of concept spectral measurements were performed on mouse intestinal tissue and compared with results obtained using a commercial Raman microscope.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: pressure control; micro-hydropower; energy recovery; Water distribution network; Banki turbine; energy harvesting
Online: 20 May 2019 (09:43:43 CEST)
Although many devices have recently been proposed for pressure regulation and energy harvesting in water distribution and transport networks, very few applications are still documented in the scientific literature. A new in-line Banki turbine with positive outflow pressure and a mobile regulating flap, named PRS, was installed and tested in a real water transport network for pressure and discharge regulation. The PRS turbine was directly connected to a 55 kW asynchronous generator with variable rotational velocity, coupled to an inverter. The start-up tests showed how automatic adjustment of the flap position and the impeller velocity variation are able to change the characteristic curve of the PRS according to the flow delivered by the water manager or to the pressure set-point assigned downstream or upstream of the system, still keeping good efficiency values in hydropower production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0189.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: micro/nano-structured alloy; mechanical properties; in-situ tensile; deformation mechanism; research progress
Online: 27 December 2017 (06:39:22 CET)
Metal and alloy toughening was the core and long-term research direction in materials filed. As grain size had bimodal distribution, micro/nano-structured alloys presented excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, and this had become one of the research hotspots and developing trends in the field of nanotechnology. In-situ tensile test was a direct and effective method to study the deformation mechanism of materials, which revealed the multiple mechanisms responding to feature grain sizes and provided reliable experimental means and research technique. Research on development of in-situ technique and its applications in mechanical properties was reviewed in this paper according to the recent advances on the modern mechanical properties for high strength and high plasticity alloy at home and abroad. The disadvantages of the present study of preparation methods and investigation techniques for high-performance alloy had been concluded. Finally, the development prospects of high strength and high plasticity alloy materials were analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Biofabrication; Bioprinting; Drop-on-demand; Microvalve; Micro-tissue; 3D Cell culture; Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation
Online: 21 September 2021 (11:16:07 CEST)
Recent improvements within the fields of high-throughput screening and 3D tissue culture have provided the possibility of developing in vitro micro-tissue models that can be used to study diseases and screen potential new therapies. This paper reports a proof of concept study on the use of microvalve-based bioprinting to create laminar MSC-chondrocyte co-cultures as an in vitro model of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), an established cellular therapy for osteoarthritis. Microvalve-based bioprinting uses microvalves to deposit cells suspended in a liquid in a consistent and repeatable manner. In this case MSCs and chondrocytes have been sequentially deposited into an insert based transwell system in order to create a laminar co-culture, with variations in the ratios of the cell types used to investigate the potential for MSCs to stimulate improved repair. Histological and indirect immunofluorescence staining revealed the formation of dense tissue structures within the chondrocyte and MSC-chondrocyte cell co-cultures, alongside the establishment of a proliferative region at the base of the tissue. No stimulatory or inhibitory effect in terms of ECM production was observed through the introduction of MSCs, although the potential for an immunomodulatory benefit remains. This proof-of-concept study therefore provides a novel method to enable the scalable production of therapeutically relevant micro-tissue models that can be used for in vitro research to optimise ACI procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0340.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Axial canal; reef-building coral; high resolution micro-computed tomography; Acropora muricata; calcareous transportation
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:21:47 CEST)
In Acropora, the complex canals in a coral colony connect all polyps into a holistic network to collaborate in performing biological processes, while axial canal is the largest canal amongst the network and distributes at the center of a coral branch. However, previous studies indicated that, in the non-radial symmetry transport system of Acropora, axial canal do not play a major role in the transport of hydroplasm, and the action of axial canal in coral growth is still obscure. In this study, we reconstructed six Acropora muricata samples by high resolution micro-computed tomography to investigate the growth patterns of axial canals during the processes of new branch forming and truncated branch rebuilding. We found that the axial canal of a new branch is transformed from a calice and the polyps in the new branch are budded from the polyp in the axial canal. Meanwhile, the axial canal can transport the calcareous skeletons to rebuild the tip of a truncated branch, which represents as the change in the diameter of axial canal and calcareous deposition/reduction in it. This work indicate the regulation of axial canal in the growth processes including budding, branching, and mineralising of an Acropora colony.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: 2D materials; micro-ring resonator; graphene oxide; Kerr nonlinearity; four-wave mixing; integrated optics
Online: 6 March 2020 (05:33:51 CET)
Layered two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films are integrated with micro-ring resonators (MRRs) to experimentally demonstrate enhanced nonlinear optics in the form of four-wave mixing (FWM). Both uniformly coated and patterned GO films are integrated on CMOS-compatible doped silica MRRs using a large-area, transfer-free, layer-by-layer GO coating method together with photolithography and lift-off processes, yielding precise control of the film thickness, placement, and coating length. The high Kerr nonlinearity and low loss of the GO films combined with the strong light-matter interaction within the MRRs results in a significant improvement in the FWM efficiency in the hybrid MRRs. Detailed FWM measurements are performed at different pump powers and resonant wavelengths for the uniformly coated MRRs with 1−5 layers of GO as well as the patterned devices with 10−50 layers of GO. The experimental results show good agreement with theory, achieving up to ~7.6-dB enhancement in the FWM conversion efficiency (CE) for an MRR uniformly coated with 1 layer of GO and ~10.3-dB for a patterned device with 50 layers of GO. By fitting the measured CE as a function of pump power for devices with different numbers of GO layers, we also extract the dependence of GO’s third-order nonlinearity on layer number and pump power, revealing interesting physical insights about the evolution of the layered GO films from 2D monolayers to quasi bulk-like behavior. These results confirm the high nonlinear optical performance of integrated photonic resonators incorporated with 2D layered GO films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0084.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Femtosecond laser micromachining; High order harmonic generation; de Laval gas micro nozzle; Attosecond science.
