REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: theranostics; nuclear medicine; personalized medicine
Online: 22 January 2017 (04:29:27 CET)
The importance of personalized medicine is growing, since there is an urged need to avoid unnecessary and expensive treatments. In nuclear medicine, the theranostic approach is an established tool for a specific molecular targeting in means of diagnostics and therapy. The visualisation of potential targets can help to predict if a patient would benefit from a particular treatment or not. Thanks to the quick development of radiopharmaceuticals and diagnostic techniques, the use of theranostic agents is constantly rising. In this article important milestones of nuclear therapies and diagnostics in the context of theranostics are highlighted. It begins with the well-known radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer and then guides through different approaches for the treatment of advanced cancer with targeted therapies. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of background knowledge, current applications and advantages of targeted therapies and imaging in nuclear medicine practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; alternative medicine; complementary medicine; health behaviours
Online: 8 September 2020 (10:11:37 CEST)
An increasing number of persons with cancer decide to choose complementary and alternative medicine. The purpose of the paper was to check the status of the use of complementary and alternative medicine methods in oncological patients and to compare health behaviours of patients using Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) with those using neither of these methods. The studies were conducted from August till January 2020 in the Oncology Center in the south-eastern Poland. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 208 oncological patients. The authors' own questionnaire and the standardized Health Behaviour Inventory were used. Most of the patients (85,09%) declared that they used complementary and alternative medicine methods. The most common methods chosen by the respondents included vitamin C, green tea and prayer. The vast majority of the respondents did not inform their oncologist about the use of CAM. 45,19% of the respondents had a high rate of health behaviours. It was observed that there was no communication related to the use of CAM among the patients and healthcare staff. Patients using CAM demonstrated more positive health behaviours than those who were not using these methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: microenvironment; radiopharmaceuticals; treatment response; personalised medicine; Nuclear Medicine
Online: 13 April 2021 (08:29:32 CEST)
Background: Molecular nuclear medicine, due to hybrid imaging camera systems and new tailored radiopharmaceuticals, has been gained a clinical relevance for diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of solid tumors. Despite numerous literature studies, many new radiopharmaceuticals for imaging tumor microenvironment, have not yet been used, routinely, in oncological clinical practice to monitor treatments. This is due to poor comparability of published studies, due to poor design and methodology, heterogeneous population and prevalence of preclinical studies. Methods: In this systematic review, we described the use of radiopharmaceuticals for evaluation of tumor treatment response by targeting microenvironment. We reviewed studies published from 2000 to 2020, to provide an updated status of research in this topic. Results: There is a growing role of radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine imaging techniques in the management of cancer treatments, especially immunotherapy. Of the 24 papers included, 16 were preclinical studies. Conclusions: New radiopharmaceuticals could have an excellent impact in molecular imaging, leading to better diagnosis and important clinical information for therapy decision making and follow-up of cancer treatments in different solid tumors. Recently developed radiopharmaceuticals may provide great advantage to improve personalized medicine for patients with a great cost-effectiveness ratio.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0011.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Machine Learning; Precision Medicine; Genomic Medicine; Therapeutic; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:41:27 CEST)
The advancement of precision medicine in medical care has led behind the conventional symptom-driven treatment process by allowing early risk prediction of disease through improved diagnostics and customization of more effective treatments. It is necessary to scrutinize overall patient data alongside broad factors to observe and differentiate between ill and relatively healthy people to take the most appropriate path toward precision medicine, resulting in an improved vision of biological indicators that can signal health changes. Precision and genomic medicine combined with artificial intelligence have the potential to improve patient healthcare. Patients with less common therapeutic responses or unique healthcare demands are using genomic medicine technologies. AI provides insights through advanced computation and inference, enabling the system to reason and learn while enhancing physician decision-making. Many cell characteristics, including gene up-regulation, proteins binding to nucleic acids, and splicing, can be measured at high throughput and used as training objectives for predictive models. Researchers can create a new era of effective genomic medicine with the improved availability of a broad range of data sets and modern computer techniques such as machine learning. This review article has elucidated the contributions of ML algorithms in precision and genome medicine.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0406.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: food as medicine, culinary medicine, farming as medicine, medical education, regenerative agriculture, farming, soil health, nutrition
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:31:12 CEST)
The United States is plagued with the highest rates of preventable metabolic diseases it has ever seen, and while poor nutrition is increasingly recognized as a critical contributing factor, good nutrition has been shown to be a potent factor in prevention and management of these illnesses. Notably, nutrition is inextricably intertwined with farming practices and the stewardship of our environment – particularly its soil. In this proposal, we propose a method to expose medical students to basic agricultural and environmental knowledge regarding the production of food, as well as educate them in practical nutrition education within the interactive, case-based, and longitudinal preclinical curriculum at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine (CWRU SOM). We propose a two-part approach; first: integrating relevant topics in nutrition, culinary medicine, and farming practices into the preclinical blocks through Official Learning Objectives, and second: an optional 8-week, zero credit elective for students interested in pursuing a deeper understanding of these topics. Through these interventions, we believe courses like this will support a generation of physicians able to understand health from soil to plate with a consideration for the environment in addition to exemplifying healthful lifestyles themselves. We believe these kinds of future physicians will be the most effective in treating (and ideally reversing) the chronic disease epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Medical Education; Healthcare; Family Medicine; Medicine; Public Administration & Public Policy
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:03:35 CEST)
Little is known about family medicine academic staff in Taiwan, and basic data about this workforce may aid healthcare decision makers. We analysed data on Taiwan’s 13 medical schools collected by the Taiwan Association of Family Medicine from June to September 2019. Items included medical school names and total staff, and the gender, age, degree, working title (part-time/full-time), academic level, and sub-specialty of each current family medicine faculty member. A total of 116 family medicine faculty members were reported; most were male (n= 85, 73.3%). Ages ranged between 30 and 69 years, with a mean (SD) age of 43.3 (8.09). Faculty members with a master’s degree were the largest group (n= 49, 42.2%), and most were academic lecturers (n=49, 42.2%). Additionally, only about one-fourth (n=26, 22.4%) of family medicine faculty in medical schools were full-time, while the other three-fourths (n=90, 77.6%) were part-time faculty; most were located in northern Taiwan (n=79, 68.1%) and specialized in gerontology and geriatrics (n=55, 47.4%) and hospice palliative care (n=53, 45.7%). Our research provides the most complete census of family medicine academic physicians in medical schools in Taiwan. The results inform efforts to improve the establishment and development of family medicine departments in Taiwan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0120.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Medicine; Applications
Online: 28 October 2022 (09:56:54 CEST)
The medical & the dental field is a never ending field of innovations & developments and each time the reasearchers come up with something new. One such new dimension in the fields of medicine being the incorporation of Artificial intelligence assisted technologies improving diagnosis, treatmemt plan and treatment stategies. This review focusses on the application of different technologies of AI in different fields of medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0430.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Pharmacogenetics; pharmacogenomics; precision medicine
Online: 28 July 2022 (07:25:22 CEST)
Pharmacogenetics (PGx) aims to identify the genetic factors that determine inter-individual differences in response to drug treatment maximizing efficacy while decreasing the risk of adverse events. Estimating the prevalence of PGx variants involved in drug response, is a critical preparatory step for large-scale implementation of a personalized medicine program in a target population. Here, we profiled pharmacogenetic variation in fourteen clinically relevant genes in a representative sample set of 1,577 unrelated sequenced Sardinians -- an ancient island population that well accounts for genetic variation in Europe as a whole and, at the same time are enriched in genetic variants that are very rare elsewhere. To this end, we used PGxPOP, a PGx allele caller based on the guidelines created by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC), to identify the main phenotypes associated with the PGx alleles most represented in Sardinians. We estimate that 99.43% of Sardinian individuals may potentially respond atypically to at least one drug, that on average each individual is expected to have an abnormal response to about 17 drugs, and that for 27 drugs the fraction of the population at risk of atypical responses to therapy is more than 40%. Finally, we highlighted 174 pharmacogenetic variants for which the minor allele frequency is at least 10% higher among Sardinians as compared to other European populations, a fact that may contribute to substantial interpopulation variability in drug response phenotypes. This study provides baseline information for further large-scale pharmacogenomic investigations in the Sardinian population and underlines the importance of the PGx characterization of diverse than European populations as Sardinians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: organoids; aging; precision medicine.
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:07:13 CEST)
The biology of aging is focused on the identification of novel pathways that regulate the underlying processes of aging to develop interventions aimed at delaying the onset and progression of chronic diseases to extend lifespan. However, the research on the aging field has been conducted mainly in animal models, yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans and cell culture. Thus, it is unclear to what extent this knowledge is transferable to humans since they might not reflect the complexity of aging in people. Organoid culture is an in vitro 3D cell-culture technology that reproduces the physiological and cellular composition of the tissues and/or organs. This technology is being used in the cancer field to predict the response of a patient-derived tumor to a certain drug or treatment serving as patient stratification and drug-guidance approaches. Modeling aging with patient-derived organoids has a tremendous potential as a preclinical model tool to discover new biomarkers of aging, to predict adverse outcomes during aging and to design personalized approaches for prevention and treatment of aging-related diseases and geriatric syndromes. This could represent a novel approach to study chronological and/or biological aging paving the way to personalized interventions targeting the biology of aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; alternative and complementary medicine; database; natural products; Mizaj; temperament
Online: 8 May 2019 (10:08:54 CEST)
As a holistic medical school, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) considers the human body as a dynamic and intricate network of interconnecting processes. Currently, systems biology and more precisely systems medicine and pharmacology can be an aid in providing rationalizations for many traditional medications and treatments and elucidating a great deal of knowledge they can offer to guide future research in medicine. Therefore, re-organization and standardization of traditional medicine data are requested more than ever before. To address this issue, we have constructed UNaProd, a Universal Natural Product database for materia medica of ITM. Primarily based on Makhzan al-Advieh, which is the most recent encyclopedia of materia medica in ITM with the largest number of monographs, this database was created using both text mining methods and manual editing. UNaProd is currently hosting to 2696 monographs from herbal to animal to mineral compounds in 16 diverse attributes such as origin and scientific name. In the current version, UNaProd is hyperlinked to IrGO and CMAUP databases for Mizaj and molecular features respectively and it is freely available at http://jafarilab.com/unaprod/.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease; network medicine; inflammation; network and system pharmacology; traditional Chinese medicine
Online: 18 April 2018 (07:41:00 CEST)
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition that currently has no known cure. The principles of the expanding field of network medicine (NM) have recently been applied to AD research. The main principle of NM proposes that diseases are much more complicated than one mutation in one gene, and incorporate different genes, connections between genes, and pathways that may include multiple diseases to create full scale disease networks. AD research findings as a result of the application of NM principles have suggested that functional network connectivity, myelination, myeloid cells, and genes and pathways may play an integral role in AD progression, and may be integral to the search for a cure. Different aspects of the AD pathology could be potential targets for drug therapy to slow down or stop the disease from advancing, but more research is needed to reach definitive conclusions. Additionally, the holistic approaches of network pharmacology in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research may be viable options for the AD treatment, and may lead to an effective cure for AD in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0950.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: fasting; caloric restriction; osteoarthritis; dietary intervention; fasting-mimicking diet; integrative medicine; complementary medicine; Traditional European Medicine; nutrition; multimodal in-tegrative treatment
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:52:40 CEST)
Preliminary clinical data suggest pain reduction through fasting in different diagnoses. This uncontrolled observational clinical study examined the effects of prolonged modified fasting on pain and functional parameters in hip and knee osteoarthritis. Patients admitted to the inpatient department of Internal Medicine and Nature-based Therapies of the Immanuel Hospital Berlin between February 2018 and March 2020, answered questionnaires at the beginning and end of inpatient treatment, as well as 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge. Additionally, selected blood and anthropometric parameters were routinely assessed during the inpatient stay. Fasting was performed as part of a multimodal integrative treatment program, with daily caloric intake of <600 kcal for 7.7 ± 1.7 days. N=125 consecutive patients were included. Results revealed an amelioration of overall symptomatology (WOMAC Index score: -14.8±13.31; p<0.001; d=0.78), and pain alleviation (NRS Pain: -2.7±1.98, p<0.001, d=1.48). Pain medication was reduced, stopped, or replaced by herbal remedies in 36% of patients. Improvements were also observed in secondary outcome parameters, including increased quality of life (WHO-5: +4.5±4.94, p<0.001, d=0.94), reduced anxiety (HADS-A: -2.1±2.91, p<0001, d=0.55) and depression (HADS-D: -2.3±3.01, p<0.001, d=0.65), decreases in body weight (-3.6 kg ± 1.65, p< 0.001, d=0.21), and blood pressure (systolic: -6.2±15.93, p<0.001, d= 0.43; diastolic: -3.7±10.55, p<0.001, d=0.43). Results suggest that patients with osteoarthritis of the lower extremities may profit from a prolonged fast embedded in a multimodal integrative treatment regarding quality of life, pain, and disease-specific functional parameters. Confirmatory RCTs are warranted to further investigate these hypotheses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Nutraceuticals; Personalized Medicine; Precision Medicine; Probiotics; Vitamins; Covid; Dietary Supplements; Adverse Drug Effects
Online: 3 November 2022 (06:27:25 CET)
Nutraceuticals have taken the spotlight during the past two decades as evidenced by the exponential publications on them. Long a part of routine in Traditional Medicine Systems, the rise of their mainstream use globally raises both safety concerns and need for better understanding of efficacious dosing. We attempt to answer these questions in this preliminary scoping review by an analysis of current literature on nutraceutical use as a personalized or prescription medicine. Using Covidence, Rayyan, and manual searches of PubMed, 598 unique publications were selected. 32 are systematic reviews, of which we overview the scope. We also overview 30 papers that address adverse drug reactions. To obtain an unbiased landscape of the 598 papers, we analyzed keywords using multiple methods. Expectedly, the most frequent keywords were probiotics and vitamins. Unexpectedly and remarkably, among the highest keyword yield was ‘COVID’. Further exploring this aspect, we review 15 pertinent papers, that not only provide robust evidence for nutraceutical benefits as part of SARS-CoV-2 treatment, but also amplify the notion that nutraceuticals are protective. Overall, the strident note is that further robust targeted research is needed in order to reap the full benefits of nutraceuticals in a safe and efficacious manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0024.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; Persian medicine; ontology; knowledge-base; Mizaj; temperament; new drug discovery
