ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: concrete blocks; life cycle assessment; sealing masonry; structural masonry; ceramic bricks
Online: 6 July 2021 (15:18:55 CEST)
The civil construction industry is one of the sectors that most consume natural resources in the world and, consequently, one of that generate more waste. Thinking about constructive techniques that generate less impact on the environment is vital to ensure sustainable development. In this scenario, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been presented as an internationally recognized approach, that assesses the potential impact of products and services on human health and the environment, throughout its entire life cycle. Aimed to identify construction techniques and vertical closing systems that generate less impact and consumption of natural resources, the impacts generated by the life cycle of the three vertical closing systems most applied in construction sites in Brazil were compared: ceramic brick masonry system (CBr); concrete block masonry system (CBk); and structural blocks masonry system (SBk). The SBk proved to be the least impacting to the “Resource Scarcity”, “Damage to Human Health”, and “Damage to the diversity of Ecosystems” interesting areas. This performance is directly related to the use of cement CPIII type and also by the fact that the SBk consumes less concrete and mortar than the others. Already the "Water Consumption" area, the CBk was the least impacting due to the lower consumption of electricity during its life cycle. The reliability of the results was proven through a sensitivity analysis of the normalization and characterization factors, which consisted of comparing the results obtained by applying two different methodologies. It is believed that the LCA study carried out can assist in the decision-making process regarding the choice of the most sustainable construction method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry structures; shear walls; clay brick (CB); calcium-silicate (Ca-Si) masonry units; autoclaved aerated concrete masonry units (AAC); bed joints reinforcement; shear strength; strain angle; wall stiffness
Online: 15 July 2019 (05:37:44 CEST)
The area of Central and Eastern Europe, and thus Poland, is not exposed to effects of seismic actions. Any possible tremors can be caused by coal or copper mining. Wind, rheological effects, the impact of other objects or a non-uniform substrate are the predominant types of loading included in calculations for stiffening walls. The majority of buildings in Poland, as in most other European countries, are low, medium-high brick buildings. Some traditional materials, like solid brick (>10% of construction materials market) are still used. But autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and cement-sand calcium-silicate (Ca-Si) elements with thin joints are prevailing (>70% of the market) on the Polish market. Adding reinforcement only to bed joints in a wall is a satisfactory solution (in addition to confining) for seismic actions occurring in Poland that improves ULS and SLS. This paper presents results from our own tests on testing horizontal shear walls without reinforcement and with different types of reinforcement. This discussion includes 51 walls made of solid brick (CB) reinforced with steel bars and steel trusses, results from tests on 15 walls made of calcium-silicate (Ca-Si) and AAC masonry units reinforced with steel trusses and plastic meshes. Taking into account our own tests and those conducted by other authors, empirical relationships were determined on the basis of more than 90 walls. They are applicable to design and construction phase to determine the likely effect of reinforcement on cracking stress that damage shear deformation and wall stiffness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0036.v1
Online: 4 June 2020 (13:35:40 CEST)
The masonry building Heritage is appreciated for its aesthetic and historical value all around the world. The widespread presence of curved elements, such as arch, vault and dome express the relevant constructive abilities in the different historical epochs. These curved elements are characterized by architectural beauty, structural strength (especially against the gravity loads), thermal comfort and fire resistance. On the other hand, curved structures required scaffolding in order to be erected. The design, the construction and the dismantling of the scaffolds is typically time-consuming and expensive. In addition, the on-site working risk is related to time-interferences (e.g. in manpower working, at the same time, over and under scaffold). This technology dates back to the Era of the Roman Empire and it is currently still used, despite its limitations and disadvantages. In the present paper, an innovative technique (recently patented), aiming for the construction of a curved structural member without scaffolds, is proposed and illustrated. It consists in a Hinged Lifting Arch (HLA), using FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) bonded strips. In details, a series of blocks are cut following an arch geometry and then aligned on the ground-floor in order to bond a composite on their top