CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: suicide; suicidal mental imagery; flash-forwards; intrusions; preventive intervention; eye movement dual task (EMDT)
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:59:53 CEST)
Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns and affect 3-9% of the population worldwide. Despite growing evidence, there are still few effective interventions available to reduce suicide risk. In this article, we describe theoretical models of suicide ideation and behavior and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards) is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change. We provide a brief rationale for an Eye Movement Dual Task (EMDT) treatment for suicidal intrusions describing techniques that can be used to target these suicidal mental images and thoughts to reduce overall behavior. Based on the available empirical evidence for the mechanisms of suicidal intrusions, this approach appears to be a promising new treatment to prevent suicidal behavior as it potentially targets one of the linking pins between suicidal ideation and suicidal actions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0324.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Action Cycle Theory; perception; mental imagery; vividness; VVIQ; affect; schemata; action; individual differences; neuroscience
Online: 17 November 2022 (03:36:09 CET)
The Action Control Theory (ACT) is an enactive theory of perception and mental imagery with six components: Schemata, Objects, Actions, Affect, Goals and Others’ Behavior. The evidence support-ing these six connected processes is reviewed in light of research on mental imagery vividness. The six processes and their interconnections receive empirical support from a wide range of studies. All six domains of perception and mental imagery are influenced by individual differences in vividness. Real-world applications of ACT show interesting potential to improve human well-being in both healthy people and patients. Mental imagery can be applied in creative ways to make new collective goals and actions for change that are necessary to maximize the future prospects of the planet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1637.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: visual compensation; tactile deficit; perceived diagnosticity; mental imagery; consumer purchase intention
Online: 27 November 2023 (04:13:43 CET)
The lack of tactile experience is a significant flaw in online product evaluation and purchase, but visual information can be utilized to compensate for tactile deficits. In this study, we constructed a mechanistic model of the role of tactile perceived diagnosticity on consumer purchase intention based on visual compensation based on mental imagery theory, innovativeness theory, and personal goals framework. We collected data from consumers (n=406) in the Chinese market and tested the research hypotheses using structural equation modeling. The findings suggest that visually compensated tactile perceptual diagnosticity promotes mental imagery and sensory similarity, which in turn affects purchase intention. Theoretically, this study enriches current explanations of online haptics by explaining the mechanisms by which haptic demonstration videos influence consumers' haptic evaluations and behavioral responses, as well as the moderating role of personal goals therein; practically offers advice for retailers seeking to build or expand their tactile marketing strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: vividness; mental imagery; consciousness; cognitive neuroscience; neuroimaging; cognitive psychology; behavior; verbal report; phenomenology; perception
Online: 19 April 2019 (12:26:25 CEST)
Organisms are adapted to each other and the environment, not as tradition would have it, because natural selection made them that way, but because there is inbuilt striving towards stability and equilibrium. A General Theory of Behaviour connects imagery, affect and action with the central executive system we call Consciousness. The General Theory is founded on the assumption that the primary motivation of all of Consciousness and intentional behaviour is Psychological Homeostasis. Psychological homeostasis is as important to the organisation of mind and behaviour as Physiological Homeostasis is to the organisation of bodily systems. Consciousness processes quasi-perceptual images independently of the input to the retina and sensorium. Consciousness is the “I-Am” control centre for integration and regulation of (my) thoughts, (my) feelings and (my) actions with (my) conscious mental imagery as foundation stones. Imagery vividness, a combination of clarity and liveliness, is essential to imagining, remembering, thinking, predicting, planning and acting. Assessment of vividness using introspective report is validated by objective means such as fMRI. A significant body of work shows that vividness of visual imagery is determined by the similarity of neural responses in imagery to those occurring in perception of actual objects and performance of activities. I am Conscious, therefore I am.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: neuropsin; KLK8; mental disorders; mental health
Online: 24 December 2019 (08:53:38 CET)
Neuropsin is a brain-expressed extracellular matrix serine protease that governs synaptic plasticity through activity-induced proteolytic cleavage of synaptic proteins. Its substrates comprise several molecules central to structural synaptic plasticity, and studies in rodents have documented its role in cognition and the behavioral and neurobiological response to stress. Intriguingly, differential usage of KLK8 (neuropsin gene) splice forms in the fetal and adult brain has only been reported in humans, suggesting that neuropsin may serve a specialized role in human neurodevelopment. Through systematic interrogation of large-scale genetic data, we review KLK8 regulation in the context of mental health and provide a summary of clinical and preclinical evidence supporting a role for neuropsin in the pathogenesis of mental illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0630.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Attitude; Community; Knowledge; Mental health; Mental illness
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:59:46 CET)
Knowledge and attitude towards mental illness play major role in the recognition, management, sociocultural factors and health seeking behavior among those with mental disorders. The study aim was to determine the knowledge and attitude among Nyamagana community members towards mental illness, Tanzania; A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study involving 384 participants from sample population aged 18 years and above who were mentally health and semi-structured questionnaires was used to collect data. The results 110 (28.8%) respondents have good knowledge toward mental illness, about 292(76%) have negative attitude towards mentally ill people, 92(24%) respondents have positive attitude toward people who are mentally ill. More over about 318 (82.9%) respondents agreed that care and support of family and friends, could help people with mental illness to get rehabilitation while 66(17.1%) respondents disagreed on the care and support of the family and friends could help mentally ill people to get rehabilitation; The findings show most have poor knowledge and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness and may impair their social reintegration in the community. There’s need to develop strategies to enlighten the public regarding nature of mental illness so as to foster acceptance of people with mental illness by the community members.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: craniofacial; laboratory animal; mental foramen; mental nerve; polecat
Online: 3 June 2022 (11:18:03 CEST)
In order to analyse asymmetries between hemimandibles, a sample of 24 mandibles from ferrets was studied by means of geometric morphometric methods, using a set of 3 landmarks and 14 semilandmarks, on the lateral aspect. Results showed that both size and shape played a significative role in mandibular asymmetry. For shape, there appeared significative fluctuating and directional asymmetries, with an especially high level for this latter. Landmarks corresponding to muscular attachments showed greater landmark asymmetry. This it is supported the hypothesis of a chewing side preference, e.g., a mastication-related driver for mandibular shape asymmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Search engine; Baidu Index; Children's Mental Health; Mental Health
Online: 31 March 2022 (07:08:56 CEST)
This study aims to understand the temporal and spatial characteristics of public concern for "children's mental health" in China in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic. Baidu Index is a research tool to collect and analyze massive data of Chinese netizens' behaviors. Using Baidu Index as the research tool, this paper analyzes the trend and distribution of Chinese netizens' attention to "children's mental health" from December 1st, 2019 to March 20th, 2022 from three aspects of trend research, need map, and crowd portrait. The study found that since the outbreak of COVID-19, the search trend of "children's mental health" has shown a cyclical change, peak in May and valley around the Spring Festival and National Day, and stable in other periods. "Mental health", "handwritten newspaper on mental health" and "youth mental health" are the most popular buzzwords among the public. The groups concerned of "children's mental health" is mainly distributed in Guangdong, Jiangsu, Beijing, and the majority are women between 30 and 39 years old. Meanwhile, search trend for "mental health" are like that for "children's mental health." The factors influencing the search volume change of "children's mental health" include Chinese traditional holidays, Spring Festival, National Day, Chinese Mental Health Day, and policies and instructions on children's mental health issued by the PRC Ministry of Education. The public would like to know about "mental health", "handwritten newspaper on mental health" and "adolescent mental health".
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0721.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: perinatal; mental health; perinatal mental health program; South Africa
Online: 30 October 2018 (09:28:12 CET)
Background. Perinatal depression is one of the leading causes of disability in perinatal women and is highly prevalent in disadvantaged communities in LMICs. However, care capacity remains low in most LMICs. As such, we decided to find and assess a screening program that addresses perinatal mental health problems in a resource-efficient manner. This leads us to a critically appraisal of the Perinatal Mental Health Project (PMHP), a screening program based in peri-urban Western Cape Town that stresses task sharing and stepped care intervention. Method. PubMed, Ovid Medline (1946 to 2018), and Google Scholar were searched for publications until March 2018, with data or evaluation of the PMHP. PMHP website publications were used for data and interpretation. The program’s viability was evaluated based on criteria published by UK National Screening Council. The program’s impact was analyzed using published patient outcome data. Access to care was evaluated at three barriers to accessing care proposed by Gjerdingen et al. (2007). The financial model was evaluated using the “four-pillars” of sustainable organization financial management proposed by León (2001). Findings. The PMHP’s screening program viability satisfies most criteria of the UK National Screening Council, and the program’s benefits outweigh its harms. Patient self-reports indicate successful impact with several highlights in accessibility. The program also demonstrates financial sustainability and potential for scaling-up. Interpretations. The operation model of the PMHP shows satisfactory viability and sustainability. With modifications fitting local context and government cooperation, this model offers promising potential in bringing public health and economic benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; mental health literacy; psychological vulnerability; health promotion; adult
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:40:28 CET)
Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a Saúde Mental Positiva (SPM) e a sua relação com características sociodemográficas, literacia em saúde mental e escala de vulnerabilidade psicológica (PVS) em estudantes universitários portugueses com idades compreendidas entre os 17 e os 62 anos. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo-correlacional. Uma pesquisa online foi realizada para avaliar variáveis demográficas, e vários questionários foram aplicados para avaliar saúde mental positiva, vulnerabilidade psicológica e alfabetização em saúde mental. Os dados foram coletados de 1º de novembro de 2019 a 1º de setembro de 2020. No geral, 3.405 alunos participaram do estudo. Os resultados mostram que 67,8% dos alunos revelaram um alto nível de PMH, 31,6% apresentaram um nível médio de PMH e 0,6% apresentaram um nível baixo de PMH. Os estudantes do sexo masculino relataram maior satisfação pessoal (t (3170) = -2,39, p=0,017) e autonomia (t (3170) = -3,33, p=0,001), no PMH em relação ao sexo feminino. Alunos sem bolsa pontuaram mais alto (t (3.127) = -2,04, p=0,42) no PMH do que alunos com bolsa. Estudantes que não foram deslocados de casa relataram maior (t (3170) = -1,99, p=0,047) Autocontrole em PMH do que aqueles deslocados de sua casa. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0007.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: mental health; natural language processing; interdisciplinary research; mental health helpline
Online: 1 February 2022 (12:03:47 CET)
During the last two years the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world population in several ways. An important increase in mental health problems is a consequence of this pandemic that is ubiquitous worldwide. In this work we study the effect of the pandemic on the mental health of a population of teenagers and youth based on the analysis of natural language processing, machine learning algorithms and expert knowledge. The data analysed was obtained from a chat helpline called Safe time from theIt Get’s Better Foundation in Chile. The data consists of 10,986 conversations gathered from 2018 until 2020 between volunteers from the foundation and users of the platform. We compared the conversationsbefore and during the pandemic in terms of their thematic content. Our analysis found: a significantdecrease in self-image appreciation during the pandemic; a significant decrease in the quality of personalrelationships during the pandemic, and a significant increase of performance appreciation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Menstruation; menstrual health; menstrual hygiene; period poverty; mental health; mental disorder
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:51:34 CEST)
Context: Mental and menstrual health, two emerging aspects of health critical to the female population, are bidirectionally linked. But there is limited empirical evidence that establishes the association between these entities. This essay aims to draw the attention of researchers to this healthcare niche. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review was carried out on literatures sourced from medical databases (e.g. PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science), and gray sources—popular and reputable institutional and journalistic websites that publishes mental or menstrual health research. The key words used for the search are “Menstruation, menstrual hygiene, menstrual disorders, premenstrual syndrome, period poverty, menarche, menopause, mental health, mental disorder, mental illness, depression, anxiety, phobia, mania, mood, and affect”. The initial search generated 368 results. But after the duplicates were removed, the exclusion criteria (publication before 2000) was applied, and manual review of abstract (for relevance) was done, 21 publications from the databases and 5 from gray sources were included in this essay. Results: Associations were found between menstrual cycle irregularities and disorders; and mental disorders such as premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, major depressive disorder, major anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, sleep disorder, substance use/abuse, and suicidal ideation and attempts.Few positive associations between mental and menstrual health were recorded, and several research and treatment gaps were identified. Conclusion: Research into the links between mental and menstrual health should not remain a fringe area of scientific curiosity, as it shows tremendous promise in improving healthcare offered to women/girls globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health assessment; vitality; mental activity; voice index; emotion analysis; noninvasiveness
Online: 11 August 2020 (05:33:57 CEST)
In many developed countries, mental health disorders have become problematic, and the economic loss due to treatment costs and interference with work is immeasurable. Therefore, we developed a method to assess individuals’ mental health using emotional components contained in their voice. We propose two indices of mental health: vitality, a short-term index, and mental activity, a long-term index capturing the trends in vitality. To evaluate our method, we used the voices of healthy individuals (n = 14) and patients with major depression (n = 30). The patients were also assessed by specialists using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). A significant negative correlation existed between the vitality extracted from the voices and HAM-D scores (r = -0.33, p < .05). We could discriminate the voice data of healthy individuals and patients having depression with a high accuracy using the vitality (p = .0085, area under the curve = 0.76). Further, we developed a method to estimate stress through emotion instead of analyzing stress directly from voice data. By daily monitoring of vitality using smartphones, we can encourage hospital visits for people before they become depressed or during the early stages of depression, to prevent adverse consequences of depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0276.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: mental health; governance; India
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:16:48 CEST)
Introduction: Governance, the least studied health system component, comprises a system of rules and processes, and is a key determinant for effective decision making for health care planning. This study aims to identify institutional, legal and policy factors which are either barriers or facilitators for the implementation of integrated mental health in primary care in the India. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 key informants at the district and national levels with policy makers, state level health care planners and district planners and managers in India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis using the qualitative software NViVO 10. Findings: Participants stated that a conducive environment for mental health service delivery is necessary at the legislative, policy and planning levels, to facilitate integration of mental health into primary care. Amongst other factors, the need for active involvement of civil society and service user organisations, strengthening mental health information systems, and building the non-technical skills of the mental health workforce, were identified as particularly necessary to deliver adequate mental health services.Conclusion: Amidst the favourable policy context supporting collaborative and integrated care in India, this study identified low resourcing, weak collaborations and inadequate information to be crucial for integrated mental health in India at present.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: anxiety; COVID-19; depression; mental health; mental health nurses; nurses; Portugal; stress
