REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0968.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: surgical mask; N95 mask; toxicity; health risk assessment; microplastic; volatile organic compound (VOC); heavy metal; phthalate; organic compound
Online: 15 May 2023 (03:23:48 CEST)
From 2020 to 2023 many people around the world were forced to wear masks for large proportions of the day based on mandates and laws. We aimed to study the potential of face masks for the content and release of inanimate toxins. A scoping review of 1003 studies was performed (database search in PubMed/MEDLINE, qualitative and quantitative evaluation). Twenty-four studies were included (experimental time 17 min to 15 days) evaluating content and/or release in 631 masks (273 surgical, 228 textile and 130 N95 masks). Most studies (63%) showed alarming results with high micro- and nanoplastics (MPs and NPs) release and exceedances could also be evidenced for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), xylene, acrolein, per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), phthalates (including di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, DEHP) and for Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Sb and TiO2. Of course, masks filter bacteria, dirt and plastic particles and fibers from the air we breathe and have specific indications, but according to our data they also carry risks. Depending on the application, a risk-benefit analysis is necessary. However, mask mandates during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have been generating an additional source of potentially harmful exposition to toxins at population level with almost zero distance to the airways.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0663.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Mask; PPE; Bacteria; Nasal; Breath; Bacterial Culture; bioaerosols; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; hygiene behavior; face mask
Online: 30 August 2020 (11:41:33 CEST)
Many individuals are wearing face masks improperly at ‘half mask’ and potentially breathing out microbes that can contaminate the air as well as anything below the nose. This note provides the first report that bacteria and fungi breathed out during nasal air exhalation are able to be cultured after landing on blood agar plates. The CFU’s are higher after both 10 breaths and extremely significant for 20 breaths compared to the control plates exposed to the air. Implications of this finding are that going ‘nose commando’ may be able to continue the spread of respiratory diseases such as COVID-19.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Facemask; community mask; medical mask; recycling; reuse; carbon footprint; COVID-19
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:04:46 CEST)
IntroductionThe use of protective masks, especially medical masks, increased dramatically during the COVID-19 crisis. Medical masks are made of synthetic materials, mainly polypropylene, and a majority of them are produced in China and imported to the European market. The urgency of the need has so far prevailed over environmental considerations.ObjectiveAssess the environmental impact of different strategies for the use of facemaskMethod Different strategies for the use of medical and community masks are being investigated for their environmental impact in this study. 8 scenarios, differentiating the typologies of masks and the modes of reuse are compared using several environmental impact indicators, mainly the Global Warming Potential (GWP100), and the plastic leakage (PL). This study attempts to provide clear recommendations that consider both the environmental impact and the protective effectiveness of face masks used in the community.Results The environmental impact of single-use masks is the most unfavorable, with a GWP of 0.4 -1.3 kgCO2 eq., depending on the transport scenario, and a PL of 1.8 g, for a one month protection against COVID-19. The use of home-made cotton masks and prolonged use of medical masks through wait-and-reuse are the scenarios with the lowest impact.ConclusionThe use of medical masks with a wait and reuse strategy seems to be the most appropriate when considering both environmental impact and effectiveness. Our results also highlight the need to develop procedures and the legal/operational framework to extend the use of protective equipment during a pandemic.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Airborne; Mask
Online: 29 May 2020 (03:41:50 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused a global public health crisis. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 by contact is widely accepted, but the relative importance of aerosol transmission for the spread of COVID-19 is controversial. Here we characterize the distribution of SARA-CoV-2 in 123 aerosol samples, 63 masks, and 30 surface samples collected at various locations in Wuhan, China. The positive percentages of viral RNA included 21% of the aerosol samples from an intensive care unit and 39% of the masks from patients with a range of conditions. A viable virus was isolated from the surgical mask of one critically ill patient while all viral RNA positive aerosol samples were cultured negative. The SARS-CoV-2 detected in masks from patients, ambient air, and respirators from health workers compose a chain of emission, transport, and recipient of the virus. Our results indicate that masks are effective in protecting against the spread of viruses, and it is strongly recommended that people throughout the world wear masks to break the chain of virus transmission and thus protect themselves and others from SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0810.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid; Psychological effect; Behavioral; Face mask; Care center
Online: 24 April 2023 (03:33:53 CEST)