Online: 9 January 2020 (12:01:44 CET)
We report on the application of femtosecond laser micromachining to the fabrication of complex glass microdevices, for high-order harmonic generation in gas. The three-dimensional capabilities and extreme flexibility of femtosecond laser micromachining allow us to achieve accurate control of gas density inside the micrometer interaction channel. This device gives a considerable increase in harmonics generation efficiency if compared with traditional harmonic generation in gas jets. We propose different chip geometries that allow to control the gas density and driving field intensity inside the interaction channel to achieve quasi-phase matching conditions in the harmonic generation process. We believe that these glass micro-devices will pave the way to future downscaling of High-order Harmonic Generation beamlines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0633.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: micro channel tube (MCT); extrusion; porthole die; microstructure evolution; VPSC model; flow line model
Online: 30 November 2018 (10:43:22 CET)
Micro channel tube (MCT) is widely employed in industry due to its excellent efficiency in heat transfer. An MCT is commonly produced through extrusion within a porthole die, where severe plastic deformation is inevitably involved. Moreover, the plastic deformation, which dramatically affects the final property of the MCT, varies significantly from location to location. In order to understand the development of the microstructure and its effect on the final property of the MCT, the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model, together with the finite element analysis and the flow line model, is employed in the current study. The flow line model is used to reproduce the local velocity gradient within the complex porthole die, while VPSC model is employed to predict the evolution of the microstructure accordingly. In addition, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement and mechanical tests are used to characterize the evolution of the microstructure and the property of the MCT. The simulation results agree well with the corresponding experimental ones. The influence of the material’s flow line on the evolution of the orientation and morphology of the grains, and the property of the produced MCT are discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0166.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: incompressible micropolar ﬂows; vorticity and micro-rotation; dissipative systems; monotonicity method; upper and lower estimates
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:03:22 CEST)
In this work the close relation between vorticity and micro-rotation in micropolar flows in Rn (n = 2 or 3) is identified and used to explain the faster decay by t^(-1/2) of the angular velocity of the micro-rotation of fluid particles, as well as establishing its optimality. For this purpose important upper and lower bounds for Leray solutions in homogeneous Sobolev spaces are derived, using the monotonicity approach recently introduced by the authors for dissipative systems in general. Several related results of interest are also given along the discussion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0239.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Theory Of Art Keywords: Urban grey space; Space under bridge; Public Art; Micro-transformation; Regional culture; Art for all
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:55:46 CEST)
Since the 21st century, China's urbanization process has been rapid development, the concept and function of urban public space in the city has been gradually paid attention to. In order to guarantee life and water, most urban construction relies on rivers, and Bridges are the most important way to communicate between urban areas. The main functional part of the bridge is the span structure, that is, the bearing structure of the bridge, and the lower part of the "gray" space formed by the bridge structure. Considering the social level, with the economic growth and urbanization development, people have brought a better living environment and quality of life, and also improved the requirements for urban public environment. In the increasingly tense urban space, how to use and transform the space under the bridge is a problem that needs to be considered and solved. In view of this problem, in this study, we try to solve the micro-transformation of space under Bridges in cities through public art from the perspective of "regional culture" and "art for all". This paper analyzes the micro-transformation of space art under Bridges in two large cities of Shanghai and Foshan, namely, the space under Bridges under Songhong Road in Shanghai, the space under Bridges under Central Of Suzhou River and the space under Bridges under Pingsheng Bridge in Foshan. This paper discusses the cultural intervention of "regional culture" in the micro-transformation of the space under the bridge, and the influence and effect of "art for all" on the public art space under the bridge after the transformation to the community and the public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0051.v1
Subject: Keywords: Systematized Literature Review; Base of the Pyramid; Shared Value creation; Micro-manufacturing factories; Business model
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:49:31 CEST)
Background: Shared value creation in Base of the Pyramid (BoP) communities is a crucial process towards building sustainable societies. BoP communities in developing countries represent more than four billion people who live on low incomes with limited access to basic products and services. Current or emerging technologies offer promising solutions for organisations pursuing manufacturing opportunities in BoP communities. This study seeks to explore the literature on how BoP communities may become active participants in sustainably manufacturing products using micro-manufacturing factories. The research question posed is: What are the core concepts that need to be taken into consideration for creating shared value through micro-manufacturing factories in BoP communities? Method: A Systematised Literature review (SLR) was completed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) method for data selection criteria and analysis. The SLR is used to explore the state of literature with regards to creating manufacturing shared value in BoP communities with the objective to identify study gaps and to explore shared value creation concepts. Results: Literature indicates BoP initiatives that have pursued to engage BoP communities through various innovation strategies. The findings of the review is organised under three strategic pillars: Capability building strategy, Implementation process, and Growth strategy. The capability building strategy defines the users’ intention to create shared value in BoP communities with Micro-manufacturing factories (MMF). It is followed by the implementation process which guides the users to create manufacturing shared value in BoP communities. This is followed by a growth strategy to scale for impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0286.