surface. Moreover, the impregnation of the polymeric adhesive is not allowed at the extremities of each block. The fiber sheet is applied continuously along the entire extrados. In this sense, hinges are introduced, in fact, the FRP-connected blocks are able to easily rotate, in the opposite direction, around the contact ends (i.e. hinge). Finally, the middle block is lifted-up and the arch takes the desiderated shape. In the first experimental demonstration, the natural calcareous stone was used, even if the proposed technique is totally material-independent. Moreover, an analytical model is proposed and discussed for designing the proper aspect ratio of the blocks in order to ensure the full mutual contact when the HLA is totally lifted up. The advantages of the proposed technique are related to the absence of scaffolds and improved seismic strength against horizontal loads thanks to the presence of the FRP, which limits the occurrence of hinges at the extrados.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0225.v1
Online: 19 July 2019 (10:26:56 CEST)
Afterthe series of earthquakes in August 1953, most of Kefalonia’s building stock totally collapsed. The buildings that emerged as a result of a collective effort are commonly referred to as «arogi» buildings, with the term arogimeaning help or assistance. In this way, merely referring to these structures is a direct mention to the circumstances under which they were constructed. The reconstruction of the building stock of the island was based in a series of building types proposed from the authorities, and proceeded replacing the richness of the architectural forms that stood before the earthquake, with austere but necessary settlements. Nevertheless, it is these buildings that constitute today’s image of the island. This study wishes to introduce us to “arogi” buildings structural system, as it was applied in Kefalonia after 1953 earthquake, with reference to recent bibliography and the recent experience of 2014 earthquake. The purpose of setting the grounds for such a research would be to highlight the effectiveness of this structural system. Moreover, to emphasize the fact that “arogi” buildings and their construction procedure incorporate Kefalonia’s recent history and have eventually produced today’s available “traditional” architecture of the island.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry shear walls; ST models; equilibrium models
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:26:48 CEST)
This paper contains theoretical fundamentals of strut and tie models, used in unreinforced horizontal shear walls. Depending on support conditions and wall loading, we can distinguish models with discrete bars when point load is applied to the wall (type I model) or with continuous bars (type II model) when load is uniformly distributed at the wall boundary. The main part of this paper compares calculated results with the own tests on horizontal shear walls made of solid brick, silicate elements and autoclaved aerated concrete. The tests were performed in Poland. The model required some modifications due to specific load and static diagram.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry; seismic retrofitting; textile reinforced mortar; thermal insulation
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:11:06 CET)
Taking into consideration the seismic vulnerability of older buildings and the increasing need for reducing their carbon footprint and energy consumption, the application of an innovative system is investigated; the system is based on the use of textile reinforced mortars (TRM) and thermal insulation as a means of combined seismic and energy retrofitting of existing masonry walls. Medium scale tests were carried out on masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane cyclic loading. The following parameters were investigated experimentally: placement of the TRM in a sandwich form (over and under the insulation) or outside the insulation, one-sided or two-sided TRM jacketing and/or insulation, and the displacement amplitude of the loading cycles. A simple analytical method is developed and is found in good agreement with test results. Additionally, numerical modeling is carried out and is also found in good agreement with test results. From the results obtained in this study the authors believe that TRM jacketing may be combined effectively with thermal insulation, increasing the overall strength and energy efficiency of the masonry panels in buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: gradual strengthening; existing masonry houses; earthquake disaster; ferrocement; bandaging
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:43:21 CET)