Online: 3 November 2019 (17:07:50 CET)
Background: Iranian traditional medicine is a holistic school of medicine with a long prolific history. It describes numerous concepts and the relationships between them. However, no unified terminology has been proposed for the concepts of this medicine up to the present time. Considering the extensive use of concepts in the numerous textbooks written by the scholars over centuries, comprehending the totality of the terminology is obviously a very challenging task. To resolve this issue and overcome the obstacles, and code the concepts in a reusable manner, constructing an ontology of the concepts of Iranian traditional medicine seems a necessity.Methods: Makhzan al-Advieh, an encyclopedia of materia medica compiled by Mohammad Hossein Aghili Khorasani, was selected as the resource to create an ontology of Mizaj. The steps followed to accomplish this task included (1) compiling the list of classes for Mizaj; (2) arranging the classes in taxonomy; (3) determining object properties and their cardinalities; (4) specifying annotation properties including codes, labels, synonyms, and definitions for each concept; (5) reviewing the fields pertaining to Mizaj of all monographs in Makhzan al-Advieh. The ontology was created using Protégé with adherence to the principles of ontology development provided by the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) foundry. Results: Mizaj ontology was constructed with a final inclusion of 105 classes, three object properties, and 1078 axioms in the Iranian Traditional Medicine General Ontology database, IrGO, freely available at http://jafarilab.com/irgo/. An indented tree view and an interactive graph view using WebVOWL were used to visualize the ontology. All classes were linked to their instances in the UNaProd database to create a knowledge-base of Mizaj. Conclusion: We constructed an ontology-based knowledge base of ITM concepts of Mizaj in the domain of materia medica to help offer a shared and common understanding of this concept, enable reuse of the knowledge, and make the assumptions explicit. Extending IrGO will bridge the gap between traditional and conventional schools of medicine and help guide future research on new treatment options.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Smoothened; cancer; precision medicine; therapy
Online: 14 September 2022 (09:23:16 CEST)
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Smoothened (Smo) is a central signal transducer of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway which has been linked to diverse forms of tumours. Stimulated by advancements in structural and functional characterisation, the Smo receptor has been recognised as an important therapeutic target in Hh-driven cancers, and several Smo inhibitors have now been approved for cancer therapy. This receptor is also known to be an oncoprotein itself and its gain-of-function variants have been associated with skin, brain, and liver cancers. According to the COSMIC database, oncogenic mutations of Smo have been identified in various other tumours, although their oncogenic effect remains unknown in these tissues. Drug resistance is a common challenge in cancer therapies targeting Smo, and data analysis shows that healthy individuals also harbour resistance mutations. Based on the importance of Smo in cancer progression and the high incidence of resistance towards Smo inhibitors, this review suggests that detection of Smo variants through tumour profiling could lead to increased precision and improved outcomes of anti-cancer treatments.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Complex diseases; Nosology; Systems Medicine
Online: 17 January 2022 (13:01:03 CET)
Complex diseases are prevalent medical conditions which are characterized by strong inter-patient differences in symptom profiles, disease trajectory and treatment response. The challenges in understanding and managing these diseases are due to their complex pathophysiology, comprising of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The traditional model of disease assumes a clear distinction between health and disease, as well as between different diagnoses, but recent findings with regards to diseasomes and network pleiotrophy suggest that this dogma is not useful in understanding complex diseases. This paper presents a novel model, in which the individual disease burden is determined as a function of molecular, physiological and pathological factors simultaneously: disease(symptoms(traits(genes AND environment))). From this a high-dimensional space is defined which includes all individual disease burdens, ranging from healthy (i.e. low disease burden) to multi-morbidity (i.e. high disease burden), termed the disease landscape. This model provides a novel way to conceptualize human physiology and pathophysiology in the context of complex diseases and may present a useful concept to simultaneously address the strong interindividual heterogeneity of diagnose cohorts as well as the lack of clear distinction between diagnoses and health and disease, thus facilitating the progression towards personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0207.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Telehealth, mHealth, wellness, preventative medicine
Online: 10 August 2018 (14:30:16 CEST)
Objective: Health/wellness applications on mobile devices (Apps) may positively affect the health of seniors (persons age 65+). But for an App to promote health in its target audience, it must achieve meaningful use. Method: For one and a half years, residents at a Life Plan Community (mean age 86) used a wellness App running on iPad. In a digital survey, residents rated their overall satisfaction with the App on a scale from 1 (strongly dislike) to 10 (strongly enjoy). Results: User satisfaction (96 respondents of 252; 38% response rate) was distributed with maximum 8, median 7, mean 6.6, and standard deviation 2.3. Discussion: The results suggest that it is feasible to inspire seniors to pursue whole-person wellness using an App: technology may promote “active aging.”
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; mutations; cancer drivers; precision medicine; protein structure; personalized medicine; cancer therapies; genetic signatures
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:15:11 CEST)
Cancer is fundamentally a disease of perturbed genes. Although many mutations can be marked in the genome of a cancer or transformed cell, the initiation and progression were shown to be driven by only a few mutational events viz. driver mutations that progressively govern and execute the functional impacts. The driver mutations are thus believed to dictate and dysregulate the subsequent cellular proliferative function/decisions thereby producing a cancerous state. Therefore, identifying the driver events from the genomic alterations in a patient’s cancer cell gained large attention recently for designing better targeting therapies towards paving way for the precision cancer medicine. With rolling advancements in high-throughput omics technologies, analysis of genetic variations and gene expression profiles for cancer patients has become a routine clinical practice. However, it is anticipated that protein structural alterations resulting from such driver mutations can provide more direct and clinically relevant evidence of disease states than genetic signatures alone. This review comprehensively discusses various aspects and approaches that have been developed for the prediction of cancer drivers using genetic signatures and protein structures, and their potential application in developing precision cancer therapies.Keywords:
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: single-subject studies, personalized medicine, precision medicine, reference standards; gold standards; biomarkers; open-source
Online: 10 November 2020 (16:36:56 CET)
Background: Developing patient-centric baseline standards that enable the detection of clinically significant outlier gene products on a genome-scale remains an unaddressed challenge required for advancing personalized medicine beyond the small pools of subjects implied by “precision medicine”. This manuscript proposes a novel approach for reference standard development to evaluate the accuracy of single-subject analyses of metabolomes, proteomes, or transcriptomes. Since distributional assumptions of statistical testing may inadequately model genome dynamics of gene products, the so-called significant results of previous studies may artefactually conflate with real signals. Model confirmation biases escalate when studies use the same analytical methods in the discovery sets and reference standards, as corroboration of results leads to an evaluation of reproducibility confounded with replicated biases rather than a measure of accuracy. We hypothesized that developing method-agnostic reference standards using effect-size and expression-level filtering of results, obtained from multiple discovery methods that are distinct from the one evaluated, would maximize the evaluation of clinical-transcriptomic signals and minimize statistical artefactual biases. We developed and released an R package “referenceNof1” to facilitate the construction of robust reference standards. Results: Since RNA-Seq data analysis methods often rely on binomial and negative binomial assumptions to non-parametric analyses, the differences create statistical noise and make the reference standards method dependent. In our experimental design, the accuracy of 30 distinct combinations of fold changes (FC) and expression levels (EL) were determined for five types of RNA analyses in two different datasets. This design was applied to two distinct datasets: breast cancer cell lines and a yeast study with isogenic biological replicates in two experimental conditions. In addition, the reference standard (RS) comprised all RNA analytical methods with the exception of the method testing accuracy. To mitigate for biased optimization of the RS parameters towards a specific analytical method, similarity between observed results of distinct analytical methods were calculated across all methods (Jaccard Concordance Index). The greatest differences were observed across diametric extremes. For example, filtering out differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using a fold change < 1.2 leads to a 50% increase in concordance between techniques when compared to results with FC > 1.2. Combining this FC cutoff with genes with mean expressions > 30 counts leads to a 65% increase in concordance in comparison to genes with expression levels < 30 counts and with FC < 1.2. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that comparing accuracies of different single-subject analysis methods for clinical optimization requires a new evaluation framework. Reliable and robust reference standards, independent of the evaluated method, can be obtained under a limited number of parameter combinations: fold change (FC) ranges thresholds, expression level cutoffs, and exclusion of the tested method from the RS development process. When applying anticonservative reference standard frameworks (e.g., using the same method for RS development and for prediction), a majority of the concordant signal between prediction and Gold Standard (GS) cannot be confirmed by other methods, which we conclude as biased results. Statistical tests to determine DEGs from a single-subject study generate many biased results that require subsequent filtering for increasing their reliability. Conventional single-subject studies pertain to one or a few measures in one patient over time and need a substantial conceptual framework extension in order to address the tens of thousands of measures in genome-wide analyses of gene products. The proposed referenceNof1 framework addresses some of the inherent challenges in improving transcriptome scale single-subject analyses by providing a robust approach to constructing reference standards. Github: https://github.com/SamirRachidZaim/referenceNof1
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: complementary and alternative medicine; integrative medicine; knowledge; training and education; psychology; mental health; qualitative
Online: 26 June 2019 (05:31:14 CEST)
Background and objectives: The inadequate knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among health professionals may put their clients in risky situation because they then would find information about CAM from unreliable sources. Clinical psychologists (CPs), as health professionals, have also the opportunity to provide psychoeducation on the latest CAM scientific research to their clients. The current study aimed to explore knowledge and educational needs of CAM among CPs in Indonesia because previous studies on exploring CAM knowledge and educational needs of CAM were primarily conducted in Western countries. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 43 CPs in public health centers (PHCs) in Indonesia. Most interviews were held at the PHCs where participants worked and interviews lasted for 55 minutes, on average. The interview recordings were transcribed and were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. Results: Five main themes emerged within participants’ responses regarding CAM knowledge and educational needs. First (CAM understanding), participants’ responses ranged from those with little or no prior knowledge of CAM treatments and uses, to those with much greater familiarity. Second (source of knowledge), participants’ access ranged widely in terms of references, from popular to scientific literature. Third (why is it important?), participants identified CAM essentially as part of Indonesian culture and it was therefore crucial to have this cultural knowledge. Fourth (the challenges and what is needed?), the challenges for improving participants’ knowledge came from personal and institutional levels. Fifth (what and how to learn?), participants advised that only CAM treatments that fit in brief psychotherapy sessions should be introduced in professional training. Conclusions: This qualitative study discovered that CAM was neither well-known nor understood widely. Participants advised that professional associations and health institutions should work together in enhancing knowledge of CAM and incorporating CAM education into psychology education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1494.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: microgravity; chemotherapy; paclitaxel; hydroxyurea; morphometry; drug response; immune dysfunction; space medicine; terrestrial medicine; fluorescence microscopy
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:34:49 CEST)
Unlike plants which have special gravity-sensing cells, such special cells in animals are yet to be discovered. However, microgravity, the condition of apparent weightlessness, causes bone, muscular and immune system dysfunctions in astronauts following spaceflights. Decades of investigations show correlations between these organ and system-level dysfunctions with changes induced at the cellular level both by simulated microgravity as well as microgravity conditions in outer space. Changes in single bone, muscle and immune cells include morphological abnormalities, altered gene expression, protein expression, metabolic pathways and signaling pathways. These suggest that human cells mount some response to microgravity. However, the implications of such adjustments on many cellular functions and responses are not clear. Here, we addressed the question whether microgravity induces alterations to drug response in cancer cells. We used both adherent cancer cells (T98G) and cancer cells in suspension (K562) to confirm known effects of microgravity and then treated the K562 cells with common cancer drugs (hydroxyurea and paclitaxel) following 48 hours of exposure to microgravity via a NASA-developed rotary cell culture system. Fluorescence-guided morphometry revealed microgravity-induced loss of the significant reduction (p < 0.0l) to the nuclear to cytoplasm ratio of cancer cells treated with hydroxyurea. Our results call for more studies on impact of microgravity on cellular drug-response, in view of the growing need for space medicine, as space exploration grows.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.3390/sci2030070
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: small molecule inhibitor; personalized medicine; precision medicine; oncology; targeted therapy; drug delivery; drug screening; chemotherapy
Online: 8 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The development of targeted therapeutics for cancer continues to receive intense research attention as laboratories and pharmaceutical companies seek to develop drugs and technologies that improve treatment efficacy and mitigate harmful side effects. In the aftermath of World War I, it was discovered that mustard gas destroys rapidly dividing cells and could be used to treat cancer. Since then, chemotherapy has remained a predominant treatment for cancer; however, the destruction of dividing cells throughout the body yields devastating side effects including off-target damage of the digestive tract, bone marrow, skin, and reproductive tract. Furthermore, the high mutation rate of cancerous cells often renders chemotherapy ineffective long-term. Therapies with improved specificity, localization, and efficacy are redefining cancer treatment. Herein, we define and summarize the principal advancements in targeted cancer treatment and briefly comment on the march towards personalized medicine in the treatment of human cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: pharmacogenomics; immune checkpoint blockade; immunotherapy; drug response prediction; algorithm; mathematical model; precision medicine; personalized medicine
Online: 11 August 2019 (14:51:14 CEST)