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: axial canal; reef-building coral; high resolution micro-computed tomography; Acropora muricata; calcium transport; deposit
Online: 13 July 2021 (10:02:33 CEST)
In Acropora, the complex canals in a coral colony connect all polyps into a holistic network to collaborate in performing biological processes. There are various types of canals, including calice, axial canals, and other internal canals, with structures that are dynamically altered during different coral growth states due to internal calcium transport. However, few studies have considered the regulation of calcium transport in Acropora. In this study, we investigated the morphological changes of the axial canal in six Acropora muricata samples by high resolution micro-computed tomography, observing the patterns of the axial canal during the processes of new branch formation and truncated branch rebuilding. We visualized the formation of a new branch from a calice and deposition of the iconic hexactin skeletons in the axial canal. Furthermore, the diameter and volume changes of the axial canal in truncated branches during rebuilding processes were calculated, revealing that the volume ratio of calcareous deposits in the axial canal exhibit significant increases within the first three weeks, returning to levels in the initial state in the following week. This work indicates that the axial canal can transport calcium to form hexactin skeletons in a new branch and rebuild the tip of a truncated branch. The calcium transport along canal network regulates various growth processes, including budding, branching, skeleton forming, and self-rebuilding of an Acropora colony. Understanding the changes in canal function under normal and extreme conditions will provide theoretical guidance for restoration and protection of coral reefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: EEG; pain biometrics; stochastic analyses; micro-movements spikes; sensory over responsivity; standardized scale; personalized pain
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:19:42 CET)
The study of pain requires a balance between subjective methods that rely on self-reports and complementary objective biometrics that ascertain physical signals associated with subjective accounts. There are at present no objective scales that enable the personalized assessment of pain, as most work involving electrophysiology rely on summary statistics from a priori theoretical population assumptions. Along these lines, recent work has provided evidence of differences in pain sensations between participants with Sensory Over Responsivity (SOR) and controls. While these analyses are useful to understand pain across groups, there remains a need to quantify individual differences more precisely in a personalized manner. Here we offer new methods to characterize pain using the moment-by-moment standardized fluctuations in EEG brain activity centrally reflecting the person’s experiencing temperature-based stimulation at the periphery. This type of gross data is often disregarded as noise, yet here we show its utility to characterize the lingering sensation of discomfort raising to the level of pain, individually, for each participant. We show fundamental differences between the SOR group in relation to controls and provide an objective account of pain congruent with the subjective self-reported data. This offers the potential to build a standardized scale useful to profile pain levels in a personalized manner across the general population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0200.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: exosomes; micro vesicles; extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC); miRNA; cell therapy; artificial nano particles
Online: 16 June 2020 (07:57:00 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) such as exosomes, are newly recognized fundamental, natural and physiologic particles of life that seemingly are involved all biologic processes and clinical diseases. Due to their universal involvements, understanding the nature and the potential therapeutic uses of these nano-vesicles requires innovative experimental approaches, in virtually every field. Of the EV group, exosome nano-vesicles and larger companion extracellular micro vesicles (MV) can mediate completely new phenomena dependent on intercellular transfer of proteins and selected RNAs; particularly miRNAs, between donor and targeted cells to elicit epigenetic alterations inducing functional cellular changes. These recipient acceptor cells are nearby (paracrine transfers) or far away after distribution via the circulation (endocrine transfers). The major properties of such vesicles seem to have been conserved over eons, suggesting that they may have ancient evolutionary origins arising perhaps even before cells in the primordial soup from which life evolved. Their potential ancient evolutionary attributes may be responsible for the ability of some modern day exosomes to withstand unusually harsh conditions; perhaps due to unusual membrane lipid compositions. This is exemplified by maternal milk exosome survival of the neonatal acid/enzyme rich stomach. It is postulated that this also applies to their durable presence in phagolysosomes; suggesting unique intracellular release of contents. A major issue discussed is the generally poorly realized superiority of these naturally evolved nano vesicles to therapies compared human engineered artificial nanoparticles; say for treatment of cancers.
