REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1862.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: antimicrobial coatings; functionalization; characterization methodology
Online: 27 September 2023 (14:35:53 CEST)
This comprehensive review addresses topics relevant to understanding of characterization of antimicrobial coatings used in surface modifications of yarns and materials intended for usage in medical and dental applications. These coatings are created using various physical and chemical methods to achieve efficient, homogeneous, and uniform layers on different surfaces and materials, with the goal of imparting antimicrobial and/or antiviral properties. Antimicrobial coatings must contain active compounds effective against various microorganisms, including those resistant to antibiotics. Examples of such compounds include metallic nanoparticles (such as silver, copper, and gold) and nanoparticles of metal oxides (such as zinc, titanium, and aluminum). Once materials intended for medical applications are coated, they undergo extensive testing and characterization, for which the methodologies will be presented in this chapter. Despite their wide efficiency in medical applications, concerns are raised regarding the potential toxicity of nanoparticles to living organisms. Therefore, the development of novel legal frameworks is anticipated, which will depend on proper characterization and testing procedures. This paper provides a summary of the current state-of-the-art methodologies for characterizing nanoparticles in antimicrobial coatings on materials with different roughness and structures and specifies the problems related with accumulation of antimicrobial nanoparticles in a human body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1693.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Research methodology, Teaching, Undergraduate, Psychology, Students
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:27:07 CEST)
Objective. To examine the relationship between experience and knowledge acquired in research methodology (RM) courses and attitudes toward research in a sample of undergraduate psychology students from a public university in Mexico City. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 261 students. A 10-unit analog scale to assess perceived experience in RM courses and two measures of attitudes toward research were used. Between the two attitude scales, four attitude dimensions were identified: positive appraisal, negative appraisal, meaningless and boring. Four multivariate models were estimated, one for each attitude dimension. Results. A positive correlation was found between learning experiences in RM courses and positive appraisal of research (p < 0.01). Negative associations were also found between RM course experience and two of the three negative research attitudes (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Results highlight the significance of teaching in the knowledge and attitude development of students' research competencies. An approach to teaching RM at the undergraduate level that places more emphasis on encouraging evidence-based practice than on developing and carrying out research projects seems to be a promising subject for study, with implications for changing teaching methods and contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0402.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cultural space; indigenous community; Indonesia; methodology
Online: 21 December 2022 (11:53:49 CET)
Indigenous knowledge is proven to be one of the foundations of sustainable land and marine management. While indigenous knowledge is acknowledged as of important factors on maintenance of biodiversity of the planet, it also ensures the sustenance of social and economic system of indigenous community. To facilitate the application of indigenous knowledge on management of customary forest in Indonesia, since 2012, the Government of Indonesia has been providing formal access for indigenous communities to their forests to maintain forest sustainability and to enhance the welfare of indigenous community. Nonetheless, the achievement of sustainable development goals in the scope of forest and conservation area management is threatened by various competing interests and power imbalance, which mostly leads to conversion of naturally vegetated area, as well as the inability of the community to integrate new economic opportunities to its institution. Moreover, the Government of Indonesia has not been regulating the involvement of indigenous community on the management of conservation area. Most importantly, such a program provides no reference on indigenous community, especially on the assessment of authenticity of indigenous community’s forest. Cultural space methodology may fill the aforementioned gaps. The methodology was developed based on the notion of cultural space and land administration, particularly the people-and-land/marine space relationship. Moreover, such a methodology was also constructed based on the experiences of agricultural and maritime communities in Indonesia on the administration of their territories. The methodology provides a procedure to convert information on the interrelation of indigenous community, its cultural space in forest and conservation area, and indigenous knowledge into geospatial information and data that represent the cultural space unit as a geographic feature. Therefore, such methodology may be utilised to assess the authenticity of a long-existing relationship between a community, especially an indigenous one, and its land, particularly that serves conservational function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0418.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: methodology of scientific thinking; universe expansion
Online: 22 November 2022 (10:00:06 CET)
Expansion of the universal space was never directly observed. It is an unproven assumption. Measurement of the gravitational redshift proves only gravitational redshift and nothing more. Gravitational redshift is proven by the Mössbauer experiment. Claiming that gravitational redshift proves universal space expansion is false because there is no causality between gravitational redshift and hypothetical expansion. Even if universal space would expand, gravitational redshift could not be taken as proof of expansion. The Doppler effect was never observed in an expanding space and claiming that cosmological redshift is partially caused by the Doppler effect caused by the expanding of space is an unproved assumption. The discovery of CMB proves only that the entire universal space radiates CMB. CMB is not proof of the existence of the recombination period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0050.v1
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:45:06 CEST)
A project-based module on Sustainable Development Goal number 5, Gender Equality, was im-plemented on 5 different groups of Business English students consisting of a total number of 62 students in higher education. The main purpose of this project was to raise awareness of this goal by means of a flipped method in which students were required to carry out some research on specific areas of the aforementioned goal and work in teams to elaborate oral presentations. Once their findings were shared in class, students were expected to answer a written questionnaire of open-ended questions which were part of a qualitative analysis. Results of this survey showed that not only 90% of the students gained in depth knowledge of this goal, but also 85% had built a positive attitude to take initiative and 80% were optimistic about future gender equality. Finally, 70% of students suggested further social action to curb the problem of gender discrimination. On the whole, the flipped classroom method of learning combined with project-based group work have proven to be an effective way to raise awareness of this goal, create a more positive attitude, in-crease their willingness to take action as well as widening their English lexical resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0193.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Chromium; Response surface methodology; Reduction; Biochar
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:02:17 CET)
A highly efficient reduction process of Cr (VI) with biochar was conducted in this paper. The results showed that nearly 100% Cr (VI) was reduced at selected reaction conditions: the dosage of biochar at m (C)/m(Cr) = 3.0, reaction temperature of 90 ℃, reaction time at 60 min and concentration of H2SO4 of 20 g/L, respectively. The reduction kinetics analysis demonstrated that the reduction of Cr (VI) fitted well with the pseudo-first-order model and the apparent activation energy was calculated to 40.24 kJ/mol. Response surface methodology confirmed that all the experimental parameters had positive effect on the reduction of Cr (VI). The influence of each parameter on the reduction process followed the order: dosage of biochar> Concentration of H2SO4 > Reaction Temperature > Reaction Time. This paper provided a versatile strategy for treatment of wastewater containing Cr (VI) and showed a bright tomorrow for wastewater treatment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: A.C.A.I.D; framework; methodology; postgraduate; research praxis
Online: 31 October 2019 (10:09:54 CET)
This presentation is based on the article I wrote ((Lebese, 2018) where the A.C.A.I.D system was confirmed as directing human behavior in all situations. The A.C.A.I.D concept is an acronym. A stands for Attention, C for Consideration, A for Action, I for Internalisation and D for duplication. I developed the system over a period of twenty years as an impirical study, to answer a question: Why do I do what I do when I do what I do? Every behavior I exhibited followed specific steps from idea through to duplication. Once completed, I unobtrusively checked if other human beings behaved similarly. Without fail I observed that the A.C.A.I.D is a system that all humans knowingly and unknowingly follow. Through the system I could easily predict how the learners I was teaching could behave in particular situations. Also, I could assist learners who wanted change in their behaviors to know at what stage in the system that change was possible.The postgraduate scholar behaves in a predetermined manner in the research activity. Those behaviors follow an accepted protocol which invariably goes through all the stages of the A.C.A.I.D system. It starts with an idea through to the duplication step which I call “The idea on legs”. When it gets to this stage, it goes back to the beginning and sold as an idea. The system is cyclical.The A.C.A.I.D system as a framework helps the postgraduate researcher to follow an acceptable research praxis from idea interrogation through all the stages. This helps the researcher to follow acceptable predictable methodologis through research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0994.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: BIM methodology; BIM manager; coordination; integration; interoperability
Online: 14 August 2023 (07:11:18 CEST)
Abstract: Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodology has been empowering the quality of the construction activity in all sectors: multidisciplinary designs development; construction planning and monitoring; building management and maintenance. A BIM environment aggre-gates several disciplines and different professional skillsets and in order to control and improve the quality of a BIM project, a BIM manager is required. The BIM manager has the responsibility to coordinate all tasks involved in a building design and associated activities usually workout over the project documents. This professional can access to the distinct discipline models, located in a shared platform, and request for amendments if inconsistencies are detected. The topic of the present study is illustrated with three building cases were distinct specific projects, disciplines and tasks were elaborated: collaboration between disciplines (architecture, structures and con-struction); structural analyses and reinforcement details; quantity take-off of materials and cost estimation; construction scheduling and simulation. Although there are still limitations in the implementation of BIM methodology in all sectors and stages, within the construction industry, BIM has been bringing an important improvement in the quality of a building design, reflected in the quality of the final product. The present study put in evidence the BIM manager role in pro-jects that aggregates several disciplines and experts, bringing an important contribution in the quality of a building design. BIM methodology is a current demand in the construction industry supported on advanced technology and in an adequate management of projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: C. elegans; drug; infection; lifespan; liposome; methodology
Online: 19 December 2022 (06:47:56 CET)
Liposome-mediated delivery is a possible means to overcome several shortcomings with C. elegans as a model for identifying and testing drugs that retard aging. These include interactions between drugs and the nematodes’ bacterial food source, and failure of drugs to be taken up into nematode tissues. To explore this, we have tested liposome-mediated delivery of a range of fluorescent dyes and drugs in C. elegans. Liposome encapsulation led to enhanced effects on lifespan, using smaller quantities of compound, and enhanced uptake of three dyes into the gut lumen. However, one dye (Texas red) did not cross into nematode tissues, indicating that liposomes cannot ensure uptake of any compound. Of six compounds previously reported to extend lifespan (vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione (GSH), trimethadione, thioflavin T (ThT) and rapamycin), this effect was reproduced for the latter four in a condition-dependent manner. For GSH and ThT, antibiotics abrogated life extension, implying a bacterially-mediated effect. With GSH, this was attributable to reduced early death from pharyngeal infection, and associated with alterations of mitochondrial morphology in a manner suggesting a possible innate immune training effect. By contrast, ThT exhibited antibiotic effects. For rapamycin, significant increases in lifespan were only seen when bacterial proliferation was prevented. These results document the utility and limitations of liposome-mediated drug delivery for C. elegans. They also show how nematode-bacteria interactions can determine the effects of compounds on C. elegans lifespan in a variety of ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor localization; test and evaluation; methodology; benchmarking
Online: 3 March 2022 (14:00:15 CET)
Despite their enormous potential the use of Indoor Localization Systems (ILS) remains seldom. One reason is the lack of market transparency and stakeholders’ trust in the systems’ performance as a consequence of insufficient use of Test and Evaluation (T&E) methodologies. The heterogeneous nature of ILS, their influences, and their applications pose various challenges for the design of a methodology that provides meaningful results. Methodologies for building-wide testing exist, but their use is mostly limited to associated indoor localization competitions. In this work, the T&E 4iLoc Framework is proposed - a methodology for T&E of indoor localization systems in semi-controlled environments based on a system-level and black-box approach. In contrast to building-wide testing, T&E in semi-controlled environments, such as test halls is characterized by lower costs, higher reproducibility, and better comparability of the results. The limitation of low transferability to real world applications is addressed by an application-driven design approach. The empirical validation of the T&E 4iLoc Framework, based on the examination of a contour-based Light Detection and Ranging ILS, an Ultra Wideband ILS, and a camera-based ILS for the application of Automated Guided Vehicles in warehouse operation, demonstrates the benefits of T&E with the T&E 4iLoc Framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0376.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: flood damage methodology; hydraulic infrastructure; resilience; indicators
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:27:21 CET)
Critical infrastructures are those that are essential. For this type of infrastructure, it is necessary to implement analytical methodologies that will allow us to quickly obtain the susceptibility or resilience and possible damage generated in extreme precipitation episodes, through a holistic perspective in which the factors linked to hydrological risk intervene. In particular, urban hydraulic infrastructures are analyzed considering the degree of criticality, defined as the number of interactions on the different activities of the population. For this purpose, a hydrological risk analysis methodology is required. This methodology is focused on an integral approach of the system indicators to be analyzed and linked to the hydrological threat. This work proposes to delimit and analyze those factors that involve risk using an analytical expression. This model will estimate the damage to these infrastructures breaking down the factors involved in the risk equation and analyzing their variability according to the intrinsic characteristics linked to them as well as the interaction with external factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Sweet taste; hedonics; individual differences; methodology; sugar
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:59:17 CET)
Sweetness drives consumption of added sugars, so understanding how individuals differ is important for developing strategies to lower sugar intake. However, methods to assess hedonic response to sweetness vary, making results across studies difficult to integrate. We compared methods to measure optimal sucrose concentration in 21 healthy adults (1) using paired-comparison preference tracking vs. ratings of liking, (2) with participants in the laboratory vs. at home, and (3) using aqueous solutions vs. vanilla milk. Tests were replicated on separate days to assess test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was similar between laboratory and home testing, but tended to be better for vanilla milk and preference tracking. Optimal sucrose concentration was virtually identical between laboratory and home, slightly lower when estimated via preference tracking, and about 50% lower in vanilla milk. However, individual optimal sucrose concentration correlated strongly between Methods, test Locations, and Stimuli. More than 50% of the variability in optimal sucrose concentration could be attributed to consistent differences among individuals while much less variability was attributable to differences in Methods, test Locations or Stimuli. These results demonstrate convergent validity between measures of preference and liking, support testing at home to lower participant burden, and suggest that aqueous solutions can be useful proxies for some commonly consumed beverages for measuring individual differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0107.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Values; Actions; Value-actions; Practice frequency; Methodology.