Background: Accurate prediction of patients’ response to therapy is clinically indispensable, howbeit challenging. With increased understanding of the human genome and malignancies, there is the renaissance of in silico pharmacogenomics with renewed interest in drug response predictability based on gene-drug interaction. Objective: Evidence-based transcript-proteome profiling is essential for synthesizing clinically applicable algorithms for predicting response to anticancer therapy, including immune checkpoint blockade (ICBT); thus, saving physicians’ time, reducing polypharmacy, and curtailing unnecessary treatment expense. In this study, we tested and validated the hypothesis that a selected proteomic signature in ICBT-naïve patients is sufficient for the prediction of response to ICBT. Methods: Using a multimodal approach consisting of computational pharmacogenomics, transcript-proteome analytics, mathematical modeling, and machine learning systems; we delineated therapy-sensitivity and stratified patients into graduated response groups based on their proteomic profile. Protein expression levels in our cohort tissue specimens were evaluated based on T cell- and non-T cell- inflamed phenotypes by immunohistochemistry. Results: We established β-catenin, PDL1, CD3 and CD8 expression-based ICBT response model. Statistical regression models validated the predictive association between our predefined algorithms and therapeutic outcome. Interestingly, our 4-gene prediction classifier was constitutively independent of tumor tissue origin, correctly stratified patients into high-, low-, and non- responders pre-treatment, with high prediction accuracy, and exhibited good association with patients’ performance status and prognosis (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the possibility of accurate proteomics based ICBT response prediction and provide a putative basis for drug response prediction based on selective proteome profile in untreated cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma; traditional Chinese medicine; Chinese herbal products; complementary and alternative medicine; Gan-Lu-Yin
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:09:08 CEST)
In most countries, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is no more than 1 per 100,000 for both men and women; however, it is much higher for men and women in Taiwan. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of NPC and its treatment-related side effects has been increasing. The National Health Insurance (NHI) covers 99.6% of Taiwan’s residents. In the present population-based cohort study, we aimed to investigate the pattern of utilization of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) for NPC from 2001 through 2011 in Taiwan. We identified a total of 30294 patients with newly diagnosed NPC from the Registry for Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database (RCIPD). Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for CHP utilization. From 2001 through 2011, 17816 patients aged ≥20 years were newly diagnosed with NPC. Of these, 4749 patients used TCM outpatient services for NPC treatment. TCM users were more likely to be women, young, residents of Central Taiwan, and white-collar workers. The most commonly prescribed formula CHP was Gan-Lu-Yin, followed by Xin-Yi-Qing Fei-Tang and Shan-Shen-Mai-Men-Dong-Tang. The most commonly prescribed single CHP was Hedyotis diffusa, followed by Radix Scrophulariae and Radix Ophiopogonis. These findings provide information regarding personalized therapies for NPC and can promote further clinical experiments and pharmacological research on CHPs for NPC treatment in Taiwan. Further well-designed randomized controlled studies and basic mechanistic studies should assess the safety and effectiveness of CHPs for NPC treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: predictive preventive personalized medicine; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium; probiotics, gut microbiota; patient phenotype, individualized medicine; metabolic syndrome
Online: 11 September 2018 (06:00:03 CEST)
The modification the gut microbiota in metabolic syndrome and associated chronic diseases is among leading tasks of microbiome research and needs for clinical use of probiotics. Evidence lack for the implications for microbiome modification to improve metabolic health in particular when applied impersonalized. Probiotics have tremendous potential in personalized nutrition and medicine to develop healthy diets. The aim was to to conduct comprehensive overview of recent updates of role of microbiota on human health and development of metabolic syndrome and efficacy of microbiota modulation considering specific properties of probiotic strain and particular aspects of metabolic syndrome and patient`s phenotype to fill the gap between probiotic product and individual to facilitate development of individualized / personalized probiotic and prebiotic treatments. We discuss the relevance of using host phenotype-associated biomarkers, those based on imaging and molecular and patrient`s history, reliable and accessible to facilitate person-specific appication of probiotics and prebiotic substances. Microbiome phenotypes can be parameters of predictive medicine to recognize patient`s predispositions and evaluate treatment responses; the number of phenotype markers can be effectively involved to monitor microbiome modulation. The studied strain-dependent properties of probiotic strains are potentially relevant for individualized treatment for gut and distant sites microbiome modulation. The evidence regarding probiotic strains properties can be taken to account via pathophysiology-based approach for most effective individualized treatment via gut, oral and vaginal and other sites microbiome modulation according to phenotype of the patient providing individualized and personalized medical approaches. Preventive potential of probiotics is strong and well-documented. Recommendations for individualized clinical use of probiotics, and for probiotic studies design have been suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: shelter medicine; animal sheltering; shelter surgery; veterinary medical education; veterinary student training; population medicine; biosecurity
Online: 24 October 2017 (03:47:43 CEST)
While referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant routine surgery and diagnostic skills. Veterinary hospitals must maintain a steady caseload that provides wellness cases and commonly encountered conditions. Shelter Medicine programs can create the opportunities to meet these challenges. Students can gain quantifiable surgical experience in spay/neuter with measured growth in surgical efficiency and competency while providing needed community service for animal shelters. Students can directly interact with shelter animals by performing examinations, diagnostic testing, and development of treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. Furthermore, students can obtain a working knowledge of biosecurity on a population level to minimize risk of infectious diseases spreading to healthy populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1566.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: pharmacogenetics; psychiatry; personalized medicine; CYP2D6; CYP2C19
Online: 22 September 2023 (11:46:06 CEST)
Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing to inform antidepressant medication selection and dosing is gaining attention from healthcare professionals, patients, and payors in Australia. However, there is often uncertainty regarding which test is most suitable for a particular patient. Here, we identified and evaluated the coverage of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 variants in commercial antide-pressant PGx testing panels in Victoria, a large and ethnically diverse state of Australia. Test characteristics and star alleles tested for both genes were obtained directly from pathology la-boratories offering PGx testing and compared against the Association of Molecular Pathology’s recommended minimum (Tier 1) and extended (Tier 2) allele sets. Although all tests covered the minimum recommended alleles for CYP2C19, this was not the case for CYP2D6. This study em-phasizes that PGx tests might not be suitable for all individuals in Australia due to the limited range of star alleles assessed. Inadequate haplotype coverage may risk misclassification of an individual’s predicted metabolizer phenotype which has ramifications for depression medica-tion selection and dosage. The study underscores the urgent need for greater standardization in PGx testing and emphasizes the importance of considering genetic ancestry when choosing a PGx testing panel to ensure optimal clinical applicability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: artificial Intelligence; medicine; advances; challenges; technology
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:43:19 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as a disruptive technology in various areas, and medicine is no exception. In the last decade, there has been rapid progress in the application of AI in healthcare, from diagnosing and prognosticating diseases to improving operational efficiency in hospitals. This literature review explores the advances of artificial intelligence in the field of medicine, discusses its benefits, and discusses the ethical and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed to maximize its potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1110.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: traditional medicine; life expectancy; health care
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:17:14 CEST)
The study investigated the impact of traditional medicine on life expectancy in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study adopted a quantitative research approach. Purposive or judgmental sampling was used to elucidate the data set used for the study. Cross-sectional data were gathered with the help of a well-designed questionnaire from a total of three hundred and fifty-seven (357) respondents who were available for the survey. The data set collected was analysed using descriptive and linear regression using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS). From the results, 53%, 87%, and 56% were male, below 50 years old, and in the low-income class, respectively, suggesting that the bulk of the respondents under investigation were male, young, and had rather modest incomes. Also, 53% were married, and all had one form of formal education. 67% of respondents acknowledge using traditional medicine; however, the majority of respondents preferred Orthodox medical care over alternative kinds of care. Traditional medicine (TM) and factors that contribute to the advancement of traditional medicine (FITM) have a negative impact on life expectancy, according to the regression analysis. On the other hand, TM has no statistically significant impact on life expectancy, despite FITM having a statistically significant effect at the 5% level. All available data, however, indicates that TM and FITM have an impact on life expectancy, either directly or indirectly. Based on the results, this study concluded that traditional medicine has the potential to significantly increase life expectancy in Nasarawa State and throughout Nigeria. The study recommends that traditional health professionals, stakeholders, and concerned government agencies should put efforts in place to improve and promote modern traditional medicine among the people, especially its effectiveness and medicinal quality, increase its accessibility to people, and efficiently regulate its prices to increase its affordability for low-income earners
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Transgender medicine; fertility; fertility preservation; infertility
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:54:13 CEST)
Fertility preservation technologies have existed for decades, and the field is rapidly advancing; limited data exist regarding the use of these technologies by transgender patients. Many options are available for transgender patients who wish to preserve fertility before transitioning. These options include the cryopreservation of gametes, ovarian tissue, or embryos. Currently, ejaculated, or testicular sperm, immature oocytes, and ovarian tissue can be preserved for later use, but no such use option exists for immature testicular tissue. Many financial, sociological, and legal barriers and a lack of awareness among physicians and patients also hindered the utilization of these fertility preservation services. While options are abundant, usage rates are relatively low. The initial data regarding the successful use of preserved tissues appears promising, with birth rates not dissimilar to non-transgender patients. Further investigations into this area are needed. In addition, counseling regarding fertility preservation options should become a significant part of the provider-patient conversation before transitioning therapies.; fertility; transgender; reproductive technology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Epilepsy; Neuroimmunology; Neuroinflammation; Epileptogenesis; Personalized medicine
Online: 21 February 2022 (14:59:18 CET)
Background: Immunologic and neuro-inflammatory pathways have been found to play a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders such as epilepsy, proposing the use of novel therapeutic strategies. In the era of personalized medicine and in the face of the exhaustion of anti-seizure therapeutic resources it is worth looking at the current or future possibilities that neuroimmunomodulator or anti-inflammatory therapy can offer us in the management of patients with epilepsy. Methods: We performed a narrative review on the recent advances on the basic epileptogenic mechanisms related to the activation of immunity or neuroinflammation with special attention to current and future opportunities for novel treatments in epilepsy. Results: Neuroinflammation can be considered a universal phenomenon and occurs in structural, infectious, post-traumatic, autoimmune, or even genetically based epilepsies. The emerging research developed in recent years has allowed us to identify the main molecular pathways in-volved in these processes. These molecular pathways could constitute future therapeutic targets for epilepsy. Conclusions: Different drugs current or in development have demonstrated their capacity to inhibit or modulate molecular pathways involved in the immunologic or neuroinflammatory mechanisms described in epilepsy. Some of them should be tested in the future as possible antiepileptic drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: forest bathing; forest medicine; human health
Online: 19 January 2022 (14:24:50 CET)
According to several evidence, forest environmental seems able to provide beneficial effects on functional and psychological parameters, related to cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory functions as well depression and anxiety. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a one-day forest walking in Selva di Castelfidardo (AN, Italy) on 37 participants aged 21-68, most of them living in either urban or suburban areas of large cities. We observed a statistically significant effect on sympathovagal balance by the means of heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body temperature, skin temperature, skin conductance, HRV parameters (AVNN, SDNN, rMSSD, pNN50, LF, HF, LF/HF ratio), oxygen oximetry, PEF, FEV1. A significant difference was also detected on the Perceived Stress Scale responses (19.27 pre vs 13.81 post-immersion, p=<0,05; -28,3% variation). Our data contribute to increase the body of literature about the effect of forest walking, adding data on an Italian area qualified for forest bathing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Translational Medicine; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 18 October 2021 (11:06:18 CEST)
The huge advancement of Internet web facilities as well as the progress in computing and algorithm development, along with current innovations regarding high-throughput techniques enables the scientific community to gain access to biological datasets, clinical data, and several databases containing billions of information concerning scientific knowledge. Consequently, during the last decade the system for managing, analyzing, processing and extrapolating information from scientific data has been considerably modified in several fields including the medical one. As a consequence of the mentioned scenario, scientific vocabulary was enriched by novel lexicons such as Machine Learning (ML)/Deep Learning (DL) and overall Artificial Intelligence (AI). Beyond the terminology, these computational techniques are revolutionizing the scientific research in drug discovery pitch, from the preclinical studies to clinical investigation. Interestingly, between preclinical and clinical research, the translational research is benefitting from computer-based approaches, transforming the design and execution of the translational research, resulting in breakthroughs for advancing human health. Accordingly, in this review article, we analyze the most advanced applications of AI in translational medicine, providing an up-to-date outlook regarding this emerging field.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Eastern Desert; Ethnobotany; Herbal medicine; Nomads
Online: 30 July 2021 (10:04:43 CEST)
This survey was conducted on 4 tribes (Ababda, Bisharia, Nubian and Rashayda) live in the south of the Nile and the Eastern Desert of Egypt with the aim to document and compare the traditional herbal medicines and assess the relationships among these tribes. A total of 180 interviews were conducted with the Bedouins and herb healers. Thirty-nine species belonged to 36 genera and 27 families were employed. Fabaceae and Poaceae and Rutaceae were the species-rich families. The used wild species comprised 43.6%, cultivated species (38.5%) and the imported from herbalist shops (17.9%). The leaves were the most used parts (31%), followed by stems and fruits with about 22% each. Distinct species included Acacia nilotica is used in the treatment of dental pain with use value 33.3%, Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus in treatment of both cough or headache with use values 35 and 30.6% and a combination of Acacia nilotica with Lawsonia inermis in the treatment of sore throat with use value 22.2%. The highest similarity was recorded between Nubian and Rashayda tribes (55.3%), Ababda and Bisharia (46.8%). Diarrhea and headache were the most popular diseases with 7 different treatments, cough and dental pains with 6 treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0532.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; platelets; regenerative medicine
Online: 23 July 2021 (09:58:26 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) present a great potential for the development of new treatments in the biomedical field. To be used as therapeutics, many different sources have been used for EVs obtention, while only few studies have addressed the use of platelet derived EVs (pEVs). In fact, pEVs have been shown to intervene in different healing responses, thus some studies have evaluated their regenerative capability in wound healing or hemorrhagic shock. Even more, pEVs have proven to induce cellular differentiation, enhancing musculoskeletal or neural regeneration. However, the obtention and characterization of pEVs is widely heterogeneous and differs from the recommendations of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles. Therefore, in this review, we aim to present the main advances in the therapeutical use of pEVs in the regenerative medicine field while highlighting the isolation and characterization steps followed. The main goal of this review is to portray the studies performed in order to enhance the translation of the pEVs research into feasible therapeutical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Colorectal cancer; personalized medicine; biomarker; variant
Online: 15 April 2021 (08:10:42 CEST)