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:05:05 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to mental health problems worldwide. Nurses are particularly prone to stress because they directly care for individuals with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to explore the association between the mental health promotion strategies used by nurses during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak and their symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, and to compare the strategies and symptoms of mental health nurses and non-mental health nurses. Cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 821 nurses. Portuguese nurses demonstrated high symptoms of depressive symptoms, stress, and anxiety. Healthy eating, physical activity, rest between shifts, maintaining social contacts, verbalizing feelings/emotions, and spending less time searching for information about COVID-19 are associated with better mental health. Mental health nurses have less depression, anxiety, and stress, and use more strategies to promote mental health than other nurses. We consider it important to promote nurses’ mental health literacy by encouraging them to develop skills and strategies aimed at improving their resilience and ability to deal with difficult situations while caring for the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0528.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Speech Imagery; Mental Task; Machine Leaning; Feature Extraction; Common spatial pattern (CSP); Filter bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP); Brain – Computer Interface (BCI); Principal Components Analysis (PCA); Feature Selection; Channel Selection; Mutual Information; Lagrange Formula; Deep Learning; SVM Classifier
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:23:13 CEST)
Nowadays, brain signal processing is performed rapidly in various brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Most researchers focus on developing new methods for the future or improving the basic implemented models to identify the optimum standalone feature set. Our research focuses on four ideas. One of them introduces future communication models, and the others are for improving old models or methods. These are: 1) new communication imagery model instead of speech imager using the mental task: Due to speech imagery is very difficult, and it is impossible to imagine sound for all of the characters in all of the languages. Our research introduces a new mental task model for all languages that call Lip-sync imagery. This model can use for all characters in all languages. This paper implemented two lip-sync for two sounds, characters or letters. 2) New combination Signals: Selecting an inopportune frequency domain can lead to inefficient feature extraction. Therefore, domain selection is so important for processing. This combination of limited frequency ranges proposes a preliminary for creating Fragmentary Continuous frequency. For the first model, two s intervals of 4 Hz as filter banks were examined and tested. The primary purpose is to identify the combination of filter banks with 4Hz (scale of each filter bank) from the 4Hz to 40Hz frequency domain as new combination signals (8Hz) to obtain well and efficient features using increasing distinctive patterns and decreasing similar patterns of brain activities.3) new supplement bond graph classifier for SVM classifier: When SVM linear uses in very noisy, the performance is decreased. But we introduce a new bond graph linear classifier to supplement SVM linear in noisy data. 4) a deep formula recognition model: it converts the data of the first layer into a formula model (formula extraction model). The main goal is to reduce the noise in the subsequent layers for the coefficients of the formulas. The output of the last layer is the coefficients selected by different functions in different layers. Finally, the classifier extracts the root interval of the formulas, and the diagnosis does based on the root interval. For all of the ideas achieved the results of implementing methods. The results are between 55% to 98%. Less result is 55% for the deep detection formula, and the highest result is 98% for new combination signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1163.v1
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:20:40 CET)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) exert significant burdens on individuals and society, underscoring the importance of accurate predictions using advanced machine learning (ML) algorithms. Leveraging electronic health records (EHRs) and survey data, these algorithms offer potential in forecasting such mental health conditions. Yet, the precision of these predictions can be compromised by biases or inaccuracies inherent in subjective survey responses. In this research, we assess the reliability of four prominent ML algorithms—Random Forest, XGBoost, Logistic Regression, and Naïve Bayesian—in predicting MDD and GAD. Our dataset encompasses a rich array of information, from biomedical metrics and demographic details to self-reported survey insights. A focal point of our investigation is the algorithms' performance under scenarios with varying degrees of subjective response inaccuracies, such as memory recall biases or subjective interpretation. Our findings reveal that while all algorithms exhibit commendable accuracy with pristine survey data, their performance diverges when faced with erroneous or biased responses. Notably, XGBoost remains stable and excels in identifying true positive cases, even in the presence of such noise. These observations underscore the criticality of algorithmic resilience in mental health prediction, especially when relying on subjective data. The robustness of certain algorithms to noisy inputs positions them as more reliable choices for predicting mental health conditions based on self-reported data, emphasizing the need for careful algorithm selection in such contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0165.v1
Online: 4 October 2023 (07:50:27 CEST)
Background As a major virus outbreak in the 21st century, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented hazards to mental health globally. Health care workers, patients with COVID-19 are experiencing post-traumatic stress disorders, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire consisted of four parts: sociodemographic, current and previous health status, measures in a social isolation, and the Arabic version of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: We had 110 patients who completed the data. 89 (80.9%) of patients recovered from COVID-19. They ranged from 18-84 with a mean of 37.6 years (SD = 9.8 years). We had 33.6% of patients re-ported moderate to extremely severe depression compared to 18.2% with mild reported symptoms. The anxiety severity showed that (35.4%) out of patients had moderate to extremely severe anxiety, compared to (6.4%) who had mild anxiety. While stress severity showed that (22.7%) had moderate to extremely severe stress compared to (13.6%) who had mild stress. Conclusion: COVID-19 has caused a significant increase in the prevalence of mental health illness in the general population. Large systematic reviews are required to set the general overall of impact of this pandemic on mental health.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; adolescents; behavioral activation
Online: 20 July 2022 (11:48:51 CEST)
Depression continues to be a glaring global challenge. The most worrisome trend is eating up the youthful generation more than anyone could predict years back. As Addis & Martell (2004) note, these adolescents end up succumbing to conditions that can be traced wholly from depression. Behavioral activation can be a rewarding intervention that will go a long way in cutting down on these cases and ensure the youthful global population's lives are safeguarded if applied and monitored to ensure correct and collective implementation processes and systems. The insights and arguments presented in the research paper will focus on the utility of behavioral activation in reducing depression cases among adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0273.v1
Online: 17 March 2020 (09:10:04 CET)
Chinese-speaking parents are argued to use less cognitive mental-state-talk than their English-speaking counterparts due to their goals in socializing their children to follow an interdependence script. To extend this research, we investigated bilingual Mandarin-English Singaporean mothers who associate different functions for each language as prescribed by their government: English for school and Mandarin for in-group contexts. English and Mandarin maternal mental-state-talk from bilingual Mandarin-English mothers with their toddlers was examined. Mothers produced more cognitive terms in English than in Mandarin and more desire terms in Mandarin than in English. We show that mental-state-talk differs between bilingual parents’ languages, suggesting that mothers adjust their mental-state-talk to reflect each language’s function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0229.v1
Online: 22 April 2019 (10:29:32 CEST)
The goal of the project was to gain an understanding of the secondary school youth experience with food literacy and school gardens on their mental well-being. Over the course of five months, sixteen youth participated in a photovoice research project in which they expressed their personal experiences about food and gardening through photography and writing. The aspects of secondary school youths’ life experiences affected by exposure to food literacy and school gardens and their impact upon their well-being were identified. These included emotions and feelings, having a safe place, nutrition and relaxation. The youth explicitly connected relaxation with the themes of love and connectedness, growing food, garden as a place, cooking, and food choices. This was linked to nature, beauty, environment and sustainability. Youth clubs or groups were also identified as a key enabler for connection. Youth shared their food literacy experiences, observing that their engagement improved some aspect of their mental well-being. They identified food literacy and gardens as being the most important to mental well-being including: connecting, personal health and personal growth. The youth recognized that connecting comes from having community, relationships and respect. Fostering opportunities for food literacy such as growing and preparing food contributes to resiliency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychopharmacology; mental health; addiction; biopsychology
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:51:06 CET)
This study investigated the psychosocial factors influencing substance abuse among undergraduates. The study was conducted in Ekiti State university Ado Ekiti. 150 participants who are undergraduates of the university were used in this research. They consist of 82 males and 68 females selected from all faculties in the institution. 3 questionnaires were administered to respondent to measure the factors influencing substance abuse and the level at which they are abused. Independent T-test, multiple regression and Pearson Correlation method were used to analyze the data collected. Five hypotheses were tested: hypothesis 1, 2, 3 and 4 were significant while hypothesis 5 was insignificant. It was observed that there was significant influence of religiosity on substance abuse among undergraduates, the result also revealed that there was a significant influence of self-esteem on substance abuse among undergraduates, it also revealed that religiosity and self-esteem jointly predicted substance abuse among undergraduates, likewise the result also show that there was significant influence of sex on substance abuse among undergraduates and finally the result revealed there was no significant relationship between religiosity and self-esteem among undergraduates. The results were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusion and recommendations subsequently followed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: refugee mental health; gender and mental health; Afghan; resettlement stressors; dissonant acculturation; gender ideology
Online: 28 December 2016 (11:04:54 CET)
Recent studies have emphasized the influence of resettlement factors on the mental health of refugees resettling in developed countries. However, little research has addressed gender differences in the nature and influence of resettlement stressors and sources of resilience. We address this gap in knowledge by investigating how gender moderates and mediates the influence of several sources of distress and resilience among 259 Afghan refugees residing in northern California. Gender moderated the effects of four factors on levels of distress. Intimate and extended family ties have little correlation with men’s distress levels, but are strongly associated with lower distress for women. English ability is positively associated with lower distress for women, but not men. In terms of gender ideology, traditionally oriented women and egalitarian men have lower levels of distress. And experiencing greater dissonant acculturation increases distress for men, but not women. The influence of gender interaction terms is substantial and patterns may reflect difficulty adapting to a different gender order. Future studies of similar populations should investigate gender differences in sources of distress and resilience, and efforts to assist new arrivals might inform them of changes in gender roles they may experience, and facilitate opportunities to renegotiate gender roles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Internalizing Mental Health Problems; Externalizing Mental Health Problems Adolescence; Educational setting; Violence prevention; Gender issues
Online: 22 September 2023 (13:15:23 CEST)
Background/aim: Sexual harassment has become a serious social and public health problem in adolescence, causing adverse effects on mental health. Nevertheless, some behaviours arise that, due to their characteristics, might be misinterpreted as sexual harassment. A field study, a survey with a non-probabilistic accidental sampling, was designed in order to estimate the prevalence of sexual harassment victimization in the Spanish adolescent population, as well as to quantify the harms. Method: 1028 Spanish adolescents, 54.3% females and 45.7% males, aged 13-17 years (M = 15.21, SD = 1.03), responded to a diagnostic measure of sexual harassment victimization and an inventory measure of internalizing and externalizing Mental Health Problems (MHPs). Results: The results showed a significant prevalence of diagnosed sexual harassment victimization of school-aged adolescents, 24.1%, 95% [.215, 267], with adverse effects on internalizing and externalizing MHPs. As for the internalizing MHPs, the results showed moderate adverse effects on depression, anxiety, somatic burns, posttraumatic symptoms, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms; and mild adverse effects on social anxiety. With regard to externalizing MHPs, the results revealed moderate adverse effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity, anger control and antisocial behaviour; and mild adverse effects on attention problems, aggression and defiant behaviour. In addition, it was corroborated that sexual harassment victimization affects adolescent females to a greater extent, with the effect being significantly greater in internalizing than in externalizing MHPs. Conclusions: The results obtained are discussed and future lines of research and intervention are proposed to promote the implementation of prevention and intervention programs that address this phenomenon and, in turn, improve the physical, psychological, and social well-being of adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0319.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Greenspace; mental health; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; South Korea; social determinants of mental health; intervention
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:56:52 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating consequences for health, social, and economic domains, but what has received far less focus is the effect on people’s relationship to vital ecological supports, including access to greenspace. We assessed patterns of greenspace use in relation to individual and environmental factors and their relationship with experiencing psychological symptoms under the pandemic. We conducted an online survey recruiting participants from social media for adults in Korea for September–December 2020. The survey collected data on demographics, patterns of using greenspace during the pandemic, and major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2-item (GAD-2) were applied to identify probable cases of MD and GAD. A logistic regression model assessed the association decreased visits to greenspace after the outbreak compared to 2019 and probable MD and GAD. Among the 322 survey participants, prevalence of probable MD and GAD were 19.3% and 14.9%, respectively. High rates of probable MD (23.3%) and GAD (19.4%) were found among persons currently having job-related and financial issues. Of the total participants, 64.9% reported decreased visits to greenspace after the COVID-19 outbreak. Persons with decreased visits to greenspace had 2.06 higher odds (95% CI: 0.91, 4.67) of probable MD at the time of the survey than persons whose visits to greenspace increased or did not change. Findings suggest that barriers to greenspace use could deprive people of mental health benefits and affect mental health during pandemic; an alternative explanation is that those experiencing poor mental health may be less likely to visit greenspaces during pandemic. This implies the need of adequate interventions on greenspace uses under an outbreak especially focusing on how low-income populations may be more adversely affected by a pandemic and its policy responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0808.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: chronic pain; mental health; comorbidities; flourishing
Online: 10 August 2023 (07:31:40 CEST)
Pediatric chronic pain is an important public health issue given its notable impact on numerous domains of living. Pediatric chronic pain is also often comorbid with emotional, developmental, or behavioral conditions which can lead to more severe negative outcomes and an even greater reduction in positive outcomes compared to those without comorbidities. Flourishing is a positive outcome that chronic pain status has been shown to impact. We explored flourishing in children aged 6-17 years living with chronic pain as well as those with chronic pain and comorbidities using data from the 2018/2019 National Survey of Child Health. There were significant associa-tions between chronic pain condition status and all demographic variables (sex, age, race/ethnicity, poverty level, parental education, health insurance status). Results of hierarchical logistic regression found that chronic pain condition status significantly predicted flourishing. Children with chronic pain were 2.33 times less likely to flourish, and children with chronic pain plus an emotional, developmental, or behavioral comorbidity were 13 times less likely to flourish than typical peers. Given their significantly lower likelihood of flourishing, there is an urgent need for interventions targeted at children experiencing chronic pain and mental health comor-bidities.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1479.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Mental Health, ChatGPT, Anxiety, Depression, LLM
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:34:03 CEST)