Online: 26 January 2021 (10:46:51 CET)
Qualitative and quantitative values estimation is a crucial aspect of social data science and plays a vital role in social and psychological research. Numerous methods of personal values measurement such as Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) and its re-modified versions have been proposed and invented, but many are challenged with one or more limitations. In this article, an alternative approach in a new paradigm of values measurement called Kabiru’s Value Survey (KVS) was proposed to measure the relative degree of importance or significance attached to particular value-actions of an individual(s) in a given population over a period. The methodological innovations in KVS unlike other existing methods of human value measurement include the use of habitually reported practices associated with a particular value-action in place of judging the series of Schwartz hypothetical statements, the use of multiple dependent variables rather than a single coded hypothetical statement. In terms of data analysis, a new approach of multivariate compression is introduced which merges the chain of multiple dependent variables into one coded scale. Psychometric result interpretation is also another innovative aspect of KVS methodology. Finally, the proposed methodology however solved some of the criticized limitations of the other methods of human value measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: sustainability assessment; farm level; AHP methodology; Greece
Online: 1 March 2020 (11:40:37 CET)
In recent years, farmers and policymakers have faced ample challenges and have struggled to support the sustainability of the agricultural sector. Sustainable agriculture encompasses multiple concepts, and its performance produces extensive debate about data requirements, appropriate indicators, evaluation methods, and tools. Under the European Union (EU) financed project FLINT (Farm Level Indicators for New Topics in policy evaluation), detailed data have been collected at the farm level to provide broader coverage of sustainability indicators on a wide range of relevant topics to facilitate the assessment of sustainability performance. The approach has been applied in a pilot network of representative farms at the EU level, considering the heterogeneity of the EU farming sector to provide data infrastructure with up to date information for sustainability indicators. This study aims to assess sustainability performance at the farm level in Greece. Representative and dominant agricultural systems, such as permanent crops, olive trees, arable crops, and livestock (sheep) farms, comprise the Greek sample. It uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) methodology and attempts to gain insights into the sustainability performance of agricultural systems. The outcome of the sustainability assessment reveals knowledge and develops support for strategic farm choices in order to support both farmers and policymakers towards more sustainable development plans. The results indicate that three typical Mediterranean farming systems, like permanent crops, olive trees, and extensive livestock systems (sheep farms), are more sustainable in contrast to intensive and arable crop farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Lean-logistics; optimization; simulation, Response Surface Methodology
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:38:04 CET)
The present work aims at the comprehensive application of stochastic and optimization tools with the support of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) through a case study in a logistics process for electronic goods; simulation and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) are applied for this purpose. The problem to be evaluated is to define an optimal distribution cost for products shipped to wholesale customers located in different cities in Mexico from a manufacturing plant in Tijuana, Mexico. The factors under study are the product allocation for each distribution center, finished good inventory level and on time deliveries, which are supposed to be significant to get the objective. The methodology applied for this problem considers the design of a discrete event simulation model to represent virtually the real life of logistics process, which is considered a complex system due to different activities are interrelated to carry it out. This model is used to execute the different experiments proposed by the RSM. The results obtained from simulation model were analyzed with the RSM to define the mathematical model that allows identifying the parameters of the factors in order to optimize the process. The findings prove how the ICT facilitate the application of stochastic tools with the purpose of process optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: imperatorin; lipid microsphere; response surface methodology; pharmacokinetic
Online: 15 October 2018 (12:06:08 CEST)
Imperatorin is a chemical compound belong to Linear furan coumarins. Imperatorin is attracting considerable attention because of its anti-tumor, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and inhibition of myocardial hypetrophy and other pharmacological efficacy. However, imperatorin has limited water solubility and preferable lipid solubility, we decided to design and synthesize imperatorin lipid microsphere, to optimize preparation conditions. The aim was to develop and formulate imperatorin lipid microsphere through nano emulsion technology and apply the response surface-central composite design to optimize the imperatorin lipid microsphere formulation. Influence of content of amount of egg lecithin(A), amount of poloxamer188(B), soybean oil for injection accounted for the total percentage of oil phase(C) were investigated. Integrated effect of dependent variables including particle size(Y1), polydispersity index(Y2), Zeta potentials(Y3), drug loading(Y4), encapsulation efficiency(Y5). Data of overall desirabiities were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation, through which three dimensional response surface graphs were described. Optimum experimental conditions were calculated by Design-Expert 8.06. Results indicated that the optimum preparation conditions were as follows: egg lecithin amount 1.39 g, poloxamer188 amount 0.21 g, soybean oil for injection amount 10.57%. Preparation of imperatorin lipid microsphere according to the optimum experimental conditions resulted in an overall desirability of 0.7286, while the particele size (168±0.54) nm, polydispersity index (PDI) (0.138±0.02), Zeta potentials (−43.5±0.5) mV, drug loading (0.833±0.27) mg·mL−1, encapsulation efficiency (90±1.27)%. The difference between observed and predicted values of the overall desirability of the optimum formulation was in range from 2.4% to 4.3%. Subsequently, using the Scanning electron microscopy to observe the micromorphology of imperatorin lipid microsphere, the result shows that round globular of relatively uniform and sizes within 200nm.The proliferation study of imperatorin lipid microsphere on MDA-MB-231 was investigated by MTT method. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics in Sprague Dawley rats were evaluated using orbital bleeding. A sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was established and validated for the quantification of imperatorin in rat plasma samples. The data were calculated by DAS (Drug and statistics) pharmacokinetic software version3.2.6 (China). Results demonstrated that imperatorin lipid microsphere can significantly enhance the bioavailability of imperatorin and can significantly inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell proliferating. In conclusion, our results suggersted that the response surface-central composite design is suitable for the optimized lipid microspere formulation. Imperatorin Lipid microsphere can improve the bioavailability of imperatorin and inhibit the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 than that of imperatorin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0664.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: SoC; Clock network; Clock mesh; Combinatorial optimization; Methodology
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:07:34 CEST)
In light of advancing technology, the conventional clock network architecture has become inadequate for addressing the intricacies inherent in modern System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. While clock mesh topology offers resilience against On-Chip Variation (OCV) fluctuations, it still necessitates manual intervention. Therefore, substantial scope exists for methodological enhancements and the refinement of rapid analytical techniques. This paper introduces a novel clock mesh synthesis approach, underpinned by dynamic programming algorithms, that guarantees latency constraints. Our experimental findings demonstrate that our algorithm achieves an additional 26.6% reduction in power consumption compared to the baseline methodology. Furthermore, it substantially reduces runtime by an average of 78.0% when contrasted with traditional simulation methods. These results highlight the potential of our methodology for enhancing the efficiency and power management of clock mesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gamification methodology; teaching strategies; online teaching; chemical engineering
Online: 16 May 2022 (04:08:16 CEST)
As consequence of the digital transformation, e-learning methodologies have become an inseparable part of the standard classes in schools and universities, assuming an increasingly significant role in compensating for the difficulties resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Numerous pedagogical methodologies and strategies can be easily implemented in high education, promoting students’ motivation and interest in learning. This research study analyses the implementation of gamification pedagogical strategy on 50-60 undergraduate chemical engineering students at the university, by evaluating its effect on the success rate on a specific topic of Chemical Reactions Engineering subject and the motivation effect for the following topics. Our results show a significant positive effect of the gamification strategy on university lectures, increasing up to 25-30 % of the success ratio with an apparent motivation effect. During the subsequent years, the changes in the lifestyle of study also play a role in students’ performance. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate case studies such as the one presented here to understand better the use of these pedagogical methods and strategies in high education, especially in technical subjects described in this paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0373.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: review; article; perception; practice; challenge; design; methodology; findings
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:32:03 CEST)
This review paper aimed at reviewing English language teaching articles on EFL teachers’ perceptions, practices and challenges towards communicative language teaching. In this review, two ELT articles, which have been conducted on teachers’ perceptions, practices and challenges towards communicative language teaching in EFL classes, were reviewed in detail. While reviewing the articles, the researcher adapted Rideley’s (2008) checklist to evaluate elements of article. Thus, articles were reviewed by focusing on the title, abstract, introduction, research questions, objectives, research design, participants, sample and sampling techniques, data collecting instruments, methods of data analyses, findings and references based on the checklist provided above. The review revealed that the articles had clear objectives, researchable questions, appropriate methods and inevitable conclusions. They tried to answer the questions which were raised in each article, and the objectives went along with the overall research findings. The review, on the other hand, revealed that the participants in the articles were not representative so as to conclude and generalize the overall population by taking only few participants which were selected even by using non probability sampling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0160.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: methodology; exoskeleton; upper limb rehabilitation; design; digital twin
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:27:20 CEST)
This article presents a methodology for the design of rehabilitation devices that considers factors involved in a clinical environment. This methodology integrates different disciplines that work together. The methodology is composed by 3 phases and 13 stages with specific tasks, the first phase includes the clinical context considering the requirements of the patient and therapist during the rehabilitation, the second phase is focused in engineering based on the philosophy of digital twin, and in the third phase is evaluated the device. This article explains the characteristics of the methodology and how it was applied in the design of an exoskeleton for passive rehabilitation of the upper limb.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: risk management; safety critical systems; safety assessment; methodology
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:33:14 CET)
The complex systems that require safety are the Safety Critical Systems. Maintaining these systems is a big challenge. Now a days, safety is a very critical requirement for the latest systems. Safety critical systems must be safe. Different approaches to ensure quality and safety in safety critical systems has been discussed in this paper. A comparison is also conducted between these various approaches. Safety critical systems must remain more influential in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0134.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Algiers Stock Exchange; Box-Jenkins methodology; SARIMA model
Online: 13 September 2019 (12:33:41 CEST)
The Algiers Stock Exchange (ASE) is the only stock exchange in Algeria. It’s one of the newest and smallest emerging stock exchanges in the world. The focus of this paper is to model and forecast monthly returns of the ASE index (DZAIRINDEX) using The Box- Jenkins methodology. The period of this study is from Jun 2010 to July 2019. According to Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) estimator, the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average SARIMA(2,0,0)(0,0,1) is chosen as the best model for forecasting the monthly DZAIRINDEX returns. Diagnostic tests confirm that the fitted model is adequate, where the residuals of this model are normally distributed with no autocorrelation and no heteroskedasticity. The forecast of the monthly DZAIRINDEX returns for one year ahead using this model shows a decreasing fluctuations trend. Based on different measures of forecast accuracy such as ME, MAE, RMSE, MASE, we show that the forecast accuracy of SARIMA(2,0,0)(0,0,1) is acceptable and this model performs much better than a naïve model. These results could be used by the financial communities in Algeria to deal with stock exchange risks and to improve their decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0118.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: homogeneity tests; daily temperature series; correction methodology; climate change
Online: 2 November 2023 (07:35:55 CET)
Meteorological observations over the last four decades are of paramount importance to investigate the ongoing climate change. The assessment of the reliability of any climatic time series is thus mandatory to draw correct conclusions. This evaluation involves homogeneity tests to detect artificial discontinuities whose identification is facilitated by metadata availability. In this work, daily minimum and maximum temperature measurements collected in Padua, Italy, between 1980 and 2022, are examined. Hourly observations began in 1993 and since the aim is to study long term behavior of the temperature, the focus is on daily averages and extremes. Over this period, the weather station of Padua center underwent many changes, in location or instrument; therefore, some tests have been used to identify and remove the effects of these variations and obtain a homogeneous time series. The homogeneity tests applied must be able to identify change-points both in the middle and at the extremes of the series. Some well-known absolute tests have been applied to investigate shift in the mean value: Standard Normal Homogeneity test (SNH), Buishand U and range tests, Pettitt test, F-test, STARS. Some relative tests have been applied too, which are generally more reliable than absolute tests, because they consider the information from neighboring stations. As relative tests rely on the homogeneity and quality of the reference series, several nearby stations and two reanalysis datasets (ERA5 and MERIDA) have been considered, to enhance the picture of the local situation and provide more robust conclusions. The applied tests identify change-points in the years in which a change in instrument or location of the station have occurred, confirming that these changes have compromised the homogeneity of the series. The sub-series obtained splitting the observations in correspondence of these change-points have been homogenized with respect a selected period; corrections must be applied also to future measurements to extend the time series properly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1527.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Project Management, Web Applications, Agile methodology, Housing Information System
Online: 25 July 2023 (13:14:13 CEST)
This paper presents the development of a housing information system application using the Agile development method. The rapid development of information technology has necessitated the use of systems in various fields for efficient administration and data processing. However, traditional soft- ware development approaches are time-consuming and may not meet user requirements. The Agile methodology, with its flexible and iterative approach, addresses these challenges by focusing on delivering a functional system quickly. In this study, credit scoring and background related to housing information systems are examined, along with an overview of related work in Agile software development methodologies. The methods used in developing the housing information system application are explained, including the Agile development process and the stages involved. The results show that the Agile development method effectively produces user-friendly and functional housing information system applications. The system provides a simple and intuitive interface that facilitates easy navigation and access to information. Overall, the Agile development method is a valuable approach for software development to meet evolving user needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0977.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: taekwondo; miluh-chagi; motor behavior; motor development; observational methodology
