REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0294.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: meal timing; meal frequency; skipping meals; fasting; obesity; metabolic syndrome; diabetes
Online: 22 March 2022 (04:20:50 CET)
Individuals with metabolic syndrome have increased risk for developing health conditions, in-cluding cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Modifiable risk factors, such as exercise and diet, are key components in the prevention and control of metabolic syndrome. Specifically, dietary pat-terns and habits are extremely successful in controlling more than one of the metabolic syn-drome risk factors. Meal timing and frequency have been associated with type 2 diabetes, cardi-ovascular diseases, and other chronic conditions. However, there is limited evidence linking metabolic syndrome to meal timing and meal frequency. This review summarizes and discusses how meal timing and frequency impact metabolic outcomes in adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0737.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: allelopathy; bioherbicides; corn gluten meal; essential oils; mustard seed meal; pathogens; plant extracts
Online: 31 October 2018 (07:50:29 CET)
Over the last five decades, weed management systems have relied primarily on synthetic herbicides. Due to the concerns over the potential impact of chemicals on human health and the environment, efforts are being made to reduce the heavy reliance on synthetic herbicides. To reduce the use of synthetic herbicides, the use of natural products such as essential oils, plant extracts, allelochemicals, agricultural by-products, and some microbes are gaining attention because of their short environmental half-life and low toxicity. They are a good alternative to synthetic herbicides, especially in organic agriculture, since they focus on environmental protection, and ecological stability. Most of the commercially available natural herbicides are non-selective and require careful application in order to preserve the cash crops. Although many studies in this direction have been undertaken, the use of these natural products is still not common because of their cost the difficulties in their synthesis due to their complex structure, cost effectiveness, poor performance, and rapid degradation. When used singly, these natural herbicides do not perform as well as the chemical herbicides. An integrated approach may provide better results. Using a combination of natural herbicides may be more effective than using just one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0067.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: duckweed; meal; Lemnoideae,; Wolffioideae; aquaculture; carbohydrates; protein
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:24:50 CET)
Duckweeds are the smallest flowering plants on Earth. They grow fast on water's surface and produce large amounts of biomass. Further, duckweeds display high adaptability, and species are found around the globe growing under different environmental conditions. In this work, we report the composition of 21 ecotypes of fourteen species of duckweeds belonging to the two sub-families of the group (Lemnoideae and Wolffioideae). It is reported the presence of starch and the composition of soluble sugars, cell walls, amino acids, phenolics, and tannins. These data were combined with literature data recovered from 85 publications to produce a compiled analysis that affords the examination of duckweeds as possible food sources for human consumption. We compare duckweeds compositions with some of the most common food sources and conclude that duckweed, which is already in use as food in Asia, can be an interesting food source anywhere in the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0004.v1
Online: 2 July 2020 (12:52:53 CEST)
Malaria remains a life-threatening disease in many tropical countries. Honduras has successfully reduced malaria transmission as different control methods have been applied focusing mainly on indoor mosquitoes. The selective pressure exerted by the use of insecticides inside the households could modify the feeding behavior of the mosquitoes forcing them to search for available animal hosts outside the houses. These animal hosts in the peridomicile could consequently become an important factor in maintaining vector populations in endemic areas. Herein, we investigated the blood meal sources and Plasmodium spp. infection on anophelines collected outdoors in endemic areas of Honduras. Individual PCR reactions with species-specific primers were used to detect five feeding sources on 181 visibly engorged mosquitoes. In addition, a subset of these mosquitoes where chosen for pathogen analysis by a nested PCR approach. Most mosquitoes fed on multiple hosts (2 to 4), and 24.9% of mosquitoes were fed on a single host, animal or human. Chicken and bovine were the most frequent blood meal sources (29.5% and 27.5% respectively). The average human blood index (HBI) was 22.1%. None of the mosquitoes was found to be infected with Plasmodium spp. Our results show the opportunistic and zoophilic behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Honduras.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0231.v1
Online: 10 August 2020 (03:13:56 CEST)
Aedes aegypti is the primary mosquito vector of several human arboviruses including dengue virus (DENV). Vector control is the principal intervention to decrease the transmission of these viruses. The characterization of molecules involved in the mosquito physiological responses to blood-feeding may help to identify novel targets useful in the design of effective control strategies. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of feeding adult female mosquitoes with human blood containing either heat-inactivated (IB), normal serum (NB), and RNA-seq based transcript expression was compared against sugar-fed (SF) mosquitoes. In the in vitro experiments, we treated Aag2 cells with a recombinant version of the complement proteins (hC3 or hC5a) and compared transcript expression to untreated control cells after 24h. The transcript expression analysis revealed that human complement proteins modulate approximately 2,300 transcripts involved in multiple biological functions, including the immune system. We also found 161 up-regulated and 168 down-regulated transcripts differentially expressed when hC3 and hC5a were compared against the control untreated cells. We conclude that active human complement induces significant changes in the transcriptome of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which can influence the infective capacity of pathogens ingested during blood meals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0206.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Anopheles arabiensis; Blood meal index; Boreda district; Morphological misclassification
