REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0074.v1
Online: 7 November 2019 (09:42:30 CET)
A contrasting empirical evaluation will be provided with the aim of suggesting that the reductionist approach results in experiments that are not reproducible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0535.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Meaning of Life; Existential Vacuum; Antecedents; Meaning of Life Model; Psychological Wellbeing
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:41:22 CET)
The debate about the meaning of life in the literature has been around for a while and portraits a fundamental human need to find a personal path of existence. The meaning of life phenomenon purpose lies in its impact on the psychological wellbeing. Knowing your purpose in life can make it more structured and in balance, therefore more meaningful and comprehensible. However, in the existing body of the academic literature meaning of life is discussed more from the philosophic perspective rather than a practical area, which is not helping to solve the global issues of increasing mental health problems. When social and emotional wellbeing is being affected, it is urgent to apply a practical approach to effectively overcome these states. Introduction of a new, holistic meaning of life model is an attempt to offer a practical solution for society to maintain their mental health through awareness of their life’s purpose. Previously in the pilot study (Dombrovskis, 2017) in a sample group of 100 citizens of Latvia who self-reported being in a crisis situation at the given moment, using qualitive analysis the first component for the model structure was identified – antecedent. In our research antecedent is defined as something that triggers certain action, so in crisis situation person can regain a structure and stability in life. We found 8 different antecedents that trigger behavior of those affected by crisis: achievements; power; success; development; freedom; uniqueness; interesting life and fleeing. To continue to explore other components for our model in the setting of Latvia, this study aims to investigate the demographic and personality related variables that may serve as antecedents and as such become one of component in our model structure. The study used a sample of residents of Latvia representing the total population of 1,110 respondents (633 women, 57%, and 477 men, 43%) who have completed the self-assessment questionnaire Meaning of life scale (MOLS) (online and frontally) designed by the authors on their satisfaction with different factors regarding the meaning of life. Average age of respondents (M=33.88; SD=8,527) varied from 18 to 67. The exploratory and confirmatory analysis confirms the data regarding existence of totally 16 factors: 8 antecedents identified in the pilot study and 8 new antecedents identified in the present study - family relations; level of income; relations with friends/acquaintances; state of health; organization of free time; career growth (achievements); sexual life quality and quality of education. Findings confirm a model’s structure to be complex phenomenon consisting of various components. However, findings suggest that more research should be done to fill the following gaps: 1) identify actions, which are triggered by 16 antecedents; 2) figure out F1, F2 and F3 factor role in the model structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0727.v1
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:48:55 CEST)
The present study investigated the effect of art on promoting the meaning of the urban space. In this regard, after considering the semantic dimension of the urban space and the mechanism of transferring the meanings of art through the views of experts, a model is presented for examin-ing the art’s cooperation in promoting urban space meaning in Tehran. In this study, a mixed method was used. In the first stage, the categories of space meanings influenced by art were ex-tracted through using the qualitative method of interpretive phenomenology and by examining 61 in-depth interviews in six urban spaces eligible for urban art in Tehran. In the second stage, these categories were surveyed in these spaces through 600 questionnaires after converting to the questionnaire items. Based on the results, "the possibility of the experience and perception", "social participation", and "the relationship with the context" were the main themes of the se-mantic relationship of art and urban space. Further, the lower scores related to the theme of "so-cial participation" in the quantitative investigations indicated that this theme was weaker than the other themes in promoting the meaning of the urban space through the art in the selected urban spaces.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2250.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Calling; Meaning of Work; Prosociality; Prosocial behaviours; Values
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:18:43 CEST)
