ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; metastasis; causal learning; machine learning
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:40:33 CET)
Background: Risk of metastatic recurrence of breast cancer after initial diagnosis and treatment depends on the presence of a number of risk factors. Although most univariate risk factors have been identified using classical methods, machine-learning methods are also being conducted to tease out non-obvious contributors to a patient’s individual risk of developing late distant metastasis. Bayesian-network algorithms may predict not only risk factors but also interactions among these risks, which consequently lead to metastatic breast cancer. We proposed to apply a previously developed machine-learning method to predict risk factors of 5-, 10- and 15-year metastasis. Methods: We applied a previously validated algorithm named the Markov Blanket and Interactive risk factor Learner (MBIL) on the electronic health record (EHR)-based Lynn Sage database (LSDB) from the Lynn Sage Comprehensive Breast Cancer at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. This algorithm provided an output of both single and interactive risk factors of 5-, 10-, and 15-year metastasis from LSDB. We individually examined and interpreted the clinical relevance of these interactions based on years to metastasis and the reliance on interactivity between risk factors. Results: We found that with lower alpha values (low interactivity score), the prevalence of variables with an independent influence on long term metastasis was higher (i.e., HER2, TNEG). As the value of alpha increased to 480, stronger interactions were needed to define clusters of factors that increased the risk of metastasis (i.e., ER, smoking, race, alcohol usage). Conclusion: MBIL identified single and interacting risk factors of metastatic breast cancer, many of which were supported by clinical evidence. These results strongly recommend the development of further large data studies with different databases to validate the degree to which some of these variables impact metastatic breast cancer in the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0382.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; targeted therapies; fibroblast growth factors receptors drugs
Online: 26 February 2020 (01:41:54 CET)
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent form of malignancy and the second only to lung cancer as common cause of cancer-causing deaths in women. Notwithstanding many progresses in the field, metastatic BC has a very poor prognosis. As therapies are becoming more personalized to meet patients‘ needs, a better knowledge of the molecular biology leading to the disease unfolds the possibility to project more precise compounds or antibodies targeting definite alteration at the molecular level expressed in cancer cells of patients or as antigens on the surface of cell membranes. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) is a druggable target -which is activated by its own ligands -namely the Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). This pathway provides a vast range of interesting molecular targets pursued at different levels of clinical investigation. Herein we provide an update on the knowledge on genetic alterations of the receptors in breast cancer, their role in tumorigenesis and the most recent drugs against this particular receptor to treat the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: biosymilars; metastatic breast cancer; trastuzumab; cost; her2; PTH
Online: 25 July 2022 (10:05:29 CEST)
Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpression can be found in 15-20% of breast cancers, and it strongly correlates with aggressive clinical behavior and adverse prognosis. The first-line treatment for HER-2 positive metastatic breast cancers is the combination of trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and taxane (PTH). ABP 980 is a biosimilar of the innovator trastuzumab and is characterized by highly comparable effectiveness. Methods: The group of 61 patients with HER-2 positive MBC received biosimilar ABP 980 plus pertuzumab and docetaxel from November, 18, 2018 to December, 24, 2019. The response to therapy, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), metastases, and adverse effects among patients were determined and analyzed. Results: Initially, 42 women responded partially to the treatment and their median PFS was 27 months. Median PFS for the whole group was 18 months. Cardiotoxicity of treatment was noticed in all patients in the form of the reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction but only in 2 cases, it was the reason for withdrawing from therapy. Conclusion: Biosimilar ABP 980 is registered in the same indications as the innovator trastuzumab and their effectiveness, as well as side effects, are comparable. The costs of biosimilar make the therapy more accessible and thus more patients with MBC around the world can receive relevant treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0287.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: prostate cancer; castrate resistance, non-metastatic CRPC, clinical trial, epithelial mesenchymal transition, STAT3