The Covid 19 pandemic threaten the life of individuals and there was a lack of information in treatment, handling of patients and disposal of waste. The psychological and behavioral impact on Humans due to outbreak of Covid is studied and based on that a person-centered care center is suggested. The research methodology used are surveys, interviews among stake holders and design details of person-centered care center. Based on the surveys and interviews conducted during pandemic, it is found that 94% of the respondents prefer to use private vehicles with at least one member to ac-company them. People prefer to use 3 ply facemasks, followed by cotton masks and N95. Existing literature discusses the physical effects on the individual, but this paper focuses more on pros and cons on human life during the pandemic and lock down period. Based on the study, care center with facilities to treat patients with different levels of infections and counselling center for the persons suffered from Covid and other infectious diseases to overcome their psycho-logical and behavior changes are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: micro surface structures; mask electrolyte jet machining; electrochemical micro machining
Online: 8 October 2022 (03:11:36 CEST)
The controllability and consistency in the fabrication of micro-textures on large-scale remains a challenge for existing production processes. Mask electrolyte jet machining (MEJM) is an alternative to Jet-ECM for controllable and high-throughput surface microfabrication with more consistency of dimensional tolerances. This hybrid configuration combines the high-throughput of masked-ECM and the adjustable flow-field of jet-ECM. In this work, a duckbill jet nozzle was introduced to make MEJM more capable of batch micro-structuring. A multiphysics model was built to simulate the distribution of electrochemical reaction ions, the cur- rent density distribution and the evolution of the shape of the machined cavity. Experimental investigations are presented showing the influence of the machining voltage and nozzle moving speed on the micro cavity. Several 35 ×35 micro cavity arrays with a diameter of 24.92 − 11.73 µm and depth of 15.86 − 7.24 µm are generated on 304 stainless steel.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: reciprocal personal/public protection; mask discriminating mouth and nose; mouth cover; mask; face covering; source control; source classification; Covid-19; active source; liquid droplets
Online: 14 September 2020 (11:45:27 CEST)
Reciprocal Personal/Public Protection (RPPP) featured with source control is introduced, Mask Discriminating Mouth and Nose (MDMN) is employed to serve the purpose, which includes polymer based mouth cover with optional nose cover. The new knowledge that mouth is a primary, active and dominant source of the virus has been well established, which is the base of MDMN. Source classification and related source control tools are discussed, mouth cover is recommended as the tool prioritized to use. Liquid droplets is identified as a hard issue related to mask, liquid droplets, mask fitting, comfort and facial recognition constitute real challenges of mask in addition to efficiency, All of these have been addressed with MDMN. Comparisons between MDMN and masks/face covering are taken on four aspects: efficiency and efficacy, tolerance and comfort, cost and waste, and civil rights and public interest. Mouth cover is recommended to replace the face covering and act as both a personal tool and a public utensil, mouth cover with nose cover can provide better protection than N95 etc. RPPP with MDMN, could be an alternative for lockdown, a parallel strategy to vaccine, and a collectively living way during the pandemic era. MDMN, featured with high efficiency protection, high degree comfort, easy wearing, tight-fitting, easy facial recognition & communication, reusability, cost-effective, environment friendly and scale manufacturing more readily and widely etc., is a simple and sustainable solution, which is essential for ordinary people to keep wearing it properly for protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Surgical mask; exercise; treadmill test; stress test; Oxygen saturation; Covid19; ECG
Online: 5 February 2021 (10:03:09 CET)
In the context of the COVID-19 Pandemic, the use of surgical masks has become the new normal. The use of these devices in exercise and medical situations has been advocated with the purpose of reducing contagions, but some concerns exist regarding its safety. We performed maximal treadmill stress tests in 12 healthy young subjects, with and without surgical mask use, and measured exercise capacity, oxygen saturation (rest, peak exercise and post-exercise) and electrocardiographic changes. Exercise capacity and Oxygen saturation levels decreased in peak exercise vs rest in a statistically significant manner when mask was used. ECG changes, although not significant, were present in 3 subjects when mask was used and disappeared when the test was made unmasked. We conclude that masked exercise has the potential to cause decreased exercise load and oxygen saturation and potentially cause diagnostic errors in medical exams.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; mask; respirator; coronavirus; 3D Printing; N95; personal protective equipment (PPE)
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:16:17 CEST)
The COVID-19 crisis has resulted in a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) . COVID-19 is currently the leading cause of death in the United States. Health care providers caring for COVID-19 patients or at high risk of being exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus benefit from a face shield to protect against aerosol droplets that could hit the face and minimize the chance of inadvertently touching the face with contaminated hands, and air filtration to filter out aerosolized SARS-CoV-2. Adapting commercially available full-faced snorkel masks has been proposed as an alternative to narrow the gap in PPE . Here we explore a full-faced snorkel mask with commercially available particulate filters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0025.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: object detection; semi-supervised learning; Mask R-CNN; floor-plan images; computer vision