Discovery of novel variants from data derived from local population provides confident targets for developing biomarkers for personalized medicine. Biomarker discovery would be an important tool in advancing and utilizing the concept of precision and personalized medicine in the clinic. We identified the need to generate high quality sequencing data from local population and understand the pattern of occurrence of variants in colorectal cancer patients. In this report, we used archived samples from Saudi Arabia and used Ampliseq Comprehensive Cancer panel to identify novel somatic variants. We report a comprehensive analysis of next generation sequencing results with a coverage of >300X. We identified 466 novel variants which were previously unreported in COSMIC and ICGC databases. We analyzed the genes associated with these variants in terms of their frequency of occurrence, probable pathogenicity and clinicopathological features. Among pathogenic somatic variants, 174 were identified for the first time in large intestine. APC, RET and EGFR genes were most frequently mutated. Higher number of variants were identified in left colon. Occurrence of variants in ERBB2 was significantly correlated with those of EGFR and ATR genes. Network analyses of the identified genes provide functional perspective of the identified genes and suggest affected pathways and probable biomarker candidates. This report lays the ground work for biomarker discovery and identification of driver gene mutations in local population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Microbiome; Personalized Medicine; Integrative Oncology; Oncobiotic
Online: 17 February 2021 (13:29:27 CET)
Sound evidence recognizes the microbiota as one of the major players in human health and disease, including cancer. Every human being is an holobiont, a shared human and microbial ecosystem, in which microbial composition is individually set by behaviours and environmental factors during the first years of life. Thereafter it is modulated by diet, physical activity, emotions and drugs (in particularly antibiotics and chemotherapeutics). As a consequence, a shift in medicine is needed toward a more comprehensive practice that takes into account every individual's genoma and, in addition, his or her metagenome, known as microbiome: a "microbiota revolution". As regards breast cancer (BC), a clear link between microbiota and oncogenesis is still to be confirmed. Specific microbes display unique features regulating their host niche in a number of body sites, which can result in an increased risk of cancer; in addition, gut microbiota composition plays a role in immune modulation within the intestinal barrier, affecting local and systemic inflammation, recognized drivers of cancer. Moreover, part of the bacterial gene mass inside the gut, constituting the so called “estrobolome”, influences the sexual hormonal balance and subsequentely may impact on the onset, progression and treatment of hormonal dependent cancers. Microbiota is also clearly involved in modulating the response to anticancer treatments, and above all to the emerging immunotherapy. Based on these premises, the microbiome is becoming a potential target, in order to enhance efficacy of antitumoral treatments as well as to lower their toxicity. The complex scenario that links microbiome composition to oncogenesis and response to anticancer treatments defines the frames of a new “oncobiotic” perspective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Ionised Magnesium; Preoperative Medicine; ICU; Dysmagnesemia
Online: 15 October 2020 (15:08:40 CEST)
Monitoring and measuring magnesium (Mg) values are essential to prevent the development of numerous complications in perioperative medicine and critically ill patients. Although previous studies suggest that measuring free ionized magnesium (iMg) is more useful for estimating Mg status, clinicians currently rely on measurement of total serum magnesium to determine if supplemental magnesium is needed. In this review, we analyzed the recent literature to decide whether it is better to measure ionized serum Mg or total serum Mg when assessing magnesium status, whether iMg predicts clinical outcome, and what are the difficulties in measuring serum iMg levels in intensive care patients and perioperative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: coronavirus; football; rules; sports medicine; prophylaxis
Online: 2 September 2020 (05:27:55 CEST)
The soccer injury rate is distinctly higher during matches than the training sessions. Rules determine how to play, generating specific kinds of fatigue which is associated with the injury incidence. No research has evaluated the impact of potential rule-induced physical demands in soccer or comparing sports. Understanding the differences might be useful for enhancing rules (e.g., safer sport). Therefore, the aims of this study were: a) to described the differences in the rule-induced physical demands of soccer, futsal, basketball, and handball; and b) to evaluate whether soccer rule-induced physical demands are different than the other invasion intermittent team sports, focusing the impact of the substitutions rules. Data were collected from different sports rules (i.e., soccer, futsal, basketball, and handball), and performed hypothetical corrections to equate the other team sports to the soccer (i.e., court dimensions/number of players). The data showed that soccer has higher rule-induced physical demands: lower substitutions, higher dimensions in absolute (eight to 15 times), and relative (four to eight times) values. Hypothetical corrections showed that soccer has remarkably large differences. Therefore, we conclude that soccer has remarkably higher rule-induced physical demands than other team sports, and allowing unlimited substitutions in soccer is a must.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: rheumatology, immunology, precision medicine, biologic drugs
Online: 23 August 2019 (09:54:02 CEST)
Tumour necrosis factor-α is a key mediator of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis its discovery led to the development of highly successful anti-TNF therapy. Subsequently, other biologic drugs targeting immune pathways, namely interleukin-6 blockade, B cell depletion, and T cell co-stimulation blockade, have been developed. Not all patients respond to a biologic drug leading to a knowledge gap between biologic therapies available and the confident prediction of response. So far, genetic studies have failed to uncover clinically informative biomarkers to predict response. Given that the targets of biologics are immune pathways, immunological study has become all the more pertinent. Furthermore, advances in single cell technology have enabled the characterisation of many leucocyte subsets. Studying the blood immunophenotype may therefore define biomarker profiles relevant to each individual patient’s disease and treatment outcome. This review summarises our current understanding of how immune biomarkers might be able to predict treatment response to biologic drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: e-portfolio; clinical skills; competences; medicine
Online: 11 May 2018 (04:45:11 CEST)
Clinical training in medical schools in Spain is performed by rotations in university hospitals. During these internships, students are expected to acquire and master basic procedural skills. However, the assessment tools available rarely check whether these skills are completely acquired by the students. We have used an e-portfolio to determine the optimal number of times the students need to repeat a procedure to be able to perform it independently. The results were compared with the actual performance during the internships. An e-portfolio collected qualitative information about the internships. Quantitative information was also requested about the number of times each clinical skill was performed. Later, a survey asked these students and their teachers the optimal number of times each skill should be repeated before it could be considered fully acquired. The questionnaire was answered by 98.6% of the students and 70.3% of their teachers. Out of the 21 clinical skills and procedures selected, both students and their tutors agreed in a similar optimal value in 16 of them; only in five of them, teachers thought that students needed a greater number of times than that selected by the students. When these optimal values were compared with the actual values recorded in the portfolio during the internships, it was found that about half of the clinical skills were carried out less frequently than expected, thus providing an important feedback about the internships. Quantitative information collected in portfolios reveals a moderate mismatch between students and tutors perceptions of their training needs.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: emergency; hospital; emergency health; medicine; management
Online: 21 August 2017 (12:47:01 CEST)
Introduction: The management performance of hospitals in emergency departments in coping with clinical hazards is necessary for their success in providing quality services. The purpose of this study is to provide an optimization procedure and applying management performance in health and medical emergency on the rate of emergency preparedness of the suburb city hospitals. Research method: A semi-experimental and interventional descriptive study in the emergency department of Shahid Motahari Hospital in 2015-2016. Data was collected through the standard checklist of hospital emergency responsiveness test to WHO disasters with 90 questions in 9 domains which is codified by the World Health Organization, in the form of interviews and observing evidences , and if necessary a numerical analysis. Initially, the situation was measured according to this checklist. In the next stage, a set of solutions was developed and then the solutions were implemented according to the obtained information. Data analysis before and after proposing the procedure and its application in order to improve the quality of health management performance and emergency preparedness was performed using central indices, and for describing and presenting the survey results, tables and graphs were used. Results: The highest and lowest emergency preparedness rates for disasters and emergencies before the proposed procedure were the Communication Factor (%77/8) and Human resource factor (%2/8) respectively. The degree of preparedness of the medical center was measured in the management performance according to the model (WHO) before proposing the procedure (%77.98). The researcher's procedure provided and applied based on the information obtained from survey environment, location and type of hospital structure. After providing the procedure, the maximum and minimum rates were the continuity of service factor (%58.3) and post-accident rebuilding factor (%100), respectively. Generally, the rate of emergency preparedness of studied medical center in management performance for coping with disasters and medical emergencies was measured (%97.2) according to hospital emergency responsiveness test for accidents and (WHO). The significance level is less than 0.05, so we can say that the effectiveness with confidence (95%) was effective. Conclusion: According to the statistics of accidents and disasters in the suburb cities, the results of the research and the importance of the role of emergency departments in interurban hospitals in controlling accidents, the need for planning and implementation of practical measures such as conducting training courses on health management in disasters and emergencies, having an estimate of critical and essential resources, changing the structure, providing manpower (emergency management) in order to more precise control and ease of service, maintenance and repair of equipment, timely triage and retrofitting of hospitals were effective in improving their preparedness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1261.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: virtual twins; personalized medicine; precision medicine; digital twin methodology; multi-modal data sources; AI; data integration
Online: 17 August 2023 (08:03:04 CEST)
One of the most promising advancements in healthcare is the application of digital twin technology. Digital twins are virtual replicas of real-world human patients and can be used for monitoring, and diagnosis, and as a tool to design treatment strategies tailored to individual patients. Furthermore, digital twins could also be helpful in finding novel treatment targets and predicting the effects of drugs and other chemical substances in development. This review article delves into the various data sources and methodologies that contribute to the construction of digital twins. Each data source, including blood glucose levels, heart MRI and CT scans, cardiac electrophysiology, written reports, and multi-omics data, comes with different challenges regarding standardization, integration, and interpretation. We showcase how various datasets and methods are used to overcome these obstacles and generate a digital twin. While digital twin technology has seen significant progress, there are still hurdles in the way to achieving a fully comprehensive patient digital twin. Developments in non-invasive and high-throughput data collection, as well as advancements in modeling and computational power will be crucial to improve digital twin systems. We discuss a few critical developments in light of the current state of digital twin technology. Despite challenges, digital twin research holds great promise for personalized patient care and has the potential to shape the future of healthcare innovation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0287.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; Influenza; Morbidity; Mortality; Flu; Pneumonia; Virus Infections; Preventive Medicine; Hospitalization; Internal Medicine; Respiratory illness.
Online: 29 April 2022 (04:22:05 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Our goal was to evaluate whether wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) such as an N95, or a surgical mask during the (COVID-19) pandemic had really reduced the cases of influenza in the state of Wisconsin. Methods: Respiratory Virus Surveillance Reports from the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were used to compare the rates of Influenza during the seasons of 2018-2019 and 2020-2021. Results: The number of cases, hospitalizations, and mortality rates with Influenza had significantly decreased in the 2020-2021 season compared to the Influenza season of 2018-2019. Discussion: Reducing the burden of influenza illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths on the health care system is imperative. Wearing masks should be addressed for the most vulnerable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0037.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: metabolic syndrome; periodontitis; periodontal medicine; cardiovascular disease
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:33:36 CEST)
This study assessed the associations between host genetic variants and subgingival microbiota in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS); 103 patients with MetS underwent medical and periodontal examinations and had blood and subgingival plaque samples taken. DNA was extracted and processed (assessing a panel of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) first (hypothesis-testing), and then expanding to a discovery phase. The subgingival plaque microbiome from these patients was profiled. Analysis of associations between host genetic and microbial factors was performed, stratified for periodontal diagnosis. Specific SNPs within RUNX2, CAMTA1 and VDR genes were associated with diversity metrics, with no genome-wide associations detected for periodontitis severity or Mets components at p<10-7. Severe periodontitis was associated with pathogenetic genera and species. Some SNPs correlated with specific bacterial genera, as well as with microbial taxa, notably VDR (rs12717991) with Streptococcus mutans and RUNX2 (rs3749863) with Porphyromonas gingivalis. This is the first study exploring the role of host genotype variation in subgingival microbial dysbiosis in patients with MetS and periodontitis. In conclusion, variation in host genotypes may play a role in the dysregulated immune responses characterizing periodontitis and thus the oral microbiome, suggesting that systemic health-associated host traits further interact with oral health and microbiome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0581.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; medicine; explainable AI; interpretable AI
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:53:03 CEST)
Due to the success of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in the medical field over the past decade, concerns about the explainability of these systems have increased. The reliability requirements of black-box led algorithms for making decisions affecting patients pose a challenge even beyond their accuracy. Recent advances in AI increasingly underscore the need to incorporate explainability into these systems. While most traditional AI methods and expert systems are inherently interpretable, recent literature has focused primarily on explainability techniques for more complex models such as deep learning. This scoping review analyzes the existing literature on explainability and interpretability of AI methods in the medical and clinical field, providing an overview of past and current research trends, and limitations that might impede the development of Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) in medicine, challenges, and possible research directions. In addition, this review discusses possible alternatives for leveraging medical knowledge to improve interpretability in clinical settings, while taking into account the needs of users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1736.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Organotherapy; Placenta; Peptides; Nano-peptides; Integrative Medicine
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:58:31 CEST)
For several millennia, doctors and healers used therapeutic ingredients extracted from minerals, plants, and animals. Among the active remedies derived from animals, the placenta was among the most popular ones. The use of placenta-based remedies has retained its significance in our time. The placenta-based therapeutics are indicated for stimulating immunity, wound healing, reduction of skin pigmentation, treatment of various patients suffering from gynecological disorders, etc. By the beginning of the 21st century, the majority of specific functions and chemical ingredients of the placenta were identified and described. However, only now active proteins and peptides with molecular weight of about ten kDa were revealed. Presumably, they play an essential role during the therapeutic application of placental extract. Hopefully, this discovery will start a new era in the research and clinical application of organotherapeutic remedies, including placenta.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1598.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: asthma; precision medicine; phenotypes; endotypes; pathogenetic mechanism