The launch of Open AI's chatbot, ChatGPT, has generated a lot of attention and discussion among professionals in several fields. Many concerns and challenges have been brought up by researchers from various fields, particularly in relation to the harm that using these tools for medical diagnosis and treatment recommendations can cause. Additionally, it has been debated if ChatGPT is dependable, efficient, and helpful for clinicians and medical professionals. Therefore, in this study, we assess ChatGPT's effectiveness in providing mental health support, particularly for issues related to anxiety and depression, based on the chatbot's responses and cross-questioning. The findings indicate that there are significant inconsistencies and that ChatGPT's reliability is low in this specific domain. As a result, care must be used when using ChatGPT as a complementary mental health resource.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0554.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; Mental disorders; Obesity; Multimorbidity
Online: 30 November 2021 (10:38:08 CET)
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with a greater risk of morbimortality. Ob-jective: To estimate the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and associated factors in patients of a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil. Method: Cross-sectional study set at CAPS in the city of Salvador-Bahia, between August 2019 and February 2020. MS was evaluated according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. In addition to descriptive statistics, gross and adjusted prevalence ratios were described. Results: MS was found in 100 (35.2%) individuals, 116 (40.9%) were obese and 165 (58.1%) had increased waist circumference. Polypharmacy was identified in 63 (22.3%) patients and 243 (85.9%) used antipsychotics. In the gross evaluation, the female (PR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.35-2.63) and the use of antidepressants (PR = 1.41; 95%CI: 1.05-1.88) were associated with MS. After logistic re-gression, depression (PR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.38-2.51), acanthosis (PR = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.18 - 1.90), use of antipsychotics (PR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.13 - 2.75) and the hypertriglyceremic waist (PR = 3.33; 95%CI: 2.48- 4.46) were associated with MS. Conclusion: The prevalence of MS alerts to multimorbidity among individuals with mental disorders and the need for clinical screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0665.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Sick leave; mental illness; predictors, prevention
Online: 27 May 2021 (11:36:39 CEST)
(1) Background: This study identifies and analyzes those variables that may influence sick leave due to mental illness, based on a retrospective descriptive study of a mutual insurance company in the industrialized region of southern Europe (Catalonia). (2) Methods: All workers who were on sick leave due to mental illness during the period 2009-2019 were included in the study. The relationships between sick leave due to mental illness and social/employment-related and economical and demographic factors were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression model. (3) Results: The period studied included 34,764 workers. Anxious-depressive disorders account for 83.3% of the diagnosed mental disorders. The age cohorts between 30 and 50 years represent 60% of the affected workers. Highest income and high population density regions are the most affected. The levels of mental illness are higher in spring and summer. Professions related to manufacturing industry, automobile mechanics companies, the hospitality industry, education and healthcare and social service companies was more heavily affected. (4) Conclusions: Population density and GDP per capita, the age cohort, the season of the year, the type of payment, the type of contract, and the worker’s business and profession can predict the appearance of sick leave due to mental illness. Mutual insurance companies should plan interventions to minimize these factors and avoid the socioeconomic consequences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Children; Adolescents
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:53:18 CET)
Background: The COVID 19 pandemic and associated public health measures have disrupted the lives of people around the world. It is already evident that the direct and indirect psychological and social effects of the COVID 19 pandemic are insidious and affect the mental health of young children and adolescents now and will in the future. The aim and objectives of this knowledge-synthesis study were to identify the impact of the pandemic on children’s and adolescent’s mental health and to evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions employed during previous and the current pandemic to promote children’s and adolescent’s mental health. Methodology: We conducted the systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included experimental randomized, nonrandomized controlled trials; observational studies; and qualitative studies. Results: Of the 5,828 articles that we retrieved, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. We thematically analyzed and put up the major findings under the thematic areas of impact of pandemic on children and adolescent’s mental health. These studies reported that pandemics cause stress, worry, helplessness, and social and risky behavioral problems among children and adolescents (e.g., substance abuse, suicide, relationship problems, academic issues, absenteeism from work). Interventions such as art-based programs, support services, and clinician-led mental health and psychosocial services effectively decrease mental health issues among children and adolescents. Conclusion: Children and adolescents are more likely to experience high rates of depression and anxiety during and after a pandemic. It is critical that future researchers explore effective mental health strategies that are tailored to the needs of children and adolescents. Explorations of effective channels regarding the development and delivery of evidence-based, age-appropriate services are vital to lessen the effects and improve long-term capacities for mental health services for children and adolescents.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0255.v1
Online: 15 May 2020 (15:17:21 CEST)
This work presents a compilation of data obtained by clinical psychologists during the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. Through searches on social media with #Covid19 and #MentalHealth and the exchange of information on networks of professionals, it was possible to compile and group the main psychological symptoms presented during isolation. Information was clustered according to the period it appeared, in order to guide future situations. Moreover, to prepare a group of clinical psychologists to provide online assistance.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0018.v1
Online: 2 May 2020 (15:59:01 CEST)
The Covid-19 started in China and took over the world, becoming a pandemic. Especially in Latin America, the coronavirus arrived on the continent in mid-February 2020. The South American continent is going through a delicate political, economic and social moment, which is reflected in the fragility of our health systems and science and to reduce the rates of contagion and not overburden health services, including hospitals. Nevertheless, several studies are being carried out in Brazil and worldwide, with the objective sought to understand the characteristics, and even, the cure of people infected by the coronavirus. Therefore, we must consider science-based strategies to combat the pandemic and promote a health system that takes care of the population that needs it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; psychedelics; psychopharmacology; psychiatry; innovative
Online: 24 January 2019 (08:46:50 CET)
The current crisis in psychopharmacology has a long history and needs to be addressed with innovative and effective strategies. Here we discuss some of the roots of this crisis and suggest that the therapeutic use of psychedelic drugs represents a promising and integrative treatment with enduring effects for mental health problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: unwed mother; mental health; intellectual ability
Online: 22 February 2018 (09:03:42 CET)
Although the number of unwed mothers have mental health problems and intellectual disability, little research have focused on their mental and cognitive status. Since there has been public stigma of unwed mother in South Korea, they tend to conceal their status and less likely to seek psychiatric and psychological help. In this context, this study aims to assess current status of their mental health and intellectual characteristics. A total 48 unwed mothers from two shelter homes in South Korea were agreed to participate in the study. To compare mental health and intellectual abilities of unwed mothers with the general women population, reference data from national studies was used. Unwed mothers were more likely to have mood disorder, post traumatic stress disorder(PTSD), alcohol and nicotine use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than the general women population. Among 48 participants, 20 (41.7%) were lower than 70 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and the mean of IQ (78.31) was significantly lower than normalized IQ mean of general women population. In logistic regression analysis, psychiatric disorders were associated intellectual disability. This study confirmed that unwed mothers dwelling in Korean shelter homes have more experience of mental disorders and lower intellectual ability than general women population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); pandemic; infectious disease; psychological (mental) consequences; mental distress; outbreak; epidemiological study
Online: 4 August 2020 (16:16:23 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic and life-threatening highly infectious disease. The people of Bangladesh are at high risk of COVID-19 and have already experienced various socio-economic, health and psychological (mental) consequences. Particularly, mental health problems are dominantly reported in the literature and should be controlled. The main objective of this epidemiological study is to assess the mental distress and identify its determinants using online-based survey. Such information is urgently needed to develop feasible strategies for Bangladesh. Methods: An online survey was conducted for this study from May 01 to May 05, 2020. A total of 240 respondents provided self-reported online responses. Respondent’s mental distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) and by the self-rated mental health (SRMH) question. Various kinds of statistical analyses ranging from simple to multivariable logistic recession were performed using SPSS 23.0. Results: About 31.3% and 48.3% of respondents were mentally distressed by GHQ-12 and SRMH question, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mental distress was significantly higher among those respondents, whose usual activity was affected by the coronavirus (OR = 6.40, 95% CI: 1.87 - 21.90, p<0.001) and whose financial stress was increased due to lockdown (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.01 – 4.46, p<0.05) on GHQ-12. Female sex (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.03 – 3.75, p<0.05) and respondents with poor mental health before the outbreak (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.18 – 9.72, p<0.05) were also significantly affected by mental distress on SRMH. Conclusions: At least thirty percent of the respondents were found to be mentally distressed. Some of the study findings, particularly significant determinants, should be considered while developing strategies to reduce the burden of mental distress among study respondents or similar group in Bangladesh.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Gut microbiota; enteric nervous system; mental health
Online: 23 November 2023 (10:33:09 CET)
Bacteria in the gut microbiome play an intrinsic part in immune activation, intestinal permeability, enteric reflex, and entero-endocrine signaling. Gut microbiota communicates with the central nervous system (CNS) through the production of bile acids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and histamine. A vast number of signals generated in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) reaches the brain via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve (VN). Signals from the CNS are returned to entero-epithelial cells (EES) via efferent VN fibers and communicate with 100 to 500 million neurons in the submucosa and myenteric plexus of the gut wall, which is referred to as the enteric nervous system (ENS). Intercommunications between the gut and CNS regulate mood, cognitive behavior, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, and schizophrenia. The modulation, development, and renewal of nerves in the ENS, and changes in the gut microbiome alter the synthesis and degradation of neurotransmitters, which ultimately influence our mental health. The more we decipher the gut microbiome and understand its effect on neurotransmission, the closer we may get to the developing of novel therapeutic and psychobiotic compounds to improve cognitive functions and prevent mental disorders. In this review, the intricate control of entero-endocrine signaling and immune responses that keep the gut microbiome in a balanced state, and the influence that changing gut bacteria have on neuropsychiatric disorders are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Depression; Anxiety; Sexual orientation; Violence; Mental health
Online: 16 November 2023 (15:16:48 CET)
Background. Depression and anxiety and its association with sexual orientation in Latvia is un-derstudied. Outcomes. Kinsey scale, primary outcomes for mental health disturbances were defined as per-son`s subjective feeling of depression and anxiety. Materials and Methods. Participants aged 18-30 year old (n=503) was asked to do a self-administered anonymous web-based survey regarding social and family status, sexual iden-tification and behaviour, violence experience and mental health information. To describe person`s sexual orientation Kinsey scale was used. Prevalence of depression and anxiety, univariate and multivariate regression analysis was performed to measure relations between investigated fac-tors. Results. A total of 503 participants (i.e., 365 females, 133 males, 5 others) were included in the study. Mean (SD) age of participants was 23.0 (3.7) years. Mean (SD) value on the Kinsey scale was 1.4 (1.8) and median (IQR) value was 1.0 (0-2.0) where 1 is defined as ‘mostly heterosexual, only slightly homosexual’ person and 2 is ‘mostly heterosexual, but more than slightly homosexual’. Prevalence of persons reported violence experience was 20.3%, anxiety 56.3% and depression 37.6%. Logistic regression analysis showed that experience of violence was associated with higher odds of developing anxiety and depression (OR: 2.6 [95% CI: 1.7-4.0] and 2.4 [95% CI: 1.5-3.9], respectively). Being in relationship was associated with higher odds of developing anxiety (OR: 2.8[95% CI: 1.3-6.3]). Male sex and income 1001-2000 euros a month were associated with lower odds of developing anxiety (OR: 0.4 [95% CI: 0.2-0.5] and aOR: 0.3 [95% CI: 0.1-0.8], respectively). Sexual orientation showed no significant value in association with anxiety and depression (OR: 1.1 [95% CI: 1.0-1.2] and OR: 1.1 [95% CI: 1.02-1.2], respectively). Conclusions. In our study, the significant factors for developing depression and anxiety were experiencing violence, being female, being in a relationship, and having no income, while sexual orientation showed no significance in relation to depression and anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0757.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Zen Meditation; Music; Mental wellness; Wellness programmes
Online: 12 October 2023 (03:22:19 CEST)
Mental wellness can be related to healthier living, the learning process and working environments for people in the university community. A wide range of mental wellness programmes have been explored to provide students with pleasant and satisfying experiences. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of integrating Zen meditation(禪)and music listening on the mindfulness and happiness levels of university music therapy students. Qualitative methodology was used, and data were collected through surveys and semi-structured interviews. To investigate various aspects of data regarding the role of meditation and music (MM) programme for mindfulness and happiness, this study used thematic analysis within a qualitative research design. The results of this study indicate that the 8-week MM programme is effective in enhancing mindfulness and happiness and has positive responses to daily life stress (e.g., exam anxiety, financial difficulties, and emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic). The role of meditation and music in promoting mental health and well-being has long been discussed and the combination of the two has been recognised as a beneficial intervention. This paper could contribute to the support of mental health resources and coping strategies in higher education, as well as expand the potential range of integrating practices involving music and meditation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: hippocampus; narrative; mental health; positive health outcomes
Online: 20 September 2023 (02:23:01 CEST)
Concerning the hippocampal mechanisms that simultaneously function to map environmental position and to generate episodic memories, a developing consensus emerged by the early 21st century. The hippocampus was recognized as embodying the primary location of personal narrative development, with the ability to create stable and coherent narrative largely representing the mental health of individuals. Determining recent advances regarding the relationship among the hippocampus, narrative, and mental health, a limited, six-database review was conducted for peer reviewed articles published since 2019. Of the 127 records located, 14 reports were included for study. The results support the necessity of creating and maintaining a stable and coherent narrative as fundamental to human mental health such that facts will be distorted in personal accounts, sleep will be disrupted, and DNA altered to retain one’s personal narratives. With narrative development fundamental to human mental health, a goal of interventions concerning hippocampal function and positive health outcomes is enhancing personal narratives in providing individuals with the ability to construct and recall those that are robust and effective. One such intervention that has proven successful in this regard, the Health Narratives Research Process, is outlined with its most recent results presented, offering opportunity for further such research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0868.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: inequalities; digital media; communications; pedagogy; mental health
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:42:06 CEST)
This paper applies conceptualization from Paulo Freire, Tracey Nicholls, and bell hooks to develop a framework to understand art- and media-based communication of knowledge. Increasing use of art and digital media in research and formal educational settings emphasize knowledge-communication intent, and the theory attempts to rationalize why individuals potentially devalue, discard, or misconstrue messaging. Drawing upon two case studies: children’s literature, and existing scholarship on true crime as a media genre, the framework proposes art and media consumption based on perceived task-applicability of art and media. Stemming from the complex nature of socially-imposed, self-determined, and art- & media-instated tasks that an individual may face throughout their lifetime, an individual may be drawn to Freirean power and privilege - even fictional depictions - as societal structures can grant power and privilege with universal task-applicability. Potential usage of this framework towards participatory, qualitative inquiries conclude the paper, in attempt to support future art and media designed with knowledge-communication intent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: loneliness; covid-19; attachment; coping, mental health