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:15:27 CEST)
Taekwondo masters and coaches believe that they have a kind of “eagle eye” and that is why they feel comfortable to analyze athletes’ skills without using essential tools. The aim of this study was to analyze the athletes’ technical indicators during performance of the Miluh-chagi kick. To analyze the reliability and precision of the cycle of ten kicks (n = 120), performed by 5 women and 7 men senior athletes, we used an expert panel and a previously published observational tool. The coefficient of variation was calculated to verify precision. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to confirm the reliability among the evaluators. Student’s t-test was used for group-to-group analysis. Correlation analyses were accessed using Spearman’s rho. The data quality sample reliability results, for group, intra- and inter-rater were excellent and good re-spectively. Statistically significant differences, with a large effect size, were found in the foot take-off, knee up and start leg flexion observational moments. The values showed a small and negative to moderate correlation between the conducts and aggregates criteria. Perfect correlation values were found between support leg foot and contact leg position. These findings meet the measurement requirements of athletes’ technical indicators to analyze motor behavior, develop-ment and performance of this technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1420.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Alkylation reaction; deep eutectic solvent; mild; response surface methodology
Online: 19 May 2023 (09:52:53 CEST)
The synthesis 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol is of great significance because of its widely application in industry, and the development of highly efficient catalyst is necessary to the alkylation of p-cresol and tert-butyl alcohol. Here, an efficient and mild method was established, caprolactam was chosen as hydrogen-bonding acceptor, p-toluenesulfonic acid was employed as hydrogen-bonding donor, and deep eutectic solvent (DES) was prepared to catalyze the alkylation reaction. The structure of the DES catalyst was characterized by 1H NMR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR). In addition, response surface design based on Box-Behnken method was employed to optimize the alkylation reaction process parameters, the study of reaction kinetics was also carried out subsequently. The recycle performance of the catalyst was evaluated by recovery experiments, and a good result was obtained. Comparing with the literature reported, we here provide a mild method to the synthesis of 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0064.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: pedagogical model; physical education; school contents; methodology; psychology; motivation
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:30:38 CET)
The aim was to implement a value-promoting program (Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility, TPSR) and to assess its impact on students. Method: The program was applied for 8 months with 257 students from three secondary school centres (151 boys and 106 girls) with a mean of 15.97 years old (SD = 2.31). They were in three groups, 67 students (control group), 90 students receiving at least 60% of the total teaching time the value-promoting program (experimental group for global education, EG-GE) and 100 students (experimental group only for physical education, EG-PE). As main results improvements were found in the EG-GE for responsibility, psychological mediator index, self-determination index, resilience, climate and prosocial behaviours. In the EG-PE improved were observed in the self-determination index, classroom climate and prosocial behaviours. Female students and from EG-GE improve much more than males and from EG-PE. The outcomes in psychological variables can be higher if TPSR is applied to the whole subjects apart from physical education. These results are even more pronounced for female students in personal and social responsibility. It is worth highlighting the importance of coordinating educational institutions to facilitate the involvement of the greatest number of teachers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0475.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Urban agri-food; GECOAGRI-LANDITALY methodology; European agricultural systems
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:42:52 CET)
: For decades the city has created food models by requiring the countryside to meet the growing demand with increasingly more homologated crop reconversions and increasingly vast and competitive farms. The current acceleration of the land concentration process and the dramatic experience of the COVID 19 pandemic have, however, forced us to redefine the city-country relationship, which has been called into question for some years now in various FAO and EU documents. Based on the GECOAGRI-LANDITALY survey itinerary, a proven tool for reading local peculiarities, the AAs show how easy it is to recognize which farmlands can best fulfil the role of guaranteeing food safety and protecting the quality and typicality of traditional foods. The final proposal is to start a new agri-food policy that no longer starts from the demand formulated by the city but, reversing the direction of the old relationship, it starts from the availability of products offered by the countryside to re-educate consumption and promote the sustainability of agricultural practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0176.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: dewatering; response surface methodology; Arduino; aluminum electrodes; microalgae harvesting
Online: 9 July 2020 (07:46:18 CEST)
Microalgal harvesting is one of the most challenging processes in the development of algal research and development. Several methods, such as centrifugation, flocculation, and filtration, are available at the laboratory scale. However, the requirement of expensive pieces of equipment and the possibility of biomass contamination are recurring gaps that hinder the development of microalgae I+D in different parts of the world. Recently, the electroflotation has been proved as a suitable method for the harvesting of different species of microalgae and cyanobacteria. To this day, there are no companies that sell laboratory-scale electroflotation equipment; this is mainly due to the gap in the knowledge on which factors (time, mixing rate, number of electrodes, and others) will affect the efficiency of concentration without reducing the biomass quality. This paper aims to build an innovative low-cost electroflotation system under 300 USD with cheap and resistant materials. To achieve our goal, we test the interaction of three variables (time, mixing rate, and amount of electrodes) were evaluated. Results showed that an efficiency closer to 100% could be achieved under 20 minutes using >10 electrodes and 150 rpm. We hope this innovative approach can be used by different researchers to improve our knowledge of the concentration and harvesting of algae and cyanobacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0545.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: BEM; tidal energy; turbine array; linear methodology; wind energy
Online: 30 April 2020 (17:27:21 CEST)
Tidal stream energy, due to its high level of consistency and predictability, is one of the feasible and promising type of renewable energy for future development and investment. Applicability of Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method for modeling the interaction of turbines in tidal arrays has been proven in many studies. Apart from its well-known capabilities, yet there is scarcity of research using BEM for the modeling of tidal stream energy farms considering full scale rotors. In this paper, a real geographical site for developing a tidal farm in the southern coasts of Iran is selected. Then, a numerical methodology is validated and calibrated for the selected farm by analyzing array of turbines. A linear equation is proposed to calculate tidal power of marine hydrokinetic turbines. This methodology narrows down the wide range of turbine array configurations, reduces the cost of optimization and focuses on estimating best turbine arrangements in a limited number of positions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0145.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Requirement Change Management; Methodology; Change Management Process; Software System
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:41:40 CET)
During software development requirement gathering is an important phase. Requirements are the basis of software development. The success or failure of any software depends upon level of understanding developed in requirements. During software development requirements keeps on changing due to different reasons. Hence requirements are such a critical phase that leads to the total project failure. So, to understand the impacts and to identify the conflicts with existing requirements, it is important to manage and analyze the requirements well. Requirement change management is the interest of this paper. Different requirement change management techniques has been discussed in this paper and analyzed them well and finally conclude the results accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0380.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: TESOL; English teaching; ESL; EFL; teaching methodology research interests
Online: 30 November 2019 (04:41:57 CET)
This paper provides a systematic review of the research around teaching English as a second or foreign language over the last ten years. The review aims to help second and foreign language researchers to recognize the trends that have impacted English teaching and learning research. More than 400 articles from four leading journals (TESOL Journal, TESOL Quarterly, ELT Journal, and Second Language Research) were reviewed to examine the trends and method that were used. The findings suggested that the research interests in the TESOL field have changed as many topics and trends have risen based on students’ academic and social needs. Topics such as teaching methodology, digital literacy, and using technology to teach English have dominated the research during the last decade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: epidemiology; causality; cancer; methodology; mendelian randomisation; randomised controlled trials
Online: 24 October 2019 (10:53:36 CEST)
Background: Feasibility trials are preliminary trials that assess the viability and acceptability of intervention studies and the effects of the intervention on intermediate endpoints. Due to their short duration, they are unable to establish the effects of the intervention on long-term clinical outcomes. We propose a novel method that could transform the interpretation of feasibility trials using modified two-stage randomisation analyses. Methods In this two-stage process, we explored the effects of a 6-month feasibility factorial randomised controlled trial (RCT) of lycopene and green tea dietary interventions (ProDiet) on 159 serum metabolic traits in 133 men with raised PSA levels but prostate cancer (PCA) free. In the first stage, we conducted an intention-to-treat analysis, using linear regression to examine the effects of the interventions on metabolic traits, compared to the placebo group and instrumental variable analysis to assess the causal effect of the intervention on the outcomes. In the second stage, we used a two-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) approach to assess the causal effect of metabolic traits altered by the interventions, on PCA risk, using summary statistics data from an international PCA consortium of 44,825 cancer cases and 27,904 controls. ResultsThe systemic effects of lycopene and green tea supplementation on serum metabolic profile were comparable to the effects of the respective dietary advice interventions (R2= 0.65 and 0.76 for lycopene and green tea respectively). Metabolites which were altered in response to lycopene supplementation were acetate (standard deviation difference versus placebo (β)): 0.69; 95% CI= 0.24, 1.15; p=0.003), valine (β: -0.62; -1.03, -0.02; p=0.004), pyruvate (β: -0.56; -0.95, -0.16; p=0.006), and docosahexaenoic acid (β: -0.50; -085, -0.14; p=0.006). The instrumental variable analysis showed there was no evidence that green tea altered the metabolome, but lycopene was associated with an increase in acetate (β=2.13; p=0.006) and decreases in pyruvate (β=-1.90; p=0.009), valine (β=-1.79; p=0.023), diacylglycerol (β=-1.81; p=0.026), alanine (β=-1.55; p=0.015) and DHA (p=0.097), where the regression coefficient represents the standard deviation (SD) difference in metabolite measures per unit change in lycopene (µmol/L) or EGCG (nM).Using MR, a genetically instrumented SD increase in pyruvate increased the odds of PCA by 1.29 (1.03, 1.62; p=0.027). Conclusion Using a two-stage randomization analysis in a feasibility RCT, we found that lycopene lowered levels of pyruvate, which our Mendelian randomization analysis suggests may be causally related to reduced PCA risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0192.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Anti-Glare; spray-coating; gloss; haze; response surface methodology
Online: 27 February 2019 (08:56:00 CET)
The process of preparing anti-glare thin films by spray-coating silica sol-gel to soda-lime glass was exclusively and statistically studied in this paper. The effects of sol-gel deliver pressure, air transport pressure, and spray gun displacement speed on the gloss, haze, arithmetic mean surface roughness, and total transmittance light were analyzed. The experimental results indicate that the factors of sol-gel deliver pressure, air transport pressure, and displacement speed exhibit significant effect on the haze, gloss, and Ra. In contrast, the variation of total transmittance light with these three factors are insignificant. Because the anti-glare property is predominantly determined by low gloss and high haze, therefore, we aim to minimize gloss and maximize haze to achieve high anti-glare. Central composite design and response rurface methodology are employed to analyze the main and interaction effects of the three factors through quadratic polynomial equations, which are confirmed by the analysis of variance and R2. The response surface methodology predict the lowest gloss and highest haze are 9.2 GU and 57.0%, corresponding to the sol-gel deliver pressure, air-transport pressure, and displacement speed of 250 kPa, 560 kPa, and 140 mm/s, and 340 kPa, 620 kPa, and 20 mm/s, respectively. Comparing the predicted optimal data with the real experimental results validates the applicability of the mathematical model. This study provides an important basis for the subsequent production of anti-glare glass with different specifications to satisfy the market demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: sampling methodology; mtDNA; mitochondrial DNA; conservation; biodiversity; populations; genetics
Online: 5 February 2019 (10:03:54 CET)
Population genetic data underpin many studies of behavioral, ecological, and evolutionary processes in wild populations and contribute to effective conservation management. However, collecting genetic samples can be challenging when working with endangered, invasive, or cryptic species. Environmental DNA (eDNA) offers a way to sample genetic material non-invasively without requiring visual observation. While eDNA has been trialed extensively as a biodiversity and biosecurity monitoring tool with a strong taxonomic focus, it has yet to be fully explored as a means for obtaining population genetic information. Here, we review current research that employs eDNA approaches for the study of populations. We outline challenges facing eDNA-based population genetic methodologies, and suggest avenues of research for future developments. We advocate that with further optimizations, this emergent field holds great potential as part of the population genetics toolkit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0447.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: socio-environmental vulnerability; Barcelona; spatial analysis; qualitative methodology; GIS
Online: 19 October 2018 (11:33:48 CEST)
The city of Barcelona, like other cities in the world, suffers strong internal socio-economic inequalities. Numerous works have sought to detect, quantify, characterize and / or map existing intra-urban differences, almost always based on quantitative methodologies. With this contribution, we intend to illuminate the complementary role that qualitative methodologies can play in studies on urban socio-environmental vulnerability. We consider aspects that are not quantifiable but that may be inherent to many such vulnerable spaces, both in the constructed environment and in the social ambit. These questions are considered through selected neighborhoods of Barcelona which have been shown (in prior works, mainly studies of quantitative manufacturing) to possess elements of vulnerability including a high presence of immigrants from less-developed countries, low per capita income, aging populations, or low educational levels. The results reveal the multidimensionality of vulnerability in the neighborhoods analyzed, as well as the essential complementarity among methodologies that detect and support possible public actions aimed at reducing or eliminating intra-urban inequalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0537.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fixed-bed column; fluoride; arsenic; removal; response surface methodology
Online: 27 September 2018 (09:05:43 CEST)
In the present study, Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS) was analyzed as adsorbent material to remove both fluoride ion (F-) and arsenic V (As(V)) from aqueous effluents. This material was generated during an electrocoagulation process using Aluminum anode. It was characterized by using specific surface areas and the surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adsorbent fixed-beds are generally studied to remove different class of contaminants. EMHS was evaluated using a continuous flow rate column test with an experimental design. The effect of initial concentration of F- (2.5–10 mg L−1) and the Empty Bed Contact Time (EBCT (0.4–0.8 min)) was studied following a central composite design methodology. The experimented parameters had a significant influence on saturation time, breakthrough volume, and breakthrough time. A response surface analysis was a tool for analyzing the adsorption study, showing interactions that are complicated to identify by others methods. The results, here reported, revealed that EMHS is an efficient and promising adsorbent material in order to remove F- and As(V) from water contaminated by these pollutants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: PV solar tracker; design methodology; efficiency function of orientation