Approximately 85 million people's houses are scattered all over Indonesia, and almost all are in strong earthquake areas. In every earthquake, the houses are generally damaged or collapsed. Therefore, those houses must be strengthened to make them earthquake resistant. This paper discusses a gradual strengthening of existing houses using ferrocement bandaging. The gradual strengthening is introduced due to limited funding of the people. It also serves as an educational tool to educate people to be self-sufficient in building their earthquake-resistant houses. The first step, maybe the sleeping room shall be strengthened so that if there is an earthquake during night-time, people will be safe, and if there is an earthquake during the daytime, people can immediately run to that particular room. A global analysis is made of a sample house shaken by Palu, Central Sulawesi earthquake 2018, and West Sumatra earthquake 2009, with one room strengthened to show that the strengthened room can survive the earthquakes. Then the analysis is continued gradually to the other rooms until the masonry house is fully strengthened by ferrocement bandaging. The results show that the masonry house strengthened by ferrocement layers is earthquake resistant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0305.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: refractories; mortarless masonry; mechanical homogenization; thermomechanical modeling; steel ladle
Online: 20 March 2020 (04:56:11 CET)
Mortarless refractory masonry structures are widely used in the steel industry for the linings of many high-temperature industrial applications including steel ladle. The design and the optimization of these components require accurate numerical models that consider the presence of joints as well as joints closure and opening due to cyclic heating and cooling. The present work reports on the formulation, numerical implementation, validation, and application of homogenized numerical models for simulation of refractory masonry structures with dry joints. The validated constitutive model has been used to simulate a steel ladle and to analyze its transient thermomechanical behavior during a typical thermal cycle of steel ladle. 3D solution domain, enhanced thermal and mechanical boundary conditions have been used. Parametric studies to investigate the impact of joints thickness on the thermomechanical response of the ladle have been carried out. The results clearly demonstrate that the thermomechanical behavior of mortarless masonry is orthotropic nonlinear due to gradual closure and reopening of joints with the increase and decrease of temperature. Also, resulting thermal stresses increase with the increase of temperature and decrease with the increase of joints thickness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry structures; stiffening walls; wall joints; connectors; bed joint reinforcement
Online: 17 December 2019 (10:46:57 CET)
Joints between walls are very important for structural analysis of each masonry building at the global and local level. This issue was often neglected in case of traditional joints and relatively squat walls. Nowadays the issue of wall joints is becoming particularly important due to the continuous strive for simplifying structures, introducing new technologies and materials. Eurocode 6 and other standards (USA, Canadian, Chinese, and Japanese) recommend inspecting joints between walls, but no detail procedures have been specified. This paper presents our own tests on joints between walls made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) masonry units. Tests included reference models composed of two wall panels joined perpendicularly with a masonry bond (6 models), traditional steel and modified connectors (12 models). A shape and size of test models and structure of a test stand were determined on the basis of the analysis of the current knowledge, pilot studies and numerical analyses of FEM. The analysis referred to the morphology and failure mechanism of models. Load-displacement relationships for different types of joints were compared and obtained results were referred to results for reference models. A mechanism of cracking and failure was found to vary, and clear differences in behaviour and load capacity of each type of joints were observed. Individual working phases of joints were determined and defined, and the empirical approach was suggested to determine forces and displacement of wall joints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Masonry arches bridges; Self-form segmental arches technique; CFRP; Strengthening
Online: 17 June 2019 (10:09:48 CEST)
This research aims to introduce a new technique, off-site and self-form segmental concrete masonry arches fabrication, without the need of construction formwork or centering. The innovative construction method in the current study encompasses two construction materials forms the self-form masonry arches, wedge-shape plain concrete voussoirs, and Carbon Fibers Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) composites. The employment of CFRP fabrics was for two main reasons; bond the voussoirs and forming the masonry arches. However, CFRP proved to be efficient for strengthening the extrados of the arch rings under service loadings. An experimental test conducted on four sophisticated masonry arch specimens. Research parameters were using thicker keystone as well as the partial strengthening of the self-form arch ring at the intrados. Major test finding was the use of thicker Keystone, alter the behavior of the self-form arch, considerably increased the load carrying capacity by 79%. Partial strengthening of the intrados with CFRP fabrics of typical arch ring Keystone resulted considerable increased the debonding load of fabrication CFRP sheets by 81%, increase the localized crushing load by 13%, and considerably increase voussoir sliding load by 107%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Stone pagoda; Masonry structure; Shaking table test; Earthquake resistance; Seismic behavior