Online: 4 August 2023 (03:17:18 CEST)
Pandemic restrictions and reduced social opportunities led to increased loneliness throughout affected countries. Considering that stressful situations activate the attachment system and engage various coping strategies, the present study explored the role of attachment dimensions and coping styles in perceived social isolation and the subsequent effect on emotional distress. Data was collected using an online survey between the third and fourth waves in Romania during the second year of the pandemic. Correlational analyses presented significant relationships between all variables measured. Regression analysis showed that attachment insecurity could predict up to half of the variance in loneliness and one-third of emotional distress. Coping styles that predicted both loneliness and emotional distress were problem-focused and socially supported coping, though the effect was minimal. Emotion-focused coping presented a protective role against loneliness. Finally, moderation analysis revealed how loneliness fully mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles and emotional distress. Further implications for research on loneliness, and pandemic resilience are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1956.v1
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:04:50 CEST)
Assessing the development of skills that ensure personal mental toughness in adolescence is important because the increasing autonomy and socialization of adolescents during adolescence inevitably creates the conditions for the emergence of an increasing number of external stressors. Paradoxically, adolescents' confidence in their ability to cope with external stressors decreases during adolescence, which may lead to poorer sport performance in adolescent athletes. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze mental toughness skills in the cadet and junior age groups of young basketball players. An additional aim is to reveal how general (total) mental toughness and age predict each of the athletic mental toughness skills. The analysis of the results of the study revealed that players in the junior age group scored statistically significantly higher on the challenge, commitment, emotional control, life control, overall control, self-confidence in one's abilities, self-confidence in interpersonal interactions, overall self-confidence, total mental toughness, determination and visualization scales. Statistically significant correlations were found between mental toughness skills and the different age groups in all scales except positive cogni-tion and self-belief. Total mental toughness was a strong predictor of the athletic mental tough-ness skills, but age did not predict determination and self-beliefs skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: violence; depression; pregnancy; primary prevention; mental health
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:48:40 CET)
Violence can promote various mental complications such as depression, however, the type of violence that promotes it has not been estimated in detail. The purpose of this study was to assess whether depression is associated with domestic violence in pregnant women treated at a Peruvian health center, 2022. A quantitative, observational, cross-sectional analytical study. A total of 180 pregnant adults who attend the health facility in person were selected. Intrafamily violence was assessed using a questionnaire from the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations of Peru and depression using the Beck Depression Inventory. The study has the approval of the ethics committee of the university and the permission of the head of the health establishment. 36.11% [95%CI: 29.39-43.43] of the pregnant women presented depression and 1.11% severe de-pression; likewise, 41.67% [95%CI: 36.64-49.05] reported having experienced domestic violence. It was identified that presenting domestic violence increases the probability of presenting depression during pregnancy (aPR: 9.89; p<0.001). The associated types of violence were psychological (aPR: 10.44; p<0.001) and physical (aPR: 1.78; p=0.007). There is an association between domestic violence and depression during pregnancy, the types of violence associated being psychological and physical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Anxiety; Mental Health; Hospitalized; Malaysia
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:55:34 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic creates anxiety among hospitalised SARS-CoV-2 patients. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of anxiety and its associated factors among stable inpatient COVID-19 patients in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a web-based online survey involving 401 patients from Malaysia's leading COVID-19 hospitals from 15th April until 30th June 2020 who were chosen using quota sampling. General Anxiety Disorders 7 items (GAD-7), Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory (Brief-COPE) and Socio-demographic profile questionnaire were used. Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression were performed using SPSS v23 to determine the prevalence of anxiety and its associated factors. The results showed that prevalence of anxiety was 7.0%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that female (p < 0.05), fear of infection (p < 0.05), lack of information (p < 0.05), maladaptive coping mechanism of behavioural disengagement (p < 0.001) and self-blame (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with anxiety. Whereas adaptive coping mechanisms via instrumental support (p < 0.001) was a significant protective predictor of anxiety. COVID-19 infection has had a significant influence on the mental health of patients. Findings in our study provides baseline findings on prevalence of anxiety among stabilized COVID-19 inpatient in Malaysia. Despite the relative low prevalence, the data has the potential to improve the present mental health monitoring system and the deployment of suitable treatments in dealing with similar circumstances
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: pregnant women; quarantine; mental health; pandemic; survey
Online: 26 July 2022 (09:54:30 CEST)
The objective of this study was to compare the mental well-being of French women who were and were not pregnant during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. We performed a nationwide online quantitative survey including all women between 18 and 45 years of age during the second and third weeks of global lockdown (March 25–April 07, 2020). The main outcome measures was the mental well-being measured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). This study analysed 275 responses from pregnant women and compared them with those from a propensity score–matched sample of 825 non-pregnant women. The median WEMWBS score was 49.0 and did not differ by pregnancy status. Women living in urban areas reported better well-being, while those with sleep disorders or who spent more than an hour a day watching the news reported poorer well-being. During the first lockdown in France, women had relatively low mental well-being scores, with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. More than ever, health-care workers need to find a way to maintain their support for women’s well-being. Minor daily annoyances of pregnancy, such as insomnia, should not be trivialised because they are a potential sign of poor well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: digitalisation; digital learning; mental health; parenting; China
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:28 CET)
While a raft of existing Chinese literature examines the associations between the outbreak of the pandemic and students’ mental health, rarely do Chinese studies assess the nuanced relationships between digital learning, parenting, and students’ mental health since the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Such a rarely discussed topic has substantial scholarly value as mismanagement of digital learning and parenting, such as the exposure to cyberbullying and negative parenting during the public health crisis, could add substantial, unforeseeable psychological burdens for Chinese students. In this article, the author applied a systematic review to find all relevant Chinese literature that contains the words “digital learning”, “children/adolescents”, “mental health”, and “parenting” published since January 2020. As such a complex topic has rarely been addressed in Chinese contexts, the author was only able to find four related scholarly articles. The author summarises the arguments and empirical findings to explore the nuanced relationships between a) digitalisation, isolation, parenting, and children’s mental health, b) parenting, teacher-student relationships, and students’ mental health, and c) maternal and paternal parenting styles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0191.v1
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:18:35 CET)
Background: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital medical staff (HMS) have faced significant personal, workplace, and financial disruption. Many have experienced psychosocial burden, exceeding already concerning baseline levels. This study examines the types and predictors of coping strategies and help-seeking behaviours utilised by Australian junior and senior HMS during the first year of the pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of Australian frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Data collected included demographics, personal and workplace disruptions, self-reported and validated mental health symptoms, coping strategies, and help-seeking. Results: The 9518 participants included 1966 hospital medical staff (62.1% senior, 37.9% junior). Both groups experienced a high burden of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout. Coping strategies varied by seniority, with maintaining exercise the most common strategy for both groups. Adverse mental health was associated with increased alcohol consumption. Engagement with professional support, although more frequent among junior staff, was uncommon in both groups. Conclusions: Junior and senior staff utilised different coping and help-seeking behaviours. Despite recognition of symptoms, very few HMS engaged formal support. The varied predictors of coping and help-seeking identified may inform targeted interventions to support these cohorts in current and future crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0617.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: coronavirus; mental health; Norway; population study; PTSD
Online: 24 November 2020 (13:33:17 CET)
The COVID-19 outbreak and the sudden lockdown of society in March 2020 had a large impact on people’s daily life and gave rise to concerns for the mental health in the general population. The aim of the study was to examine post-traumatic stress reactions related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of symptom-defined post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and factors associated with post-traumatic stress in the Norwegian population during the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak. A survey was administered via social media channels, to which a sample of 4527 adults (≥18 years) responded. Symptom-defined PTSD was measured with the PTSD Checklist for the DSM-5. The items were specifically linked to the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the DSM-5 diagnostic guidelines to categorize participants as fulfilling the PTSD symptom criteria or not. Associations with PTSD were examined with single and multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of symptom-defined PTSD was 12.5% for men and 19.5% for women. PTSD was associated with lower age, female gender, lack of social support, and a range of pandemic-related variables such as economic concerns, expecting economic loss, having been in quarantine or isolation, being at high-risk for complications from COVID-19 infection, and having concern for family and close friends. In conclusion, posttraumatic stress reactions were common in the Norwegian population in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak. Concerns about finances, health, and family and friends seem to matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mental health; working population; labour; migration; depression
Online: 3 November 2020 (13:52:38 CET)
Background: Mental health is a growing concern worldwide. It is not well understood whether Nepali workers, including international labour migrants from Nepal, are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of our study is to determine the prevalence of and examine the risks factors for depression among returnee migrants and non-migrant working male adults in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a probability-based sample of 725 participants was conducted in February 2020. The sample was comprised of two groups based on migration status: returning migrants and non-migrants. Logistic regression was applied to investigate factors associated with symptoms depression.Results: The overall prevalence of depression was 10.1%. However, the prevalence of depression was lower (7%) among returnee migrants compared to non-migrants (13.7%). Participants in the lower income group were more at risk of depression (OR=5.38, 95% CI: 1.96-14.78) than those in the higher income group. Similarly, Buddhists and Christians were more likely to be depressed (OR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.02-4.64) than Hindus. Interestingly, participants having more than two children had a higher prevalence of depression (OR=5.14, 95% CI: 1.22-21.63) compared with those having no children. Unmarried participants were more likely to be depressed (OR=4.05, 95%, CI:1.10-14.93) than those who were married. Conclusion: The working Nepali adult male population in Nepal, including returning migrants, is at risk of depression, but this risk is lower in those in the higher income group, returnee migrants, married, Hindus and those with no children. This study highlights the need to monitor and develop national policies to ensure the mental health of Nepali male adult population, including returnee migrants.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0072.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: consciousness; mental monism; idealism; automata; cellular automata
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:21:55 CET)
Models of consciousness are usually developed within physical monist or dualistic frameworks, in which the structure and dynamics of the mind derive from the workings of the physical world (in particular, the brain). Little attention has been given to modeling within a mental monist framework, deriving the structure and dynamics of the mental world from primitive mental constituents only. Mental monism is gaining attention as a candidate solution to Chalmers’ Hard Problem, and it is therefore timely to examine possible formal models of consciousness within it. Here, we propose a minimal set of hypotheses that any credible model of consciousness (within mental monism) should respect. From those hypotheses, it is feasible to construct many formal models that permit universal computation in the mental world, through cellular automata. We need further hypotheses to define transition rules for particular models, and we propose a transition rule with the unusual property of deep copying in the time dimension. In conclusion, we hope to dispel the notion that mental monism requires a deus ex machina, by showing that a parsimonious set of assumptions can yield a naturalistic and computationally potent mental world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0201.v1
Online: 17 November 2019 (10:53:30 CET)
In order to synchronize foreign policies of governments, firm actions in the form of economic sanctions have long been employed by western countries. Those countries that tend to have independent views and policies are made to undergo economic adversity to fall in line. But the hardest hit by these coercive actions are the ordinary citizens who have to endure immense difficulty with social and economic issues not to mention the human rights violations. This paper provides a review regarding the effect of economic sanctions on mental health and quality of life of Iranian citizens based on data available from Iran post-sanctions. From 2012 stronger sanctions have been implemented on Iran as its nuclear program failed to draw faith in terms of its peaceful execution. Evidence have pointed out that economic sanctions imposed by western countries have a detrimental and destructive effect on the health of individual Iranians and they violated some basic human rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: well-being; mental health; bonsai; art; psychotherapy
Online: 25 September 2019 (10:24:02 CEST)
Background: Bonsai integrates relaxation, leisure and art therapy into one medium that can have personal, emotional and commercial value and have benefits beyond the therapist’s couch. The art of bonsai, when used as a therapy tool may affect the capacity of the bonsai practitioner to adjust to negative and stressful life events. Objective: The study was initiated to evaluate the benefit of bonsai on the wellbeing of practitioners of the art. Method: 255 bonsai artists participated in a study that examined the effect of bonsai on their well-being. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with bonsai artists. Results: The majority of participants agreed that being able to work on their bonsais affected their moods positively. Discussion: Although bonsai artists did not report better mental health, participants reported an improvement in their mood when working on a bonsai tree. These findings are significant in that it can be especially useful in settings such as psychiatric hospitals, old age homes, orphanages, prisons, etc., as a preventative measure as well as restorative measures in the well-being of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0133.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: military; veterans; anger; aggression; PTSD; mental health
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:40:42 CEST)
Prevalence rates of anger and aggression are often higher in military personnel, so it is important to understand more about why this is and factors with which they are associated. Despite this, there is little evidence relating to anger and aggression in UK veterans who are seeking treatment for mental health difficulties such as PTSD. This study investigated the prevalence rates of anger and aggression in this population, as well as the associations between anger and aggression, and various sociodemographic, functioning and mental health variables. A cross-sectional design was used, with participants completing a battery of self-report questionnaires. Prevalence rates for significant anger and aggression were 74% and 28% respectively. Both women and those over 55 were less likely to report difficulties. Those with high levels of PTSD and other mental health difficulties were more likely to report anger and aggression. Other factors related to anger and aggression included childhood adversity; unemployment due to ill health; and a perceived lack of family support. Findings show that veterans who are seeking support for mental health are likely to experiencing significant difficulties with anger and aggression, especially if they have co-morbid mental health difficulties. The associations between anger and aggression and other variables has implications for the assessment and treatment of military veterans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: recovery; mental illness; mental health; psychiatry; social inclusion; occupational therapy; occupations; time use; activities of daily living; work.
