ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0002.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: coefficient of friction; haze; mica; modelling; optical properties; oxygen barrier; pullulan
Online: 1 September 2017 (14:51:48 CEST)
This study presents a new bionanocomposite coating on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) made of pullulan and synthetic mica. Mica nanolayers have a very high aspect ratio (α) at levels much greater than that of conventional exfoliated clay layers (e.g., montmorillonite). A very small amount of mica (0.02 wt%, which is ϕ ≈ 0.00008) in pullulan coatings dramatically improved the oxygen barrier performance of the nanocomposite films under dry conditions, whereas this performance was partly lost as the environmental relative humidity (RH) increased. This outcome was explained in terms of the perturbation of the spatial ordering of mica sheets within the main pullulan phase because of RH fluctuations, as confirmed by modelling of the experimental OTR data according to Cussler’s model. The presence of the synthetic nanobuilding block (NBB) led to a decrease in both static and kinetic coefficients of friction compared with neat PET (≈12% and 23%, respectively) and PET coated with unloaded pullulan (≈ 26% reduction in both coefficients). In spite of the presence of the filler, all of the coating formulations did not significantly impair the overall optical properties of the final material, which exhibited haze values below 3% and transmittance above 85%, with the only exception represented by the formulation with the highest loading of mica (1.5 wt%, which is ϕ ≈ 0.01). These findings revealed, for the first time, the potential of the NBB mica to produce nanocomposite coatings in combination with biopolymers for the generation of new functional features, such as transparent high oxygen barrier materials.
Subject: Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:43:44 CET)
This paper presents a hypothesis about the origins of life in a clay mineral, starting with the earliest molecules, continuing through the increasing complexity of the development, in neighboring clay niches, of “Metabolism First,” “RNA World,” and other necessary components of life, to the encapsulation by membranes of the components in the niches, to the interaction and fusion of these membrane-bound protocells, resulting finally in a living cell, capable of reproduction and evolution. Biotite (black mica) in micaceous clay is the proposed site for this origin of life. Mechanical energy of moving biotite sheets provides one endless source of energy. Potassium ions between biotite sheets would be the source of the high intracellular potassium ion concentrations in all living cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0022.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry cycles
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:36:31 CET)
Intracellular potassium concentrations, [K+], are high in all types of living cells, but the origins of this K+ are unknown. The simplest hypothesis is that life emerged in an environment that was high in K+. One such environment is the spaces between the sheets of the clay mineral, mica. The best mica for life’s origins is the black mica, biotite, because it has a high content of Mg++ and it has iron in various oxidation states. Life also has many of the characteristics of the environment between mica sheets, giving further support for the possibility that mica was the substrate on and within which life emerged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0285.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: composite; ceramization; ceramification; styrene-butadiene rubber; melamine cyanurate; mica; flame retardancy; coating; glass frit
Online: 24 December 2018 (15:20:01 CET)
Synergistic effect of different fillers is widely utilized in polymer technology. The combination of various types of fillers is used to improve various properties of polymer composites. In this paper a synergistic effect of flame retardants was tested for the improvement of ceramizable composites performance. The composites were based of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) used as polymer matrix. Three different types of flame retardants were tested for synergistic effect: Mica (phlogopite) high aspect-ratio platelets along with low softening point temperature glass frit (featuring ceramization effect) and melamine cyanurate, a commonly used flame retardant promoting carbonaceous char. In order to characterize the properties of the composites, combustibility, viscoelastic properties and mechanical properties before and after ceramization were tested. The results obtained show that the synergistic effect of ceramization promoting fillers and melamine cyanurate is especially visible with respect to the flame retardant properties resulting in a significant improvement of fire resistance of the composites.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 29 April 2019 (07:51:38 CEST)
Forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various other forms of energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ESSAY | doi:10.3390/sci2020019
Subject: Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; mechanochemistry; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 25 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Mechanical forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because mechanical forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various forms of chemical energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.