Online: 16 May 2018 (09:51:44 CEST)
This article proposes a new photovoltaic (PV) solar tracker design based on the advantage that installation latitude offers according to efficiency in function of orientation (EFO) of PVs. First, is described a methodology to let incorporate a low-precision, low-cost and high-availability solar tracking mechanism and control system. The design methodology considers the installation location (latitude and azimuth) as a starting point for establishing an adequate angular range of EFO, simultaneity the aspects of available technology and the knowledge accords to developer. Finally, the design technique is experimentally validated by the implementation of a solar tracker at latitude of 28° longitude of 109° and evaluates the efficiency on a specific day. According to result the feasibility of this type of solar tracker for latitudes close to or greater than 30° is highlighted, given that this tracking system costs 30% less than traditional commercial systems as slew drive with its incorporation of lower-resolution azimuth tracking mechanisms. It also increases collection efficiency by 26%, just as continuous or time-based dual-axis solar trackers do, without the more complex controls and mechanisms of these designs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Forestry Enterprise; Sustainable Forest Management; Triple Bottom Line; MCDM Methodology
Online: 2 October 2023 (09:47:15 CEST)
Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) can fully use forest resources and improve the economic, environmental and social sustainability of forest areas. Forestry enterprises play a crucial role in the implementation of SFM. To better play the role of forestry enterprises in implementing SFM, it is necessary to establish a comprehensive and reasonable performance evaluation model for SFM in forestry enterprises. However, the previous literature pays little attention to this research question. Taking the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) as a theoretical framework and the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (MP C&I) as a basis, this paper constructs an indicator system to evaluate the performance of SFM of forest enterprises from economic, social and environmental aspects. This paper applies the integrated MCDM method, i.e. the BWM method and the VIKOR method, to construct the methodological system for SFM performance evaluation of forestry enterprises. The effectiveness of this SFM performance evaluation model is then demonstrated through its application to a case study of forestry enterprises in China. Through the application of the model, this paper evaluates the enterprise's SFM performance over the five-year period 2017-2021 and proposes appropriate policy recommendations and improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0899.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: digital twins; application methodology; improvement of production systems and services
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:48:08 CEST)
The escalating environmental challenges that stem from urban residential waste in densely populated areas have become increasingly prominent in recent times. As a result, the waste management sector has experienced significant growth nationwide. However, due to the predominantly manual nature of these processes, their effectiveness falls short of meeting the current demand. Addressing these issues requires process enhancement. In this context, Industry 4.0, particularly the concept of Digital Twins, emerges as a potential avenue for refining processes. To tackle both current and future industry challenges, it is imperative to create a comprehensive methodology capable of generating effective solutions within the waste management sector. This paper provides an explanation of digital twins, outlines the methodological framework comprising an architectural structure and layered model, and details a series of sequential methodical stages for implementing digital twins based on the specific scope determined by the end-user. A noteworthy aspect is the transformative potential of digital twins in enhancing efficiency and precision within waste management practices. By providing a virtual real-time representation of the waste management system, digital twins empower simulations and experimentation to fine-tune processes. Furthermore, they facilitate informed decision-making by offering a detailed visualization of the complete system, simplifying the identification of challenges and opportunities for improvement. that this article derives from the presentation titled "Digital Twin application methodology for the improvement of production and service systems. Application to waste management processes" at the "Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories International Conference" held in the city of Manizales, Colombia, from 21st to 23rd June 2023.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0490.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Accident traffic; app store; mobile app; mortality; notifications; scrum methodology.
Online: 30 December 2021 (16:20:03 CET)
This research work deals with traffic accidents that are very concurrent in several countries, which in turn contribute to the mortality rate from 19 to 25 years of age and up. In the research work, immediate notifications for traffic accidents were carried out through a mobile application (app) where it will have an emergency button which will help the injured a lot, since the nearest help centers such as the police, fire brigades and the nearest hospitals, so that they can provide support to the people who suffered the accident. In the project, the implementation of Scrum Methodology was used since it served us an amount for the development of the prototypes of the App, and in turn with their roles it did not serve much help for the project, however, passers-by are of vital importance already that they will be the ones to make said report when observing a traffic accident and thus notify the nearest aid centers. As data collection for the creation of the software functions, a survey was carried out with more than 30 people, the functions applied in the application were programmed with the Dart language and generated under the flutter tool in order to be able to distribute it on different platforms such as Play Store and AppStore. The results obtained were the most anticipated since the application fulfills its function, thus reducing deaths and improving the speed of attention to traffic accidents and thus saving a life that is in danger.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Programming Approach; Web programming; Sustainable Education; Teaching experience; Teaching Methodology
Online: 17 June 2021 (14:44:43 CEST)
The fast pace development of the Internet and the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic have impacted considerably on the educative sector; encouraging the constant transformation of the teaching-learning strategies and more in technological areas as Educational Software Engineering. Web programming, a fundamental topic in Software Engineering and Cloud-based applications, deals with various critical challenges in education, such as learning continuous emerging technological tools, plagiarism detection, generating innovative learning environments, among others. Continual change and more with the current digitization becomes a challenge for teachers and students who cannot depend on traditional educational methods. The article presents a sustainable teaching-learning methodology for web programming courses in Engineering Education using a project-based integrated approach adaptable to the continuous web technological advances. The methodology has been developed and improved for 9 years, 15 groups, and 3 different universities. Our results demonstrate that the methodology is 100% adaptable with new technologies that might arise; it also presents the advantages of avoiding plagiarism in the best case and a personalized induction for every specific student in the learning process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0406.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Electric tomography; three-dimensional; electrodes; seat control; foundations; stabilization methodology.
Online: 15 April 2021 (10:50:51 CEST)
The paper proposes a novel methodology for the stabilization of shallow foundations, with a simplified model combined with 3D Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT-3D) and conso- lidation injections. To determine its usefulness, the method has been applied in a case located in Estepona (southern Spain). The chosen tomography model is the dipole-dipole configuration, with an optimized distance between electrodes of 0.80 m for a better visualization of the foundation subsoil; with this parameterization, a total of 72 electrodes were installed in the analyzed case. In this work, the depth of the anomaly in the building's supporting subsoil was detected ranging from 2.00 m to 3.90 m deep. The study also delineates areas of high resistivity variations (50-1,000 Ω m) in the middle and eastern end of the field. These data have been validated and corroborated with a field campaign. The results of the ERT-3D monitoring are presented, once the investment data has been processed with the RES3DINV software, from the beginning to the end of the stabilization intervention. The novelty occurs with the interaction between the tomography and the foundation consolidation injections, until the final stabilization; very useful methodology in case of emergency consolidation, where there is a need to minimize damage to the building. Thus, people using this combined system; will be able to practically solve the initial anomalies of the subsoil that caused the damages, in a non-invasive way, considerably lowering the value of the resistivities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0728.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Agile Methodology; Software Productivity; Software Development; Normality; Software team productivity
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:15:31 CEST)
Agile methods promise to achieve high productivity and provide high-quality software. Agile software development is the most important model that has spread through the world of software development over the past decade. Software productivity measurement is essential in agile teams to increase the performance of Software development. Due to the increasing competition of software development companies, software team productivity has become one of the crucial challenges for software companies and teams. Awareness of the level of team productivity can help them to achieve more accurate estimation results on the time and cost of the projects. However, to measure software productivity, there is no definitive solution or approach whether in traditional and agile software development teams that lead to the occurrence of many problems in achieving a reliable definition of software productivity. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the productivity of the software in an up-to-date view of software development and to present a model for computing software team productivity. A survey was conducted with forty software development organizations located in Iran and measured the impact of six factors of the team on productivity in these companies. The results show that team effectiveness factors including inter-team relationship, quality conformance by the team, team vision, team leader, and requirements handled by the team had an impact on productivity. Moreover, the results also state that inter-team relations affect the most on software teams’ productivity. Finally, using the model fit test, it found that 80% of productivity changes based on team effectiveness factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0161.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: harmonic methodology tourism; sustainability attributes; rural tourism; knowledge; complex systems
Online: 12 December 2019 (04:33:50 CET)
According to the growing concern of various focus groups, in regard to the mitigation of the negative impacts generated because of the tourism, has born the interest of proposing sustainable tourism projects derivatives of the feeling within the communities (1) Background: the aim is to propose a differentiated diagnosis of the Subsystems (biophysical and anthropic) and their relationship with traditional-rational knowledge; (2) Methods: from the Theory of Complex Systems was propose the Harmonic Tourism Methodology, that try to correlation the subsystem and knowledge in the community of San Juan Tlahuica Atzingo, State of Mexico (4) Conclusions: Among the most outstanding results that are on the one hand, we must work through tourism projects to the rescue and preservation of natural and cultural resources, reassessing them through the strengthening of social cohesion. On the other hand, the application of this case allowed us to visualize that it is necessary to consolidate the elements and steps of the methodology in order to apply it to different communities that are beginning their journey in the field of the tourism and that can improve and potentiate their resources, seeking harmony between them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0102.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: ARIMA Methodology; Out-of-Sample Forecast; Tourist Arrivals; Sierra Leone
Online: 9 September 2019 (12:11:03 CEST)
This study have uniquely mad use of Box-Jenkins ARIMA models to address the core of the threes objectives set out in view of the focus to add meaningful value to knowledge exploration. The outcome of the research have testify the achievements of this through successful nine months out-of-sample forecasts produced from the program codes, with indicating best model choices from the empirical estimation. In addition, the results also provide description of risks produced from the uncertainty Fan Chart, which clearly outlined possible downside and upside risks to tourist visitations in the country. In the conclusion, it was suggested that downside risks to the low level tourist arrival can be managed through collaboration between authorities concerned with the management of tourist arrivals in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0098.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: open review; open science; zero-blind review; peer review; methodology
Online: 16 August 2019 (05:27:55 CEST)
We present a discussion and analysis regarding the benefits and limitations of open and non-anonymized peer review based on literature results and responses to a survey on the reviewing process of alt.chi, a more or less open-review track within the CHI conference, the predominant conference in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). This track currently is the only implementation of an open-peer-review process in the field of HCI while, with the recent increase in interest in open science practices, open review is now being considered and used in other fields. We collected 30 responses from alt.chi authors and reviewers and found that, while the benefits are quite clear and the system is generally well liked by alt.chi participants, they are reluctant to see it used in other venues. This concurs with a number of recent studies that suggest a divergence between support for a more open review process and its practical implementation. The data and scripts are available on https://osf.io/vuw7h/, and the figures and follow-up work on http://tiny.cc/OpenReviews.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: active methodology; higher education; professor; student; perception; opinion; learning process
Online: 5 July 2019 (04:46:25 CEST)
The goal of this study is both to determine the opinion that professors and students at the University of (details removed for peer review) have of active methodologies and to describe the perception and opinion of the modes of organization, methodological focuses, and evaluation systems that define the teaching-learning process. On surveying the professors and the students in their classes, we found significant differences in 32 of the 92 variables in common. The content of these results shows that professors and students are believe they are making progress toward a learning-centered model, that implementation of active methodologies implies new functions in their teaching practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: bilingual advantage; bilingualism; cognitive control; individual differences; longitudinal studies; methodology
Online: 4 February 2019 (14:02:53 CET)
Recently, doubts were raised about the existence of the bilingual advantage in cognitive control. The aim of the present review was to investigate the bilingual advantage and its modulating factors. We searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and ERIC databases for all original data and reviewed studies on bilingualism and cognitive control, with a cut-off date of October 31, 2018, thereby following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. The results of the 46 original studies show that, indeed, the majority, 54.3%, reported beneficial effects of bilingualism on cognitive control tasks; however, 28.3% found mixed results, and 17.4% found evidence against its existence. Methodological differences seem to explain these mixed results: particularly, the varying selection of the bilingual participants, the use of non-standardized tests, and the fact that individual differences were often neglected, and that longitudinal designs were rare. Therefore, a serious risk for bias exists in both directions (i.e., in favor of and against the bilingual advantage). To conclude, we found some evidence for a bilingual advantage in cognitive control; however, if significant progress is to be made, better study designs, bigger data, and more longitudinal studies are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0132.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Cointegrated VAR methodology, Linking theory and evidence, Empirically based macroeconomics.