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:56:09 CET)
Research has consistently found that people with mental illness (known as consumers) experience lower levels of participation in meaningful activities, which can limit their opportunities for recovery support. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of participation in a group program designed to address all stages of activity participation, known as Pathways to Participation (P2P). A descriptive longitudinal design was utilized, collecting data at three time points. Outcomes were measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal (CANSAS), Recovery Assessment Scale – Domains and Stages (RAS-DS), Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Living in the Community Questionnaire (LCQ) and time use diaries. All data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and Chi square analyses. Seventeen consumers completed baseline data, eleven contributed post program data and eight provided follow up data. Most were female (63.64%) and had been living with mental illness for 11.50 (± 7.74) years on average. Reductions in unmet needs and improvements in self-rated recovery scores were re-ported, but no changes were identified in either time use or psychosocial health. The findings indicate the P2P program may enable consumers to achieve positive activity and participation out-comes as part of their personal recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1482.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Dance Movement Therapy (DMT); extended reality (XR); AI/ML algorithms; data collection; Methodology; Alternative Mental Health Therapies; mental health
Online: 25 September 2023 (04:00:24 CEST)
Cyber diplomacy is critical in dealing with evolving cybersecurity dangers and possibilities in the digital era. This article investigates the impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), Blockchains, and Quantum Computing on cyber diplomacy. AI holds the potential for proactive threat identification and response, while IoT enables international information sharing. Blockchains enable secure data sharing and document verification, but they also pose new threats, such as AI-driven cyber-attacks, IoT privacy breaches, blockchain vulnerabilities, and the potential for quantum computing to break encryption. This article conducts case study reviews, in combination with secondary data analysis, and emphasises the value of international cooperation in developing global norms and frameworks to control responsible technology adoption. Cyber diplomacy can promote cybersecurity, protect national interests, and foster mutual trust among nations in the digital sphere by capitalising on possibilities and reducing threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0486.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; mental healthcare; primary healthcare nurses; Sub-Saharan Africa; challenges; adaptation; outreach; telehealth; vaccine hesitancy; mental health awareness
Online: 7 August 2023 (05:28:56 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the mental health of individuals globally, and primary healthcare (PHC) nurses play a critical role in providing mental healthcare services. However, limited research has explored the experiences of PHC nurses in providing mental healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explored the experiences of PHC nurses in providing mental healthcare services during the pandemic in Durban, South Africa. The aim was to identify the challenges faced by healthcare providers and the potential for innovative approaches to improve access to care. A qualitative, exploratory design guided the study, and data were collected through in-depth interviews with twelve PHC nurses purposively selected. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings from interviews with primary healthcare nurses reveal that the pandemic exacerbated existing challenges, including medication adherence issues, fear and uncertainty among patients, vaccine hesitancy, decreased clinic visits, and the mental and emotional toll on both patients and healthcare workers. PHC nurses adapted their services by increasing outreach efforts, prioritising patient care, and utilising technology and non-governmental organisations’ (NGO) support. Challenges included reduced patient visits, complexities in healthcare provision, and lack of adequate support. Positive changes observed include increased mental health awareness among healthcare professionals and younger generations. Recommendations include implementing outreach and awareness campaigns, providing accurate information about COVID-19 and vaccinations, and promoting cultural sensitivity in mental healthcare provision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0017.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Digital Mental Health; deprivation; service activity; Mental health concerns; ethnicity; time-series analysis; Covid-19; Text-based online therapy
Online: 2 February 2023 (01:30:05 CET)
The adoption of digital health technologies accelerated during Covid-19, with concerns over the equity of access due to digital exclusion. Using data from a text-based online mental health service for children and young people we explore the impact of the pandemic on service access and presenting concerns and whether differences were observed by sociodemographic characteristics in terms of access (gender, ethnicity and deprivation). We used interrupted time-series models to assess whether there was a change in the level and rate of service use during the Covid-19 pandemic (April 2020-April 2021) compared to pre-pandemic trends (June 2019-March 2020). Routinely collected data from 61221 service users were extracted for observation, those represented half of the service population as only those with consent to share their data were used. The majority of users identified as female (74%) and White (80%), with an age range between 13 and 20 years of age,. There was evidence of a sudden increase (13%) in service access at the start of the pandemic (RR 1.13 95% CI 1.02, 1.25), followed by a reduced rate (from 25% to 21%) of engagement during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic trends (RR 0.97 95% CI 0.95,0.98). There was a sudden increase in almost all presenting issues apart from physical complaints. There was evidence of a step increase in the number of contacts for Black/African/Caribbean/Black British (38% increase; 95% CI: 1%-90%) and White ethnic groups (14% increase; 95% CI: 2%-27%) ), the sudden increase in service use at the start of the pandemic for the most (58% increase; 95% CI: 1%-247%) and least (47% increase; 95% CI: 6%-204%) deprived areas. During the pandemic, contact rates decreased, and referral sources change at the start. Findings on access and service activity align with other studies observing reduced service utilisation. The lack of differences in deprivation levels and ethnicity at lockdown suggests exploring equity of access to the anonymous service. The study provides unique insights into changes in digital mental health use during Covid-19 in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1029.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Workplace mental health; Workplace bullying; Depression; Gender difference
Online: 15 September 2023 (08:28:38 CEST)
Workplace bullying is a prevalent issue with a significant impact on employees’ mental health. This study aimed to explore the relationship between workplace bullying and the prevalence of depression with a particular focus on the role of gender. A total of 12,344 Korean employees aged 19–65 years were included in the study. They completed questionnaires including the Korean version of the Occupational Stress Scale, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A score of 16 or higher in CES-D indicated depression. The association between workplace bullying and depression was analyzed using logistic regression analyses. The average CES-D scores were higher for both male and female employees who experienced bullying than for those who did not (p < 0.001). The association between the experience of workplace bullying and the prevalence of depression was statistically significant for both genders, with a stronger correlation observed among male employees (p for interaction <0.001). Organizations are urged to address workplace bullying, particularly for male employees, through the implementation of anti-bullying strategies and policies, as well as the provision of mental health resources and support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Mobile; addiction; child psychology; mental health; social impact
Online: 3 July 2023 (14:58:56 CEST)
The relationship between child psychology and the widespread usage of mobile devices in the modern day is examined in "The Mobile Dilemma: Child Psychology and the Era of Technological Dependence." The abstract serves as a brief synopsis of the work, highlighting its important ideas and arguments. Concerns concerning the effects of excessive time spent on mobile devices on children's mental health and development have arisen in this age of technology dependency. The essay opens by pointing out the importance of investigating the psychological effects of kids' exposure to mobile gadgets. The effects of mobile phone addiction on learning, memory, and social and emotional health are investigated. The neurodevelopmental implications are explored further in the abstract, with a focus on the impact of mobile technology on brain plasticity and the formation of the developing brain. It offers advice on how to establish appropriate limits for children's screen time, encourages the development of digital literacy, and promotes responsible behavior.The pros and cons of using mobile devices in the classroom are also examined, along with their effects on students' ability to study and the risks and difficulties that could arise from implementing such a strategy. The emotional and social impacts of mobile device addiction are discussed in the abstract. This includes the impact on one's social life, empathy, ability to communicate, and sense of self-worth. The abstract also stresses the importance of interdisciplinary efforts involving parents, teachers, psychologists, and legislators to combat mobile device addiction through intervention and preventative techniques. Future directions are highlighted, with a focus on topics such as mobile technology development, digital well-being, privacy protection, mental health implications, screen time limits, digital literacy, and the impact of cultural and socioeconomic variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1535.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: IBD; GERD; Mental-health; POST-SARS-CoV2-symdromes
Online: 23 May 2023 (02:37:42 CEST)
Abstract: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and mental health issues are significant public health concerns in globally. Although rising peaks observed post-COVID-19, there is a sever paucity in high quality data. Using descriptive analysis, we identified the frequency and associations of age- and gender, sport, genetic, and psychiatric consequences in the coexistence of GERD and IBD in 2067 participants 18 to >60 years with mean age of 26.8 ± 12.9 years. Most were 18 -29 years old (66%, n=1364) of which majority were young Saudi females (72.4%, n=1496). Estimated 1099 (53.2%) were students, 428 (20.7%) were unemployed, and 540 (26.1%) were. The majority were Saudis (94.7%, n= 1957). Psychological syndromes anxiety (60.7%), stress (60.7%), and depression (60.6%) were most frequent; whereas, IBD (48.7%) and GERD (36.3%), respectively were the second and third. In 51 % respondents depression, anxiety, and stress occurred first while in 33.9%, and 24.3% IBD and GERD, respectively, were the first signs. In most respondents (59.2%, n=1178), these signs first appeared recently and 33.6% (n=669) reported occurrence during adult life, and only in 7.2% (n=144) the signs noticed during childhood (7.2%, n=144)). Aggravating factors were 32.9% (n=681) genetic and other factors of which 476 (69.9%) inherited IBD while 215(31.6%) and 175 ((25.7), respectively, inherited psychological (depression, anxiety, and stress) and GERD. However, only 18.3% sought treatment (n=378) and only 66 (3.2%) had colectomy or a colostomy bag. Little over half of the studied population (58.1%, n=1201) were active in outdoor. GERD or IBS and psychological factors (anxiety, depression, and stress), were significantly associated with age (P value =.001).; GERD with old age, IBD with mid-age 40-49 years, and psychological disorders among younger ages. Thus, while mental health issues predispose young millennial women to neurogastroenterological disorders, the IBD and GERD initiate psychological problems in old and mid-ages, respectively. Intriguingly, despite the significantly mosaic global genetic population structures, their lifestyles, and nutritional habits, the pattern of these disorders remains similar. Thus, this is potentially consistent with notion that the gut nerve cells are conserved and that the changes in gut dysbiosis of gut microbiome signatures are responsible. These findings have significant clinical implications in the patient treatment strategies and tailored educational and awareness programs in lifestyle medicine. Future microbiome studies would reveal more insight into the mechanisms of disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0494.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Radicalisation; Social Media; Public Mental Health; Online Radicalisation
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:36:22 CEST)
This systematic review seeks to position online radicalisation within whole system frameworks incorporating individual, family, community and wider structural influences, whilst reporting evidence of public mental health approaches for individuals engaging in radical online content. Methods: Authors searched Medline (via Ovid), PsycInfo (via Ebscohost) and Web of Science (Core Collection), with the use of Boolean operators across ‘extremism’, ‘online content’, and ‘intervention’. Results: Following assessment of full text, all retrieved papers had to be excluded. Results from six excluded articles which did not fit inclusion criteria but identified theoretical relationships between all three elements of online extremism, psychological outcomes, and intervention strategy, were discussed. Authors found no articles outlining public mental health approaches to specifically online radicalisation. Conclusions: There is an immediate need for further research in this field given the increase in different factions of radicalised beliefs resulting from online, particularly social media, usage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: extended length of stay; emergency department; mental health
Online: 1 February 2023 (06:01:41 CET)
Background: Evidence suggests that children and young people (CYP) who present to the emergency department (ED) for mental health (MH) difficulties may have extended lengths of stay (LOS); however, there is a paucity of research in Australia regarding the factors associated with extended LOS. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with extended LOS for paediatric MH-related presentations to the EDs in South Western Sydney (SWS), a multicultural community in Australia. Methods: We analysed electronic medical records (eMR) of 7,409 MH-related ED encounters of CYP aged 0 up to 18 years from all six public hospitals in SWS from January 2016 to April 2022. Extended LOS was defined as encounters of more than 4 hours. We assessed factors associated with extended LOS using a multilevel logistic regression model, accounting for hospital-level clustering. Results: Approximately 57.6% of all ED presentations for paediatric MH involved extended LOS. ED presentations by adolescents (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.23, 95% CI 1.20-4.17 for 12-14 years and AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.44-5.00 for 15-17 years), and patients with a preferred language other than English (AOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.15-1.89) had increased odds of extended LOS compared to their counterparts. Deliberate self-harm related presentations, the most commonly presented MH condition, had higher odds of extended LOS than other MH-related presentations (AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.59-1.98). Patients with MH presentations that required urgent evaluation (triage levels 1-2) had higher odds of extended LOS (AOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.15-1.65) compared to triage level 3, whereas those with triage levels 4-5 had lower odds (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.58-0.74). Further, patients with MH-related presentations that came by ambulance (compared to other mode of presentations) and presentations that happened at night and late at night (compared to early morning and daytime presentations). The odds of extended LOS were considerably lower during the COVID-19 period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period (AOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.82). Additionally, extended paediatric LOS for MH issues in the ED showed notable hospital-level heterogeneity. Conclusion: A large proportion of extended LOS in ED and sociodemographic disparities reflect inequality in access to paediatric MH care. Our findings highlight the need for equitable distribution of resources directed towards at-risk CYP to improve MH outcomes and reduce health system burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0458.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental illness; homicide; violence; psychiatry; Penrose hypothesis; deinstitutionalization
Online: 26 August 2022 (10:00:36 CEST)
The association between mental illness and violent crimes such as homicide is complex. In 1939, Lionel Penrose hypothesized that the availability of psychiatric hospital beds was inversely related to the prison population, presumably due to the hospitalization of potential offenders with a mental illness. Subsequent studies have found evidence for this association, but questions remain about the contributions of confounding factors. Moreover, there has been a move towards deinstitutionalization and community care of the mentally ill over the past six decades. In this study, the association between national homicide rates and three measures of the availability of psychiatric care – the numbers of psychiatrists, general hospital psychiatric beds, and psychiatric hospital beds per 100,000 population – was examined using a time-lagged correlation analysis. Associations between homicide rates and socioeconomic factors associated with crime were also examined. It was found that the availability of psychiatrists and of general hospital psychiatric beds were both negatively correlated with homicide rates, and that the association with general hospital psychiatric beds remained significant even after correction for confounding factors. These results suggest the need for a more nuanced interpretation of Penrose’s original formulation, involving the interplay of social, economic factors and psychological factors rather than linear causality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0004.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Mental Models; Dynamic Decision Making; Systems Thinking; Learning
Online: 24 August 2022 (03:49:41 CEST)
This article is a theoretical contribution to mental model research, which currently has different threads. Whereas some researchers focus on the perceived causal structure, others also include decision policies and decisions. We focus on the link between recognized causal structure (“mental models of dynamic systems”) and policies, proposing Johnson-Laird’s theory of mental models as the link. The resulting framework hypothesizes two types of systematic mental model errors: (1) misrepresentation of the system’s structure and (2) failure to deploy relevant mental models of possibilities. Examination of three experiments through this lens reveals errors of both types. Therefore, we propose that the cognitive theory of mental models opens a path to better understand how people construct their decision policies and develop interventions to reduce such mental model errors. The article closes by raising several questions for empirical studies of the reasoning process leading from mental models of dynamic systems to decision policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: ethnic identity; mental health; migrant; transcultural psychiatry; youth
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:58:41 CEST)