Online: 24 July 2023 (11:01:29 CEST)
Asthma is a prevalent disease that around 300 million worldwide, resulting in substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic burden on a global scale. New clinical and laboratory research has shed light on the immunology causing asthma. Asthma is now recognized as a heterogeneous disease. A personalized medicine is based on the classification of asthma by endotype by linking observable characteristics to immunological mechanisms. Identifying endotype mechanisms is essential for better characterizing patients and personalizing therapeutic approaches with novel biological agents that target specific immune pathways. This article provides a summary of the major immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and emergence of the disease's phenotypic features, as well as the individualized treatment for severe asthma subtypes
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1152.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Medicine; Deep Learning
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:39:56 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming increasingly important, especially in the medical field. While AI has been used in medicine for some time, its growth in the last decade has been remarkable. Specifically, Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques in medicine have been increasingly adopted thanks to the growing abundance of health-related data, improved suitability of such techniques for managing large data-sets, and more computational power. The Italian scientific community has been instrumental in advancing this research area. This article aims to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the ML and DL methodologies and applications used in medicine by the Italian research community in the last five years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1192.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Primary Biliary Cholangitis; Risk Stratification; Precision Medicine
Online: 18 July 2023 (08:52:15 CEST)
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease with a heterogeneous presentation, symptomatology, disease progression, and response to therapy. The current risk stratification assessment, aimed at identifying patients with a higher risk of disease progression, encompasses an in-depth analysis of demographic data, clinical and laboratory findings, antibody profiles, and the evaluation of liver fibrosis using both invasive and non-invasive techniques. Treatment response scores after one year of therapy remain to date a major factor influencing the prognosis of PBC patients. While the initial therapeutic approach with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is universally applied, new second-line treatment options have recently emerged, with many others under investigation. Consequently, the prevailing one-size-fits-all approach is poised to be supplanted by tailored strategies, ensuring high-risk patients receive the most appropriate treatment regimen from diagnosis. This will require the development of a risk prediction model to assess, at the time of diagnosis, the course, outcome, and response to first and additional treatments of PBC patients. This manuscript provides a comprehensive overview of the current and emerging tools used for risk stratification in PBC and speculates on how these developments might shape the disease landscape in the near future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0865.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Diabtetic retinoapthy; Exosomes; extracellular vesicles; precision medicine
Online: 13 June 2023 (03:08:48 CEST)
Diabetes and diabetes-induced micro and macrovascular complications are major causes of healthcare problems. The extracellular vesicles are produced by all cells from all organisms. They are shown to have properties of the producer cells and also reflect the host physiology and pathology. Since the EVs represent the cellular state they are excellent biomarkers. In this review, we will focus on the EVs produced by the Neuro Vascular Unit cells of the eye as well as the extraocular cells in the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. A brief account of the use of these nanovesicles in personalised medicine is also given.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1531.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomaterials; Hybrid Materials; Tissue Engineering; Regenerative Medicine
Online: 22 May 2023 (16:19:46 CEST)
The main purpose of tissue engineering is to fabricate and exploit engineered constructs suitable for the effective replacement of damaged tissues and organs, and able to perfectly integrate with the host’s organism without eliciting any adverse reaction. Ideally, autologous materials represent the best option, but they are often limited due to the low availability of compatible healthy tissues. So far, one therapeutic approach relies on the exploitation of synthetic materials: they exhibit good features in terms of impermeability, deformability and flexibility, but present chronic risks of infections and inflammations. Alternatively, biological materials, including naturally derived ones and acellular tissue matrices of human or animal origin, can be used to induce cells growth and differentiation, which are needed for tissue regeneration: however, this kind of materials lacks satisfactory mechanical resistance and reproducibility, affecting their clinical application. In order to overcome the above-mentioned limitations, hybrid materials, which can be obtained by coupling synthetic polymers and biological materials, have been investigated with the aim to improve biological compatibility and mechanical features. Currently, the interest in these mate-rials is growing, but the ideal ones have not been found yet. The present review aims at exploring some applications of hybrid materials, with particular mention to urological and cardiovascular fields: in the first case, the efforts to find a construct that can guarantee impermeability, mechanical resistance and patency will be herein illustrated; in the second case, the search for impermeability, hemocompatibility and adequate compliance will be been disclosed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0360.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: plants; cannabinoids; CBD; pharmacology; dental medicine; patents
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:00:26 CEST)
The medical use of Cannabis has a very long history. Although many principles are present in cannabis, called cannabinoids, Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and can-nabinol (CBN) are the three main cannabinoids most present and described. CBD itself is not re-sponsible for psychotropic effects of cannabis since does not produce the typical behavioral effects associated to the consumption of this drug. Cannabidiol (CBD) has recently gained growing at-tention in modern society and seems to be more and more explored in dentistry. Several subjective findings suggest some therapeutic effects of CBD, which are strongly supported by research evi-dence. However, there is a plethora of data regarding CBD’s mechanism of action and therapeutic potential, which are in many cases contradictory. We will first provide an overview of scientific evidence on the molecular mechanism of CBD’s action. Furthermore, we will map the recent de-velopments regarding possible oral benefits of CBD. In summary, we will highlight CBD’s prom-ising biological features for dentistry application, despite exiting patents suggest current the compositions for oral care as the main interest for industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: external fixation; acupuncture; pain; orthopedic; Chinese medicine
Online: 2 May 2023 (10:49:26 CEST)
Introduction: The application of external fixation devices consists of wires insertion through the skin and soft tissue to the bone. We examined the possible analgesic effect of stimulating an acupoint by the fixation wires which mimics the acupunctures treatment. Material and methods: retrospective work. Between 2015 to 2018 107 patients were treated with an external fixation for a tibial fracture. 33 patient files were found to be eligible for the review. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups: the study group included patients with a wire inserted through the ST36 (Zu San li) acupoint location, the control group had the wire inserted elsewhere. Patient's record was reviewed for 5 days following surgery. Data collected included analgesic consumption and pain level recorded on a visual analog scale (VAS). Results: 33 patients were included in the review. 20 patients in the study group and 13 served as the control group. In the study group VAS average was Mean (M)=1.4853 ± 1.30 while in the control group M=2.3885± 1.77 with no statistical relevance (P>0.05). Only on day 4 the study group had less pain than the control: M=0.40 ± 0.843, versus M=2.57 ± 2.149 (Mann=Whitney Z= -2.413, P<0.05). No statistical difference was found between groups in relation to analgesic consumption. Conclusions: In patients suffering from a tibial fracture treated with an Ilizarov external fixation device, locating a wire in the anatomical location of acupoint ST 36 had no effect on analgesic consumption and a minimal effect on patients’ pain levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0218.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Microbiome; Endocrine disruptors; Estrobolome; Personalized medicine; Oncobiotic
Online: 10 March 2023 (02:21:55 CET)
The microbiota is now recognized as one of the major players in human health and disease, in-cluding cancer. As regards breast cancer (BC), a clear link between microbiota and oncogenesis is still to be confirmed. Yet, part of the bacterial gene mass inside the gut, constituting the so called “estrobolome”, influences the sexual hormonal balance and, since the increased exposure to estrogens is associated with an increased risk, it may impact on the onset, progression, and treatment of hormonal dependent cancers, which account for more than 70% of all BCs. The hormonal dependent BCs are also affected by environmental and dietary endocrine disruptors and phytoestrogens which interact with microbiota in a bidirectional way: on one side disruptors can alter the composition and functions of the estrobolome, on the other the gut microbiota influences the metabolism of endocrine active food components. This review highlights the current evidence about the complex interplay between endocrine disruptors, phytoestrogens, microbiome, and BC, within the frames of a new “oncobiotic” perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: BNO 1016; antibiotics; herbal medicine; sinusitis; phytotherapy
Online: 19 December 2022 (04:05:48 CET)
(1) Background: To substantiate the clinical efficacy and investigate the real-world effectiveness of the herbal medicinal product BNO 1016 in acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) in the context of antibiotic stewardship. (2) Methods: Clinical efficacy: We performed a meta-analysis of the clinical trials ARhiSi-1 and ARhiSi-2 comprising 676 patients, analysing the reduction of the Major Symptom Score (MSS) and improvement of SNOT-20. Real-world effectiveness: In addition, we performed a retrospective cohort study including 203,382 patients, comparing the real-life effectiveness of BNO 1016 in reducing ARS-related adverse outcomes in comparison to antibiotics and several other established therapies. (3) Results: Clinical efficacy: Treatment with BNO 1016 ameliorated symptoms of ARS by reducing MSS by 1.9 points (p<0.0001) and improved quality of life (QoL) for patients by improving SNOT-20 by 3.5 points (p=0.001) in comparison to placebo. In patients with moderate/severe symptoms, the positive effects of BNO 1016 were even more pronounced (MSS: –2.3 points (p<0.0001); SNOT-20: –4.9 points (p=0.0158)) compared to placebo. Real-world effectiveness: Treatment with BNO 1016 was as effective or significantly more effective in reducing the risk for adverse ARS-related outcomes such as follow-up antibiotic prescriptions, sick leave ≥7 days or medical appointments due to ARS, especially when compared to antibiotics. (4) Conclusions: BNO 1016 is a safe and effective treatment for ARS that can help reduce the overuse of antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Wharton's jelly; Regenerative Medicine; Osteoarthritis; Cartilage Defects
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:08:45 CEST)
The primary objective of this study is to report the initial efficacy data observed with the use of cryopreserved human umbilical tissue allograft for the supplementation of cartilage defects in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Our primary endpoints were pain, stiffness, and functional recovery scores. In this ongoing study, 55 participants (age 56-93 years) received a single Wharton's jelly tissue allograft application. The study dose consisted of 150mg of Wharton's jelly allograft suspended in approximately 2mL of sterile Sodium Chloride 0.9% solution (normal saline). Each study knee application was performed under ultrasound guidance in a physician's office. The research methodology consisted of NPRS scores and WOMAC subsection scores including pain, stiffness, and physical function. Study enrollment consisted of 55 patients followed for a post-application duration of 90 days. No adverse events or adverse reactions were reported. The results demonstrated statistically significant improvements of NPRS and WOMAC in initial versus 90-day examination. The data represents Wharton's jelly tissue allograft applications are a safe, non-surgical, and efficacious for patients with symptomatic articular cartilage defects associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Medical Cannabis; history of cannabis; medicine; cannabinoids
Online: 7 April 2022 (04:14:19 CEST)
The cannabis plant has been known for millennia for its properties such as textile fiber, food, recreational and medicinal use. Since the origin of its domestication in Asia, cannabis has been transported to the rest of the continents by merchants, nomads, settlers, and slaves, who have also carried with them valuable knowledge about its uses. Its medical use was one of the major contributions of this plant in the various civilizations through which it passed. This article aims to understand its origins, dissemination, and medical use over the years to the present day.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: lung ultrasound; LUS, children; asthma; personalized medicine
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:48:13 CET)
In recent years, lung ultrasound (LUS) has been increasingly used for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in both adult and pediatric patients. However, asthma is a field in which the use of LUS is not yet well defined or is in development. In the following case series, we describe clinical, laboratory, radiological results as well as detailed lung ultrasound findings of 6 children with asthma: some of them with acute asthma attack and with inadequately controlled allergic asthma or childhood asthma; others with acute asthma and allergic or infantile asthma adequately controlled by preventive therapy. Finally we describe the clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters of a child with severe allergic asthma in the absence of exacerbation. In these cases, albeit at different times, LUS played an important role in both the initial diagnostic process and follow-up. It also showed different ultrasound features depending on the severity of the individual asthma based on the type of asthmatic phenotype and control of it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0643.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Nanocarriers; Nanotheranostics; Nuclear Medicine; Nanoparticles; Drug delivery
Online: 26 May 2021 (14:00:58 CEST)
Background: Convectional methods for drug delivery often faces setbacks due to systemic distribution, short half-life and degradation of therapeutics and therefore reduce concentrations of drug available to target tissue. Nanotheranostic provide a novel method for treating and diagnosing diseases Methodology: collection and review of relevant literatureResult: while nanotheranostic offer advantage of personalized medicine and often combines diagnosis and therapy using single molecular approach, nuclear medicine relies on radioactive isotopes to diagnosed and destroys cancer cells. In both cases, nanocarriers such as lipid-based, polymer-based, drug-conjugate, inorganic nanoparticles are used to deliver drugs/probes/isotopes to target site, generating images and thereafter chemotherapy/radiotherapy begins.Conclusion: Nanotheranostic plays important role in diseases diagnostic, therapy, imaging, monitoring of disease progression / response through the use of nanocarriers. This is made possible through nanoparticles/nanocarriers that delivers drug to the target tissues/cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: osteopathic manipulation; cranial osteopathy; reproducibility; osteopathic medicine
Online: 10 April 2020 (03:26:52 CEST)
Background and Objectives: The techniques directed to the cranial field in osteopathy are the most questioned due to the lack of scientific evidence. In osteopathic practice, manual palpation is essential and, therefore, measuring reliability is fundamental. The objective of study is to assess the reliability and validity of osteopathic treatment depending on experience. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of reliability and validity was conducted. For measurements, a strain gauge was placed on the sphenobasilar synchondrosis of the skull base, and three maneuvers (lateral compression, anteroposterior compression and compression maneuver of the mastoids) were repeated 25 times each by osteopaths with different time of experience (5-10 years, 1-5 years, <1 year). Measurement averages were computed for each of the three maneuvers to verify the average effect of each group in comparison to that of the Gold Standard (GS) (>10 years of experience). Data were analyzed to check for inter- and intra-observer reliability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Results: Reliability and validity in 5-10 experience of observer 1 and observer 2 in the tree maneuvers was excellent (p<0.001) against GS. Poor or enough reproducibility and concordance were observed in osteopaths with less experience. Conclusion: Experience of osteopaths determines the efficacy of cranial maneuvers in osteopathic treatment for patients’ rehabilitation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: efficacy; ethno-veterinary; livestock; medicine; smallholder farmer
Online: 9 March 2020 (10:03:51 CET)
Often touted as an ancient and sustainable practice among indigenous livestock farmers in developing countries, the use of ethno-veterinary medicine is examined within the context of its efficacy. While there are undoubtedly positive implications for adopting knowledge and practice that align with nature, there is both prevalence and ambivalence to the adoption of indigenous plant knowledge and resources for the treatment of livestock infections and diseases. This situation is due to the lack of validation and standardization of the practice in low-income countries, requiring scholarly efforts in developing this indigenous knowledge system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: obesity; herbal medicine; molecular docking; α-amylase