Online: 9 July 2018 (11:34:19 CEST)
This survey paper discusses the Cointegrated VAR methodology and how it has evolved over the last 30 years. The first section is a description of major steps in the econometric development of the CVAR model that facilitated serious real world applications. The next three sections are primarily methodological and discuss (i) difficulties and puzzles when confronting theory with the data, (ii) the formulation of a viable link between theory and the data, a so called theory-consistent CVAR scenario, and (iii) how all this was inspired by Trygve Haavelmo and his Nobel prize winning monograph "The Probability Approach to Economics". The next two sections discuss early applications of the Cointegrated VAR model to monetary transmission mechanisms, international transmission mechanisms and wage, price and unemployment dynamics. They report puzzling evidence, discuss the need for new theory, and propose a method for combining partial CVAR analyses into a larger macroeconomic model. The following sections propose a new, empirically-based, approach to macroeconomics in which imperfect knowledge based expectations replace so called rational expectations and in which the financial sector plays a key role for understanding the long persistent movements in the data. The last section argues that the CVAR can act as a "design of experiment for passive observations" and illustrates with several applications including unemployment dynamics under crises periods and aid effectiveness in South Saharan African countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1381.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: immunization; Lot Quality Assurance Sampling; GIS Mapping; methodology; barriers; innovative strategies
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:55:44 CET)
(1) Background: Childhood immunization is vital for preventing morbidities and mortalities globally. However, rural Pakistan is facing persistent challenges, particularly after recent global health crises in gauging accurate vaccination coverage estimates. This study aimed to apply a novel Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) methodology due to its rapid and reliable estimates of the routine immunization rates among children aged 12-23 months old in Shikarpur, Sindh, and to identify priority areas for future interventions. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional household survey design was adopted for an in-depth assessment of vaccination coverage in a previously under-studied rural context. (3) Results: Data were collected from 1,402 children aged 12-23 months across 47/49 Union Councils in Shikarpur within 141 randomly identified clusters. LQAS was innovatively employed along with GIS Mapping which provided a spatial analysis of the distribution of immunization coverage and the spot map of clusters. The weighted average for fully immunized children was 42.4% after applying Direct Adjustment Method. A steep decline in coverage for each successive vaccine dose was observed, and 39 key priority areas were identified on GIS-based plotting for intensive health interventions. Multivariate Logistic Regression Model further revealed informational gaps and fear of side effects as major barriers to achieving complete immunization. (4) Conclusions: The innovative application of LQAS and GIS Mapping in this study has provided a comprehensive glimpse of its utility in future follow-ups and similar assessments. The findings stress the critical need to tackle the foundational reasons behind the vaccination gaps, with a special focus on enhancing awareness and information dissemination in the key priority areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Academic Achievement; Creativity; Emotional Awareness; School Setting; Prisma Methodology
Online: 31 October 2023 (08:03:03 CET)
The concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) has gained prominence due to its substantial impact on a range of life outcomes, including academic performance. The present study aims to examine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and academic accomplishment in the context of a school environment. Analyzing students' emotional skills and competencies makes it possible to uncover the potential of emotional intelligence (EI) in predicting their academic achievement. Additionally, the study emphasizes the importance of integrating emotional intelligence (EI) training within the educational curriculum. Developing students' emotional awareness, empathy, self-regulation, and social skills can yield notable academic benefits, cultivating an environment more favorable to learning. This systematic review examines the relationship between emotional intelligence and its impact on children and teachers by synthesizing several relevant research studies. This study encompasses a comprehensive review conducted from 2016 to 2023. A total of 64 publications were examined in this study, specifically chosen based on their relevance to the review's parameters. These articles were sourced from reputable academic databases, including Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed, and WoS. The study revealed a correlation between the five dimensions of personality and emotional intelligence, creativity, resilience, the educational framework, and specific experimental programs about its education. The results mentioned above are of great significance, as they demonstrate that emotional intelligence (EI) is not solely a non-essential skill but a vital factor in education that can provide significant perspectives for students, educators, and politicians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0430.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; probiotic; yeast; acrylamide; amidase; degradation; Response Surface Methodology
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:32:49 CEST)
Acrylamide (AA) present in food is considered a harmful compound for humans, but it exerts impact on microorganisms too. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of AA (at conc. 0-10 µg/mL) on the growth of bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis), which naturally occur in food products. Moreover, we decided to verify whether these microorganisms could decompose acrylamide. Our results proved that AA can stimulated the growth of L. acidophilus and K. lactis. We have also reported, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that probiotic strain of bacteria L. acidophilus LA-5 is able to degrade AA by amidase production and hence can utilize AA as a source of carbon and nitrogen if they lack in the environment. The conducted Response Surface Methodology indicated that pH as well as incubation time and temperature significantly influenced the amount of ammonia released from acrylamide by the bacteria. Concluding, our studies suggest that some strains of bacteria present in milk fermented products can exert additional beneficial impact by acrylamide degradation and preventing against its harmful impact on human body and other members of intestinal microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0224.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Marx; Theses on Feuerbach; Indigenous Paradigm; decolonising methodology; Hegel; Linda Smith
Online: 13 May 2020 (05:27:33 CEST)
This article aims to reflect upon the relevance of Decolonization methodologies with the Theses on Feuerbach. Somehow, all the Indigenous scholars started from new Marxist like Paulo Freire, Frantz Fanon, but not from classic Marx. To us, the German Ideology of young Marx only resembles the pioneering sources of Indigenous methodology. This discussion is thus a reflection of our studies and a philosophic endeavor to talk about the marginal people of the world, and the scholars who engaged in and with the oppressed. However, we are not prepared to turn our attention away from all the vastness of Marx to a collection of potentially equally relevant to Indigenous methodology. This article concludes that the Theses on Feuerbach is the core of Marxist archaeology of knowledge or philosophy as a whole and has been wading in the Indigenous paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: aluminium; nafion; ion exchange dialysis; response surface methodology (rsm); desirability; enrichment
Online: 29 November 2019 (04:36:11 CET)
An ion exchange dialysis (IED) is used in the recovery of aluminium from residue. In this papers, the face-centered central composite design (FC-CCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability approach is used for experimental design, modelling and process optimization of a counter flow IED system. The feed concentration, feed flowrate, sweep flowrate and sweep concentration are selected as the process variables, with the Al-transport across a Nafion 117 membrane as the target response. A total of 30 experimental runs were conducted with 6 center points. The response obtained was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and fitted to a second-order polynomial model using multiple regression analysis. The actual R2 and standard deviation of the model are 0.9548 and 0.2932 respectively. The influences of significant variables are plotted on 3D surface and contour plots. The designed variables were numerically optimized by applying the desirability function to achieve the maximum Al-transport. The optimised condition values were found to be feed concentration (1600 ppm), feed flowrate (61.76%), sweep flowrate (37.50%) and sweep concentration (0.75 N) for the 80% target response at 32hrs. Overall, the model can be used to effectively predict Al-recovery using the designed system
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: service-learning methodology; environmental sciences; higher education; sustainable development goals; rubric
Online: 14 November 2019 (11:07:55 CET)
The Bologna Process and the European Higher Education area require the application of new active methodologies in the classroom that place the student at the center of his or her learning process. In the present work we analyze the application of a Service-Learning methodology in the context of a Final Degree Dissertation (FDD) in the degree in Environmental Sciences at the University of Extremadura (Spain). The project deals with an isolated Kichwa community in Ecuador and involves the development of alternative science education materials for the capacitation of in-service science teachers. This paper evaluates how an FDD carried out according to self-learning (SL) principles can help in the acquisition of so-called soft skills and how these can be focused in the promotion of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) knowledge and achievement. To this end, a qualitative study of the experience and a deep evaluation, followed by a final reflection, were carried out. According to the preliminary results, we can conclude that Higher Education should include SDGs in its teaching praxis and could do this successfully using the SL methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: performance analysis; football; gender differences; LaLiga; technical-tactical behaviour; observational methodology
Online: 4 July 2019 (09:38:22 CEST)
The aim of this study was to identify gender differences in technical-tactical behaviour in football. To this end 68 matches of the first division of the Spanish men’s and women´s league, corresponding to 2016/17 season were analyzed. A comparison of medians was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U-test were conducted as post hoc test and a grouping of the variables through the clustering bootstrapping technique in both groups. We have detected statistically significant differences regarding all accurate passes, in favour of men, as well as a greater number of yellow cards. In female football, a greater number of picking up free balls, interceptions, lost balls, recoveries, challenges and attacks, both positional and counterattacks, are produced. The clustering analysis also allowed that in male football, the circumstance of receiving a red card is closely related to the number of goals conceded and most of the shots on goal are achieved by positional attacks. In women's football, ball possession on own half is closely related to the number of losses. These results could be useful for gender-specific training information for optimal preparation. However, more research is warranted to establish the main gender differences and characterize women's football.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0764.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM); BIM definitions; BIM technology; BIM process; BIM methodology
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:45:05 CET)
In the scientific community, it is difficult to find a consensus on defining BIM. Just as the acronym BIM is developed in different ways, it is also understood in different ways. Depending on its understanding, different definitions emerge. It is defined differently by organizations and standards, still differently by academics. Many years of academic discourse on the subject have failed to produce a solution. Despite the fact that the acronym BIM has already done its work for the construction industry, it still stirs up excitement. There is still no clear definition, as the view of BIM varies from one perspective to another. This article attempts to sort out the definitions cited so far by important organizations and key academics. The review was based on deep literature study has attempted to be inclusive and consistent. The question still remains open: do we need a single, correct definition of BIM? The aim of the article is to try to answer this question, open up a renewed discussion and come to a satisfactory consensus. BIM can be identified with an activity, product or system. The article breaks down the definitions of BIM, identifies six key attributes of BIM, presents the evolution of the understanding of BIM and proposes new definitions in a narrow and broad approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: conceptualization; methodology; job allocation; reinforcement learning; stocker; digital twin; simulation; Industry 4.0
Online: 7 August 2023 (03:03:04 CEST)
In this study, reinforcement learning (RL) was used in factory simulation to optimize storage devices for use in Industry 4.0 and digital twins. First, we defined an RL environment, modeled it, and validated its ability to simulate a real physical system. Subsequently, we introduced a method to calculate reward signals and apply them to the environment to ensure the alignment of the behavior of the RL agent with the task objective. The stocker simulation model was used to validate the effectiveness of RL. The model is a storage device that simulates logistics in a manufacturing production area. The results revealed that RL is a useful tool for automating and optimizing complex logistics systems and increase the applicability of RL in logistics. We proposed a novel method for creating an agent through learning using the proximal policy optimization algorithm, and the agent was optimized by configuring various learning options. The application of reinforcement learning resulted in an effectiveness of 30% to 100%, and methods can be expanded to other fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Citrus by-products; Pectin extraction; Optimization; Characterization; Response surface methodology; technological properties
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:54:28 CEST)
Citrus peels are considered as a rich source of valuable biomolecules like pectin as polymer of polysaccharide acid. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize pectin extraction from Citrus clementina peels using citric acid as extraction solvent. The effect of parameters conditioning the extraction process and pectin yield (pH, temperature, extraction time, solid/liquid ratio, and raw material particle size) was investigated using a Box-Behnken design. The quality of the extracted pectin was assessed both chemically (moisture, ash, protein, and sugar content) and functionally (gelling power and emulsifying activity). According to the screening experiment, the factors pH, temperature, and particle size were the main factors influencing the pectin yield. The adjusted mathematical model enabled us to plot response surfaces in order to determine optimal extraction conditions. The highest production yield of pectin (26.6%) was obtained at the optimal conditions of: pH = 1.5; temperature 100 °C and particle size = 0.1 mm for an extraction time of 30min. Compared to the predicted value of 26.6%, the experimental extraction yield was about 21.4% of pectin. Concerning the functional properties, the extracted pectin has a high gelling power of 164°SAG and an emulsifying activity of 38.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0041.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Antibiotics residue; Response Surface Methodology (RSM); Quinolones; Tetracyclines; Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM)
Online: 3 July 2023 (09:45:39 CEST)
The present study employed a modifed QuEChERS method to systematically analyze the presence of fifteen Quinolones and seven Tetracyclines antibiotic residues in local animal food. Additionally, a multi-level-four-factor Box-Behnken design (BBD) within the framework of Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to evaluate the various factors affecting the detection efficiency of the sample pretreament procedure. The optimization was performed by Design Expert®, the factors including volume of the acetonitrle, the addition of formic acid, the duration of extract and the addition of EDTA were combined to experiment design until reach an optimal solution. Finally, the sample test was conducted by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry in both multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and enhanced product ion (EPI) scan modes on a QTRAP® 5500 instrument. The overall average recoveries from actual samples fortified with 22 antibiotics at three levels ranged from 74.7 to 122.6% based on the use of matrix-fortified calibration with the variation ranging from 2.1 to 18.2% (n=6). The limits of detection and quantification were 0.3 μg kg-1 and 1.0 μg kg-1, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0269.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: IIoT; Platform Selection; Multi criteria analysis; MCDA; AHP; PROMETHEE-II; Cloud; Methodology
Online: 19 February 2020 (04:02:12 CET)