Online: 1 September 2022 (15:16:43 CEST)
Research has been growing on object detection using semi-supervised methods in past few years. We examine the intersection of these two areas for floor-plan objects to promote the research objective of detecting more accurate objects with less labelled data. The floor-plan objects include different furniture items with multiple types of the same class, and this high inter-class similarity impacts the performance of prior methods. In this paper, we present Mask R-CNN based semi-supervised approach that provides pixel-to-pixel alignment to generate individual annotation masks for each class to mine the inter-class similarity. The semi-supervised approach has a student-teacher network that pulls information from the teacher network and feeds it to the student network. The teacher network uses unlabeled data to form pseudo-boxes, and the student network uses both unlabeled data with the pseudo boxes and labelled data as ground truth for training. It learns representations of furniture items by combining labelled and unlabeled data. On the Mask R-CNN detector with ResNet-101 backbone network, the proposed approach achieves mAP of 98.8%, 99.7%, and 99.8% with only 1%, 5% and 10% labelled data, respectively. Our experiment affirms the efficiency of the proposed approach as it outperforms the fully supervised counterpart using only 10% of the labels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0444.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; novel coronavirus; 3D printing; N95; respirator; mask
Online: 31 March 2020 (04:44:06 CEST)
The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused an acute reduction in world supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE) due to increased demand. To combat the impending shortage of equipment including N95 masks, the George Washington University Hospital (GWUH) developed a 3D printed reusable N95 comparable respirator that can be used with multiple filtration units. We evaluated several candidate prototype respirator models, 3D printer filaments, and filtration units detailed here. Our most recent working model was based on a respirator found on an open source maker website and was developed with PLA (printer filament), a removable cap, a removable filtration unit consisting of two layers of MERV 16 sandwiched between MERV 13, and removable elastic bands to secure the mask. Our candidate mask passed our own suction test protocol to evaluate leakage and passed a qualitative Bitrix N95 fit test at employee health at GWUH. Further efforts are directed at improving the current model for seal against face, comfort, and sizing. The 3D model is available upon request and in the supplement of this paper. We welcome collaboration with other institutions and suggest other facilities consider mask fit for their own population when exploring this concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0114.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: directional encoding mask; selective attention network; supervised learning; horizontal and vertical text recognition
Online: 11 December 2018 (07:24:04 CET)
Recent state-of-the-art scene text recognition methods have primarily focused on horizontal text in images. However, in several Asian countries, including China, large amounts of text in signs, books, and TV commercials are vertically directed. Because the horizontal and vertical texts exhibit different characteristics, developing an algorithm that can simultaneously recognize both types of text in real environments is necessary. To address this problem, we adopted the direction encoding mask (DEM) and selective attention network (SAN) methods based on supervised learning. DEM contains directional information to compensate in cases that lack text direction; therefore, our network is trained using this information to handle the vertical text. The SAN method is designed to work individually for both types of text. To train the network to recognize both types of text and to evaluate the effectiveness of the designed model, we prepared a new synthetic vertical text dataset and collected an actual vertical text dataset (VTD142) from the Web. Using these datasets, we proved that our proposed model can accurately recognize both vertical and horizontal text and can achieve state-of-the-art results in experiments using benchmark datasets, including the street view test (SVT), IIIT-5k, and ICDAR. Although our model is relatively simple as compared to its predecessors, it maintains the accuracy and is trained in an end-to-end manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0114.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: crystalline gel; 3D printing; mask-projection stereolithography; thermal energy storage; phase change material; thermoregulation
Online: 6 September 2018 (12:04:00 CEST)