Work on callings has burgeoned in the past 20 years, yet recent reviews exposed a lack of conceptual clarity and disagreements around its definition, components and measures. One lingering point of contention revolves around the element of prosociality: Is a calling orientation primarily motivated by self-interest, prosocially orientated, or a mix of both? This conceptual paper reviews and examines the pro-self and prosocial component of a calling outlook, by examining and comparing the ways in which they feature in different calling subtypes: Classic, neoclassic, and modern callings. Our analysis suggests that these subtypes vary in where they are located on a pro-self – prosocial continuum: Classic callings are located on the prosocial side of the axis, modern callings are located on pro-self side of the axis, and neoclassic callings can be situated in the middle of the con-tinuum, integrating self-orientated and other-orientated motivations. Our analysis further suggests that these calling subtypes draw on divergent value systems: Classic callings are propelled by self-transcendent values, modern callings are driven by self-actualization motivations, and neoclassic callings integrate both value systems. We therefore argue that the subjective experiences of pursuing a calling within each subtype pathway differ, alt-hough they may culminate in similar outcomes. The paper offers a novel framework for analyzing people’s calling that draws on their values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: meaning; purpose; development; residential care; child welfare system; resilience
Online: 20 June 2023 (15:09:49 CEST)
The study follows the interaction between the individual and the social context regarding the development of adolescents protected in residential houses from the child protection system in Iasi County, Romania. Starting from the evidence that in situations of providing relatively identical material and social resources, the results obtained by these children vary greatly, we examine how the meaning (understood mainly as purpose and mattering) can constitute a developmental resource. Considering theoretical models and previous research, the study aims to describe, through a qualitative approach, how these young people see themselves and the external environment (family and residential care), how they project their future (their purpose and objectives), and how these constructions and perceptions can influence their quality of life and social integration. We conducted three focus groups with 35 adolescents and young people (the ages 13-21) protected in and for different periods in residential houses (period 1-20 years). The results highlighted that a specific meaning is reconfigured as compensatory when affected by a trauma or adverse external event and thus can be a resource for resilience. On the other hand, the research highlighted that only the existence of goals alone is insufficient to generate action, and the unrealistic meanings given to own persons, experiences, and resources can be dangerous.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0377.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: narrative; meaning; emergence; subjectivity; telic aspect; global semiotics; Umwelt
Online: 23 May 2020 (16:32:04 CEST)
This theoretical paper continues a spectrum of research on sign character of narrative discourse on the background of modern post-classical theory of narrativity. It aims to uncover the relationships between the meaning of the narrative text and a sign signitication, assuming an intentional character of the narrative discourse governed by telic aspects (global semiotics). Global semiotic approach (Thomas Sebeok, 2001) views a narrative discourse as a self-organizing entity with purposeful (telic) character of all its constituent parts which turn a static text into a dynamic whole in the process of reading/perception/interpretation. The key notion for analysis of emergency is the term Umwelt (Jakob von Uexküll) to denote the perceptional world in which an organism (and a human) exists and acts as a subject. Therefore, Umwelt represents human’s perceptual boundary, which modifies the surrounding in accordance with the human’s subjective perspective. As Umwelt can be attributed to both biological and abiotic texts, meaning creation in the narrative discourse is compared to a semiotic study of comparative Umwelten (Cobley, 2014) where narrative is defined as a modeling device for the world creation through embodied subjectivity. It has been confirmed, that stressing on the subjective sphere of information eхchange and processing from the position of global semiotics necessitates introduction of basic principles of biosemiotics (i.e. semiotic scaffolding etc.) and teleology (i.e. cause, purpose, result) to analysis of narrative discourse and it constitutes the perspectives for further research in this domain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0686.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: water; nested coherences; phase-locking; dynamic order; cycles; fractals; perception; meaning
Online: 27 November 2020 (11:53:48 CET)
Despite the successes earned in cataloguing and finding the role of the most of molecular components in living matter, the “biochemical and molecular” perspective, popular in biology, medicine and genetics, is unable to give account for crucial topics as the faculty of living systems to “feel”, to “perceive” what a given stimulus implies (means, indeed) for their survival. Condensed matter physics too, if bounded to a local, short-range, and perturbative approach, fails dramatically. This is also due to the role commonly assigned to water – actually the main constituent of living matter – deemed for long time to be merely chemical (as “solvent” or a reactant/product). Nonetheless, today many evidences show how living matter can be right conceived as a super-structured coherent water-based matrix, suggesting that the characterization of bio(electro)chemical and physical processes undertaken at molecular level in living matter, would let us unable to answer a question like this: what allows an amoeba, moreover without any neurons, to “know” to get closer to a nutrient or escape away from a toxin? I propose that to pursue such a fundamental inquiry it’s necessary an essentially relational