Industry 4.0 is having a great impact in all smart efforts. This is not a single product, but is composed of several technologies, being one of them Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Currently, there are very varied implementation options offered by several companies, and this imposes a new challenge to companies that want to implement IoT in their processes. This challenge suggests to use multi-criteria analysis to make a repeatable and justified decision, requiring a set of alternatives and criteria. This paper proposes a new methodology and comprehensive criteria to help organizations to take an educated decision by applying multi-criteria analysis. Here, we suggest a new original use of PROMETHEE-II with full example from weight calculation up to IoT platform selection, showing this methodology as an effective study for other organizations interested to select an IoT platform. The criteria proposed outstands from previous work by including not only technical aspects, but economic and social criteria, providing a full view of the problem analyzed. A case of study was used to prove this proposed methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0251.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: single atom; chemistry foundations; chemistry methodology; Bose-Einstein condensate; chemistry and physics
Online: 24 January 2019 (10:07:29 CET)
Fostering fruitful collaboration between chemistry and physics scholars, the analysis of the differences in the practical approach to single atoms in chemistry and in physics affords a number of conceptual outcomes pointing to a more balanced relationship between chemistry and physics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0180.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: current; filtration rate; freshwater bivalve; mussel size; response surface methodology; Sinanodonta woodiana
Online: 19 January 2018 (06:41:05 CET)
In this study, we applied a central composite design to estimate independent variables and establish optimal conditions of filtration rate and feces production that enhance filtration of suspended organic matter by the freshwater mussels Sinanodonta woodiana. The results indicated that statistical design methodology offers an efficient and feasible approach for high filtration and low feces production condition optimization. The proposed model equation takes into account the quantitative effect of variables and also the influence of interactions among variables on mussel filtration rate. Under the optimal experimental conditions (mussel size, 13.0 ± 0.2 cm; water current, 17.5 L/h), the experimental filtration rate of 4.47 ± 1.82 L/mussel/h showed a degree of correspondence with the predicted value of 8.4 L/mussel/h, which verified the practicability of this optimum strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1781.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Supercritical fluid extraction; response surface methodology; Box-Behnken design; Kleeb Bua Daeng formula
Online: 25 August 2023 (11:43:23 CEST)
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative green technology for the extraction of phytochemicals from plants. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the application of SFE and to optimize the extraction condition of the Thai herbal formula, Kleeb Bua Daeng (KBD). A Box-Behnken design (BBD) with response surface methodology was used to determine the effect of extraction time, temperature, and pressure on response variables including extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total carotenoid content (TCC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of KBD formula. The highest percentage extraction yield, TPC, TFC, and TCC of the extracts were 3.81%, 464.56 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract, 217.19 mg quercetin equivalents/g extract, and 22.26 mg β-carotene equivalents/g extract, respectively. The results indicated that SFE is a suitable method of extraction for green recovery of some phytochemicals from the KBD formula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Havighurst developmental tasks; life histories methodology; young people; adults
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:53:11 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, characterized by persistent deficits in communication/social interaction and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. It is usually identified in childhood, despite late diagnoses in cases of greater functionality. Havighurst proposes a set of fundamental tasks throughout the life cycle, whose achievement is probably compromised in the ASD, even though it lacks scientific evidence. This study innovates, as it is based on Havighurst's theoretical model for understanding the development process of three adults and one young person, diagnosed with ASD level I, at different life stages. Through the methodology of life histories, interviews were subject to content analysis. Results pointed out the early detection and interventions importance, minimizing adversities, above all by those who had late diagnoses. Self-perceived success, not expected, was found in some development tasks (e.g. conscience and morality development). Also were noticed expected limitations related to ASD (e.g. difficulties in relationships with peers and in the labor market inclusion). Probably, in cases of greater severity and less functionality/autonomy, there would be greater failure in development tasks. It is crucial to improve research on this developmental model and on the factors that delay the diagnosis, including cases of different levels of severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0303.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: IoT; Smart City; Open Urban Platform; Machine Learning; cybersecurity; methodology; intrusion detection; toolchain
Online: 17 February 2023 (07:35:25 CET)
The constant increase in volume and wide variety of available Internet of Things (IoT) devices leads to highly diverse software and hardware stacks, which opens new avenues for exploiting previously unknown vulnerabilities. The ensuing risks are amplified by the inherent IoT resource constraints both in terms of performance and energy expenditure. At the same time, IoT devices often times generate or collect sensitive, real-time data used in critical application scenarios (e.g. health monitoring, transportation, smart energy, etc.). All these factors combined make IoT networks a primary target and potential victims for malicious actors. In this paper, we present a brief overview of existing attacks and defense strategies against urban IoT networks. The goal of this work is twofold: First, it presents a summary of some of the common attack vectors and the corresponding solutions available in the research literature. Then, the paper lays out a theoretical plan and a corresponding pipeline of steps (i.e. development and implementation process) for the design and application of the solutions encountered throughout the course of the research efforts. The end goal of following this plan is the deployment of the proposed IoT security measures in a real-world urban IoT infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: CSHCN; CMC; care coordination; case series; collaboration; medical complexity; medication management; methodology; pediatrics
Online: 10 November 2022 (10:04:10 CET)
Care coordination (CC) for children with special healthcare needs and medical complexity (CSHCN-CMC) is challenging, and medication management is especially difficult for providers, parents/caregivers, and patients alike. While numerous strategies for CC have been suggested and implemented, barriers to medication optimization remain. The report describes the creation of a pediatric clinical pharmacotherapy practice, related standard operating procedures to assure consistent application of screening tools and care provision through comprehensive medication management (CMM), and establishment of a collaborative practice agreement (CPA) to guide drug therapy delegation, monitoring, and modification. The methodology of a prospective case series is also presented to highlight drug therapy problems and their resolution in CSHCN-CMC. Future opportunities to expand the practice for engagement in population health management as well as prior authorization activities on behalf of physicians will be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0409.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Air Pollutant Emissions; Rice Cultivation; Agricultural Machinery; Tier 1 Methodology; Geographic Information System
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:22:08 CEST)
In Korea, rice is a major staple grain and is mainly cultivated using various agricultural machinery. Air pollutants emitted from agricultural machinery have their origins mainly from the exhaustion of internal combustion engines. In this study, emission characteristics of five main air pollutants by European Environment Agency's Tier 1 method for rice cultivation was analyzed. Diesel is a main fuel for agricultural machinery and gasoline is generally used only for rice transplanters as a fuel in Korea. Tractors consume 46% of total fuel consumption and 56% of diesel fuel consumption. Gasoline used for rice transplanters accounts for 17% of total fuel consumption each year. Tractors and rice transplanters are emitting 82% of all total pollutants. From 2011 to 2019, the total amount of air pollutant emissions was decrease by 15%. That accounted for the reduction of rice cultivation fields in those periods. Rice transplanting operation was in charge of 42% of total emissions. Then, harrowing, harvesting, tilling, leveling, and pest control operations generated 10%, 10%, 8%, 8% and 7% of total emissions, respectively. The contribution of each air pollutant held 54% of CO, 39% of NOx, 5% of NMVOC, and 2% of TSP from the total emission inventory. The three major regions emitting air pollutants from mechanized agricultural practices were Jeollanam-do, Chungcheongnam-do, and Jeollabuk-do, which consume 55% of total fuel usage in rice farming. The total amount of air pollutant emissions from rice cultivation practices in 2019 was calculated as 8,448 Mg in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Cannabis; cannabinoids; nutrients; nitrogen (N); phosphorus (P); potassium (K); yield; response surface methodology
Online: 24 August 2021 (08:40:44 CEST)
Following legalization, cannabis has quickly become an important horticultural crop in Canada and increasingly so in other parts of the world. However, due to previous legal restrictions on cannabis research there are limited scientific data on the relationship between nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) supply (collectively: NPK) and the crop yield and quality. This study examined the response of a high delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis sativa cultivar grown in deep-water culture with different nutrient solution treatments varying in their concentrations (mg L-1) of N (70, 120, 180, 250, 290), P (20, 40, 60, 80, 100) and K (60, 120, 200, 280, 340) according to a central composite design. Results demonstrated that inflorescence yield responded quadratically to N and P, with the optimal concentrations predicted to be 194 and 59 mg L-1, respectively. Inflorescence yield did not respond to K in the tested range. These results can provide guidance to cultivators when formulating nutrient solutions for soilless cannabis production and demonstrates the utility of surface response design for efficient multi-nutrient optimization.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hydraulic pump; micro-dosing; peristaltic; hyper-elasticity; viscoelasticity; holistic design methodology; elastomer compound
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:12:28 CEST)
Low pressure fluid transport (1) applications often require low and precise volumetric flow rates (2) including low leakage to reduce additional costly and complex sensors. A peristaltic pump de-sign (3) was realized, with the fluid’s flexible transport channel formed by a solid cavity and the wobbling plate comprising a rigid and a soft layer (4). In operation, the wobbling plate is driven externally by an electric motor, hence, the soft layer is contracted and unloaded (5) during pump-cycles transporting fluid from low to high pressure sides. A thorough characterization of the pump system is required to design and dimension the components of the peristaltic pump. To capture all these parameters and their dependencies on various operation-states, often complex and long-lasting dynamic 3D FE-simulations are required. We present, here, a holistic design methodology (6) including analytical as well as numerical calculations, and experimental valida-tions for a peristaltic pump with certain specifications of flow-rate range, maximum pressures, and temperatures. An experimental material selection process is established and material data of candidate materials (7) (liquid silicone rubber, acrylonitrile rubber, thermoplastic-elastomer) are directly applied to predict the required drive torque. For the prediction, a semi-physical, analyti-cal model was derived and validated by characterizing the pump prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0326.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: bijective research methodology; Lorentz factor; planet's precession; Sagnac effect; GPS; space dragging effect
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:31:39 CET)
Advances of Relativity Theory are in the replacement of the space-time model with time-invariant universal space that has a variable energy density. Every physical object with mass m and energy E is diminishing the energy density of space exactly for the amount of its energy. Lorentz factor has its origin in the variable energy density of universal space, we call it "superfluid quantum space" - SQS that is the primordial energy of the universe. Universal SQS is the absolute frame of reference for all observers as confirmed experimentally by the GPS system, which demonstrates that the relative rate of clocks is valid for all observers. A planet's perihelion precession and the Sagnac effect are the results of the SQS dragging effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0371.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: economic regions; regional classification; classification methodology; construction industry; cluster analysis; accidents in construction
Online: 28 April 2018 (12:14:29 CEST)
The article presents the methodology for classifying economic regions with regards to selected factors that characterize a region, such as: the economic structure of the region, and thus the share of individual sectors in the economy; employment; the dynamics of the development of individual sectors expressed as an increase or decrease in production value; the population density in the region and also the level of occupational safety. Cluster analysis, which is a method of multidimensional statistical analysis available in Statistica software, was used to solve the task. The proposed methodology was used to group Polish voivodships with regards to the speed of economic development and occupational safety in the construction industry. Data published by the Central Statistical Office was used for this purpose, such as the value of construction and assembly production, the number of people employed in the construction industry, the population of an individual region and the number of people injured in occupational accidents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1351.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: health care needs; assessment methodology; shared decision-making; child welfare; preventive youth health care
Online: 21 November 2023 (15:13:56 CET)
This study presents the development and pilot implementation of an assessment and shared deci-sion-making methodology called the Gezamenlijk Inschatten van Zorgbehoeften (GIZ), designed for youth (health) care professionals working with children and families. The three-phase approach included a needs assessment, development of the GIZ methodology, and pilot implementation in a preventive youth health care and youth care setting, involving parents, adolescents, and youth (health) care professionals. The needs assessment produced nine criteria that the GIZ methodology needed to meet. Based on these criteria, the GIZ methodology was developed and described using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR). The pilot implementation demonstrated high client engagement, satisfaction, and feasibility in daily practice. The GIZ ap-proach promotes appropriate support for families by improving the joint assessment and shared decision-making process in youth (health) care. This study supports the implementation of GIZ in youth (health) care practice and highlights the need for further focus on implementation and sus-tainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: neuroethology; methodology; sexual differences; aging; Alzheimer’s disease; marble burying test; burrowing test; repetitive behavior
Online: 18 November 2022 (01:08:33 CET)
Burying and burrowing are promising rodent-typical behaviors to model neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). However, the original tests could be insufficient to conclude which NPS are modeled. Here, we propose methodological modifications such as the two-zone configuration and dual analysis in the Marble Burying Test (MB). Also, a new Brief Burrowing Test (BB), a 20 min brief version of the Deacon’s Burrowing Test (DB). We comprehensively studied these behaviors in 12-month-old male and female mice with normal and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-pathological aging. The results: 1) confirm our precedent report of sexual dimorphism, with enhanced burying in male 3xTg-AD mice; 2) describe for the first time burrowing behavior in 3xTg-AD mice and its sex dependence; 3) regardless of the pattern, MB and BB reflected a goal-directed rather than an indiscriminate digging; 4) using the MB and BB to model anxiety-like behavior it’s not recommended; 5) burying and burrowing represent a repetitive rather than a stereotyped-like or perseverative behavior. In addition: 1) burying and burrowing behavioral patterns are alike, connected by several correlations; 2) the two-zones configuration is a useful tool to assess the intentionality of the burying and burrowing behaviors and to perform a more accurate screening of the NPS modeled by them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0580.v2
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: geopolymer; laterite; alkali-activated; alumino-silicates; I-optimal; response surface methodology; optimization; mine waste.