Background: The number of young Japanese Brazilians, who are return migrants with Japanese ancestral roots, is increasing rapidly in Japan. However, the characteristics of their mental health and the relation between mental health and a complex ethnic identity remains unclear. Methods: This cross-sectional study compared 25 Japanese-Brazilian high school students with 62 Japanese high school students living in the same area. Research using self-report questionnaires on mental health, help-seeking behavior tendencies, and ethnic identity was conducted. The Japanese-Brazilian group was also divided into high and low ethnic identity groups, and their mental health conditions were compared. Results: The Japanese-Brazilian group had significantly poorer mental health conditions and lower ethnic identities than the Japanese group and were less likely to seek help from family members and close relatives. Among the Japanese Brazilians, those with low ethnic identity had significantly poorer mental health than those with high ethnic identity. Conclusions: Young Japanese Brazilians may face conflicts of ethnic identity that can disturb their mental health. To build an inclusive society, the establishment of community services to support mental health and to help return migrants develop their ethnic identity is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0391.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: occupational health; leadership; mental health; workplace climate; worksite
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:27:08 CEST)
Objectives: This study validated the Japanese version of O’Donovan et al.’s (2020) composite measure of psychological safety scale and examined the associations of psychological safety with mental health and job-related outcomes. Methods: Online surveys were administered twice to Japanese employees with teams of more than three members. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was tested using Cronbach’s α and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Convergent validity was tested. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between psychological safety and psychological distress, work engagement, job performance, and job satisfaction. Results: Two hundred healthcare workers and 200 non-healthcare workers were analyzed. The Cronbach’s alpha of the total score was 0.92 - 0.96 and ICC was 0.88 - 0.92. CFA demonstrated poor fit, and EFA yielded a two-factor structure, suggesting one factor combined with peers and team. The scale showed good convergent validity. The total score of the scale showed significant associations with all outcomes in adjusted model in all workers. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the measure of the psychological safety scale presented good reliability and validity. Psychological safety is important for employees’ mental health and performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: depression, anxiety, stress, ischemic stroke, psychiatry, mental disorders
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:49:20 CEST)
Objectives To delineate the features of ischemic stroke patients and their caregivers that may predict distress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in the caregivers. Methods The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS), Zarit Burden Interview (22 item-ZBI), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were used to assess caregivers' burden, stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. We performed partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in order to delineate a multi-step mediation model.Results In this study, 97 stroke patients and their caregivers were included. Multiple regression analysis revealed that ZBI-personal strain and stroke of other determined etiology explained 15.0 percent of the variance in the HADS depression score (p=0.001). We discovered that the caregiver's underlying disease and the National Institute Stroke Score (NIHSS) of the patients explained 13.6 percent of the variance in the total ZBI score of the caregivers (p=0.001). The total ZBI score, the presence of lacunar circulation infarction in the patients, and the caregiver's underlying disease explained 40.9 percent of the variance in the total PSS score of the caregivers (p <0.001). Moreover, PLS analysis showed that the NIHSS and the caregiver's underlying disease had significant indirect effects on the HADS score which were mediated by the ZBI score. Conclusions A large part of the variance in stress and depressive scores in caregivers of ischemic stroke patients is determined by the patient's disability, dependency, cognition, and stroke phenotypes, as well as the caregiver's health status and burden. Screening for the aforementioned factors in ischemic stroke caregivers is critical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0403.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Psychological Affects; Working Class; Mental Anxiety
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:48:17 CEST)
This study has been taken during COVID-19. It describes the working scenario of all class of peoples and their mental anxieties are analysed based on their psychological behaviour patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0080.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: depression; anxiety; social solidarity; corona virus; mental health
Online: 4 August 2020 (08:14:35 CEST)
Introduction: Corona epidemic and quarantine enforcement, various effects on the psychological and social aspects of the population has left. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between depression, anxiety and relationship with medical staff and mental health is caused by corona. Methods: For this purpose, samples of 650 health personnel of private hospitals were selected. Inventory DASS, HADS, and selected social cohesion (Keyes) and the Internet and through social media networks were evaluated. To analyze the data, Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used. Results: The results showed that straw anxiety corona) to negative (and social cohesion caused by corona) to positive (mental health correlates. It was also found that anxiety and social cohesion caused by corona, respectively 47 and 26 percent predict changes in mental health. Conclusion: These results show the positive and negative effects of psychosocial interventions in quarantine and it have practical implications in the development of the epidemic crisis is Corona.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0346.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; COVID-19; school-going children; lockdown
Online: 22 July 2020 (07:43:01 CEST)
During this epidemic of COVID-19, children are in need of much concentration and profound love of the senior family members. Although the measures taken by the organizations are necessary to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus, they may be causing widespread mental health issues, including depression and loneliness. Therefore, it is imperative that parents have to spend the lion-share of time with children while listening to them cordially. Parents can participate in sports with them to help them stay fit so that they can enjoy commemorating moments. However, in this additional time, the parents can also make them habituated to practice the rules of health, so does social distancing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mental disorder, treatment gap, health system, Madhya Pradesh.
Online: 30 January 2019 (09:25:43 CET)
Background: India has one-fifth of the world's population and the number of people suffering from mental illness is assumed to be huge considering the contribution of mental disorders to the overall burden of the disease being 13.9 %. Objectives of Study: To estimate prevalence and patterns of mental illnesses to assess the current mental health services and systems in the Madhya Pradesh. Material and Methods: Multi-stage, stratified, random cluster sampling technique, with random selection based on probability proportionate to size at each stage. A total of 3240 individuals aged 18 years and above were interviewed. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. A set of 10 instruments including Mini International Neuro-psychiatric Interview were utilized. Results: The overall weighted prevalence for any mental illness was 16.7% lifetime and 13.9% current. Treatment-gap for all mental health problems is as high as 91% in the state along with huge socioeconomic impact of mental illness. Conclusions: This huge burden of mental, behavioural and substance use disorders, in Madhya Pradesh, calls for immediate attention of political leaders, policy makers, health professionals, opinion-makers and society at large. It is hoped that the data from the study will inform mental health policy and legislation and help shape mental health care delivery systems in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0246.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental health services, attitudes; beliefs; coercion; paternalism; discrimination
Online: 17 January 2019 (13:26:53 CET)
We aimed at developing and validating a scale on the beliefs and attitudes of mental health professionals towards services users’ rights in order to provide a valid evaluation instrument for training activities with heterogeneous mental health professional groups. Items were extracted from a review of previous instruments, as well as from several focus groups which have been conducted with different mental health stakeholders, including mental health service users. The preliminary scale consisted of 44 items and was administered to 480 mental health professionals. After eliminating non-discriminant and low weighting items, a final scale of 25 items was obtained. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses produced a four-factor solution consisting of the following four dimensions; system criticism/justifying beliefs, freedom/coercion, empowerment/paternalism, and tolerance/discrimination. The scale shows high concordance with our theoretical model as well as adequate parameters of explained variance, model fit, and internal reliability. Additional work is required to assess the cultural equivalence and psychometrics of this tool in other settings and populations, including health students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: system dynamics modeling; big data; mental distress; diet
Online: 5 November 2018 (02:34:30 CET)
Dietary factors are one of the risk factors that can impact the brain chemistry, which leads to mental distress. Based on our data mining approach, we found that mental distress in men is associated with eating unhealthy food. Our aim in this paper is to apply results from our big data analytics approach to inform system dynamics (SD) modeling to investigate the causal relationships between brain structures, nutrients from food and dietary supplements, and mental health. We perform descriptive analysis based on a large data set to estimate the SD modeling parameters. Finally, we calibrate the model towards a time series data collected for individuals on their dietary and distress patterns. The results reveal that bridging these different methodologies leads to further insights from the SD model and decreases the error of calibrated parameter values. Future research is needed to validate our initial results for investigating the relationship between mental distress and dietary intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Career adaptability; Resilience; Mental health service users; IPS model
Online: 18 September 2023 (02:50:50 CEST)
The employment rate of people who face severe mental health issues is extremely low, while the vast majority expresses their willingness to work. There are various obstacles that impede their work re-integration process. Apart from the illness’ symptoms and the employers’ stigma, these barriers are strongly associated with the effects of long-term unemployment and the lack of positive psychosocial resources, such as career adaptability and resilience. The present study aims at investigating career adaptability and resilience of mental health service users who receive career counseling services. The career counseling approach that was used combines elements from the IPS model and the career construction approach that has been developed to address the contemporary world of work challenges. We investigated how mental health service users view themselves in terms of career adaptability and resilience, and which factors contributed to their development or impeded them. We used a qualitative approach, which allows for an in-depth exploration of the participants’ views. Fifteen mental health users who receive career counseling services were interviewed. Results showed that mental health service users believe that they can overcome any difficulties and setbacks, when they have adequate support from their social network and when they receive career counseling services. They highlighted the importance of counseling services to maintain their work and cope with stressful events. Further implications of the results regarding vocational rehabilitation of mental health users as means for social inclusion are discussed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: climate change; mental health; policies; interventions; support; vulnerable communities
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:05:17 CEST)
The complex and interconnected challenges of climate change, water stress, disasters, and health crises have far-reaching implications for sustainable development and global sustainability agendas, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, one critical issue that has been overlooked is the nexus between climate change impacts and mental health (CCMH). Recognizing and addressing the negative emotions associated with this global phenomenon is essential to fostering a holistic approach to climate action planning and building long-term resilience. In this assessment, we present a set of narratives to argue that CCMH research requires a collaborative, transdisciplinary approach that integrates socio-economic and socio-cultural complexities. For this assessment, we used a case study approach to elucidate that the mental health impacts of climate change are unequally distributed, disproportionately affecting vulnerable groups based on age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status. The assessment presented in this study concluded that adequate mental health support programs are limited due to sociocultural stigmas and limited socioeconomic resources in some regions. Existing climate-related mental health services mechanisms lack coordination and specific action plans, leaving affected populations underserved. Unlike traditional understandings of the climate-health nexus, this research calls for experts from multiple fields to work together and for enhanced attention to and investment in CCMH research to bridge the gap between scientific knowledge and practical solutions. Such solutions will lead to scalable and lasting change as communities can implement research findings to support those in need and enhance disaster resilience. Furthermore, by collectively recognizing the climate and mental health nexus, global commitments such as the SDGs and the Paris Declaration can advance awareness and action in climate-related mental health, ultimately promoting a healthier relationship between humanity and nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1773.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthy life style; physical activity; physical and mental health
Online: 26 July 2023 (07:08:14 CEST)
The purpose of this article was to check the relashionship of different types of physical activities, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption (with control for age, sex and level of education) on health (physical and mental). The study was based on Belgium epidemiological data (10661 participants from 19 to 81 years old for whom we have health indicators over a period of 11 years) together with questionnaires about alcohol, tobacco consumption and the frequency of different types of physical activities. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis of epidemiological data was performed with use of STATA v.14. Our results indicate that the different categories of physical activities (PA) had some differences on health indicators impacts. Our findings confirm that leading a healthy life style (all types of physical activities and weight maintenance) is an important issue since it has a significant relationship with physical and mental health indicators, but outdoor physical activities and practicing leisure sport in group have shown slightly higher magnitude in association on general health. Magnitude of association of PA with physical and mental health indicators was similar to those observed with smoking and alcohol consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Clinical trials; Mental health; Vaccination; CTU workforce
Online: 1 March 2023 (10:44:52 CET)
The overall objective of this mixed-method digital-based observational study was to determine the mental health impact among CTU staff working during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Qualtrics Core XM platform was used to deploy the questionnaire where a quantitative analysis was conducted. The qualitative part of the study used the Microsoft Teams digital application to complete the interviews. Various validated mental health assessments were administered: Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pandemic Stress Index (PSI), Burnout Assessment Tool-12 (BAT-12), General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE) and The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS). A total of 485 participants took part, of which 73.4% were female and 70.1% of the sample were white British. A high prevalence of anxiety, exhaustion and depression were identified across all participants. A significant mental health impact was identified among the CTU workforce where wellbeing was compromised during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0016.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: rural; mental health; adolescents; access; service user experience; interventions
Online: 16 January 2023 (02:04:32 CET)
Background: Mental health difficulties during teenage years e are common and are a risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. Rural young people are at greater risk for mental health difficulties and have less access to services than their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore young people and their carers’ experiences of mental health support provided by a rural mobile service, and to identify access enablers from the service users’ perspective. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to analyse twelve interviews with current service users and eight interviews with family members of young people who had accessed the service.Results: Three main themes were identified: (a) Access and flexibility, (b) Clinicians’ qualities and strategies, and (c) Experiences of change. The mobile service was perceived to be effective in producing positive change in mental health, relationships and attainment of life goals. Key enablers to access included the flexibility of the mobile service, the variety of service delivery modes and therapeutic methods offered, the ease of access facilitated by location in schools, and young people’s autonomy in how they chose to utilise the service. Conclusion: This study provides information about what is important to rural young people and their families in mental health service provision. The findings have implications for changing the way services are organized and operated. Healthcare policy and services could support user-led model design that incorporates the access and use enablers and removes the barriers to rural mental health support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Eritrean refugees; mental wellbeing; social resilience; Germany; ADAPT model
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:27:03 CEST)
