ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0774.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; volumetry software; MRI; medial temporal lobe atrophy; Scheltens’ scale; NeuroQuant®; Aqua®
Online: 12 October 2023 (05:35:02 CEST)
: Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) remains an important imaging biomarker in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing and evaluating Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared the detection performance for determining significant MTA and the correlation with Scheltens' scale between two automatic volumetry software, NeuroQuant® and Aqua®, in non-AD and AD groups. Overall, 127 (non-AD, 54; AD, 73) individuals who underwent three-dimensional T1-weighted volumetric MRI in our hospital between January and August 2011 were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed using NeuroQuant® and Aqua®. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for detecting significant MTA and the correlation for Scheltens' scale with the mean hippocampal volume of each software were evaluated. The study sample’s mean age was 78 (range, 59–97) years. Regarding accuracy and specificity, Aqua® was non-inferior to NeuroQuant®. Aqua® had significantly higher overall specificity than NeuroQuant® for detecting significant MTA. Additionally, the calculated mean hippocampal volume of Aqua® was more correlated with Scheltens' scale (Kendall's τ, - 0.48) than that of NeuroQuant® (Kendall's τ, - 0.20). The accuracy and specificity of Aqua® in detecting MTA are not inferior to those of NeuroQuant®. Additionally, Aqua® has a stronger correlation of mean hippocampal volume with Scheltens' scale than NeuroQuant®.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1815.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: neurofeedback; memory enhancement; medial temporal lobe; intracranial electrode; bidirectional control; memory encoding; intracranial electroencephalogram; intractable epilepsy
Online: 28 June 2023 (12:56:15 CEST)
Neurofeedback (NF) shows promise in enhancing memory, but its application to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) still needs to be studied. Therefore, we aimed to develop an NF system for the memory function of the MTL and examine neural activity changes, and memory task score changes through NF training. We created a memory NF system using intracranial electrodes to acquire and visualise the neural activity of the MTL during memory encoding. Twenty trials of a tug-of-war game per session were employed for NF and designed to control neural activity bidirectionally (Up/Down condition). NF training was conducted with three patients with intractable epilepsy, and we observed an increasing difference in NF signal between conditions (Up−Down) as NF training progressed. Similarities and negative correlation tendencies between the transition of neural activity and the transition of memory function were also observed. Our findings demonstrate NF's potential to modulate MTL activity and memory encoding. Future research needs further improvements to the NF system to validate its effects on memory functions. Nonetheless, this study represents a crucial step in understanding NF's application to memory and provides valuable insights for developing more efficient memory enhancement strategies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0669.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Osteoarthritis; Stifle joint arthrodesis; Medial patellar luxation; Lameness
Online: 9 May 2023 (14:41:00 CEST)
A two-year-old male Pomeranian dog visited the hospital due to side effects of surgical correction for patellar luxation. Stifle joint arthrodesis (SJA) was performed on the patient’s right leg using autologous bone grafting techniques. The right leg’s femur and tibial joint were angled 120-130◦ and the SJA plate was fixed on the front of the two bones. After performing joint fusion of the right limb, medial patellar luxation (MPL)-corrective surgery was performed to cut the tibial tuberosity on the left leg and the fixing force was increased using the figure-of-eight tension band wiring technique. The results were observed for walking and trotting of the right hind limb, evaluated for 27 days after surgery. It was difficult for the patient to walk because weight loading was not performed for 3 days after surgery; short strides and partial weight bearing were possible 5 to 7 days after surgery. After 10 days, the patient was able to move while bearing weight with a slight disruption. For trotting, the patient showed intermittent normal steps 5 to 7 days after surgery, but the disruption continued. After 14 days, trotting was possible and movements were shown to be maintained during everyday activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Medial septum; Oscillation; Oscillopathy; Deep brain stimulation; Epilepsy
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:44:10 CEST)
The medial septum (MS), as part of the basal forebrain, supports many physiological functions, from sensorimotor integration to cognition. With often reciprocal connections with a broad set of peers at all major divisions of the brain, the MS orchestrates oscillatory neuronal activities throughout the brain. These oscillations are critical in generating sensory and emotional salience, locomotion, maintaining mood, supporting innate anxiety, and governing learning and memory. Accumulating evidence points out that the physiological oscillations under septal influence are frequently disrupted or altered in pathological conditions. Therefore, the MS may be a potential target for treating neurological and psychiatric disorders with abnormal oscillations (oscillopathies) to restore healthy patterns or erase undesired ones. Recent studies have revealed that the patterned stimulation of the MS alleviates symptoms of epilepsy. We discuss here that stimulus timing is a critical determinant of treatment efficacy on multiple time scales. On-demand stimulation may dramatically reduce side effects by not interfering with normal physiological functions. A precise pattern-matched stimulation through adaptive timing governed by the ongoing oscillations is essential to effectively terminate pathological oscillations. The time-targeted strategy for the MS stimulation may provide an effective way of treating multiple disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, anxiety/fear, schizophrenia, and depression, as well as pain.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: VNS; temporal lobe epilepsy; vagus nerve; interoception; hippocampus; medial septum
Online: 2 May 2023 (07:05:43 CEST)