Subject: Keywords: Micro Hand S surgical robot system; robot-assisted complete mesocolic excision; colon cancer; safety; feasibility
Online: 1 March 2020 (02:54:29 CET)
Background: The Micro Hand S robot is the first domestically produced surgical robot that has entered clinical use in China, and this is the first report of its application in colon cancer. Objective: This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive Micro Hand S surgical robot system in complex surgery, such as robotic complete mesocolic excision (R-CME). Methods: From March 2018 to December 2018, 30 patients with right hemicolon cancer underwent R-CME with the Micro Hand S robot system. The operative findings, morbidities, oncological findings and unique characteristics were summarizedwere analyzed. Result: 12 patients with right hemicolon cancer and 18 patients with sigmoid colon cancer underwent RCME with the Micro Hand S robot system. During the study period, the median operative duration was 209 (range, 180-255) min, and the median estimated blood loss volume was 35 (range, 25-75) ml. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 42 (21-77), and the median postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range, 4-7) days. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were no severe complications except for 7 cases of grade I complications and 5 cases of grade II complications. The conversion rate for all operations was 0%. There were no cases of 30-day readmission or 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Clinical application of domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive surgical robot system “Micro Hand S ” in selected colon cancer patients is technically feasible and safe.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Micro Hand S surgical robot system; robot-assisted complete mesocolic excision; colon cancer; safety; feasibility
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:10:11 CET)
Background: The Micro Hand S robot is the first domestically produced surgical robot that has entered clinical use in China, and this is the first report of its application in colon cancer.Objective: This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive Micro Hand S surgical robot system in complex surgery, such as robotic complete mesocolic excision (R-CME).Methods: From March 2018 to December 2018, 30 patients with right hemicolon cancer underwent R-CME with the Micro Hand S robot system. The operative findings, morbidities, oncological findings and unique characteristics were summarizedwere analyzed.Result: 12 patients with right hemicolon cancer and 18 patients with sigmoid colon cancer underwent RCME with the Micro Hand S robot system. During the study period, the median operative duration was 209 (range, 180-255) min, and the median estimated blood loss volume was 35 (range, 25-75) ml. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 42 (21-77), and the median postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range, 4-7) days. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were no severe complications except for 7 cases of grade I complications and 5 cases of grade II complications. The conversion rate for all operations was 0%. There were no cases of 30-day readmission or 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Clinical application of domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive surgical robot system “Micro Hand S ” in selected colon cancer patients is technically feasible and safe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0185.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: optical tweezers; optical trapping; viscosity; direct laser writing; 3D lithography; two-photon polymerization; micro-tool
Online: 14 May 2018 (08:56:11 CEST)
Manipulation of micro- and nano-sized objects with optical tweezers is a well established, albeit still evolving technique. While many objects can be trapped directly with focused laser beam(s), for some applications indirect manipulation with tweezers-operated tools is preferred. We introduce a simple, versatile micro-tool operated with holographic optical tweezers. The 40 µm long dumbbell-shaped tool, fabricated with two-photon laser 3D photolithography has two beads for efficient optical trapping and a probing spike on one end. We demonstrate fluids viscosity measurements and vibration detection as examples of possible applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generation; demand-side management; hybrid power system; micro grid; renewable energy resources; supply-side management
Online: 15 September 2022 (03:18:48 CEST)