Mental health and social resilience play a significant role in refugees’ adaptation during the resettlement process in the host country. Maintaining good mental wellbeing helps the refugees to respond to stressful experiences with healthy life choices. This study aimed to explore the mental wellbeing and social resilience of Eritrean refugees living in Germany and to identify social conditions and enablers to foster adaptation. This study employs a qualitative approach with a semi-structured, in-depth interview data collection method. Informants were identified among mostly young adult refugees living in Heidelberg, Germany, with a migration history of 3-6 years. In total, 15 informants were recruited through snowball sampling. Data were sorted and analyzed using the five pillars of the Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model. The findings suggest that Eritrean refugees experience psychological distress after resettlement in Germany, however with time, their mental health has improved. The study revealed conditions that were experienced as hindrances, as well as ones that were considered to be resources of positive mental wellbeing and social resilience for resettled refugees. Challenges described were the language barrier, discrimination, unemployment, insecure residence status, loss of family and friends, conflict within the diaspora community, and isolation. The main sources of mental wellbeing and social resilience include the feeling of being welcomed by local communities, access to social services, adopting new relationships, and educational opportunities. These experiences encouraged refugees to have a favorable view of their lives and futures as well as also found to facilitate better integration and adaptation. Understanding refugee mental wellbeing and social resilience require a multidimensional perspective. Eritrean refugees living in Germany have experienced and still are experiencing resettlement challenges, as for example loss of family and friends, negative perception of the German system, loss of past achievements, or unemployment. But they have developed adaptive and resilience mechanisms, too, such as seeing an opportunity for a better life, adopting new roles, and accepting Germany as a “second home”. In addressing those by the refugees as hindrances reported issues, these could be turned into sources of mental well-being and resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mental Health; Primary Health Care; Collaborative Care; Health Assessment
Online: 29 June 2022 (05:05:41 CEST)
The supply of mental health processes in primary care has gaps. This study aims to analyze the association of agreement criteria and flows between primary care teams and the Family Health Support Center (NASF) for mental health collaborative care, considering the difference between capital and non-capital cities in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the Primary Care Access and Quality Improvement Program. Agreement criteria and flows were obtained from 3883 NASF teams of the matrix support or collaborative care. The Chi-square test and multiple Poisson regression were used; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence ratios of negative associations demonstrated protective factors for support actions: follow-up at Psychosocial Care Center, management of psychopharmacotherapy, offer of other therapeutic actions, care process for users of psychoactive substances, and offer of activities to prevent the use of psychoactive substances. Collaborative care in primary care was effective, and capital cities were a protective factor compared with non-capital cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0279.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Paramedic; Violence; Qualitative Research; Operational Stress Injury; Mental Health
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:04:48 CET)
Purpose Violence against paramedics is a complex – but underreported – problem. Extant research suggests organizational culture may play a role in sustaining cultural norms that downplay the significance and limit reporting. Our objective was to qualitatively explore paramedics’ experience with violence, with particular emphasis on understanding how organizational culture contributes to under-reporting. Approach We surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban service in Ontario, Canada, asking participants to describe their experiences with violence, including whether – and why or why not – the incidents were reported. Within a constructivist epistemology, we used inductive thematic analysis with successive rounds of coding to identify and then define features of organizational culture that limit reporting. Findings A total of 196 (33% of eligible) paramedics completed the survey. Fully 98% of participants disclosed having experienced some form of violence; however only a minority (40%) reported the incidents to management, or the police (21%). We defined a framework within which a lack of support from management, and consequences for offenders, implicitly positions the ability of paramedics to “brush off” violent encounters as an expected professional competency. Disclosing emotional or psychological distress in response to violent encounters invited questions as to whether the individual is personally suited to paramedic work. Originality While the extant research has indicated that underreporting is a problem, our findings shed light on why – a critical first step in addressing what has been described as a serious public health problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Diabetic Ketoacidosis; Mental health; Type 1 diabetes; Transition; Glycemia
Online: 12 November 2021 (12:04:43 CET)
The transition of people from paediatric to adult diabetes services is associated with worsening glycaemia and increased diabetes-related hospitalisation. This study compared the clinical characteristics of those with and without mental health conditions among attenders at a diabetes young adult clinic diabetes before and after changes in service delivery. Retrospective review of 200 people with diabetes attending a Sydney public hospital over eight years corresponding to the period before (2012-2016) and after (2017-2018) restructuring of a clinic for young adults aged 16-25 years. Characteristics of those with and without mental health conditions (depression, anxiety, diabetes related distress, eating disorders), were compared. Among clinic attenders (type 1 diabetes n=184, 83.2%), 40.5% (n=89) had a mental health condition particularly, depression (n=57, 64%), which was higher among Indigenous than non-Indigenous people (5.6% vs 0.8% p=0.031) but similar between diabetes type. Over eight years, those with, compared with those without a mental health condition had higher HbA1c at the last visit (9.4%[79 mmol/mol] vs 8.7% [71 mmol/mol], p=0.027), the proportion with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA 60.7% vs 42.7%,p=0.009), smoking (38.4 vs 13.6%,p=0.009), retinopathy (9.0 vs 2.3%,p=0.025), multiple DKAs (28.4 vs 16.0%,p=0.031) were significantly higher. Having a mental health condition was associated with 2.02 (95% Confidence intervals 1.1-3.7) fold increased risk of HbA1c ≥ 9.0%[75mmol/mol]. Changes to the clinic were not associated with improvements in mental health condition (39.0% vs 32.4%, p=0.096). In conclusion, we found that mental health conditions, particularly depression, are common in this population and are associated with diabetes complications. Diabetes type and clinic changes did not affect the reported mental health conditions. Additional strategies are required to reduce complication risks among those with mental health conditions. .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental stress; EEG; data analysis; connectivity network; machine Learning
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:06:13 CEST)
Mental stress is one of the serious factors that lead to many health problems. Scientists and physicians have developed various tools to assess the level of mental stress in its early stages. Several neuroimaging tools have been proposed in the literature to assess mental stress in the workplace. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is one important candidate because it contain rich information about mental states and condition. In this paper, we review the existing EEG signal analysis methods on the assessment of mental stress. The review highlights the critical differences between the research findings and argues that variations of the data analysis methods contribute to several contradictory results. The variations in results could be due to various factors including lack of standardized protocol, the brain region of interest, stressor type, experiment duration, proper EEG processing, feature extraction mechanism, and type of classifier. Therefore, the significant part related to mental stress recognition is choosing the most appropriate features. In particular, a complex and diverse range of EEG features, including time-varying, functional, and dynamic brain connections, requires integration of various methods to understand their associations with mental stress. Over this, the review suggests fusing the cortical activations with the connectivity network measures and deep learning approaches to improve the accuracy of mental stress level assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0654.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Depression; Big data; Social media.
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:50:49 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is provoking a prevalent consequence on mental health because of less interaction among people, economic collapse, negativity, fear of losing jobs, and death of the near and dear ones. To express their mental state, people often are using social media as one of the preferred means. Due to reduced outdoor activities, people are spending more time on social media than usual and expressing their emotion of anxiety, fear, and depression. On a daily basis, about 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are generated on social media, analyzing this big data can become an excellent means to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on mental health. In this work, we have analyzed data from Twitter microblog (tweets) to find out the effect of COVID-19 on peoples mental health with a special focus on depression. We propose a novel pipeline, based on recurrent neural network (in the form of long-short term memory or LSTM) and convolutional neural network, capable of identifying depressive tweets with an accuracy of 99.42%. Preprocessed using various natural language processing techniques, the aim was to find out depressive emotion from these tweets. Analyzing over 571 thousand tweets posted between October 2019 and May 2020 by 482 users, a significant rise in depressing tweets was observed between February and May of 2020, which indicates as an impact of the long ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: athletic program; collegiate sports; UNIVAS; COVID-19; mental management
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:24:42 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among student athlete’s identity and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, this study aimed to clarify the relationship between perceived social support from teammates and mental health in student-athletes. Two studies were conducted to investigate to clarify the mental health states of student-athletes in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Study 1 conducted in April 2020, the participants were 402 male student-athletes, and examined the relationships among student-athlete’s identity and mental health. The results of correlational analyses indicated that there were significant negative correlations between degree of student-athlete’s identity and depression and sports helplessness. In Study 2 conducted in March 2021, the participants were 136 male student-athletes, and examined the relationship between perceived social support from teammates, student-athlete’s identity and mental health. The results indicated that there was significant correlation among social support, student athlete’s identity and mental health. These results suggested that mental health may be improved if student-athletes are strongly aware of their social identity, which is their social role, when unforeseen events such as the COVID-19 pandemic occur. In addition, social support provided by significant others such as teammates may contribute to the improvement of mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0766.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: healthy life style; physical activity; physical and mental health
Online: 31 March 2021 (12:28:13 CEST)
The purpose of this article was to check the effects on health of various types of physical activities, diet, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption and their interrelationships with control for age, sex and level of education. The study was based on epidemiological data (9617 participants from 19 to 81 years old for whom we have health indicators over a period of 11 years) together with questionnaires about diet, alcohol, tobacco and the frequency of different types of physical activities. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric correlational analysis of epidemiological data was performed with use of SPSS v.19. Our results indicate the existence of the significant relationship between leading a healthy life style (type of physical activities, limitations of fats consume and weight maintenance). However, the different categories of physical activities were analysed separately and showed slight differences on health indicators impacts. Our findings confirm that leading a healthy life style (all types of physical activities, limitations of fats consume and weight maintenance) is an important issue since it has a significant relationship with physical and mental health indicators, but outdoor physical activities and practicing sport in group have shown slightly higher impact on health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; mental health; psychological health; anxiety; suicide
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:32:36 CET)
Since its initial outbreak in late 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the global community. In addition to the negative health consequences of contracting COVID-19, the implementation of strict quarantine and lockdown measures has also disrupted social networks and devastated the global economy. As a result, there is rising concern that the pandemic has taken a toll on the mental health of the general population. To better understand its impact, an increasing number of studies examined the effects of the pandemic on mental health and psychosocial implications of enforced quarantine and lockdown. In this article, we aim to review and summarize the findings from a variety of studies that have explored the psychosociological effects of the pandemic and its impact on the mental well-being of the general population. We will also examine how various demographic groups, such as the elderly and youth, can be more susceptible or resilient to the pandemic’s mental health effects. We hope to provide a broader understanding of the underlying causes of mental health issues triggered by the pandemic and provide recommendations that may be employed to address mental health issues in the population over the long-term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0287.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Covid-19; quality of life; mental health; physical health
Online: 8 March 2021 (09:51:55 CET)
Introduction: The majority of epidemiological reports focus on confirmed cases of COVID-19. In this study, we aim to assess the health and well-being of adults not infected with Covid-19 after two months of quarantine in Morocco. Materials and methods: Two months after the declaration of quarantine in Morocco following the Covid-19 epidemic, we carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 279 Moroccan citizens. We used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a determinant of quality of life, which is based on eight dimensions of health. The data were collected using an electronic questionnaire distributed online. The participants also indicated their socio-demographic data, their knowledge and practices regarding the Covid-19 pandemic and whether they had chronic health problems. Results: The quality of life of all participants was moderately disrupted during the Covid-19 pandemic with a mental health score (MCS) of 34.49 (± 6.44) and a physical health score (PCS) of 36.10 (± 5.82). Participants with chronic diseases scored lower with 29.28 (± 1.23) in mental health (MCS) and 32.51 (± 7.14) in physical health (PCS). The seriousness of COVID-19 has an impact on the quality of life and health well-being of people and this impact is more marked in people with chronic health problems. Conclusion: Our results confirm the need to pay attention to the health of people who have not been infected with the virus. Our results also point out that uninfected people with chronic illnesses may be more likely to have well-being problems due to quarantine restrictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0585.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: activism; discrimination; mental health; Obertament; primary care; participation; stigma
Online: 23 December 2020 (11:11:53 CET)
Although it may seem paradoxical, primary care and mental health professionals develop prejudices and discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental health problems in a very similar way to the rest of the population. The main objective of this project was to design, implement and evaluate two awareness interventions respectively tailored to reduce stigma and discrimination beliefs and attitudes towards persons with a mental health diagnosis among primary care (PC) and mental health (MH) professionals. These interventions were developed by Obertament, the Catalan alliance against stigma and discrimination in mental health. The TLC3 (Targeted, Local, Credible, Continuous Contact) methodology was adapted to the Catalan PC and MH professional contexts. Activists with lived experience of mental health diagnosis carried out awareness-raising interventions in PC and MH health centres. The efficacy of these interventions was evaluated using two prospective double-blind cluster-wait-list-randomized-controlled trial experimental designs. Stigmatizing beliefs and behaviours were measured with the Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers in primary care centres and with the Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mental Health Service users’ rights in mental health centres. Positive reductions in both PC and MH professionals’ stigmatising beliefs and attitudes were found in the 1-month follow-up, although a ‘rebound effect’ at the 3-month follow up was also detected. This emphasizes the importance of the continuity of the presence of anti-stigma activities and messages. Attrition rates where high, which can hamper the reliability of the results. Further follow-up studies should enquiry effects of long-term interventions aimed at reducing stigmatising beliefs and attitudes among primary care and mental health professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0533.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; mental health; anxiety, work; stress; personality; loneliness
Online: 21 December 2020 (15:39:19 CET)
Background: COVID-19 crisis has changed the conditions of many throughout the globe. One negative consequence of the on-going pandemic is anxiety brought by uncertainty and the COVID-19 disease. Increased anxiety is a potential risk factor for wellbeing at work. This study investigated psychological, situational, and socio-demographic predictors of COVID-19 anxiety using longitudinal data. Methods: Nationally representative sample of Finnish workers (N = 1308) was collected before and during the COVID-19 crisis. Eighty percent of the participants responded to the follow-up study (N=1044). COVID-19 anxiety was measured with a modified Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory. Psychological and situational predictors included perceived loneliness, psychological distress, technostress, personality, social support received from work community, and remote working. Also, number of socio-demographic factors were investigated. Results: Perceived loneliness, psychological distress, technostress, and neuroticism were identified as robust psychological predictors of COVID-19 anxiety. Increase in psychological distress and technostress during the COVID-19 crisis predicted higher COVID-19 anxiety. Recent change in work field and decreased social support from work community predicted COVID-19 anxiety. Women and young people experienced higher anxiety. Conclusions: Different factors explain workers’ COVID-19 anxiety. Increased anxiety can disrupt wellbeing at work, emphasizing organizations’ role in maintaining an inclusive and caring work culture and providing technical and psychological support to workers during crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: meditation; vagal nerve activity; high-burden caregivers; mental health.