Seizure development relies on two factors. One is the existence of an overexcitable neuronal network and the other is a trigger that switches normal activity of that network into a paroxysmal state. While mechanisms of local overexcitation have been the focus of many studies, the process of triggering remains poorly understood. We suggest that, apart from the known exteroceptive sources of reflex epilepsy – visual, auditory or olfactory, there is a range of interoceptive triggers, relevant for seizure development in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE). The hypothesis proposed here aims to explain the prevalence of epileptic activity in sleep and in drowsiness states and provide a detailed mechanism of seizure triggering by interoceptive signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: lipopolysaccharide; minocycline; memantine; medial prefrontal cortex; locomotor deficit; anxiety-like behaviour
Online: 31 August 2022 (13:37:35 CEST)
Introduction: Neuroinflammation following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration induces locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior. In this study, minocycline was compared to memantine, the NMDA receptor antagonist, for its effects on LPS-induced locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats. Methodology: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were administered either two different doses of minocycline (25 or 50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or 10 mg/kg/day of memantine (i.p.) for 14 days four days prior to LPS (5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. The locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were assessed using the open field test (OFT). The phosphorylated tau protein level was measured using ELISA while the expression and density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) protein in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were measured using immunohistochemistry and western blot, respectively. Results: In the mPFC, minocycline treatment reduced the locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior, reduced phosphorylated tau protein level, and upregulated BDNF/CREB protein expression comparable to memantine, with the higher dose of minocycline having better benefits. Conclusion: Minocycline treatment attenuated LPS-induced locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats, possibly via a decrease in phosphorylated tau protein levels and an increase in the expression of the BDNF/CREB proteins.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Teevra cells; Komal cells; medial septum; freely behaving animals; ripples; delta; theta
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:52:48 CEST)
Hippocampus plays a crucial role in spatial and episodic memory. The acquisition of new memories is impossible without participation of the hippocampus. There are two main functional states or “modes” of the hippocampal activity, theta and non-theta state. They have different behavioral correlates and clearly different spectral content of the LFPs and neuronal spiking. Hippocampal theta state is present under active exploratory behavior, locomotion, cognitive situations requiring attention and REM sleep. Slow-wave sleep and quiet wakefulness (immobility, eating, grooming) represent the non-theta hippocampal state. The nodal point for the regulation of hippocampal activity is the MS. The activation or suppression of different types of MS cells appears to be responsible for controlling hippocampal theta and non-theta states. Functional coupling between MS neurons and hippocampal interneurons varies in a state-dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: tibialis anterior tendon; attachment site area; three-dimensional; medial cuneiform bone; first metatarsal bone
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:36:49 CET)
The purpose of this study was to clarify the attachment types of the tibialis anterior tendon (TAT) in Japanese fixed cadavers and to determine the attachment site area in three dimensions. We examined 100 feet from 50 Japanese cadavers. The TAT was classified according to differences in the number of fiber bundles as: Type I, with one fiber bundle; Type II, with two fiber bundles; and Type III, with three fiber bundles. The attachment site area of the TAT was measured using a three-dimensional scanner. Cases were Type II in 95% and Type III in 5%, with no cases of Type I identified. In Type II, mean attachment site areas were 85.2 ± 18.2 mm2 for the medial cuneiform bone (MCB) and 72.4 ± 19.0 mm2 for the first metatarsal bone (1MB), showing a significantly larger area for MCB than for 1MB. These findings suggest the possibility of ethnic differences in TAT attachment types and suggest that TAT attachments in Japanese individuals are highly likely to be Type II, with rare cases of Type III. Accurate measurement of attachment site areas is possible with appropriate three-dimensional measurements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0612.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Medial Preoptic Area; MPOA; Parental behavior; Scientometry; Systematic Review; CiteSpace; Document Co-Citation Analysis; Keyword Analysis
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:52:17 CEST)
Research investigating the neural substrates underpinning parental behaviour has recently gained momentum. Particularly, the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA) has been identified as a crucial region for parenting. The current study conducted a scientometric analysis of publications from 01 January 1972 to 19 January 2021 using CiteSpace software to determine trends in the scientific literature exploring the relationship between MPOA and parental behaviour. In total, 677 scientific papers were analysed, producing a network of 1509 nodes and 5498 links. Four major clusters were identified: "C-Fos Expression'', "Lactating Rat'', "Medial Preoptic Area Interaction'' and "Parental Behavior''. Their content suggests an initial trend in which the properties of the MPOA in response to parental behavior were studied, followed by a growing attention towards the presence of a brain network, including the reward circuits, regulating such behavior. Furthermore, while attention was initially directed uniquely to maternal behavior, it has recently been extended to the understanding of paternal behaviors as well. Finally, although the majority of the studies were conducted on rodents, recent publications broaden the implications of previous documents to human parental behavior, giving insight into the mechanisms underlying postpartum depression. Potential directions in future works were also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sex-recognition; mate-recognition; sexual orientation; puberty; vomeronasal-organ; VNO; learning sexual behavior; Medial-geniculate-nucleus; MGN; MASH