Most of the phase change materials (PCMs) have been limited to use as functional additions or sealed in containers, and extra auxiliary equipment or supporting matrix is needed. The emergence of 3D printing technique has dramatically advanced the developments of materials and simplified production processes. This study focuses on a novel strategy to model thermal energy storage crystalline gels with three-dimensional architecture directly from liquid resin without supporting materials through light-induced polymerization 3D printing technique. A mask-projection stereolithography printer was used to measure the 3D printing test, and the printable characters of crystalline thermal energy storage P(SA-DMAA) gels with different molar ratios were evaluated. For the P(SA-DMMA) gels with small fraction of SA, the 3D fabrication was realized with higher printing precision both on mili- and micro-meter scales. As a comparison of 3D printed samples, P(SA-DMAA) gels made by other two methods, post-UV curing treatment after 3D printing and UV curing using conventional mold, were prepared. The 3D printed P(SA-DMAA) gels shown high crystallinity. Post–UV curing treatment was beneficial to full curing of 3D printed gels, but did not lead to the further improvement of crystal structure to get higher crystallinity. The P(SA-DMAA) crystalline gel having the highest energy storage enthalpy that reached 69.6 J·g−1 was developed. Its good thermoregulation property in the temperature range from 25 to 40 °C was proved. The P(SA-DMAA) gels are feasible for practical applications as one kind of 3D printing material with thermal energy storage and thermoregulation functionality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0463.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: atmospheric correction; cloud mask; water vapor content; spectral radiance; surface spectral albedo; aerosol optical thickness
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:01:13 CET)
In this work, we propose simple and robust technique for the retrieval of underlying surface spectral albedo using spaceborne observations. It can be used to process both multispectral moderate resolution satellite data and also multi - zone high spatial resolution data. The technique can work automatically for different types of land surfaces without using huge databases accumulated in advance. The new cloud discrimination and retrieval of the water vapor content in atmosphere procedures are presented. The key point of the proposed atmospheric correction technique is the suggested single-wavelength method for determining the atmospheric aerosol optical thickness without reference to a specific type of underlying surface spectrum. The retrievals of spectral albedo for various land surfaces with developed technique, performed using computer simulation and experimental data, have demonstrated a high retrieval accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0549.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: childhood education; Hygiene; COVID-19; preventive behaviours; staying at home; mask wearing; hand washing; public goods
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:21:57 CET)
Childhood hygiene education has resulted in individuals engaging in hand washing and mask wearing to cope with COVID-19. Individuals can form sustainable development-related habits through childhood education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; curfew; mask; social distancing; side-effects; heath policy; public health; non pharmaceutical interventions.
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:24:29 CET)
Let us all take a moment to talk, once again, about this new coronavirus pandemic that the world has been facing since November 2019 and about its global response. After a short period marked by the pandemic underestimation risk by most governments, the Western world went nuts and overreacted, most probably so as not to be accused of inaction. In many cases, the overall benefits of the chosen policies were not sufficiently questioned, which resulted in many side effects on global health .The medical motto “primum non nocere”, a moral principle everyone should at least consider following, was evidently not taken into account. It has been overlooked, and the virus has become an obsession, to the extent that nearly everything else, even the most valuable things in life, is still now under appreciated if not simply ignored. This review highlighted facts against this simplistic, one-dimensional view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0089.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Object Detection; Cascade Mask R-CNN; Floor Plan Images; Deep Learning; Transfer Learning; Dataset Augmentation; Computer Vision
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:09:26 CEST)
Object detection is one of the most critical tasks in the field of Computer vision. This task comprises identifying and localizing an object in the image. Architectural floor plans represent the layout of buildings and apartments. The floor plans consist of walls, windows, stairs, and other furniture objects. While recognizing floor plan objects is straightforward for humans, automatically processing floor plans and recognizing objects is a challenging problem. In this work, we investigate the performance of the recently introduced Cascade Mask R-CNN network to solve object detection in floor plan images. Furthermore, we experimentally establish that deformable convolution works better than conventional convolutions in the proposed framework. Identifying objects in floor plan images is also challenging due to the variety of floor plans and different objects. We faced a problem in training our network because of the lack of publicly available datasets. Currently, available public datasets do not have enough images to train deep neural networks efficiently. We introduce SFPI, a novel synthetic floor plan dataset consisting of 10000 images to address this issue. Our proposed method conveniently surpasses the previous state-of-the-art results on the SESYD dataset and sets impressive baseline results on the proposed SFPI dataset. The dataset can be downloaded from SFPI Dataset Link. We believe that the novel dataset enables the researcher to enhance the research in this domain further.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0165.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Formula detection; Cascade Mask R-CNN; Mathematical expression detection; document image analysis; deep neural networks; computer vision.