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:15:13 CET)
In general, the stone pagoda structures with discontinuous surfaces are vulnerable to lateral forces and are severely damaged by earthquakes. After the Gyeongju earthquake in 2016 and the Pohang earthquake in 2017, the earthquakes damaged numerous stone pagoda structures due to slippage, rotation and the separation of stacked stone. To evaluate seismic resistance of masonry stone pagoda structure, we analyzed the seismic behavior of stone pagoda structure using shaking table test. Shaking frequency, permanent displacement, maximum acceleration, rocking, and sliding were assessed. Responses to simulations of the Bingol, Gyeongju, and Pohang earthquakes based on Korean seismic design standard (KDS 41 17 00) were analyzed for return periods of 1,000 and 2,400 years. We found that the type of stylobate affected the seismic resistance of stone pagoda structure. When the stylobates were stiff, seismic energy was transferred from lower to upper regions of the stone pagoda, which mainly resulted in deformation of the upper region. When the stylobates were weak, earthquake energy was absorbed in the lower regions; this was associated with large stylobate deformations. The lower part of tower body was mainly affected by rocking, because the structural members were slender. The higher part of the stone pagoda was mainly affected by sliding, because the load and contact area decreased with height.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: retrofitting; earthquakes; masonry; historical buildings; active reinforcement; Mohr’s circles; CAM system; Φ system
Online: 20 February 2019 (12:18:11 CET)
The present paper deals with the retrofitting of unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings, subjected to in-plane shear and out of-plane loading when struck by an earthquake. After an introductive comparison between some of the latest punctual and continuous active retrofitting methods, the authors focused on the two most effective active continuous techniques, the CAM system and the Φ system, which also improve the box-type behavior of buildings. These two retrofitting systems allow us to increase both the static and dynamic load-bearing capacity of masonry buildings. Nevertheless, information on how they actually modify the stress field in static conditions is lacking and sometimes questionable, in the literature. Therefore, we performed a static analysis in the plane of Mohr/Coulomb, with the dual intent to clarify which of the two is preferable under static conditions and whether the models currently used to design the retrofitting systems are fully adequate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0153.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Masonry walls; Out-of-plane strengthening; FRP strips; Active strengthening techniques; Degree of Composite Action (DCA).
Online: 11 December 2019 (11:52:18 CET)
As is well known, the main contribution of the FRP strips to the strength of load-bearing walls is an improvement in the in-plane strength. This paper deals with the possibility of applying the FRP strips in way to modify the strengthening mechanism of the FRP reinforcing system, from an in-plane to an out-of-plane strengthening mechanism. In order to achieve this goal, a second reinforcement system – derived from the CAM system (Active Confinement of Masonry) – provides connections between the FRP strips placed on the opposite sides of the wall. This new strengthening technique – called the straps/strips technique – establishes a stiffness constraint that forces the opposing FRP strips to behave like two flanges of an FRP I-beam embedded in the wall. Consequently, the use of FRP strips also improves the flexural strength of the wall. The present paper briefly summarizes the results obtained in previous works with the straps/strips technique and proposes an improvement of this strengthening technique, based on some weak-points emerged in the early experimentations. The paper also shows the results of a further experimental test, performed with the improved straps/strips technique. Finally, the similarity between FRP strips with transversal connection and concrete wythes of a sandwich panel with flexible connectors leads to interpret the behavior of the ideal I-beam in terms of composite action established between the FRP strips. This paves the way for analytical modeling of the straps/strips technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0087.v6
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: stone block; polygonal masonry; clay model; pantograph; translator; parallelogram mechanism; replica; chisel; hammer; megalith; Inca; Cusco; Ollantaytambo; Machu Picchu; Sacsayhuaman; Peru
Online: 16 May 2022 (12:15:55 CEST)