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:28:10 CEST)
Nearly one third of men will incur biochemical recurrence after treatment for localized prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the therapeutic mainstay, however almost all patients will eventually transition to a castrate resistant state (castrate resistant prostate cancer, CRPC). Subjects with CRPC generally develop symptomatic metastatic disease (mCRPC) and incur mortality several years later. Prior to metastatic disease, men acquire non-metastatic CRPC (nmCRPC) which lends the unique opportunity for intervention to delay disease progression and symptoms. This review addresses current therapies for nmCRPC, as well as novel therapeutics and pathway strategies targeting men with nmCRPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: lipoprotein; extracellular vesicles; exosome; ectosome; stress response; resistant cancer; metastatic cancer; heat shock stress
Online: 10 October 2018 (09:44:17 CEST)
Resistant cancer often shows a particular secretory trait such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and oncosomes surrounded by lipid bilayers. Lipoproteins are biochemical assemblies that transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in body fluid and are composed of a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, lipids molecules within the particles, and apolipoproteins embedded in the membrane. However, lipoprotein storage and secretion by cancer cells have not well-investigated yet. We found lipoproteins were stored and abundantly secreted by neuroendocrine, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NEPC / CRPC) cells but barely secreted by colon cancer cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In addition, large EVs (approx. 300 nm diameter) and potential oncosomes were released by CRPC and OSCC cells. Proteomics revealed that CRPC cells secreted EVs enriched with tetraspanins and extracellular matrices which were reduced upon heat shock stress and alternatively lipoproteins and HSPs were secreted upon stress. Heat shock stress triggered secretion of lipoprotein-EV complexes that contained apolipoprotein A, B, C and E. These data suggested that vesicular assembly composed of EVs and lipoproteins enriched with cholesterols and phospholipids may be stored in resistant cancer cells but released upon cell stress that is increased in cancer therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: laparoscopic; open surgery; non-metastatic colorectal cancer; single surgeon experience
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:25:43 CEST)
The oncologic merits of laparoscopic technique for colorectal cancer surgery remain debatable. Eligible patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer who were scheduled for an elective resection by only one surgeon in a medical institution were randomized to either laparoscopic or open treatment. During this period, total 188 patients received laparoscopic surgery and other 163 patients to open approach. The primary endpoint was cancer-free 5-year survival after operative treatment and secondary endpoint was the tumor recurrence incidence. We found there was no statistically significant difference between open and laparoscopic groups regarding average number of lymph nodes dissected, overall mortality rate, cancer recurrence rate or cancer-free 5-year survival. Nevertheless, laparoscopic approach was more effective for colorectal cancer treatment with shorter hospital stay and less blood loss despite operation time was significantly longer. Meanwhile fewer patients receiving laparoscopic approach developed postoperative urinary tract infection, wound infection, pneumonia or anastomosis leakage, which reached statistical significance. For non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients, laparoscopic surgery resulted in better short-term outcomes whether in total complications and intra-operative blood loss. Though there was no significant statistical difference in terms of cancer-free 5-year survival and tumor recurrence, we favor patients receiving laparoscopic surgery if not contraindicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma; cancer associated fibroblasts; Ki-67; spatial analysis; immunohistochemistry
Online: 26 May 2021 (10:53:24 CEST)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are highly prevalent cells in the tumor microenvironment in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). CAFs exhibit a pro-tumor effect in vitro and have been implicated in tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, and treatment resistance. Our objective is to analyze the geospatial distribution of CAFs with proliferating and apoptotic tumor cells in the ccRCC tumor microenvironment and determine associations with survival and systemic treatment. Pre-treatment primary tumor samples were collected from 96 patients with metastatic ccRCC. Three adjacent slices were obtained from 2 tumor-core regions of interest (ROI) per patient, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed for αSMA, Ki-67, and caspase-3 to detect CAFs, proliferating