Online: 21 April 2022 (10:55:23 CEST)
There are a number of Anopheles species playing either primary or secondary roles in malaria transmission. Hence, understanding the species composition, their bionomics, and behaviors are all important in designing and implementing vector control intervention tools. Moreover, accurate identification of different species is vital. This study aimed to assess species composition, sporozoite infection rate, and blood meal origins of malaria mosquitoes in two malaria-endemic villages of Boreda district in Gamo zone, southwest Ethiopia. Thirty houses, 20 for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and 10 for Pyrethrum Spray Catches (PSC), were randomly selected for bimonthly mosquito collection from October 2019 to February 2020. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was done to detect the blood meal origins and circumsporozoite proteins (CSPs). The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was calculated by multiplying the sporozoite and human biting rates from PSCs. Anopheles gambiae and An. funestus complexes were further identified into species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Anopheles species with some morphological structures confusing with An. gambiae or An. funestus complexes were father confirmed by PCR. A total of 15 Anopheles species were documented, of which An. demeilloni was the dominant one. Only An. arabiensis was positive for P. falciparum CSP. The overall P. falciparum CSP rate of An. arabiensis was 0.54%. The overall estimated P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis from PSC was 1.5 infectious bites/person/five months. Of the 145 freshly fed Anopheles mosquitoes tested for blood meal source, 57.9% (84/145) had bovine blood meal, 22 (15.2%) had human blood meal origin alone and 24 (16.5%) had mixed blood meal origins of human and bovine. An. demeilloni mainly fed on bovine blood (102/126 = 80.9%). Among 420 morphologically classified An. demeilloni, 11 (2.6%) were confirmed as An. lessoni (one of the An. funestus complexes) by PCR. A substantial number of morphologically classified An. salbaii, An. maculipalpis and An. fuscivenosus were found to be An. arabiensis by PCR. Regardless of the high diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes, An. arabiensis is playing the primary role in malaria transmission. Morphological misclassification of species could be a challenge in malaria mosquito monitoring and surveillance, and hence it should be supported by more sensitive techniques for confirmation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: calorie restriction; PUFA; meal replacement; metabolic syndrome; middle age
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:39:38 CEST)
The increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has led to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide. In Taiwan, middle-aged women are at a greater risk of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than men are because they have more subcutaneous fat and larger waist circumferences compared to men with equal visceral fat levels. This study investigated the effects of calorie restriction supplemented with fish oil (CRF) in middle-aged women with MetS. For 12 weeks, 75 eligible participants were randomly assigned either calorie restriction (CR) or CRF. Both dietary intervention groups were further divided into two age groups: ≤45 and >45 years. The changes in MetS severity, inflammatory status, iron status, and red blood cell fatty acid profile were evaluated. Seventy-one participants completed the trial. Both dietary interventions significantly ameliorated MetS and improved the participants’ inflammatory status. CR significantly increased total iron binding capacity, whereas CRF increased hepcidin levels. Furthermore, CRF significantly increased the n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios. In conclusion, CR and CRF improved the anthropometric and MetS characteristics of early-middle aged women, including body weight, blood glucose levels, triglyceride levels, as well as the scores for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity cheque index. Dietary intervention was more effective in >45-year-old women than ≤45-year-old women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0436.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: obesity; meal frequency; hypocaloric diet; energy expenditure; ghrelin; weight loss
Online: 27 May 2020 (04:27:43 CEST)
Dietary approach is essential to obesity control, but the effectiveness of changes in meal frequency (MF) as strategies for loss and maintenance of body mass remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of MF on a hypocaloric diet on weight loss, active ghrelin levels and metabolic indicators of women with obesity. This is a randomized, parallel clinical trial, including forty women, randomized in two groups, both following a hypocaloric diet, according to MF (G1 – six meals/day; G2 – three meals/day). Dietary, laboratory, anthropometric and body composition indicators were assessed, as well as energy expenditure (EE), before and after the 90 days of intervention. After intervention, both groups decreased body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass (FM), insulin and HOMA-IR. G1 increased insulin sensitivity and G2 reduced triglyceride and FM and increased fat-free mass (FFM). MF increased ghrelin levels. There were no differences in EE variables. Hypocaloric diet with different MF promoted a reduction in total weight, BMI, WC and FM and an improvement in glycidic metabolism. However, the accomplishment of the three meals/day increased the FFM and active ghrelin and reduced triglyceride, while six meals/day was more beneficial in increasing insulin sensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patient; Low-phosphate meal; CKD-MBD (chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder); Proinflammatory cytokine; TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha)