Online: 25 July 2019 (08:12:19 CEST)
Reducing carbohydrates digestion by having low glycaemic index (GI) foods has been linked to weight loss. Inhibiting related enzymes is an alternative way to decrease carbohydrate digestion. RCM-107, an eight-herb formula that is modified from the RCM-104, has indicated significant weight-loss action in clinical trials. However, no research has been conducted to study its effect on the activity of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA), which is involved in carbohydrate absorption. In this paper, we used fluorescence PPA inhibition assay to investigate the inhibitory effects of RCM-107 and the individual herbs present in this herbal mixture on amylase activity. Subsequently, molecular docking predicted the key active compounds that may be responsible for the enzyme inhibition. According to our results, both the RCM-107 formula and several individual herbs displayed α-amylase inhibitory effects. Also, marginal synergistic effects of RCM-107 were also detected. In addition, alisol B, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and plantagoside have been predicted as the key active compounds that may be responsible for the α-amylase inhibition effect of RCM-107 according to inter-residue contact analysis. Finally, Glu233, Gln63, His305, Asp300 and Tyr151 are predicted to be markers of important areas with which potential amylase inhibitors would interact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1620.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: diagnostic; stem cells; human body; transplantations; regenerative medicine
Online: 23 August 2023 (04:33:23 CEST)
Stem cells can be used in cellular therapy. This happended in order to replace damaged cells or having aim to regenerate organs. The definition of stem cells can be extended. From this point of view, we can mention taking in consideration the idea in which it is known that these cells form the base of the building body. More than, we can mention that stem cells are characterized by two knowing properties namely differentiation and selfrenewal. Based on the observation that differentiation of adult stem cells into specific derivativescan be controlled by laboratory techniques, it is anticipated that adult stem cells may become the basis of therapies for many, and various types of medical conditions. Taking on stem cells, regenerative medicine (RM) it is known as being one of the hottest topics in biotechnology nowadays. From this purpose, stem cells can be used in regenerative medicine (RM). The principles of regeneration are found in different types of cultures, from long time ago, centuries etc.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1454.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; GPT-4; Artificial intelligence; Biology; Medicine; Dentistry
Online: 22 August 2023 (02:56:53 CEST)
Chat generative pre-trained transformer (ChatGPT) is a developed language model and a subgroup of artificial intelligence (AI) which has demonstrated noticeable innovation in interactions between computer models and human studies. The release of ChatGPT in November 2022 attracted over 100 million users in a short time. It has unlimited applications in different fields of studies such as technology and science. ChatGPT utilizes deep learning and internet text to produce responses that resemble human language, although their accuracy is not always guaranteed. ChatGPT and GPT-4 can make a huge revolution in biology, medical, dental research, and health care. However, it's important to acknowledge the limitations of ChatGPT such as limitation in accessing the latest data. ChatGPT has generated both excitement and concern regarding its potential misuse. Its utilization in scientific publications has sparked debates and prompted the development of policies to govern the use of it. Although ChatGPT has certain limitations, it could impact on many different fields of study. There are challenges associated with using ChatGPT in the field of laboratory medicine and biology, particularly in the interpretation of test results. In this article, we review some of the applications of ChatGPT and GPT-4 in biology, dental and medical studies, and concerns about ChatGPT. Despite ChatGPT's conversational abilities are impressive, there are important considerations regarding its use in different fields of research and academic public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: data science; artificial intelligence; machine-learning; digital medicine
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:11:45 CEST)
Recent advances in mathematical modelling and artificial intelligence have challenged the use of traditional regression analysis in biomedical research. This study examined artificial and cancer research data using binomial and multinomial logistic regression and compared its performance with other machine learning models such as random forests, support vector machines, Bayesian classifiers, k-nearest neighbours and repeated incremental clipping (RIPPER). The alternative models often outperformed regression in accurately classifying new cases. Logistic regression had a structural problem similar to early single-layer neural networks, which limited its ability to identify variables with high statistical significance for reliable class assignment. Therefore, regression is not always the best model for class prediction in biomedical datasets. The study emphasises the importance of validating selected models and suggests that a mixture of experts approach may be a more advanced and effective strategy for analysing biomedical datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1769.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; proteomics; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine
Online: 26 July 2023 (07:06:41 CEST)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive therapeutic tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine owing to their regenerative and trophic properties. The best-known and most widely used are bone marrow MSCs which are currently being harvested and developed from a wide range of adult and perinatal tissues. MSCs from different sources are believed to have different secretion potentials and production which may influence their therapeutic effects. To confirm it, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis based on the TMT technique of MSCs from three different sources: Wharton’s jelly (WJ), dental pulp (DP) and bone marrow (BM). Our analysis focused on MSC biological properties of interest for tissue engineering. We identified a total of 611 differentially expressed human proteins. WJ-MSCs showed the greatest variation compared with the other sources. WJ produced more extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and ECM-affiliated proteins and appeared more able to modulate the inflammatory and immune response. BM-MSCs displayed enhanced differentiation and paracrine communication capabilities. DP-MSC appeared to promote exosome production. The results obtained confirm the existence of differences between WJ, DP and BM-MSC and the need to select the MSC origin according to the therapeutic objective sought.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0656.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Bioactive chemicals; Pharmacology; Phytochemistry; Rydingia michauxii; Traditional Medicine
Online: 11 July 2023 (04:25:04 CEST)
Bioactive plant compounds, also known as phytochemicals, are essential for plant resistance, growth, and development. These chemicals often possess therapeutic properties that have been used in traditional medicine for centuries as herbal remedies for a variety of diseases. As a member of the Lamiaceae family, Rydingia (Syn: Otostegia) is found in Asia and northeastern Africa. R. michauxii, is a unique shrub that grows in the Southern region of Iran, Fars province. Rydingia species have been used as traditional herbal medicine in Iran for many years. It seems that R. michauxii offers great potential for in-depth research on its diverse biological properties, especially its antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects. Nevertheless, no clinical investigation has been carried out on the phytochemical characteristics of this plant to date. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge on the pharmacological properties of R. michauxii and its phytochemical compounds and encourage researchers to evaluate its biological properties in animal models. In this study, all available scientific literature was compiled and all phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the R. michauxii plant were investigated, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, antimalarial, cytotoxic, and lipid-lowering effects, which may prove useful in developing novel formulations with greater therapeutic benefits in clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1795.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: fibroin, scaffold; carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); osteocyte; regenerative medicine
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:47:20 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of composite scaffolds in combination of fibroin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in bone tissue engineering. Fibroin is a useful biomaterial and is a major component of silk yarns composed of fibrous proteins. Improving for binding efficiency in bone formation after implanted scaffold, CMC was added to fibroin. CMC could improve injectable characters in bone substitutes by adding in scaffold material, fibroin. The porous shapes, porosity, surface wettability, water absorption, and thermal properties of the CMC added fibroin scaffold were better than fibroin only scaffold. For tissue engineering of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), BMSCs isolated from mice were seeded onto the scaffold, and the cell proliferation rate was measured. alkaline phosphatase activity in BMSCs was higher in the scaffold containing CMC than that in the scaffold containing fibroin alone. The expression levels of osteocyte marker genes and proteins were increased in the CMC scaffold. The biocompatibility and hydrophilicity of CMC scaffolds play important roles in the growth and proliferation of osteocytes. Furthermore, the CMC scaffold design proposed in this study could play an important role in facilitating cartilage, ossification, and nerve differentiation of BMSCs.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1592.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Laboratory Medicine; Survey
Online: 22 June 2023 (10:35:13 CEST)
Background: The EFLM Task Force Preparation of Labs for Emergencies (TF-PLE) created a survey that has been distributed to its members for gathering information on the key hazards experienced by European medical laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The survey was distributed to over 12,000 potential contacts (laboratory workers) via an EFLM newsletter, with responses collected between May 8 and June 8, 2023. Results: Two hundred replies were collected and examined from European laboratories. 69.7% and 78.1% of all responders said they were short on non-COVID and COVID reagents, respectively. Exactly half of respondents (50.0%) said that they could not complete all laboratory tests required for a specific period, but this figure climbed to 61.2% for COVID tests. Finally, 72.3% of respondents expressed exhaustion during the pandemic, and 61.2% reported increasing patient hostility. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on laboratory medicine in Europe. Cultural change, proactive planning, and even re-engineering in some parts of the laboratory industry may thus be necessary to prepare for future challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1196.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: metabolomics; nutrimetabolomics; One Health; public health; personalized medicine.
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:29:36 CEST)
Metabolomics is an advanced technology, still under development, with multiple research applications, especially in the field of health. Individual metabolic profiles, the functionality of the body, as well as its interaction with the environment can be established using this technology. The body's response to various external factors, including the food consumed and the nutrients it contains, has increased researchers' interest in nutrimetabolomics. Establishing correlations between diet and the occurrence of various diseases or even the development of personalized nutrition plans, could contribute to advances in precision medicine. The interdependence between humans, animals and the environment are of particular importance today, with the dramatic emergence and spread of zoonotic diseases, food, water and soil contamination, and the degradation of resources and habitats. All these events have led to an increase of risk factors for functional diseases, burdening global health. Thus, this study aimed to highlight the importance of metabolomics, in particular of nutrimetabolomics, as a technical solution for a holistic, collaborative, and precise approach for the advancement of the One Health strategy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: antibiotics; antibiotic therapy; antibiotic resistance; evolutionary medicine; ethics
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:32:00 CEST)
The first half of the 20th century was noteworthy for the introduction of a unique group of drugs – antibiotics. It drastically changed concepts of infectious diseases treatment, which for centuries remained a scourge of the human population. With improvement of the antibiotic treatment efficacy, humanity has faced the problem of a dramatic increase in antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated the problem and posed a new challenge to the medical community in finding solutions, both clinical and organizational and methodological, to fight antibiotic resistance widespread all over the globe. This publication covers some aspects of evolutionary processes in either pathogens or diseases, including ethical perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1999.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: 1; elderly 2; oral pathology 3; oral medicine
Online: 29 May 2023 (08:47:15 CEST)
The elderly present age-related morphological and histological changes of the oral cavity; Literature displays many studies regarding the specific pathologies of the oral cavity in elderly patients, but no etiologically based classification is available. The aim of this study was to analyze the series of patients over 65 who were treated by our Unit of Pathology between 2020 and 2022 for a suspicion of oral lesion or for preventive dental evaluation (in anticipation of cardiac surgery, anti-resorptive drugs intake, chemotherapy, radiotherapy of the head-neck district or transplantation). The analysis was conducted by dividing oral lesions into 5 groups depending on the etiology: reactive, immunological, traumatic, benign and malignant degenerative. The sixth group consisted of patients undergoing preventive dental evaluation. The study included 435 patients; 91 of them were diagnosed with a reactive origin pathology, 174 with immunological origin pathology, 48 with traumatic pathology and 86 with degenerative pathology (42 benign and 44 malignant). 36 patients went to our Unit for preventive specialist evaluation. Oral health has a major impact on the daily life of the elderly; The examination of oral mucosa in geriatric patients is a fundamental diagnostic moment to report lesions early, thus allowing easier prevention and treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Euryale ferox; traditional medicine; phytochemical constituents; pharmacological effects
Online: 5 May 2023 (09:57:25 CEST)
Euryale ferox, which belongs to the family of Nymphaeaceae, has been widely distributed in China, India, Korea, and Japan. The seeds of E. ferox (EFS) have been categorized as superior food for 2000 years in China, based on its abundant nutrients including polysaccharides, polyphenols, sesquineolignans, tocopherols, cyclic dipeptides, glucosylsterols, cerebrosides, and triterpenoids. These constituents exert multiple pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant, hypoglycemic, cardioprotective, antibacterial, anticancer, antidepression, and hepatoprotective properties. There are very few summarized reports on E. ferox, albeit with its high nutritional value and beneficial activities. Therefore, we collected the reported literatures (since 1980), medical classics, databases, and pharmacopeia of E. ferox, and summarized the botanical classification, traditional uses, phytochemicals, and pharmacological effects of E. ferox, which will provide new insights for the further research and development of EFS-derived functional products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0719.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Personalized therapy; Pharmacogenomics; Personalized medicine; Antitumor; Natural products
Online: 21 April 2023 (10:33:44 CEST)
In recent years, the FDA has approved numerous antitumor drugs that are mutation-based for clinical use. These drugs have improved the precision of treatment and reduced adverse effects and side effects. Personalized therapy is a prominent and hot topic of current medicine and also represents the future direction of development. With the continuous advancements in gene sequencing and high-throughput screening, research and development strategies for personalized clinical drugs have developed rapidly. This review elaborated the recent personalized treatment strategies, which include artificial intelligence, multi-omics analysis, chemical proteomics, and computation aided drug design. These technologies rely on the molecular classification of diseases, the global signaling network within organisms, and new models for all targets, which significantly support the development of personalized medicine. Meanwhile, we summarized chemical drugs such as lorlatinib, osimertinib, and other natural products that deliver personalized therapeutic effects based on genetic mutations. This review also highlights potential challenges in interpreting genetic mutations and combining drugs, while providing new ideas for the development of personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics in cancer study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Falls; Falls risk assessment tools; geriatric medicine; sarcopenia
Online: 14 April 2023 (09:38:29 CEST)