cells, and apoptotic cells, respectively. H-scores and cellular density were generated for each marker. ROIs were aligned, and spatial point-patterns were generated, which were then used to perform spatial analyses using a normalized Ripley's K function at a radius of 25μm (nK(25)). The survival analyses used an optimal cut-point method, maximizing the log-rank statistic, to stratify the IHC-derived metrics into high and low groups, and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed accounting for age and International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) risk category. Survival outcomes included overall survival (OS) from the date of diagnosis, OS from the date of immunotherapy initiation (OS-IT), and OS from the date of targeted therapy initiation (OS-TT). Therapy resistance was defined as progression-free survival (PFS) <6 months, and therapy response was defined as PFS >9 months. CAFs exhibited higher cellular clustering with Ki-67+ cells than with caspase-3+ cells (nK(25): Ki-67 1.19; caspase-3 1.05; P = .04). The median nearest neighbor (NN) distance from CAFs to Ki-67+ cells was shorter compared to caspase-3+ cells (15 μm vs 37μm, respectively; P < .001). Multivariable Cox regression analyses demonstrated that both high Ki-67+ density and H-score were associated with worse OS, OS-IT, and OS-TT. Regarding CAFs, only a high H-score was associated with worse OS, OS-IT, and OS-TT. For caspase-3+, high H-score and density were associated with worse OS and OS-TT. Patients whose tumors were resistant to targeted therapy (TT) had higher Ki-67 density and H-scores than those who had TT response. Overall, this ex vivo geospatial analysis of CAF distribution suggests that close proximity clustering of tumor cells and CAFs potentiates tumor cell proliferation, resulting in worse OS and resistance to TT in metastatic ccRCC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; immunotherapy; focal therapy; combination immunotherapy; tumor immune microenvironment; in vivo vaccination
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:01:20 CEST)
Due to slow progression and susceptibility to radical forms of treatment low-grade PC is associ-ated with high overall survival (OS). With the clinical progression of PC the therapy is getting more complex. The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) makes PC a difficult target for most immunotherapeutics. Its general immune resistance is established by i.e. immune evasion through Treg cells, synthesis of immunosuppressive mediators, and defective expression of surface neoantigens. The success of sipuleucel-T in clinical trials initiated several other clinical studies that specifically target the immune escape of the tumor and eliminate the immunosuppres-sive properties of TME. In the settings of PC treatment, this can be commonly achieved with radi-ation therapy (RT). Also, focal therapies usually applied for localized PC, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), or irreversible electroporation (IRE) were shown to boost anti-cancer response. Nevertheless, the present guide-lines restrict their application to localized and low-grade PC. This review explains how RT and focal therapies enhance the immune response. We also provide data supporting the combination of RT and focal treatments with immune therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0582.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Liquid-based 3D culture; tumoroid; cisplatin resistance; imatinib (gleevec); tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI); organoid; spheroid; metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)
Online: 23 December 2020 (10:15:46 CET)
Researchers have developed and used several three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, including spheroids, organoids, and tumoroids. Drug resistance is a crucial issue involving recurrence in cancer patients. Many studies on anticancer drugs have been done in 2D culture systems, where-as 3D cultured tumoroids have many advantages for assessing drug sensitivity and resistance. Here, we aim to investigate whether Cisplatin (a DNA crosslinker), Imatinib (a multiple tyro-sine kinase inhibitor), and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU: an antimetabolite) alter tumoroid growth of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). To establish a liquid-based 3D multiplexing reporter assay system, LuM1 (a murine mCRC cell line) was stably transfected with the Mmp9 promoter-driven ZsGreen reporter gene, which was designated as LuM1/m9 cells and cultured in NanoCulture Plate (NCP), a 3D culture device. The larger tumoroids were not sensitive to Cisplatin and ex-pressed ABCG2 (a marker of cancer stem cells, a.k.a. a drug efflux transporter), whereas smaller cell-aggregates were more sensitive to Cisplatin. Both Imatinib and Cisplatin significantly in-creased tumoroid growth (larger than 300 μm2) and Mmp9 promoter activity and were not cytotoxic to the mCRC tumoroids. On the other hand, 5-FU was cytotoxic to the tumoroids and significantly inhibited tumoroid growth, although not completely. Thus, platinum resistance and imatinib resistance in mCRC were modeled using the liquid-based 3D cultured tumoroid system. The tumoroid culture is useful and easily accessible for the assessment of drug sensitivity and resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; taxanes; eribulin; observational study