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:43:45 CET)
Geopolymer cement has been popularly studied nowadays compared to ordinary Portland cement because it demonstrated superior environmental advantages due to its lower carbon emissions and waste material utilization. This paper focuses on the formulation of geopolymer cement from nickel-laterite mine waste (NMW) and coal fly ash (CFA) as geopolymer precursors, and sodium hydroxide (SH) and sodium silicate (SS) as alkali activators. Different mix formulations of raw materials are synthesized to produce a geopolymer based from an I-optimal design and obtained different compressive strengths. A mixed formulation of 50% NMW and 50% CFA, SH-to-SS ratio of 0.5, and an activator-to-precursor ratio of 0.429 yielded the highest 28-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of 22.10 ± 5.40 MPa. Furthermore, using an optimized formulation of 50.12% NMW, SH-to-SS ratio of 0.516, and an activator-to-precursor ratio of 0.428, a UCS value of 36.30 ± 3.60 MPa was obtained. The result implies that the synthesized geopolymer material can be potentially used for concrete structures and pavers, pedestrian pavers, light traffic pavers, and plain concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: research ethics; longitudinal methodology; youth; phone survey; COVID-19; low- and middle-income countries
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:17:06 CEST)
In this paper, we draw on recent experiences from the Young Lives study to discuss some of the ethical and practical challenges facing longitudinal cohort studies in low- and middle-income countries in the time of coronavirus. We argue that COVID-19 has instigated an ‘ethics of disruption’ for social researchers across the world, and for longitudinal cohort studies like Young Lives, this requires navigating three core considerations: first, managing research relationships and reciprocity within an observational study design; second, maintaining methodological continuity and consistency across time; and third, balancing an immediate short-term response to COVID-19 against the longer-term perspective. We refer to the study’s plan to implement a new COVID-19 phone survey to illustrate how the team are navigating this altered ethical terrain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: open research practices; digital humanities; scholarly communication; publication formats; infrastructure; research methodology; research tools
Online: 1 March 2020 (15:50:52 CET)
The digital transformation has initiated a paradigm shift in research and scholarly communication practices towards a more open scholarly culture. Although this transformation is slowly happening in the Digital Humanities field, open is not yet default. The article introduces the OpenMethods metablog, a community platform that highlights open research methods, tools, and practices within the context of the Digital Humanities by republishing open access content around methods and tools in various formats and languages. It also describes the platform’s technical infrastructure based on its requirements and main functionalities, and especially the collaborative content sourcing and editorial workflows. The article concludes with a discussion of the potentials of the OpenMethods metablog to overcome barriers towards open practices by focusing on inclusive, community sourced information based around opening up research processes and the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve its goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0180.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: Magnolia x soulangeana var. ‘Lennei’; response surface methodology; ultrasound-assisted extraction; phytochemical profiling; phenolic antioxidants
Online: 2 August 2023 (09:58:14 CEST)
A novel approach based on response surface methodology (RSM) was developed to predict and apply the best extraction conditions for the isolation of various-type polyphenolic antioxidants from the dried flower buds of Magnolia x soulangeana Soul.-Bod. var. ‘Lennei’ (Magnoliaceae). As a method of choice, ultrasound-assisted extraction was used and the optimized extraction parameters (temperature, time of extraction, the composition of aqueous-ethanolic extractants and solvent to solid ratio) have been determined using a central composite design factorial analysis, followed by appropriate spectrophotometric methods (with Folin–Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reagents) to determine the antioxidant and antiradical potential of extracts, respectively. The use of 66.8% (V/V) ethanol, as the extraction solvent during the 55.2 min extraction protocol, and the ratio of extractant volume to herbal substance of 46.8 mL/g gave the highest total yield of bioactive antioxidant phenolics in the extract obtained. For this herbal preparation, qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed using combined chromatographic (LC), spectroscopic (PDA) and tandem mass spectrometric (ESI-QTOF–MS/MS) techniques. A detailed phytochemical profiling, conducted for the first time, documented substantial amounts of polyphenolic antioxidants, especially phenylethanoids and flavonoids in the flower buds of M. soulangeana ‘Lennei’. Their average total content exceeded 30.3 and 36.5 mg/g dry weight, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0135.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Machine Learning Applications; Quality Assurance Methodology; Process Model; Automotive Industry and Academia; Best Practices; Guidelines
Online: 3 March 2021 (14:11:09 CET)
Machine learning is an established and frequently used technique in industry and academia but a standard process model to improve success and efficiency of machine learning applications is still missing. Project organizations and machine learning practitioners have a need for guidance throughout the life cycle of a machine learning application to meet business expectations. We therefore propose a process model for the development of machine learning applications, that covers six phases from defining the scope to maintaining the deployed machine learning application. The first phase combines business and data understanding as data availability oftentimes affects the feasibility of the project. The sixth phase covers state-of-the-art approaches for monitoring and maintenance of a machine learning applications, as the risk of model degradation in a changing environment is eminent. With each task of the process, we propose quality assurance methodology that is suitable to address challenges in machine learning development that we identify in form of risks. The methodology is drawn from practical experience and scientific literature and has proven to be general and stable. The process model expands on CRISP-DM, a data mining process model that enjoys strong industry support but lacks to address machine learning specific tasks. Our work proposes an industry and application neutral process model tailored for machine learning applications with focus on technical tasks for quality assurance.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: early childhood development; stimulating parenting practices; effective early childhood reading practices; rural China; mixed methodology
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:26:49 CET)
Studies have shown that nearly half of rural toddlers in China have cognitive delays due to an absence of stimulating parenting practices, such as early childhood reading, during the critical first three years of life. However, few studies have examined the reasons behind these low levels of stimulating parenting, and no studies have sought to identify the factors that limit caregivers from providing effective early childhood reading practices (EECRP). This mixed-methods study investigates the perceptions, prevalence and correlates of EECRP in rural China, as well as associations with child cognitive development. We use quantitative survey results from 1,720 caregiver-child dyads across 100 rural villages/townships in northwestern China and field observation and interview data with 60 caregivers from these same sites. The quantitative results show significantly low rates of EECRP despite positive perceptions of early reading and positive associations between EECRP and cognitive development. Qualitative results suggest that low rates of EECRP in rural China are not due to the inability to access books, financial or time constraints, or the absence of aspirations. Rather, the low rate of book ownership and absence of reading to young children is driven by the insufficient and inaccurate knowledge of EECRP among caregivers, which leads to their delayed, misinformed reading decisions with their young children, ultimately contributing to developmental delays.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1261.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: virtual twins; personalized medicine; precision medicine; digital twin methodology; multi-modal data sources; AI; data integration
Online: 17 August 2023 (08:03:04 CEST)
One of the most promising advancements in healthcare is the application of digital twin technology. Digital twins are virtual replicas of real-world human patients and can be used for monitoring, and diagnosis, and as a tool to design treatment strategies tailored to individual patients. Furthermore, digital twins could also be helpful in finding novel treatment targets and predicting the effects of drugs and other chemical substances in development. This review article delves into the various data sources and methodologies that contribute to the construction of digital twins. Each data source, including blood glucose levels, heart MRI and CT scans, cardiac electrophysiology, written reports, and multi-omics data, comes with different challenges regarding standardization, integration, and interpretation. We showcase how various datasets and methods are used to overcome these obstacles and generate a digital twin. While digital twin technology has seen significant progress, there are still hurdles in the way to achieving a fully comprehensive patient digital twin. Developments in non-invasive and high-throughput data collection, as well as advancements in modeling and computational power will be crucial to improve digital twin systems. We discuss a few critical developments in light of the current state of digital twin technology. Despite challenges, digital twin research holds great promise for personalized patient care and has the potential to shape the future of healthcare innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0672.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education of the person; Science of education; Educational research; Methodology of educa-tional labor; Pedagogical concepts
Online: 8 August 2023 (13:03:28 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to describe and explain the characteristics of pedagogy as a science of education, as an object, concepts and research method. The methodology assumed was the review of the history of pedagogy, especially the classics of pedagogy, those who built it with their experiences in laboratory schools. Here are listed the main concepts of pedagogy, its laws and principles; she establishes the opposition that exists between teaching-learning and education as formation of the personality; she also delimits the fields of the pedagogical method, of didactics or teaching-learning, and the methodology of educational labor that organizes the process and the educational context, the regime and the lifestyle, such as those experienced in the "colonies" or "communes" of children and adolescents, organized and directed by Neill and Makarenko. Since the present article does not derive from a primary source or from field work, as an empirical or experimental research, the results constitute the content of the article, as conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Transdisciplinary Urban Planning; Methodology of Architectural Design; Design Strategy vs. Design Tactics; Agile Development; Scrum Framework
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:18:56 CEST)
The main question proposed in this research is if different types of organizational approach, adapted from rapidly changing disciplines — such as IT industry, and software engineering in particular — could help overcome this gap by shortening the response time needed to analyze advanced solutions in accordance with changed circumstances, thus allowing for architectural programming to obtain different positions in the timeline of project planning and realization. We propose a novel methodology of architectural design as a self-reliant instrument inspired by Agile Manifesto and some of its instantiations, most notably by the Scrum Framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; Chemical oxygen demand; Optimization; Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater; Response surface methodology; Static Granular Bed Reactor
Online: 4 February 2019 (13:53:16 CET)
In this study, the efficiency of an anaerobic treatment system for wastewater from a South African poultry slaughterhouse was evaluated using a lab-scale static granular bed reactor (SGBR). The down-flow SGBR (2 L) was operated continuously for 138 days under mesophilic conditions (35-37 ˚C), at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 24 to 96 h and average organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.78 to 5.74 g COD/L.day. The SGBR achieved an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 80% and the maximum COD removal achieved was 95%, at an HRT of 24 h and average OLR of 5.74 g COD/L.day. The optimization of the SGBR, with regard to a suitable HRT and OLR, was determined using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal SGBR performance with regard to the maximum COD removal efficiency was predicted for an OLR of 12.49 g COD/L.day and a HRT of 24 h, resulting in a 95.5% COD removal efficiency. The model R2 of 0.9638 indicated that the model is a good fit and is suitable to predict the COD removal efficiency for the SGBR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0538.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: ferulic acid esters; octyl ferulate; esterification; Box-Behnken design; response surface methodology; molar conversion; optimum condition
Online: 27 July 2018 (11:43:22 CEST)
Ferulic acid esters have been suggested as a group of natural chemicals with sunscreen function. The study aimed to utilize an environment-friendly enzymatic method to produce octyl ferulate by esterification of ferulic acid with octanol. The Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to evaluate the effects of synthesis variables, including reaction temperature (70–90 °C), enzyme amount (1000–2000 PLU) and stir speed (50–150 rpm), on the molar conversion of octyl ferulate. According to the joint test, both the reaction temperature and enzyme amount had great impacts on the molar conversion. RSM-developed second-order polynomial equation further showed great ability on data-fitting. Based on ridge max analysis, the optimum parameters for the biocatalyzed reaction were: 72 h reaction time, 92.2 °C reaction temperature, 1831 PLU enzyme amount and 92.4 rpm stir speed, respectively. Finally, the molar conversion of octyl ferulate under optimum condition was verified to be 93.2 ± 1.5%. In conclusion, high yield of octyl ferulate synthesized by commercial immobilized lipase under elevated temperature conditions has been suggested, which our findings could broaden the utilization of the lipase and provide a biocatalytic approach, instead of the chemical method, for ferulic acid ester synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Acer truncatum leaves; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; phenolics; antioxidant activity; UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS
Online: 9 January 2017 (04:16:01 CET)
This study was designed for the first time to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of ultrasonic-assisted extraction from Acer truncatum leaves (ATL) using response surface methodology, and phenolic composition in ATL extracted under the optimized condition were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration (X1), material-to-liquid ratio (X2), ultrasonic temperature (X3) and power (X4) for an optimal total phenol yield (Y1) and DPPH• antioxidant activity (Y2). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol: water (v:v) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w.. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic composition in ATL. What’s more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta-O-galloyl-glucoside was interpreted. All these results provided practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: pectin; cocoa pod husk valorisation; citric acid; malic acid; fumaric acid; response surface methodology; central composite design
Online: 27 December 2022 (03:20:57 CET)
Ecuador is the world's fifth largest cocoa producer, generating hundreds of annual tons of residues from this fruit. This research aims to value this residual (cocoa pod husk) by using it as raw material to obtain pectin, which is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. For them, the extraction of three different organic acids with GRAS status (and therefore safe for their use), citric, malic and fumaric acids, were studied. In addition, two other factors, temperature (70-90°C) and extraction time (60-90 min), were explored in a central composite design of experiments. Under the conditions of the experiment, it was obtained that the best yields were reached for citric acid, malic acid and fumaric acid and for ~86 min of extraction time. The temperature did not show a significant influence on the yield. The pectins obtained under optimal conditions were characterised, showing their similarity with commercial pectin. However, the equivalent weight and the esterification degree of the pectin obtained with fumaric acid classify it as having a high equivalent weight and a low degree of esterification. It differs significantly from the other two acids, perhaps due to the limited solubility of fumaric acid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0055.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Barhi date palm kernels (BDPK); non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP); anticancer activity; antioxidant activity; response surface methodology; optimisation.