Sources are classified into two depending upon the factor of reviving. These sources, which cannot be revived into their original shape once they are consumed, are considered as nonrenewable energy resources, i.e., (coal, fuel) Moreover, those energy resources which are revivable to the original condition even after being consumed are known as renewable energy resources, i.e., (wind, solar, hydel) Renewable energy is a cost-effective way to generate clean and green electrical energy Now a day’s majority of the countries are paying heed to energy generation from RES Pakistan is mostly relying on conventional energy resources which are mostly nonrenewable in nature coal, fuel is one of the major resources, and with the advent of time their prices are increasing on the other hand RES have great potential in the country with the deployment of RES greater reliability and an effective power system can be obtained In this thesis, a similar concept is being used and a hybrid power system is proposed which is composed of intermixing of renewable and nonrenewable sources The Source side is composed of solar, wind, fuel cells which will be used in an optimal manner to serve load The goal is to provide an economical, reliable, uninterruptable power supply. This is achieved by optimal controller (PI, PD, PID, FOPID) Optimization techniques are applied to the controllers to achieve the desired results. Advanced algorithms (Particle swarm optimization, Flower Pollination Algorithm) will be used to extract the desired output from the controller Detailed comparison in the form of tables and results will be provided, which will highlight the efficiency of the proposed system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0329.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar; Doppler frequencies; multi-chromatic analysis; micro-motion; Pyramid of Khnum-Khufu; sonic images
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:45:58 CEST)
A problem with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is that, due to the poor penetrating action of electromagnetic waves inside solid bodies, the capability to observe inside distributed targets is precluded. Under these conditions, imaging action is provided only on the surface of distributed targets. The present work describes an imaging method based on the analysis of micro-movements on the Khnum-Khufu Pyramid, which are usually generated by background seismic waves. The results obtained prove to be very promising, as high-resolution full 3D tomographic imaging of the pyramid's interior and subsurface was achieved. Khnum-Khufu becomes transparent like a crystal when observed in the micro-movement domain. Based on this novelty, we have completely reconstructed internal objects, observing and measuring structures that have never been discovered before. The experimental results are estimated by processing series of SAR images from the second-generation Italian COSMO-SkyMed satellite system, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Organ-on-a-Chip (OoC); Micro-physiological systems (MPS); survey; usability; limitations; disease models; drug testing
Online: 2 February 2022 (12:20:19 CET)
Organ-on-a-Chip (OoC) systems bring together cell biology, engineering, and material science for creating systems that recapitulate the in vivo microenvironment of tissues and organs. The versatility of OoC systems enables in vitro models for studying physiological processes, drug development, and testing in both academia and industry. This paper evaluates current platforms from the end-user perspective, elaborating on usability, complexity, and robustness. We surveyed 165 peers in over 30 countries and grouped the responses according to preliminary knowledge and the source of the OoC systems that are used. The survey clearly shows that current commercial OoC platforms provide a substantial level of robustness and usability - which is also indicated by an increasing adaptation of the pharmaceutical industry but a lack of complexity can challenge their use as a predictive platform. Self-made systems on the other hand are less robust and standardized but provide the opportunity to develop customized and more complex models which are often needed for human disease modeling. This review serves as a guide for researchers in the OoC field and encourages the development of next-generation OoCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0443.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Laser welding; Cu-Al welding; green laser; Micro-structure analysis; Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS))
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:28:28 CEST)
In laser joining of copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) sheets, the Al sheet is widely chosen as the top surface for laser irradiation because of increased absorption of laser beam and lower melting temperature of Al in contrast to Cu. This research focus on welding from Cu side to Al sheet. The main objective of irradiating the laser beam from the copper side (Cu on top) is to exploit higher solubility of Al in Cu. A significantly lower laser power can be used with 515 nm laser in comparison to 1030 nm. In addition to low laser power, a stable welding is obtained with 515 nm. Because of this advantage, 515 nm is selected for the current research. By fusion of Cu and Al the two sheet metals are welded, with presence of beneficial Cu solid solution phase and Al+Al2Cu in the joint with the brittle phases intermixed between the ductile phase. Therefore the mixed composition strengthens the joint. However excessive mixing leads to formation of more detrimental phases and less ductile phases. Therefore optimum mixing must be maintained. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicate that large amount of beneficial Cu solid solution and Al rich phases is formed in the strong joint. From the tensile shear test for a strong joint, fracture is obtained on the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of Al. Therefore the key for welding from copper side is to have optimum melt with beneficial phases like Cu and Al+ Al2Cu and the detrimental phases intermixed between the ductile phases