approach, that is: to consider the living being at its grounding as the outcome of a physical history of relationships where symmetry-breakings, dissipation and coherence yield the emergence of the living state of matter, conceivable only as a time-dependent open process, and not as a portraited “body”. The effective tools to build up such an approach may be retrieved in far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics (TD), symmetry-breakings and gauge-fields theory, science of complexity, within the framework of a Quantum Field Theory. Indeed, within a field-view of matter, and of water especially, as it has been developed by a Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) description of condensed matter, it’s possible to give account for a physical basis too such an epistemologically elusive, though crucial, feature of living systems (i.e.: perception and meaning). The emerging landscape allows some important meditations about adaptation, evolution, ecodynamics, and about different conceptions of complexity and “information” in living realm. Furthermore, some neuroscientific themes like consciousness, qualia and their links to artificial intelligence could be supplied with due insights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0016.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Wittgenstein; Derrida; meaning; hierarchy; deferral; learnability; teachability; différance; origin; identity; difference
Online: 2 August 2019 (05:30:26 CEST)
Meaning understood in terms of teachability and learnability is crucial to Wittgenstein’s later work. As regards the resolution of philosophical problems – and epistemological problems in particular - this approach seems to posit a hierarchy of meaning that excludes endless deferral. This is the basis of Wittgenstein’s attack on philosophical scepticism. Derrida’s approach to language seems to require both non-hierarchy and endless deferral. Consequently fundamental to his concept of origin is identity and difference simultaneously, irreducibly, non-simply. One question is whether it is possible for there to be a compromise between the two philosophers: a hierarchy of meaning that does not in principle exclude endless deferral.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1594.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Mozambique; Quality of life; Schooling; Meaning in life; Social support
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:28:51 CEST)
Increasing quality of life (QoL) is both an end in itself and a means to optimize the impact of treatment in HIV-infected persons. Possibly due to cultural and social influences, the predictors of QoL vary across studies, which highlights the importance of studying specific populations. In the present study, we wanted to determine the sociodemographic (age, sex, schooling) and psychosocial correlates (meaning in life, social support, positive and negative affect) of QoL in HIV-infected patients living in Mozambique, a country with high prevalence of HIV, but also with well-structured strategies to fight the disease. To that end, we made correlational analyses followed by regression models, and we examined potential mediation processes among predictors. All correlates were relevant except sex. Meaning in life was the strongest predictor, while social support was the weakest. Schooling was both directly and indirectly related with QoL - in the latter case, it was mediated by meaning in life, social support and positive affect. Our findings suggest that investments in education may be highly rewarding to Mozambicans, and that satisfying needs of self-actualization and purpose may be more urgent than improving social connections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0721.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Meaning in life; Perceived burdensomeness; Thwarted belongingness; Spanish adolescents; non-suicidal self-injuries
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:36:30 CEST)
Background: Adolescence is a developmental stage when there is a high risk of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). There is recent interest in the study of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensome as variables associated with the frequency of NSSI in adolescents. Meaning in life (MIL) could be negatively associated with thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensome. To date, no studies have analyzed whether thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness could be associated with the frequency of NSSI in adolescents. On the other hand, no studies have analyzed the buffering role of MIL in the association between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness and the frequency of NSSI. Aims: a) to test whether thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are associated with NSSI frequency; b) to test whether MIL moderates the association between thwarted belongingness and NSSI frequency; and c) to test whether MIL moderates the association between perceived burdensomeness and NSSI frequency. Method: The sample consisted of N = 1531 participants between 12 and 18 years old from Spain. The participants filled out the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury, Purpose-In-Life Test-Adolescents Version, and Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire. Moderation analysis were performed. Results: Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness were positively associated with the frequency of NSSI in Spanish adolescents. MIL was a moderating variable between thwarted belongingness and the frequency of NSSI, and between perceived burdensomeness and the frequency of NSSI. Conclusion: Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness could be a risk factor for NSSI and MIL could be a protective factor against NSSI, and adding these variables to current descriptive theories of NSSI in adolescents would allow us to improve the assessment and treatment protocols for adolescents with NSSI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0338.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Semantics and meaning; Context representation; Quantum cognition; Subjectivity; Quantum phase; Behavioral modeling; Qubit