Background: Falls risk assessment tools are used in hospital inpatient settings to identify pa-tients at increased risk of falls (which may be related to muscle loss/sarcopenia) to guide and target interventions for falls prevention. In 2022, Western Health, Melbourne, Australia, intro-duced a new falls risk assessment tool, the Western Health St. Thomas’ Risk Assessment Tool (WH-STRATIFY), a modified version of The Northern Hospital’s risk tool (TNH-STRATIFY), which replaced the Peninsula Health Risk Screening Tool (PH-FRAT). Aims: To determine the predictive accuracy of three falls risk assessment tools (PH-FRAT, TNH-STRATIFY and WH-STRATIFY) on admission to Geriatric Evaluation Management (GEM) units. Method: A retrospective observational study was conducted on four GEM units. Data was col-lected on 54 consecutive patients who fell during admission and 62 randomly sampled patients who did not fall between December 2020 and June 2021. Participants were scored against three falls risk assessment tools. The event rate Youden (Youden IndexER) indices were calculated and compared using default and optimal cut points to determine which tool was most accurate for predicting falls. Results: Using default cut points to compare falls assessment tools, TNH-STRATIFY had the highest predictive accuracy (Youden IndexER = 0.20, 95% confidence interval CI = 0.07, 0.34). The PH-FRAT (Youden IndexER = 0.01 and 95% CI = -0.04, 0.05) and WH-STRATIFY (Youden IndexER = 0.00 and 95% CI = -0.04, 0.03) were statistically equivalent and not predictive of falls compared to TNH-STRATIFY. When calculated optimal cut points were applied, predictive accuracy im-proved for PH-FRAT (Cut point 17, Youden IndexER = 0.14 and 95% CI = 0.01, 0.29) and WH-STRATIFY (Cut point 7, Youden IndexER = 0.18 and 95% CI = 0.00, 0.35). Overall, all tools had low predictive accuracy for falls. Conclusion: TNH-STRATIFY had the highest predictive accuracy for falls. The predictive accu-racy of WH-STRATIFY improved and was significant when the calculated optimal cut point was applied. The optimal cut points of falls risk assessment tools should be determined and validated in different clinical settings to optimise local predictive accuracy, enabling targeted falls risk mitigation strategies and resource allocation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sports medicine; transdisciplinary; clinical trials; sports science; thermography
Online: 23 February 2023 (04:08:46 CET)
This paper aims to list the current challenges in the study of Sports Medicine in Brazil based on a review of the literature and the author's experience as a member of a transdisciplinary team in this field, as well as to discuss methods for establishing an appropriate and organized course of health activities in this context. The authors identified four significant contemporary difficulties in the field of sports medicine in Brazil that, while minor, are complicated. There is a need to publish a greater number of national studies, generate integrated knowledge through transdisciplinary research, propose sports and movement as a tool for the prevention of degenerative conditions, and research and develop better therapeutic options through transdisciplinary research. It is expected that a transdisciplinary approach will reduce divergences between the real world and science, putting an end to dogmatism, prejudice, and theoretical thinking, increasing the scientificity of sports, bringing competitive advantages, improving training, performance, and athlete health management, and contributing to the advancement of sports medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Covid-19; Medicine; Practice; Bedelle city; Self-Medication
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:09:14 CEST)
Abstract Introduction There is a clear link between self-medication practice and ongoing pandemic diseases like COVID-19, According to studies conducted globally and the general Ethiopian population turned to self-medication and symptomatic treatment as a result of inadequate COVID-19 treatment and also about 80% of the population amassed drugs for pandemic use. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess self-medication practice for treatment of Covid-19 and reason to use self- medication among residents in Bedelle city and its surrounding, Southwest Oromia, Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross sectional study design was employed and the standardized questionnaire was developed by reviewing relevant literatures then the data was collected using face to face interview. Final data was analyzed by using SPSS version 23. Result: The final study contained 415 respondents in total, with a response rate of 98.5%. The majority of responses were females and between the ages of 18 - 25 Category. In this study population, the use of self-medication since the onset of the Covid-19 epidemic was reported by participants were around 50.6%. Analgesics (42.4%) and cold medicines (29.5%) were the most frequently used medications for treatment of COVID-19. Also the reported uses of these drugs included treatment of Covid-19 symptoms like the Headache (22.2%), Fever (13.2%), respiratory infective (14.3%), and cold (21.4%) were the most frequently reported symptoms for self-medication. Self-medication methods were used more frequently by women than Men. Conclusion: According to this study, analgesics and cold medications are commonly self- medicated drugs used for Covid-19 therapy. It is a serious health concern, particularly when COVID-19 symptoms are present, and high consumption of self-medication has been linked to COVID-19 prevention or treatment. Key words: Covid-19, Medicine, Practice, Bedelle city, Self-Medication
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Polypharmacy management, COVID -19, Gender medicine, economic perspective
Online: 7 September 2022 (02:29:58 CEST)
Background: Covid-19 patients with any pre-existing cardio-vascular disease (CVD) are at highest risk for viral infection and for developing of severe disease. Pathophysiological mechanism is characterized by the viral link to Angioten-sin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the involvement of the endothelial system with the release of cytokines and direct damage on myocardium, micro throm-bosis, and alterations of oxygen diffusion. Aim of the study is to analyze clinical course, treatment and outcome in patients (gender stratified) with pre-existing CVD. Methods: Out of the 1299 (700 M/599 F) patients admitted to Internal Medicine COVID Unit of “Castelli Hospital”, Lazio, Italy, from 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021, 278 patients (167 M/111 F), mean age 76 (76 M/ 75 F) had previous CVD. Demographic characteristics, length of the stay (LOS) and oxygen therapy were evaluated. Results: Most common CVD pathologies were Hearth Failure (HF): 131 (72 M/59 F), Atrial Fibrillation (AF): 45 (25 M/20 F), Myocardial Infarction (MI): 26 (19 M/7 F) and associations among them. 100% of CVD COVID patients under-went Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and were treated with more than 5 drugs. HF was linked with increased LOS (23 days) compared to AF (21 days), MI (18 days) and no CVD (16 days). Overall mean LOS was 16,5 days. 21,4% of total pa-tients had CVD. Conclusions: Timely identification and evaluation of patients with pre-existing CVD are fundamental for adequate treatment based on gender, severity and state of illness and for risk reduction. Keywords: polypharmacy, gender medicine; COVID 19; Sars CoV 2; cardiovas-cular disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Glioblastoma; Precision Medicine; Targeted Therapy; Genomics; Neuro-Oncology
Online: 13 July 2021 (09:28:35 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is driven by various genomic alterations. Next generation sequencing (NGS) could yield targetable alterations that may impact outcomes. The goal of this study was to describe how NGS can inform targeted therapy (TT) in this patient population. METHODS: The medical records of patients (pts) with a diagnosis of GBM from 2017-2019 were reviewed. Records of patients with recurrent GBM and genomic alterations were evaluated. Objective response rates and disease control rates were deter-mined. RESULTS: A total of 87 pts with GBM underwent NGS. Forty percent (n = 35) were considered to have actionable alterations. Of the 35, 40% (n=14) pts had their treatment changed due to an alteration. The objective response rate (ORR) of this population was 43%. The disease control rate (DCR) was 100%. The absolute mean decrease in contrast enhancing disease was 50.7% (95% CI 34.8 – 66.6). CONCLUSION: NGS for GBM, particularly in the recurrent setting, yields a high rate of actionable alterations. We observed a high ORR and DCR, reflecting the value of NGS in deciding on TT to match alterations that are likely to respond. In conclusion, patient selection and availability of NGS may impact outcomes in select pts with recurrent GBM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s Disease; Clinical trial; Precision medicine.
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:08:41 CEST)
Concomitant neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are common in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Furthermore, AD biomarkers are associated with cognitive decline and dementia in PD patients during life. Here, we highlight the considerable overlap between AD and PD, emphasizing neuropathological, biomarker, and mechanistic studies. We suggest that precision medicine approaches may successfully identify PD patients most likely to develop concomitant AD. The ability to identify PD patients at high risk for future concomitant AD in turn provides an ideal cohort for trials of AD-directed therapies in PD patients, aimed at delaying or preventing cognitive symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: colorectal cancer; alternative splicing; mucins; biomarkers; precision medicine
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:30:37 CEST)
Colorectal cancer prognosis get worse with advancement of disease into metastatic stage. There is a pertinent need to develop prognostic biomarkers that can be used for personalized and precision medicine. Alternative splicing provides an insight into understanding of changes at isoform expression level which may not be evident at gene level. In this direction, we utilized our prior knowledge about significant alternatively spliced genes and chose ADAM12 and MUC4 for further characterization in a metastatic cell line model. These genes were found to be good prognostic indicators in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. We studied the gene organization and designed primers to specifically amplify a group of isoforms. Differential expression of these group of isoforms was observed in normal, primary and metastatic colorectal cancer cell lines. We further validated the results using sanger sequencing. Isoform expression was found to respond to the 5-fluorouracil treatment. RNAseq analysis of the cell lines further validated the differential expression of gene isoforms. Successful detection of ADAM12 and MUC4 in cell lysates varied according to the antibody used which may reflect differential expression of isoforms. This comprehensive study underscores the importance of studying alternatively spliced isoforms and their probable used as prognostic or predictive biomarkers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0425.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Goat; Sheep; Small Ruminants; Animal Models; Regenerative Medicine.
Online: 21 January 2021 (15:01:17 CET)
Medical and translational scientific research requires the use of animal models as an initial approach to the study of new therapies and treatments, but when the objective is an exploration of translational potentialities, classical models fail to adequately mimic problems in humans. Among the larger animal models that have been explored more intensely in recent decades, small ruminants, namely sheep and goats, have emerged as excellent options. The main advantages associated to the use of these animals in research works are related to their anatomy and dimensions very similar to those of humans in most physiological systems, in addition to their low maintenance and feeding costs, tendency to be docile, long life expectancies and few ethical complications raised in society. The most obvious disadvantages are the significant differences in some systems such as the gastrointestinal, and the reduced amount of data that limits the comparison between works and the validation of the characterization essays. Despite everything, recently these species have been increasingly used as animal models for diseases in different systems, and the results obtained open doors for their more frequent and advantageous use in the future. The purpose of this review is to summarize the general principles related to the use of small ruminants as animal models, with focus on regenerative medicine, to group the most relevant works and results published recently and to highlight the potentials for the near future in medical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: continuing medical education; travel CME; ethnography; emergency medicine
Online: 10 February 2020 (04:05:21 CET)
Introduction: Travel-based continuing medical education (CME) has become a popular format for physicians looking to combine education with travel. Emergency Medicine Update Europe is a biennial accredited CME program combining high quality Emergency Medicine education with structured group activities including cycling, hiking and social activities. This unique design incorporates innovative educational practices but as a whole has not yet been evaluated. Methods: This was a participant observation-based, ethnographic-style case study of the Emergency Medicine Update Europe conference in Provence, France in 2015. Participant interviews and embedded observation methods were used to collect data. Data was then analyzed using thematic content analysis techniques. Results: We describe three phenomena from the data that we feel are highly influential in the success of the program and impact on learning. These include “social engagement and a sense of community”; “the value of a stimulating escape” and “the ‘flat’ faculty-learner relationships”. Discussion: These unique features, prioritized by participants, seem to be key to the apparent success of this model over more traditional CME approaches. To our knowledge this is the first empirical research in this area and improves our understanding of how to leverage these more sociologic components for more effective continuing medical education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Fibromyalgia; CFS/ME; manual therapy; integrative medicine; physiotherapy
Online: 18 July 2018 (12:26:20 CEST)
Application of protocols without parameter standardization and rigorous controls has led manual therapy (MT) and other physiotherapy approaches to controversial outcomes. Thus, there is an urgency to carefully define standard protocols that elevate physiotherapy treatments to rigorous scientific demands. One way this can be achieved is by studying gene expression and additional physiological changes that associate to particular, parameter-controlled, treatments in animal models and translating this knowledge to properly design objective, quantitatively-monitored clinical trials. Here, we propose a Molecular Physiotherapy Approach (MPTA), requiring multidisciplinary teams, to uncover the scientific reasons behind the numerous reports of MT that historically attribute benefits to these treatments. The review focuses in the identification of MT-induced physiological and molecular responses that could be used for the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) and CFS/ME. The systemic effect associated to mechanical-load responses is considered of particular relevance as it suggests that defined, low-pain areas could be selected for treatments with overall benefits, an aspect that might result essential to treat FM. Additionally, MT can provide muscle conditioning to sedentary patients without demanding strenuous physical effort, detrimental for CFS/ME patients, placing MT as a real option for integrative medicine programs to treat FM and CFS/ME.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0303.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community engagement; health disparities; precision medicine; participant recruitment
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:21:34 CEST)
In response to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) All of Us Medicine Research Initiative, the Precision Medicine Research (PreMeR) Diversity Consortium was formed by four institutions from the Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN). This synergistic approach proposed evidence-based, best practices used by experienced researchers to engage, recruit and retain diverse populations in the All of Us initiative. Conceptualization of the proposed approach was aided by social influence theories to better understand how people’s beliefs and opinions should be modified to affect change leading to action . The Social-Ecological Model (SEM), for Health Promotion , from Stokols  and Community-Based Participatory (CBPR) Models, guided proposed engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies contextualized with the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy spheres of influence. The PreMeR produced a partnership to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of current engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies for minority participation in scientific studies. This approach illustrates the need to incorporate multiple methods of engagement to reach a diverse audience to participate in scientific research. Engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies in community and biomedical research must be viewed as community engaged public health interventions, utilizing the same theoretical principles and approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: regenerative medicine; reprogramming; cardiac differentiation; secretoma; tissue engineering
Online: 15 March 2018 (05:02:41 CET)
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that have hallmarks similar to embryonic stem cells including the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into cardiac myocytes. The improvements in reprogramming and differentiating methods achieved in the past 10 years widened the use of hiPSCs, especially in cardiac research. hiPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (CMs) recapitulate phenotypic differences caused by genetic variations, making them human attractive disease models and useful tools for drug discovery and toxicology testing. In addition, hiPSCs can be used as source cells for cardiac regeneration in animal models. Here, we review the advances in the genetic and epigenetic control of cardiomyogenesis that underlies the significant improvement of the induced reprogramming of somatic cells to CMs. We also cover the phenotypic characteristics of the hiPSCs derived CMs, their ability to rescue injured CMs through paracrine effects, the novel approaches in tissue engineering for hiPSC-derived cardiac tissue generation, and finally, their potential use in biomedical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: castor bean; cancer therapy; immunotoxins; plant toxins; ribosome-inactivating proteins; ricin; rRNA N-glycosylase activity; traditional medicine; folk medicine; bioterrorism.