Online: 24 November 2021 (15:27:03 CET)
High dietary phosphate intake and poor adherence to phosphate-binding-therapy elevate the risk of hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis (HD; MHD) patients. Therefore, chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) indicators increase; consequently, risks of CKD-MBDs and inflammation are elevated. This double-blind, randomized control trial intervention study was designed to investigate the possibility of reducing blood CKD-MBD indicators and modulating inflammatory indicators by consuming low-phosphate (LP) meals accompanied by a minimum dose of a calcium-based phosphate binder (CaCO3). MHD patients were recruited and randomly assigned to an LP meal group (LP group) or a control group. After initial data collection, blood collection, and dietary counseling, subjects were asked to consume a washout diet for 1 week. During the washout diet period, subjects consumed their usual diet but took 1 tablet of calcium carbonate (1CaCO3) as a phosphate binder with each meal. After the washout diet period, subjects in the LP group and control group respectively consumed LP meals and regular meals twice a day for 1 week. Meat in the LP meals was boiled before the regular cooking process, but meat in control meals was not. All meals were supplied by a central kitchen so that the contents of phosphate and other nutrients could be identified. In total, 40 MHD patients completed the study program. After 1 week of the dietary intervention, the blood Ca x P product and dietary phosphate had significantly decreased in the LP group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The LP group had significantly lower variations in dietary phosphate intake, blood calcium, Ca x P product, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α than the control group by comparing differences between after the dietary intervention and the baseline (△after intervention - baseline, p<0.05). The increase in dietary phosphate intake (△3rd - 2nd dietary phosphate intake) augmented the increase in the TNF-α level by 6.24-fold (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 6.24 [1.12~34.92], p<0.05). These results highlighted the conclusion that LP meals accompanied by a minimum dose of CaCO3 downregulated pro-inflammation by reducing CKD-MBD indicators which was triggered by decreasing dietary phosphate intake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Food; feeding style; eating trends; food interactions, food intake; food preparation; food management; food insecurity; meal planning; parent; child; family food environment; COVID-19; systematic review
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:26:38 CEST)
Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by dramatic changes in household food dynamics that can significantly influence health. This systematic literature review presents parental perspectives of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on food preparation and meal routines, as well as other food-related behaviors, capturing both favorable and unfavorable changes in the family food environment (FFE). Themes and trends are identified and associations with other lifestyle factors are assessed. In overall, families enjoyed more time together around food, including planning meals, cooking, and eating together. Eating more diverse foods and balanced meals was combined with overeating and increased snacking, as parents became more permissive towards food; however, food insecurity increased among families with the lowest income. Adoption of meal planning skills and online shopping behavior emerged alongside behaviors aimed at self-sufficiency, such as bulk purchasing and stockpiling. These results are an important first step in recognizing how this pandemic may be affecting the FFE, including low-income families. Future obesity prevention and treatment initiatives, but also ongoing efforts to address food management, parental feeding practices, and food insecurity, can account for these changes moving forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0201.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); Circadian clock; Soleus Muscle (SM); Brown adipose tissue (BAT); liver; 6-meal feeding; Respiratory exchange ratio (RER); Clock genes; metabolic genes; Shift work.
Online: 11 September 2018 (14:21:48 CEST)
Restricted feeding is well known to affect expression profiles of both clock and metabolic genes. However, it is unknown whether these changes in metabolic gene expression result from changes in the molecular clock or in feeding behavior. Here we eliminated the daily rhythm in feeding behavior by providing 6-meals evenly distributed over the light/dark-cycle. Animals on this 6-meals-a-day feeding schedule retained the normal day/night difference in physiological parameters including body temperature and locomotor activity. The daily rhythm in respiratory exchange ratio (RER), however, was significantly phase-shifted through increased utilization of carbohydrates during the light phase and increased lipid oxidation during the dark phase. This 6-meals-a-day feeding schedule did not have a major impact on the clock gene expression rhythms in the master clock but did have mild effects on peripheral clocks. By contrast, genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism showed differential expression. Concluding, eliminating the daily rhythm in feeding behavior in rats does not affect the master clock and only mildly affects peripheral clocks, but disturbs metabolic rhythms in liver, skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue in a tissue-dependent manner. Thereby a clear daily rhythm in feeding behavior strongly regulates timing of peripheral metabolism, separately from circadian clocks.