Online: 22 December 2020 (11:58:16 CET)
The paper describes an algorithm for semantic representation of behavioral contexts relative to a dichotomic decision alternative. The contexts are represented as quantum qubit states in two-dimensional Hilbert space visualized as points on the Bloch sphere. The azimuthal coordinate of this sphere functions as a one-dimensional semantic space in which the contexts are accommodated according to their subjective relevance to the considered uncertainty. The contexts are processed in triples defined by knowledge of a subject about a binary situational factor. The obtained triads of context representations function as stable cognitive structure at the same time allowing a subject to model probabilistically-variative behavior. The developed algorithm illustrates an approach for quantitative subjectively-semantic modeling of behavior based on conceptual and mathematical apparatus of quantum theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0707.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Palliative care; Meaning therapy; CALM therapy; COVID-19; Existential positive psychology; Good death; wellbeing; mature happiness; flourishing
Online: 30 July 2021 (14:27:09 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the inadequacies of the current healthcare system and needs a paradigm change, which is holistic, and community based illustrated by the healing wheel. The present paper proposes that existential positive psychology (PP 2.0) represents a promising approach to meet the rising needs in palliative care. This framework has a twofold emphasis on (a) How to transcend and transform suffering as the foundation for wellbeing, and (b) how to cultivate our spiritual and existential capabilities to achieve personal growth and flourishing. We propose that these objectives can be achieved simultaneously through dialectical palliative counselling, as illustrated by Wong’s integrative meaning therapy (Wong, 2020) and Lo’s Conceptual Model of CALM Therapy in palliative care (Lo et al., 2014). We then discuss existential suffering in general and at the last stage of life in particular; we also review recent research and interventions on existential suffering in palliative patients. Finally, we outline the objectives and the strategies of IMT in providing palliative counselling for palliative care and hospice patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0176.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; posttraumatic stress disorder; perceived social support; changes in outlook; sense of security; meaning in life
Online: 7 August 2020 (08:10:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affects not only physical health but also deteriorates mental health resulting in sleep problems, depression, and traumatic stress. Our research investigates the level of posttraumatic stress, perceived social support, opinions on positive and negative consequences of the pandemic, sense of security, and sense of meaning among nurses in the face of new and not fully understood global epidemiological phenomena. For this purpose, computer-assisted web interviewing methods were conducted between May 1 and May 15, 2020. Participating nurses completed the following research tools: The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CIOQ), The Safety Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). Three hundred and twenty-five nurses working throughout Poland joined the study of an average age of 39.18 ± 11.16 years. The average overall IES-R score in the study group was 1.78 ± 0.65. Among the dimensions of traumatic stress, the highest score was obtained in the dimension Avoidance 1.86 ± 0.73, then in the dimensions Hyperarousal 1.8 ± 0.78 and Intrusion 1.74 ± 0.83. Amongst studied nurses, the highest support rates were provided by significant others (22.58 ± 5.22), then from friends (21.91 ± 5) and family (21.45 ± 4.4). Among the surveyed nurses, higher average scores were noted in the subscale measuring positive psychological changes (18.56 ± 4.04). In contrast, a higher average level of assessment was noted on the Reflection on the safety dimension (4.21 ± 0.49). The mean MLQ score was 5.33 ± 0.87. A slightly higher result was observed in the subscale Presence (5.35 ± 1.14). The results of the research implemented during the period of severe psychological pressure associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provided information on symptoms of traumatic stress in the examined group of nurses. Their sense of security has been lowered and accompanied by an intensified reflection on issues concerning security. However, the sense of meaning (currently felt) in life remains higher than the tendency to searching for it. The surveyed nurses perceive individual support from the so-called significant others (apart from family and friends). They see positive changes resulting from painful experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be characterized by adaptation in the form of posttraumatic growth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0625.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; anxiety disorders; existential psychotherapy; logotherapy; meaning-centered psychotherapy; functional magnetic resonance imaging; biomarker; kynurenines; Martin Heidegger; Viktor Frankl