The article suggests methods that allow creating the most complicated type of polygonal masonry found in Peru. This masonry type consists of large stone blocks weighing from several hundred kilograms to several tons fitted close to each other almost without a gap between complicated curved surfaces over a large area. The work provides a description of techniques, which apparently were used by builders who arrived from Europe. The techniques under discussion are based on the use of a reduced clay model, 3D-pantograph, topography translator and replicas. The use of a reduced clay model and a pantograph provides not only the unique appearance and high quality of masonry with large blocks, but also allows to significantly increase the productivity of the builders. As machines coping-scaling three-dimensional objects are known since the beginning of the 18th century, the stone structures under consideration should be approximately dated by this time. The remaining simpler types of polygonal masonry with smaller stones or fitted surfaces are almost flat, or stones contact with each other by a small area, or there are significant gaps between stones, are quite consistent with the well-known methods of stone processing of those and earlier years, and, therefore, they do not require any additional explanations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0194.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry buildings; out-of-plane strength; hammering actions; seismic retrofitting; bracing; dissipative systems; CAM system; CFRP strips
Online: 20 February 2019 (12:22:23 CET)
The purpose of this study is to improve the performance of walls under out-of-plane loads, particularly when subjected to the hammering action of the floors. The idea behind the paper is to provide the masonry walls with a device that behaves like a buttress, without having to build a traditional buttress. The solution presented here consists of a mechanical coupling between the three-dimensional net of steel ribbons of the CAM system and the CFRP strips. Since the steel ribbons of the CAM system have a pre-tension, the mechanical coupling allows the steel ribbons to establish a semi-rigid transverse link between the CFRP strips bonded on two opposite sides of a wall. Therefore, two vertical CFRP strips tied by the steel ribbons behave like the flanges of an I-beam and the flexural strength of the ideal I-beam counteracts the out-of-plane displacements of the wall. The experimental results showed that the combined technique inherits the strong points of both constituent techniques: the delamination load is comparable to that of the specimens reinforced with the CFRP strips and the overall behavior is ductile as for the specimens reinforced with the CAM system. They also allowed us to design a more performing combined technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0340.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry buildings; hammering actions; out-of-plane strengthening; three-dimensional strengthening systems; CFRP strips; textile reinforced mortar (TRM)
Online: 26 August 2019 (09:03:00 CEST)
The present paper deals with an improvement of the strengthening technique consisting in the combined use of straps—made of stainless steel ribbons—and CFRP strips, to increase the out-of-plane strength of masonry walls. The straps of both the previous and the new combined technique pass from one face to the opposite face of the masonry wall through some holes made along the thickness, giving rise to a three-dimensional net of loop-shaped straps, closed on themselves. The new technique replaces the stainless steel ribbons with steel wire ropes, which form closed loops around the masonry units and the CFRP strips as in the previous technique. A turnbuckle for each steel wire rope allows the closure of the loops and provides the desired pre-tension to the straps. The mechanical coupling—given by the frictional forces—between the straps and the CFRP strips placed on the two faces of the masonry wall gives rise to an I-beam behavior of the facing CFRP strips, which begin to resist the load as if they were the two flanges of the same I-beam. Even the previous combined technique exploits the ideal I-beam mechanism, but the greater stiffness of the steel wire ropes compared to the stiffness of the steel ribbons makes the constraint between the facing CFRP strips stiffer. This gives the reinforced structural element greater stiffness and delamination load. In particular, the experimental results show that the maximum load achievable with the second combined technique is much greater than the maximum load provided by the CFRP strips. Even the ultimate displacement turns out to be increased, allowing us to state that the second combined technique improves both strength and ductility. Since the CFRP strips of the combined technique run along the vertical direction of the wall, the ideal I-beam mechanism is particularly useful to counteract the hammering actions provided by the floors on the perimeter walls, during an earthquake. Lastly, after the building went out of service, the box-type behavior offered by the three-dimensional net of straps prevents the building from collapsing, acting as a device for safeguarding life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: cultural heritage; masonry rehabilitation; seismic device; steel structure; basalt fiber; grout injections; archeological site; rubber-bearing; non-destructive testing