Online: 26 September 2016 (11:39:32 CEST)
Taxanes have been shown to be the most effective treatment for recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. However, for patients pretreated with taxanes, more active and possibly less toxic drugs are needed. In this retrospective study, we investigated on the effectiveness and safety of eribulin mesylate in 91 taxane-refractory subjects, extracted from the ESEMPIO database, which included 497 metastatic breast cancer patients treated with eribulin allover the Italy. This analysis included only those patients who have shown disease progression while receiving taxane therapy (primary refractory), or those who achieved a response followed by progression while still on therapy (taxane failure). Overall, 41/91 patients (45.2%) showed a clinical benefit; 1 complete response (2.2%) and 16 partial responses (17.6%) were observed. The median progression free survival was 3.1 months (95% CI: 2.8–3.5) and the median overall survival was 11.6 months (95% CI: 8.7–16.7). With regard to toxicity, 53 patients (58%) experienced asthenia/fatigue, 23 (25%) showed peripheral neurotoxicity, 18 (20%) alopecia, 12 (13%) mild constipation and 27 (30%) neutropenia. The toxicity related to the treatment led to eribulin dose reduction in 19 (21%) and discontinuation in 9 (10%) patients, respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests that eribulin is effective and well tolerated also in taxane-refractory patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: deep learning; DNN; machine learning; breast cancer; metastasis, metastatic breast cancer, distant recurrence of breast cancer metastasis; prediction; clinical; EHR
Online: 29 June 2022 (04:06:16 CEST)
ABSTRACT Background It is important to be able to predict, for each individual patient, the likelihood of later metastatic occurrence, because the prediction can guide treatment plans tailored to a specific patient to prevent metastasis and to help avoid under- or over-treatment. Deep Neural Network (DNN) learning, commonly referred to as deep learning, has become popular due to its success in image detection and prediction, but questions such as whether deep learning outperforms other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data remain unanswered. Grid search has been introduced to deep learning hyperparameter tunning for the purpose of improving its prediction performance, but the effect of grid search on other machine learning methods are under-studied. In this research, we take the empirical approach to study the performance of deep learning and other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data to predict the occurrence of breast cancer metastasis (BCM) 5, 10, or 15-years after the initial treatment. We developed DNN models as well as models using 9 other machine learning methods including Naive Bayes (NB), Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), LASSO, Decision Tree (DT), k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Random Forrest (RF), AdaBoost (ADB), and XGBoost (XGB). We used grid search to tune hyperparameters for all methods. We then compared the deep learning models to the models trained using the 9 other machine learning methods. Results Based on the mean test AUC results, DNN ranks 6th, 4th, and 3rd when predicting 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year BCM respectively, out of 10 machine learning methods. The top performing methods in predicting 5-year BCM are XGB(1st), RF(2nd), and KNN(3rd). For predicting 10-year BCM the top performers are XGB (1st), RF(2nd), and NB(3rd) . Finally, for 15-year BCM the top performers are SVM (1st), LR and LASSO (tied for 2nd), and DNN (3rd). The ensemble methods RF and XGB outperform other methods when data are less balanced, while SVM, LR, LASSO, and DNN outperform other methods when data are more balanced. Our statistical testing results show that at a significance level of 0.05 DNN overall performs no worse than other machine learning methods when predicting 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year BCM. Conclusions Our results show that deep learning with grid search overall performs at least as well as other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data. It is interesting to note that some of the other machine learning methods such as XGB, RF, and SVM are very strong competitors of DNN when incorporating grid search. It is also worth noting that the computation time required to do grid search with DNN is way more than that required to do grid search with the other 9 machine learning methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic renal cell carcinoma; immune-based combination therapies; network meta-analysis
Online: 22 May 2020 (11:35:36 CEST)