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:18:24 CET)
Psychotherapy is a comprehensive biological treatment modifying complex underlying cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and regulatory responses in the brain, leading patients with mental illness to a new interpretation of the sense of self and others. Psychotherapy is an art of science integrated with psychology and/or philosophy. Neurological science studies the neurological basis of cognition, memory, and behavior as well as the impact of neurological damage and disease on the functions, and their treatment. Both psychotherapy and neurological science deal with the brain; nevertheless, they continue to stay polarized far. Existential phenomenological psychotherapy (EPP) has been in the forefront of meaning-centered counseling for almost a century. The phenomenological approach in psychotherapy originated in the works of Martin Heidegger, Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss and Viktor Frankl, and it has been committed to account for the existential possibilities and limitations of one’s life. EPP provides philosophically rich interpretations and empowers counseling techniques to assist mentally suffering individuals by finding meaning and purpose of life. The approach has proven to be effective in treating mood and anxiety disorders. This narrative review article demonstrates the development of EPP, the therapeutic methodology, evidence-based accounts of its curative techniques, current understanding of mood and anxiety disorders in neurological science, and a possible converging path to translate and integrate meaning-centered psychotherapy and neuroscience, concluding that the existential phenomenological psychotherapy potently plays a synergistic role with the currently prevailing medication-based approaches for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0323.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: diversity and inclusion; science; social pain; theory of inclusion; framework model of inclusion; practice of inclusion; meaning of inclusion
Online: 28 June 2020 (08:50:35 CEST)
The diversity and inclusion discussion permeates many sectors of society. Within this dialogue, science and scientists are acutely aware of the value of diversity and the need for inclusion. While demographic diversity in science has received considerable recent attention, very little research and understanding exists on inclusion. Our study presents empirical data on the meaning of inclusion using a crowdsourcing approach that sought responses to the question “What does inclusion mean to you?”. The most prominent concepts were those of empathy, warmth, support, love, acceptance and curiosity; diverse perspectives; and participation. We clustered conceptual elements of inclusion into four themes: access and participation, embracing diverse perspectives, a welcome environment, and team belonging. On the basis of these data, we theorize a conceptual framework model from which inclusion may be put into practice. Our model suggests a dynamic process of inclusion operating from principal structural elements of 1) a foundation that involves place, access and participation, and space; 2) reciprocal engagement as an engine for inclusion; and 3) expression of inclusion as culture. The framework model demonstrates a means by which the practice of diversity can be more than shifts in demographic statistics, and instead promote the full expression of benefits derived when the many dimensions of diversity are truly included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1233.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: SPARSAR = Specialized NLP system for English Poetry organized into ten feeding modules and over twenty dictionaries; Automatic Analysis of English Poems; Visualization of Linguistic and Poetic Content; Creating Clusters of Boxes of Different Dimension one for each poem according to linguistic content and positioning each box in a space; Computing Sound-Sense Harmony; Comparing Phonetic and Phonological Features with Meaning; Automatic Lexical and Semantic Sentiment Analysis of Poetry; Appraisal Theory Framework.
Online: 18 July 2023 (12:24:24 CEST)
We assume that poetic devices have an implicit goal: producing an overall sound scheme that will induce the reader to associate intended and expressed meaning to the sound of the poem. Sounds may be organized into categories and assigned presumed meaning as suggested by traditional literary studies. In my work, I have extracted automatically the sound grids of all the sonnets by William Shakespeare and have combined them with the themes expressed by their contents. In a first experiment I have computed lexically and semantically based sentiment analysis obtaining an 80% of agreement. In a second experiment sentiment analysis has been substituted by Appraisal Theory thus obtaining a more fine-grained interpretation which in some cases contradicts the first one. The computation for the second poet - regarded by many critics the best of last century - includes both vowels and consonants. In addition, it combines automatic semantically and lexically based sentiment analysis with sound grids. The results produce visual maps that clearly separate poems into three clusters: negative harmony, positive harmony and disharmony where the latter instantiates the need by the poet to encompass the opposites in a desperate attempt to reconcile them.