Online: 17 February 2021 (11:41:33 CET)
The preservation of the authenticity of a building artefact is a responsible practice. On the other side, the need to save the building artefact from the natural and anthropic degradation, to ensure the structural reliability to the different actions, to define an efficient maintenance program are big challenges, that involves the cooperation of several professionals, responsible use of innovative techniques and materials that are nowadays available. This paper focuses on a specific design approach for the rehabilitation works of ancient constructions in archaeological sites. The proposed conceptual design approach implies different steps that allow the optimization of the design at an increasing level of knowledge on the existing structures and their materials. The design procedure on historical constructions generally includes the following steps: the collection of data, the structural identification, hazard, and vulnerability analysis, damage and risk analysis, a cost-benefit analysis, so only at the end of the process, the final design is achieved. In the archaeological area, some important design aspects cannot be defined before the execution work phase, since some elements could be revealed and identified during work execution, as a consequence, the final design has been often optimized after all this information has been acquired. A studied case in the archaeological site of Pompeii is herein presented to prove the efficiency of the proposed approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: masonry; composite; short fibers; natural hydraulic lime; sisal; three-point bending test; fracture energy; strengthening; preservation; sustainability; carbon foot print
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:31:59 CEST)
The present work aims to characterize the mechanical behavior of a new composite material for the conservation and development of the vast historical and architectural heritage that is particularly vulnerable to environmental and seismic actions. The new composite consists of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) -based mortar, reinforced by sisal short fibers randomly oriented in the mortar matrix. The NHL-based mortar ensures the chemical-physical compatibility with the original feature of the historical masonry structures (mostly in stone and clay) aiming to pursue both the effectiveness and durability of the intervention. The use of vegetable fibers (i.e. the sisal one) is an exciting challenge for the construction industry since they require a lower degree of industrialization for their processing, and therefore, their costs are also low, as compared to the most common synthetic/metal fibers. Beams of sisal-composite sizing 160x40x40 mm3 with a central notch are tested in three-point bending, aiming to evaluate both their bending strength and fracture energy. Also, tensile tests and compressive tests were performed on the composite samples, while water retention test and slump test were performed on the fresh mix. Finally, the tensile tests on the Sisal strand were carried out to evaluate the tensile strength of both strand and wire. A final comparison with unreinforced mortar specimens shows that the proposed composite ensures great workability and good performances in term of ductility and strength and it can be considered a promising alternative to the classic fiber-reinforcing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0226.v1
Subject: Keywords: unreinforced masonry; quasi-brittle material; in-plane behavior; shear-compression; triplet test; dilatancy; bond behavior; confinement; finite element model; macro-model
Online: 16 February 2020 (16:06:10 CET)
Rubble stone masonry walls are widely diffused in most of the cultural and architectural heritage of historical cities. The mechanical response of such material is rather complicated to predict due to their composite nature. Vertical compression tests, diagonal compression tests, and shear-compression tests are usually adopted to experimentally investigate the mechanical properties of stone masonries. However, further tests are needed for the safety assessment of these ancient structures. Since the relation between normal and shear stresses plays a major role in the shear behavior of masonry joints, governing the failure mode, triplet test configuration was here investigated. First, the experimental tests carried out at the laboratory (LPMS) of the University of L'Aquila on stone masonry specimens were presented. Then, the triplet test was simulated by using the Total Strain Crack Model, which reflects all the ultimate states of quasi-brittle material such as cracking, crushing and shear failure. The goal of the numerical investigation was to evaluate the shear mechanical parameters of the masonry sample, including strength, dilatancy, normal and shear deformations. Furthermore, the effect of (i) confinement pressure and (ii) bond behavior at the sample-plates interfaces were investigated, showing that they can strongly influence the mechanical response of the walls.