Online: 1 December 2020 (15:11:39 CET)
Background: Caring for a loved one can be rewarding but also associated with substantial caregiver burden, developing mental outcomes and affecting happiness. Eventually, these physical and psychological disorders can lead to an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system. Meditation has been found to offer multiple benefits to relieve these disorders and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a four-week 16-hour presential meditation program on physiological and psychological parameters and vagal nerve activity in high-burden caregivers, comparing the results with those not receiving this program. Methods: A non-randomized repeated-measures controlled clinical trial was conducted, dividing participants between intervention and control groups by convenience allocation because random assignment was ethically inappropriate. Results: After the meditation program, the experimental group showed a significant reduction in anxiety levels (F= 24.92, p<0.001), a non-significant amelioration of depression levels (F= 1.75, p=0.19), and significantly improved heart rate variability (F= 8.40, p<0.05) and SDNN (F=15.59, p<0.05). Conclusions: Meditation can be a useful therapy to enhance the mental health and autonomic nervous system balance of informal caregivers, improving symptoms of physical and mental overload.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: hope; mental health; reliability; validity; principal component analysis; schizophrenia
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:18:42 CEST)
Hope is important in the rehabilitation of persons with schizophrenia, through scales to measure hope are not appropriate for this population. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale-9 (SHS-9) using data from 83 people with schizophrenia in four mental health centers and 762 healthy persons from two universities in South Korea. The mean (standard deviation) SHS-9 score of the participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants was 11.24 (4.90) and 14.83 (3.10), respectively. Lower scores indicate a lower level of hope. The internal consistency alpha coefficient was 0.92 with a 4-week test-retest reliability of 0.89. Criterion-related construct validity was established by examining the correlation between the SHS-9 and the State-Trait Hope Inventory scores. Divergent validity was identified through a negative relationship of SHS-9 with the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The construct validity of the SHS-9 was confirmed through principal component analysis with extraction methods, which resulted in a one-factor solution, accounting for 49–60% of the total item variance.. This study provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the SHS-9; therefore, it could be used to measure hope in people with schizophrenia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental health services; climate change; disasters; trauma; prevention treatment
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:22:41 CEST)
This review examines from a services perspective strategies for preparedness and response to mental health impacts of three types of climate-related events: 1) acute climate-related events such as hurricanes, floods and wildfires, 2) sub-acute or long-term changes in the environment such as drought and heat stress; and 3) the existential threat of long-lasting changes, including higher temperatures, rising sea levels and a permanently altered and potentially uninhabitable physical environment. Strategies for acute events include development and implementation of guidelines and interventions for monitoring and treating adverse mental health outcomes and strengthening individual and community resilience, training of non-mental health professionals for services delivery, and the mapping of available resources and locations of at-risk populations. Additional strategies for sub-acute changes include advocacy for mitigation policies and programs and adaptation of guidelines and interventions to address the secondary impacts of sub-acute events such as economic loss, threats to livelihood, health and well-being, population and family displacement, environmental degradation and collective violence. Strategies for long-lasting changes include implementation of evidence-based risk communication interventions that address the existential threat of climate change, promoting the mental health benefits of environmental conservation, and promoting positive mental health impacts of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0636.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; stress; mental anxiety; depression; children and attributes
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:27:39 CEST)
Coronavirus is believed to have originated from a wet market in Wuhan, China, and has spread all over the world, resulting in a large number of hospitalizations and deaths. Social scientists are just beginning to understand its consequences on human behavior. One policy that public health officials put in place to help stop the spread of the virus were stay-at-home/shelter-in-place lockdown-style orders. Schools, Colleges and Universities across the country have now been shut down till now due to Covid-19. Some Governments in India impose lockdown to reduce the crises created by this unknown virus. It is now difficult to make final assessments by school, school leaving examinations and entrance tests for undergraduate and post-graduate courses. This disruption implies for students across the socio-economic spectrum, both in terms of learning outcomes , food and economic security. Here the aim is to discuss the implications of lockdown-induced in schools in both urban and rural areas in India.The whole world implemented a nationwide lockdown to curb the transmission of the virus. A survey was over Five hundred families to complete a questionnaire with questions around symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and family affluence. The humans who do not have enough supplies to sustain the lockdown were most affected Families with affluence were found to be negatively correlated with stress, anxiety, and depression. Stress, anxiety, and depression more than others are seen in students and healthcare professionals. The main aim of the paper is to find out how symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress on parents due to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0355.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: social media; unemployment; crowdsourcing; natural language processing; mental health
Online: 17 August 2020 (08:29:47 CEST)
Social media, traditionally reserved for social exchanges on the net, has been increasingly used by researchers to gain insight into different facets of human life. Unemployment is an area that has gained attention by researchers in various fields. Medical practitioners especially in the area of mental health have traditionally monitored the effects of involuntary unemployment with great interest. In this work, we compare the feedback gathered from social media using crowdsourcing techniques to results obtained prior to the advent of Big Data. We find that the results are consistent in terms of 1) financial strain is the biggest stressor and concern, 2) onslaught of depression is typical and 3) possible interventions including reemployment and support from friends and family is crucial in minimizing the effects of involuntary unemployment. Lastly, we could not find enough evidence to study effects on physical health and somatization in this work.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychotherapy; mental health; self-management; intervention; art therapy; bonsai
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:30:07 CEST)
Objective: The study investigated the benefit of practicing the art of bonsai and the well-being of practitioners. The art promotes relaxation, focus and art therapy that can have personal and emotional value in a self-help setting. When the bonsai tree is used as a healing object, it may improve the ability of the bonsai practitioner to adapt to adverse and stressful life events, such as the present global COVID-19 pandemic. Method: International bonsai artists (n = 255) participated in a study that examined the effect their bonsai had on their mental well-being. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with bonsai artists answering the question: “How has bonsai helped you?”. Results: Most participants acknowledged that being able to take care of their bonsais affected their mood in a positive manner. Discussion: Although the participants did not report overall improved mental health, participants expressed an improvement in their mood when being able to work on a bonsai tree. Conclusion: These findings are significant in that it can be useful in as a preventative and restorative manner in the mental well-being of people who practice the art.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental health; health service research; burnout; public health; physicians
Online: 14 July 2020 (03:43:43 CEST)
This observational study was ordered by the Medical Practitioners’ Chamber in Warsaw. The objective of the study was to evaluate the health status of physicians in relation to their occupational duties. Professional burnout was considered relative to different features of personality. This study was initially carried out from 2005–2008, but further analysis of burnout and personality was carried out from 2017–2018. The research tools were anonymous, validated questionnaires. The sample size was based on the size of the population— the registry of the Regional Chamber of Medical Practitioners— and literature on burnout prevalence. The respondents’ work places were randomly selected from the Mazovian District register. The test on burnout was completed by 378 respondents, while 62 subjects completed a personality test. Results showed that burnout syndrome was an occupational problem for healthcare workers. Professional burnout affected as many as 42% of respondents(n = 158). It affected two age groups in particular: physicians up to 31 years old and individuals aged 41-50. Moreover, neuroticism was found to be significantly related to burnout syndrome. In conclusion, burnout syndrome is common among medical practitioners, and neuroticism may be correlated with burnout syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental imagery; fear reactivity; emotion recognition; emotion regulation; propriosensitive
Online: 4 December 2019 (12:37:18 CET)
This study investigated the associations of imageability with fear reactivity. Imageability ratings of four word classes: positive and negative (i) emotional and (ii) propriosensitive, neutral and negative (iii) theoretical and (iv) neutral concrete filler, and fear reactivity scores – degree of fearfulness towards different situations (TF score) and total number of extreme fears and phobias (EF score), were obtained from 171 participants. Correlations between imageability, TF and EF scores were tested to analyze how word categories and their valence were associated with fear reactivity. Imageability ratings were submitted to recursive partitioning. Participants with high TF and EF scores had higher imageability for negative emotional and negative theoretical words. The correlations between imageability of negative emotional words and negative theoretical words for EF score were significant. Males showed stronger correlations for imageability of negative emotional words for EF and TF scores. High imageability for positive emotional words was associated with lower fear reactivity in females. These findings were discussed with regard to negative attentional bias theory of anxiety, influence on emotional systems, and gender-specific coping styles. This study provides insight into cognitive functions involved in mental imagery, semantic competence for mental imagery in relation to fear reactivity, and a potential psycholinguistic instrument assessing fear tendency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Economic recession; Mental health; Health status disparities; Spain, GHQ.
Online: 15 October 2018 (12:48:36 CEST)
Previous research suggests that the economic crisis can affect mental health. The purpose of this study was to analyse the association of risk of poor mental health with various socioeconomic, demographic, health, quality of life and social support variables; and to evaluate the contribution of socioeconomic variables most affected by the beginning of the economic crisis (employment situation and income) on the changes in the prevalence of the risk of poor mental health between 2005 and 2010. A study of prevalence evolution in adult population residents of the Valencian Community in the Spanish Mediterranean was conducted. We studied 5781 subjects in 2005 and 3479 in 2010. Logistic regression models have been adjusted to analyse the association between variables. A standardization procedure was carried out to evaluate which part of the changes in overall prevalence could be attributed to variations in the population structure by age, sex, employment status and income between the years under study. The prevalence of GHQ + increased from 2005 to 2010, in both men and women. Several variables were closely associated with the risk of poor mental health (sex, age, country of birth, number of non-mental chronic diseases, social support, disability, cohabitation in couple, employment status, and income). The changes produced as a result of the onset of the economic crisis in income and unemployment (increase in low income and in unemployment rates) contributed to the increase of poor mental health risk. This could confirm the sensitivity of mental health to the economic deterioration caused by the crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0021.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: psychophysiological sensors; mental workload; Web browsing tasks; signal processing.
Online: 4 December 2017 (08:35:51 CET)
The mental workload induced by a Web page is essential for improving the user’s browsing experience. However, continuously assessing the mental workload during a browsing task is challenging. In order to face this issue, this paper leverages the correlation between stimuli and physiological responses, which are measured with high-frequency, non-invasive psychophysiological sensors during very short span windows. An experiment was conducted to identify levels of mental workload through the analysis of pupil dilation measured by an eye-tracking sensor. In addition, a method was developed to classify real-time mental workload by appropriately combining different signals (electrodermal activity (EDA), electrocardiogram, photoplethysmography (PPG), electroencephalogram (EEG), temperature and eye gaze) obtained with non-invasive psychophysiological sensors. The results show that the Web browsing task involves on average four levels of mental workload. Also, by combining EEG with the PPG and EDA, the accuracy of the classification reaches 95.73 %.