Online: 28 May 2019 (11:54:43 CEST)
The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) has been known since time immemorial in traditional medicine in the pharmacopeia of Mediterranean and eastern ancient cultures. Moreover, it is still used in folk medicine worldwide. Castor bean has been mainly recommended as anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, anti-bacterial, laxative, abortifacient, for wounds, ulcers, and many other indications. Many cases of human intoxication occurred accidentally or voluntarily with the ingestion of castor seeds or derivatives. Ricinus toxicity depends on several molecules, among them the most important is ricin, a protein belonging to the family of ribosome-inactivating proteins. Ricin is the most studied of this category of proteins and it is also known to the general public, having been used for biocrimes in several cases. Here, the main steps of ricin research are reported with particular regards to its enzymatic activity, structure and cytotoxicity. Moreover, we discuss ricin toxicity for animals and humans, as well as the relation amongst bioterrorism and ricin and its impact on environmental toxicity. Ricin has also been of great utility to develop a number of immunotoxins specific for the elimination of unwanted cells, mainly cancer cells; some of these immunotoxins gave promising results also in clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: phytotherapy; digestive system; andean community; traditional medicine; peruvian andes
Online: 21 September 2023 (07:28:23 CEST)
The use of medicinal plants for the therapy of diseases of the digestive system; where the Andean peoples developed various forms of administration. The objective being the identification of medicinal plants used in the therapy of ailments of the digestive system by the Andean inhabitants of Pampas, Tayacaja, Huancavelica, Peru. Methods, non-probabilistic sampling, using the “snowball” technique, carrying out semi-structured surveys, allowing information to be collected on the prevalence of ailments or diseases of the digestive system treated with medicinal plants, with inhabitants over 20 years of age participating and using the medicinal plants in the therapy of your digestive system ailments; and, exclude those inhabitants who do not comply with it. Results, 16 families, 33 genera and 34 species are reported; where the families that present the greatest abundance of species are Asteraceae, Lamiaceae; Likewise, the widely used species are Minthostachys mollis (11.9%), Aloe vera (10.4%), Clinopodium bolivianum (9%), Artemisia absinthium (9%) and Matricaria chamomilla (8.2%). Concluding with the identification of a diversity of medicinal flora, used in the therapy of diseases of the digestive system, such as stomach pain, constipation, gallbladder ailments, gastritis, gastrointestinal and liver diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1596.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: vaccines; vaccination refusal; anti-vaccination movement; travel medicine; pandemics
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:45:31 CEST)
Vaccines are an important tool of preventive medicine. Organized vaccination programs have saved numerous people from serious infectious diseases. Surprisingly, there is a considerable portion of the population who oppose vaccinations. In particular, the existence of anti-vaccination perceptions among travelers to countries with endemic diseases is a major public health concern. Although hesitancy towards vaccinations is not a novel phenomenon, it came back to the forefront during the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. This review explored the etiology of anti-vaccination beliefs among travelers and drew conclusions about their impact on public health and society in general. For this purpose, a purposeful search for data on the causative factors of vaccine hesitancy and their impact on people’s health was conducted. A descriptive analysis of the findings and conclusions about possible implications in health policy and clinical practice are presented. Fear of side effects, lack of credence in the necessity of vaccines, and mistrust of medical authorities are important causative factors. Their interplay shapes hesitancy towards vaccines. However, anti-vaccination beliefs can also be an aspect of a more general unconventional stance of life. Health care professionals and organizations must be ready to tackle vaccine hesitancy by making the necessary interventions. Correcting misconceptions about vaccinations is a prerequisite for ensuring personal and public health, especially in the context of a pandemic or epidemic. Moreover, ensuring the efficacy and safety of vaccines, especially in cases of modern technology applications, is a fundamental factor in addressing people’s concerns about vaccines. For this purpose, medical authorities and organizations must provide accurate and clear information on vaccines so as to eliminate misinformation. Furthermore, clinicians should cultivate their communication skills in order to convey the appropriate messages to prospective recipients of vaccinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0745.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; hydrogels; GelMA; alginate; platelet lysate
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:58:51 CEST)
Hydrogels (gels) are attractive tools for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to their potential for drug delivery and ECM-like composition. In this study, we use rheology to characterize GelMA/alginate gels loaded with human platelet lysate (PL). We then characterize these gels from a physicochemical perspective and evaluate their ability to transport PL proteins, their pore size, and their rate of degradation. Finally, their biocompatibility is evaluated. We describe how alginate changes the mechanical behavior of the gels from elastic to viscoelastic after ionic (calcium-mediated) crosslinking. In addition, we positively report the release of PL proteins and relate it to the degradation profile of the gels and the biocompatibility of the gels. Thus, the developed gels represent attractive substrates for both cell studies and bioactive materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Regenerative medicine; Platelet Rich Plasma; colostrum; growth factors; cytokines
Online: 19 July 2023 (05:42:08 CEST)
The employment of PRP in regenerative medicine has not generated the promised grandiose outcomes. Nonetheless, it currently remains the gold standard strategy for tissue regeneration. Therefore, scientific research has focused on identifying other matrices rich in growth factors and cytokines to improve the efficacy of PRP. In the present study, a new technology called AMPLEX PLUS -compound derived from colostrum enriched with exosomes- was applied in combination with PRP to evaluate the concentration trend of 20 bioactive molecules. The results show that the concentration of all the compounds analyzed increased significantly in PRP samples with AMPLEX PLUS technology compared with samples containing only plasma or PRP, suggesting how this new strategy could improve the performance of PRP and make significant advances in regenerative medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1840.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: AML; LSCs; herbal medicine; natural product; miRNA; epigenetic modifications
Online: 27 June 2023 (02:56:51 CEST)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common and incurable leukemia subtype. Despite extensive research into the disease's intricate molecular mechanisms, AML have not yet identified effective treatments or expanded diagnostic or prognostic markers. The morphological, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, biomolecular, and clinical characteristics of AML patients are extensive and complex. Leukemia stem cells (LSC) consist of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and cancer cells transformed by the complex, finely-tuned interaction that causes the complexity of AML. Microenvironmental regulation of LSC dormancy, its diagnostic and therapeutic implications for identifying and targeting LSCs due to their significance in the pathogenesis of AML were discussed in this review. It is essential to perceive the relationship between the niche for LSCs and HSC, which together cause the progression of AML. Notably, methylation is a well-known epigenetic change that is significant in AML, and our data also reveals that microRNAs are a unique factor for LSC. Furthermore, multiple-targeted approaches to reduce the risk of epigenetic factors, such as the administration of natural compounds for the elimination of local LSC, may prevent potentially fatal relapses. Furthermore, the survival analysis of overlapping genes revealed that specific targets had significant effects on the survival and prognosis of patients. We predicted that the multiple-targeted effects of herbal products on epigenetic modification are governed by different mechanisms in AML and prevent potentially fatal relapses. Thus, these strategies can facilitate the incorporation of herbal medicine and natural compounds into the advanced drug discovery and development processes enabled achievable by Network Pharmacology research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: severe asthma; phenotype; endotype; personalized medicine; targeted therapy; treatment
Online: 15 June 2023 (11:35:43 CEST)
Despite recent advances in optimizing reliever, controller and maintenance therapy in asthma, a large subgroup of asthmatic patients continues to suffer from severe asthma, affecting their psychosociological status, their quality of life and even their life expectancy. Identifying and recognizing the specific phenotypic and endotypic characteristics in asthma has provided the medical community to drive the development of targeted therapies that are proved to benefit patients in terms of symptom control, exacerbation rate, quality of life and lung function. Adopting a more tailored and targeted approach is proving to be the key factor in reforming severe asthma treatment, minimizing the patients’ burden, as well as the socioeconomical impact worldwide. In this review, we are going to describe the different phenotypes and endotypes of asthma, the currently approved targeted therapies in severe asthma as imprinted in Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2023, as well as other potential pharmacological agents and strategies investigated or currently under investigation for the treatment of severe asthma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Foeniculi fructus; Functional dyspepsia; Network Pharmacology; Traditional Medicine; TCMSP.
Online: 17 May 2023 (04:44:08 CEST)
For centuries, Foeniculi fructus (F. fructus) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in China and Europe and is widely used as a natural therapy for digestive disorders, including indigestion, flatulence, and bloating. The mechanism by which F. fructus alleviates functional dyspepsia was analyzed through network pharmacology, and its therapeutic effect on an animal model of functional dyspepsia was investigated. The compounds, targets, and related diseases of F. fructus were studied utilizing the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology (TCMSP) database. Information on the target genes was classified using the UniProt database. A network was built using Cytoscape 3.9.1, and functional dyspepsia-related genes were checked using the Cytoscape string application. The efficacy of F. fructus on functional dyspepsia, including gastroparesis and gastrointestinal motility, was confirmed by treatment with its extract in a mouse model of loperamide-induced functional dyspepsia. Seven compounds targeted twelve functional dyspepsia-associated genes. In a functional dyspepsia mouse model, F. fructus significantly suppressed the symptoms when compared to that in the control group. Our animal studies showed that the mechanism of action of F. fructus is closely related to gastrointestinal motility. Based on animal experimental results, the results showed that F. fructus provides a potential means to treat functional dyspepsia, suggesting that its medical mechanism for functional dyspepsia can be described by the relationship between seven key compounds of F. fructus, including oleic acid and β-sitosterol, and 12 functional dyspepsia-related genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1052.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: personalized medicine; biologically-driven trial; sorafenib; randomised discontinuation design
Online: 15 May 2023 (14:22:29 CEST)
Background: MOST-plus is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, adaptive Phase II trial evaluating the clinical benefit of targeted treatments matched to molecular alteration in advanced/metastatic solid tumors. Sorafenib was tested on patients with tumors harboring sorafenib-targeted genes Methods: The MOST-plus trial used a randomized discontinuation design. After 12 weeks of sorafenib (400 mg, po BID), patients with progressive disease dis-continued study, patients with objective response were proposed to continue sorafenib, whereas patients with stable disease (SD) were randomly assigned (1:1) to maintenance or interruption of treatment. Primary endpoint was RE-CIST version 1.1 progression-free rate at 16 weeks after randomization (PFR-16w). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Statistical analyses used a sequential Bayes-ian approach with interim efficacy analyses. The enrolment could be stopped in the case of a 95% probability for the estimated PFR-16w to be higher in the maintenance than in the interruption arm (NCT02029001). Results: 151 patients were included, of whom 35 had SD at 12 weeks of Soraf-enib. For the 35 patients with SD on sorafenib, the PFR-16w was 65% [95% credibility interval 43.4–83.7] in the continuation arm and 25% [7.8–48.1] in the interruption arm. Median PFS and OS were improved in maintenance versus interruption arm (mPFS: 5.6 [95%CI 1.97–6.77] months versus 2.0 [95%CI 1.61–3.91] months (p =0.0231) and mOS : 14.3 [95%CI 8.9–23.8] versus 8.0 months [95%CI 3.5–15.2] (p =0.0857)). Conclusion: Sorafenib showed activity in progressive patients with solid tu-mors harboring somatic genomic alterations in sorafenib-targeted genes. Con-tinuing sorafenib when SD is achieved improves PFR compared to interruption
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: laser beam characterization; laser therapy; medical devices; sports medicine
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:51:11 CET)
Laser therapy devices (LTDs) operating with near-infrared laser light are increasingly being used in sports medicine. For several reasons the users cannot evaluate whether or not such devices emit laser beams according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer and the settings of the device. In this study the laser beams from two different LTDs that can be used in sports medicine were thoroughly characterized by measuring the emitted power, pulse shapes and lengths, and spatial intensity distributions using professional, high-fidelity laser measurement technology. This was repeated for three units of each LDT independently to distinguish problems of individual units from potential intrinsic instrument design errors. The laser beams from the units of one LTD agreed with the settings at the device, with the measured average power for these units being within 3.3% of the set power. In contrast, the laser beams from the units of the other LTD showed large deviations between the settings and the actual emitted light. This device came with three laser diodes that could be used independently and simultaneously. The average power differed greatly between the units as well as between the laser diodes within each unit. Some laser diodes emitted essentially no light, which could lead to a lack of treatment of patients. Other laser diodes emitted much more power than set at the device (up to 230%) that could result in skin irritations or burnings of patients. These findings indicate a need for better standardization and consistency of therapeutic laser light sources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: hydrogel; active motifs modification; regenerative medicine; Self-assembling peptide
Online: 23 November 2022 (05:11:24 CET)
Ion-complementary self-assembling peptides have been studied in many fields for their distinct advantages mainly due to their self-assembly properties. However, their shortcomings, such as insufficient specific activity and poor mechanical properties, also limited their application. For better and wider application of this kind of promising biomaterials, ion-complementary self-assembling peptides can be modified with their self-assembly properties not being destroyed to the greatest extent. The modification strategies were reviewed by taking RADA16-Ⅰ as an example. For the insufficient specific activity, RADA16-Ⅰ can be structurally modified with active motifs derived from the active domain of the extracellular matrix or other related active factors. For weak mechanical properties, materials with strong mechanical properties or materials that can undergo chemical crosslinking were used to mix with RADA16-Ⅰto enhance the mechanical properties of RADA16-Ⅰ. To improve the performance of RADA16-Ⅰ as drug carriers, appropriate adjustment of the RADA16-Ⅰ sequence and/ or modification of the RADA16-Ⅰ-related delivery system with polymer materials or specific molecules can be considered to achieve sustained and controlled release of specific drugs or active factors. The modification strategies reviewed in this paper may provide some references for the further basic research and clinical application of ion-complementary self-assembling peptides and their derivatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0073.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium pyrophosphate; calcium polyphosphate; biocompatibility; bone implants; regenerative medicine
Online: 5 July 2022 (13:13:30 CEST)
Biocompatibility of ceramic materials in CaO-P2O5 system was investigated using different methods, including in vitro and in vivo tests. Ceramics based on calcium pyrophosphate Ca2P2O7 were obtained by annealing cement-salt stone from highly concentrated hardening suspensions (HCHS). Cement-salt stone was prepared using powder mixtures of calcium citrate tetrahydrate Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. These salts were mixed with each other in such a way that calcium pyrophosphate and calcium polyphosphate were present in the final ceramic product in the following weight ratios: Ca(PO3)2/Ca2P2O7 = 0/100; 5/95; 10/90 and 20/80. Distilled water was added to a homogenized powder mixtures of Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O and Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O by a water/solid ratio of 0,5 by weight. The obtained suspensions were shaped using silicon molds and left to dry in air for a week. The phase composition of the obtained samples of cement-salt stone was represented by brushite CaHPO4·2H2O, monetite CaHPO4, calcium citrate tetrahydrate Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. According to the XRD data, the phase composition of ceramic materials after annealing in the temperature range of 800-1000 0C was mainly represented by the β-Ca2P2O7 phase. In vivo tests shown that obtained ceramic materials can be recommended for regenerative treatments for bone defects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Toxicity; Diagnosis; Personal care; Patient encounter; Patient-based medicine
Online: 16 May 2022 (14:06:25 CEST)
Clinicians are key in reclaiming the medical arts ceded to clinically irrelevant technology and thereby aligning patient with fast-changing biological realities. Narrowing the chasm between virtual and real perceptions of health hazards requires: 1) becoming acutely aware of the habitat loss aggravating the pervasive dissemination of chemicals via conventional food, air, and consumer products and the proliferation of non-ionizing radiation; and 2) making strategic use of slow, system 2 thinking so as to respond wisely to the rampant epidemics of chronic low-dose toxicity disregarded or misdiagnosed for half a century. To respond adaptively, take a moment during each patient encounter to add chronic ambient poisoning to the differential diagnosis and investigate subtle symptoms and signs of irritation in vulnerable organ systems. Enacting adaptive response across our profession could ease the suffering of millions, help avert the sixth extinction, and contribute to continuation of evolved life as we know it.