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:23:01 CEST)
Dietary polyphenols exist in two forms; extractable polyphenols (EPP) or compounds solubilised by aqueous/organic solvents, and non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP) or compounds remain in the corresponding residues after the extraction. At present, most researchers focus on EEP fractions, while NEPP is neglected. Thus, this study aimed to release NEPP from the remaining powder residue of Barhi date palm kernels (BDPK) with acid hydrolysis. The related extraction conditions were determined and optimised using response surface methodology (RSM) for maximisation of NEPP with highest cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The face-centred central composite design (FCCCD) was used to establish treatments based on three independent variables, namely; extraction temperature, time, and solvent/sample ratio. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental values for DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of NEPP (IC50=57.52µg/mL), and cytotoxicity of NEPP against A549 and HT29 cells were IC50=17.4 µg/mL and 31.4µg/mL, respectively. The experimental values were in agreement with those predicted by RSM models, confirming the suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM for optimisation of the extraction conditions for NEPP from BDPK. These results indicate that NEPP from industrial date fruit waste could be a promising candidate as natural antioxidants with significant antiproliferation effect against A549 and HT29 cancer cells in-vitro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2006.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: inductive power transfer; finite element analysis; Fibre Bragg Gratings; multi-physics simulations; experimental methodology; thermal strain; temperature measurement
Online: 31 October 2023 (07:55:39 CET)
Road-embedded inductive power transfer (IPT) systems have the potential to accelerate the electrification of the transportation sector. For these systems to be economically viable however, they need to have a similar durability and lifespan compared to that of asphalt roads. One area that has lacked investigation is thermally induced stresses in a primary IPT pad, which is caused by the increase in temperature of the pad when it is energized and the differing thermal expansion of the materials within. This paper presents an experimental and a finite-element based methodology for investigating the thermal-mechanical behaviour of a ¼-scale double-D pad, which was energized while suspended in air, as well as energized when embedded in pavement. A focus was placed on the measurement and prediction of strains in the magnetic ferrite cores because of their brittleness. Ferrite strains were measured using a combination of resistive strain gauges and non-metallic Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. Coupled electromagnetic-thermal-structural simulations were conducted to predict temperature and strains in the system, with temperature-dependent properties obtained through physical testing. At an ambient temperature of 50°C, the temperature in the middle of the copper litz wire coil was predicted to be 100°C in both the suspended and embedded case. There was excellent correlation to experimental results, with a difference of less than 10% for most temperature measurements. When energized, the pad was predicted to experience an upward bow due to its temperature rise, resulting bending strains in the ferrite cores. At an ambient temperature of 50°C, maximum tensile strain in the ferrites of the embedded pad was measured to be 62 microstrain (με), with a root-mean square error that was 18 με across three sensors. The experimental and validated numerical methodology can be applied to full-scale operational IPT pads to analyse and improve their thermal-mechanical performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1366.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: digital twins; cultural heritage; museum; 3d modeling; digitization; platform; cultural content; museum visitors; paleontological findings; paleontology; photogrammetry; methodology
Online: 20 July 2023 (08:35:46 CEST)
In recent years, researchers in the field of cultural heritage have intensified their efforts to develop new ways to enhance the promotion and accessibility of cultural content in order to attract more audiences using virtual representations of physical objects (digital twins). Therefore, they increasingly include new technologies and digital tools in their operation, since their application both to the general public and among the cultural organisations themselves, is considered particularly effective. Simultaneously, the increasing quality of the produced digitizations has opened up new opportunities for further exploitation of digitization outcomes in a broader context than was initially anticipated. Responding to the growing demand of museum visitors for a personalized digital tour experience, especially in the midst of the recent Covid-2019 pandemic, the v-PalM project aims to develop a digital platform for offering virtual guidance and education services at the Museum of Paleontology and Geology that is hosted at the National Kapodistrian University of Athens. The development of the platform will be based on collecting data through several methods including crowdsourcing, innovative information and communication technologies, taking advantage of content digitization using 3D scanning devices. In this paper, we demonstrate a methodology for the digitization of paleontological findings that can be used for creating digital twins suitable for various scenarios including research, education, and entertainment.
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: community health; complex interventions; hierarchy of evidence; health inequalities; community engagement; community organizing; PACT; Citizens UK; evaluation; methodology
Online: 12 January 2020 (17:36:11 CET)
It is widely recognized that public health interventions benefit from community engagement and leadership, yet there are challenges to evaluating complex, community-led interventions assuming hierarchies of evidence derived from laboratory experimentation and clinical trials. Particular challenges include, first, inconsistency of the intervention across sites; and second, absence of researcher control over the sampling frame and methodology. This report highlights these challenges as they played out in the evaluation of a community-organized health project in South London. The project aimed to benefit maternal mental health, health literacy and social capital, and especially to engage local populations known to have reduced contact with statutory services. We evaluated the project using two studies with different designs, sampling frames and methodologies. In one the sampling frame and methodology were under community control, permitting comparison of change in outcomes from before to after participation in the project. In the other, the sampling frame and methodology were under researcher control, permitting a case-control design. The two evaluations led to different results however: participants in the community-controlled study showed benefits, while participants in the researcher-controlled study did not. The principal conclusions are that while there are severe challenges to evaluating a community-led health intervention using a controlled design, measurement of pre-/post-participation changes in well-defined health outcomes should typically be a minimum evaluation requirement, and confidence in attributing causation of any positive changes to participation can be increased by use of interventions in the project and in the engagement process itself that have a credible theoretical and empirical basis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: scope creep; software engineering; software project management; work breakdown structure; agile method; traditional methodology; functional point analysis; stakeholders
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:20:06 CET)
Scope, time, and cost permanently effects each other and most of Information Technology projects fails due to these three factors. Scope shifting mostly occur due to time and cost. At project start, lack of understanding of project and product scope is focal involvement that leads to unsuccessful projects. Complete software scope definition determines quality of project. Defining the customer requirement and the definite scope of project has key role for implementation of project management. The complications originates when systems are developed from impractical expectations and misunderstanding requirements. These problems are cause of many changes, occurs in system development and leads to poor scope management. Scope creep is one of the momentous prompting parameter on the success of project. The failure in manage scope creep leads for 80 percent of software projects failure. However, using agile approach the impact of scope creep on projects become insignificant. A correctly distinct scope tends us to develop a quality product, within identified plans and decided cost to the stake-holders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0202.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: combine harvester; hybrid machine learning; ANFIS; response surface methodology (RSM); artificial intelligence in agriculture; radial basis function (RBF)
Online: 20 August 2019 (08:03:38 CEST)
Automated controlling the harvesting systems can significantly increase the efficiency of the agricultural practices and prevent food wastes. Modeling and improvement of the combine harvester can increase the overall performance. Machine learning methods provide the opportunity of advanced modeling for accurate prediction of the highest performance of the machine. In this study, the modeling of combine harvesting id performed using radial basis function (RBF) and the hybrid machine learning method of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict various variables of the combine harvester for the optimal performance. Response surface methodology (RSM) is also used to optimize the models. The comparative study shows that the ANFIS method outperforms the RBF method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Response Surface Methodology; Hybrid; Genetic Algorithm Artificial Neural Network; Concrete; Flexural Strength; Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete; Civil Engineering
Online: 15 March 2019 (09:54:22 CET)
The study presents a comparative approach between response surface methodology (RSM) and hybridized, genetic algorithm artificial neural network (GA-ANN) in predicting the water absorption, compressive strength, flexural strength split tensile strength and slump for steel fiber reinforced concrete. The effect of process variables such as aspect ratio, water cement ratio and cement content were investigated using the central composite design of response surface methodology. This same experimental design was used in training the hybrid-training approach of artificial neural network. The predicting ability of both methodologies were compared using the root mean sqaured error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), model predictive error (MPE) and absolute average deviation (AAD). The RSM model was found more accurate in prediction compared to hybrid GA-ANN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0556.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wave energy converter; model predictive control; comparitive of robustness; embedded integrator; mathematical model; identification methodology; real time series
Online: 28 September 2018 (08:21:41 CEST)
This work is located in a growing sector within the field of renewable energies, wave energy converters (WECs). Specifically, it focuses on one of the point absorbers wave (PAWs) of the hybrid platform W2POWER. With the aim of maximising the mechanical power extracted from the waves by these WECs and reduce their mechanical fatigue, the design of five different model predictive controllers (MPCs) with hard and soft constraints has been carried out. As contribution of this paper, two of the MPCs have been designed with the addition of an embedded integrator. In order to validate the MPCs, an exhaustive study on performance and robustness is realized through simulations carried out in which uncertainties in the WEC dynamics are considered. Furthermore, looking for realistic in these simulations, an identification methodology for PAWs is proposed and validated by means of real time series of a scale prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1482.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Dance Movement Therapy (DMT); extended reality (XR); AI/ML algorithms; data collection; Methodology; Alternative Mental Health Therapies; mental health
Online: 25 September 2023 (04:00:24 CEST)
Cyber diplomacy is critical in dealing with evolving cybersecurity dangers and possibilities in the digital era. This article investigates the impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), Blockchains, and Quantum Computing on cyber diplomacy. AI holds the potential for proactive threat identification and response, while IoT enables international information sharing. Blockchains enable secure data sharing and document verification, but they also pose new threats, such as AI-driven cyber-attacks, IoT privacy breaches, blockchain vulnerabilities, and the potential for quantum computing to break encryption. This article conducts case study reviews, in combination with secondary data analysis, and emphasises the value of international cooperation in developing global norms and frameworks to control responsible technology adoption. Cyber diplomacy can promote cybersecurity, protect national interests, and foster mutual trust among nations in the digital sphere by capitalising on possibilities and reducing threats.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: modeling; design; optimization; multiphase; minerals processing; computational fluid dynamic; flotation; leaching; response surface methodology; artificial intelligence; hydrocyclone; global sensitivity analysis
Online: 7 November 2019 (03:56:39 CET)
Multiphase systems are important in minerals processing, and usually include solid-solid and solid-fluid systems. Examples of operations in multiphase systems include flotation, dewatering, and magnetic separation, among several other unit operations. In this paper, the current trends in the process system engineering tasks of modeling, design, and optimization, in multiphase systems, are analyzed. Different scales of size and time are included, and therefore the analysis includes modeling at the molecular level and unit operation level, and the application of optimization for the design of a plant. New strategies for the modeling and optimization of multiphase systems are also included, with a strong focus on the application of artificial intelligence (AI) and the combination of experimentation and modeling with response surface methodology (RSM). The paper finishes with tools to study the uncertainty, both epistemic and stochastic, which is present in all mineral processing operations. It is shown that all these areas are very active and can help to understand, operate, design, and optimize mineral processing that involves multiphase systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: conceptual modeling; cyber-physical systems; cyber-physical gap; Object-Process Methodology; model-based systems engineering; Three Mile Island 2 Accident
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:59:29 CEST)
: The cyber-physical gap (CPG) is the difference between the 'real' state of the world and the way the system perceives it. This discrepancy often stems from the limitations of sensing and data collection technologies and capabilities, and is an inevitable issue in any cyber-physical system (CPS). Ignoring or misrepresenting such limitations during system modeling, specification, design, and analysis can potentially result in systemic misconceptions, disrupted functionality and performance, system failure, severe damage, and potential detrimental impacts on the system and its environment. We propose CPG-Aware Modeling & Engineering (CPGAME), a conceptual model-based approach for capturing, explaining, and mitigating the CPG, on top of and in sync with the conventional system model, and as an inherent systems engineering activity. This approach enhances the systems engineer’s ability to cope with CPGs, mitigate them by design, and prevent erroneous decisions, actions, and hazardous implications. CPGAME is a generic, conceptual approach, specified and demonstrated with Object Process Methodology (OPM). OPM is a holistic conceptual modeling paradigm for multidisciplinary, complex, dynamic systems, which is also ISO-19450. We analyze the 1979 Three Miles Island 2 nuclear accident as a prime example of the disastrous consequences of unmitigated CPGs in complex systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: application based active learning; active learning methodology; cooperative learning; DC/DC converter; DC motor; DC/AC converter engineering education; learner-centered teaching
Online: 18 November 2021 (18:18:33 CET)
This paper presents an Application Based Active Learning (ABAL) methodology on Power Electronics (PE) and Electric Machines (EM) as a hybrid laboratory course for the undergraduate students to design and implement the real-world engineering problems. The ABAL is a type of active learning which is a branch of Learner-centered teaching (LCT). The DC/DC converter along with the speed control of DC separately excites the motor. In addition, a DC/AC converter is designed to control the speed of an induction motor. The results are then investigated on a hardware platform under the ABAL experimental methodology. This paper also discusses the problem identification selection of the equipment, circuit design, hardware mounting and critical analysis of the results acquired from the hybrid laboratory. The ABAL methodology was evaluated based on student satisfaction, feedback, grades and interest to solve the real-world problem rather than cramming the engineering concepts and fulfill so-called lab routine and tasks