Online: 24 February 2022 (10:06:07 CET)
A large part of our understanding of the biological substrates of sex-recognition and mate-recognition is derived by studying animal models. In performing those tasks, rodents rely mostly of pheromones and other olfactory cues, whereas humans rely mostly on visual cues. That may hinder the translation of rodents’ biology to humans’ biology, especially at the neural-networks level, where those cues traverse different networks in humans and rodents brains. That may be called the “pheromonal-visual gap”. A theoretical model presented here addresses those issues. The model merges observations from humans and model-animals, as reported in specific scientific reports, and general biological principles that are accepted by the scientific community. The model suggests that the voices of men and women are the innate cues based on which humans learn to use visual cues in sex-recognition and mate-recognition. Children learn the two tasks in associative learning mechanisms, by being immersed in their community, and observing adult role-models in innocuous, non-sexual scenarios. The model proposes that the human medial-geniculate-nucleus (MGN) is the analog of the rodents’ accessory-olfactory-bulb (AOB) and the main-olfactory-bulb (MOB), and that the human MASH pathway (MGN, amygdala, bnST, hypothalamus) is the analog of the rodents’ VNOP (Vomeronasal-organ-pathway). Considering the differences in the pathways should facilitate the translation from rodents’ brain nuclei and tracks to humans’. Also, the model hypothesizes that innate direct and indirect connections between auditory centers, e.g., MGN, and sex-control centers, e.g., hypothalamus, vary across three groups of children, and those variations determine the individual’s mate-recognition that emerges at puberty.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0050.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: competitive learning and memory functions; cognitive development; basal ganglia; medial temporal lobe; prefrontal cortex; model-based learning; model-free learning
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:10:15 CEST)
There has been a growing interest in incorporating psychological and neuroscientific knowledge about the development of cognitive functions in educational policies and academic practices. In this paper, we argue that the current knowledge about the interactions between these functions and their neurodevelopmental characteristics should also be considered in order to develop practices that could be better suited to pupils depending on their age. To facilitate this, we review current neuroscientific knowledge on the competitive interactions between two neural circuitry underlying distinct learning functions, their developmental trajectories and how they are linked to other functions such as cognitive control. The incorporation of this knowledge in education could help improve academic outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: platysmaplasty; facial rejuvenation; subplatysmal structures; myotomy; neck lift; medial platysmaplasty; lateral platysmaplasty; X-platysmaplasty; neck rejuvenation; cervicofacial rejuvenation; submental region; composite platysmaplasty
Online: 3 November 2023 (01:28:56 CET)
The quest for surgical advancements regarding the enhancement of the submental and cervicofacial regions has witnessed a remarkable upsurge in recent years. Informed patients are actively seeking sophisticated plastic surgery techniques to achieve comprehensive rejuvenation in these specific areas. Our clinical practice encounters an annual influx of approximately 400 patients, with 20% of them aged over 60, seeking facial rejuvenation encompassing the details of lower third of the face and neck. Common concerns expressed by these patients include sagging of the jawline, the emergence of deep perioral wrinkles, and the formation of "marionette lines" within the lower third of the face. Furthermore, the manifestation of age-related signs, including neck laxity, submental adipose accumulation, "witch's chin" deformity, and weakened platysma musculature, is frequently encountered within this intricate anatomical domain. This review aims to summarize the recent technical improvements, historical evolution, indications, postoperative care and challenges for facial rejuvenation of the lower third of the face and neck. Lastly, the application of minimally invasive procedures as part of a comprehensive approach to an aging face will also be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Fear extinction; Fear Conditioning; Medial Prefrontal Cortex; RNA sequencing; Differential Gene Expression; Electrophysiological Recordings; Excitatory Post-Synaptic Currents; Spinogenesis; Fear-related Disorders
Online: 10 December 2020 (11:38:50 CET)
Fear extinction requires coordinated neural activity within the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Any behavior has a transcriptomic signature that is modified by environmental experiences, and specific genes are involved in functional plasticity and synaptic wiring during fear extinction. Here, we investigated the effects of optogenetic manipulations of prelimbic (PrL) pyramidal neurons on amygdala gene expression to analyze the specific transcriptional pathways involved in adaptive and maladaptive fear extinction. To this aim, transgenic mice were (or not) fear-conditioned and during the extinction phase they received optogenetic (or sham) stimulations over PrL pyramidal neurons. At the end of behavioral testing, electrophysiological (neural cellular excitability and Excitatory Post-Synaptic Currents) and morphological (spinogenesis) correlates were evaluated in the PrL pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, transcriptomic cell-specific RNA-analyses (differential gene expression profiling and functional enrichment analyses) were performed in amygdala pyramidal neurons. Our results show that the optogenetic activation of PrL pyramidal neurons in fear-conditioned mice induces fear extinction deficits, reflected in an increase of cellular excitability, excitatory neurotransmission, and spinogenesis of PrL pyramidal neurons, and in strong modifications of the transcriptome of amygdala pyramidal neurons. Understanding the electrophysiological, morphological and transcriptomic architecture of fear extinction may facilitate the comprehension of fear-related disorders.