Background: Three drug-combinations, ipilimumab-nivolumab (Ipi-Nivo), pembrolizumab-axitinib (Pembro-Axi) and avelumab-axitinib (Ave-Axi), have received regulatory approvals in USA and Europe for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma with clear cell component (mRCC). However, no head-to-head comparison data are available to identify the best option. Therefore, we aimed to compare these new treatments in the first-line setting. Methods: We conducted a systematic search in Pubmed, the Cochrane library and clinicaltri-al.gov website from January 2015 to October 2019, for any randomized controlled trials of treatment-naïve patients with mRCC. The process was performed according to PRISMA guide-lines. We performed a Bayesian network meta-analysis with two different approaches. The out-comes for analysis were overall survival, progression-free survival, and objective response rate. Results: Our search identified 3 published phase 3 randomized clinical trials (2835 patients). In the contrast-based model, Ave-Axi (SUCRA: 83%) and Pembro-Axi (SUCRA: 80%) exhibited the best ranking probabilities for PFS. For OS, Pembro-Axi (SUCRA: 96%) was the most pref-erable option against Ave-Axi and Ipi-Nivo. Objective response rate analysis showed Ave-Axi as the best (SUCRA= 94%) and Pembro-Axi as second best option. In the parametric models, risk of progression was comparable for Ave-Axi and Ipi-Nivo, whereas Pembro-Axi exhibited a lower risk during the first 6 months of treatment and a higher risk afterward. Furthermore, Pembro-Axi exhibited a net advantage in terms of OS over the two other regimens, while Ave-Axi was the least preferable option. Conclusions: Overall evidences suggested pembrolizumab plus axitinib may be the best option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic melanoma; targeted therapy; immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy; survival; statutory health insurance data
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:50:07 CET)
(1) Background: Targeted (TT) and immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies have become available in the routine care of metastatic melanoma in recent years. (2) Objective: We compared mortality in patients with metastatic melanoma and different systemic therapies. (3) Methods: A retrospective cohort study, based on pseudonymized health insurance data of about 2 million individuals from Saxony, Germany, was conducted for the years 2010 to 2020. Only patients with an advanced stage, i.e. distant metastases were considered for the main analysis. Relative survival since metastasis and predicted survivor curves derived from a Cox model were used to assess potential differences in mortality. (4) Results: Relative survival was highest in the subgroup with sequential use of ICI and TT. All treatments except interferon had significant hazard ratios (HR) in the Cox model with time-dependent effects indicating a protective effect after treatment initiation (HR 0.01-0.146) but decreasing over time (HR 1.351-2.310). The predicted survivor curves revealed best survival under ICI-TT treatment and worst survival under TT treatment alone. (5) Conclusions: We found real-world evidence for survival benefits of patients with metastatic melanoma who received sequential ICI and TT treatment. It is conceivable that the observed high survival differences were overestimated due to bias, such as confounding by indication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Oroxylum indicum; Oroxyquinone; Traditional medicine; Bioassay Guided Fractionation; caspase-independent apoptosis; anti-metastatic
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:55:57 CET)
Leaf crude extract (aqueous) of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz induces genomic DNA fragmentation, comet formation, and inhibition of cell proliferation in prostate cancer cell line, PC3 as assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis, comet assay, and MTT assay respectively. The bioactive compound was purified through bioassay-guided fractionation using preparative HPLC and MTT as-say. The brown and water-soluble compound was characterized using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, and the compound was iden-tified as a glycosylated hydroquinone derivative, 2-[p-(2-Carboxyhydrazino)phenoxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahy-dro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol (molecular formula, C13H18N2O8; molecular mass = 330). The identified phytocompound has not been reported earlier elsewhere. Therefore, the common name of the novel anticancer phytocompound isolated from oroxylum indicum in this current study is named as oroxyquinone. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of oroxyquinone on PC3 cells was 19.44 µg/ml (95% CI = 17.97 to 21.04). Oroxyquinone induced cell cycle arrest at S phases and inhibition of cell migration on PC3 as assessed by flow cytome-try and wound healing assay respectively. On investigating the molecular mechanism of inducing apoptosis, the results indicated that the oroxyquinone induced apoptosis through the p38 pathway and cell cycle arrest, however, not through caspase-3 and PARP pathways. The present study identifies a novel an-ticancer molecule and provides scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic potency of OI for ethnomedicinal uses.