Online: 6 July 2021 (17:42:24 CEST)
This paper presents a novel architecture for detecting mathematical formulas in document images, which is an important step for reliable information extraction in several domains. Recently, Cascade Mask R-CNN networks have been introduced to solve object detection in computer vision. In this paper, we suggest a couple of modifications to the existing Cascade Mask R-CNN architecture: First, the proposed network uses deformable convolutions instead of conventional convolutions in the backbone network to spot areas of interest better. Second, it uses a dual backbone of ResNeXt-101, having composite connections at the parallel stages. Finally, our proposed network is end-to-end trainable. We evaluate the proposed approach on the ICDAR-2017 POD and Marmot datasets. The proposed approach demonstrates state-of-the-art performance on ICDAR-2017 POD at a higher IoU threshold with an f1-score of 0.917, reducing the relative error by 7.8%. Moreover, we accomplished correct detection accuracy of 81.3% on embedded formulas on the Marmot dataset, which results in a relative error reduction of 30%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0527.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Aircraft Maintenance Inspection; Anomaly Detection; Defect Inspection; Convolutional Neural Networks; Mask R-CNN; Generative Adversarial Networks; Image Augmentation
Online: 20 November 2020 (09:16:13 CET)
Convolutional Neural Networks combined with autonomous drones are increasingly seen as enablers of partially automating the aircraft maintenance visual inspection process. Such an innovative concept can have a significant impact on aircraft operations. Through supporting aircraft maintenance engineers detect and classify a wide range of defects, the time spent on inspection can significantly be reduced. Examples of defects that can be automatically detected include aircraft dents, paint defects, cracks and holes, and lightning strike damage. Additionally, this concept could also increase the accuracy of damage detection and reduce the number of aircraft inspection incidents related to human factors like fatigue and time pressure. In our previous work, we have applied a recent Convolutional Neural Network architecture known by MASK R-CNN to detect aircraft dents. MASK-RCNN was chosen because it enables the detection of multiple objects in an image while simultaneously generating a segmentation mask for each instance. The previously obtained F1 and F2 scores were 62.67% and 59.35% respectively. This paper extends the previous work by applying different techniques to improve and evaluate prediction performance experimentally. The approaches uses include (1) Balancing the original dataset by adding images without dents; (2) Increasing data homogeneity by focusing on wing images only; (3) Exploring the potential of three augmentation techniques in improving model performance namely flipping, rotating, and blurring; and (4) using a pre-classifier in combination with MASK R-CNN. The results show that a hybrid approache combining MASK R-CNN and augmentation techniques leads to an improved performance with an F1 score of (67.50%) and F2 score of (66.37%)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: behavioral analysis; COVID-19; governmental intervention; mask adoption; movement change; vaccine participation; non-pharmaceutical interventions; policy recommendations; social physics; social behavior
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:41:27 CEST)
Since its emergence, COVID-19 has caused a great impact in health and social terms. Governments and health authorities have attempted to minimize this impact by enforcing different mandates. Recent studies have addressed the relationship between various socioeconomic variables and compliance level to these interventions. However, little attention has been paid to what constitutes people's response and whether people behave differently when faced with different interventions. Data collected from different sources show very significant regional differences across the United States. In this paper, we attempted to shed light on the fact that a response may be different depending on the health system capacity and each individuals’ social status. For that, we analyzed the correlation between different societal variables (i.e. education, income levels, population density, etc.) along with healthcare capacity related variables (i.e. hospital occupancy rates, percentage of essential workers, etc.) with regards to people's level of compliance with three main governmental mandates in the United States: mobility restrictions, mask adoption, and vaccine participation. Our aim was to isolate the most influential variables impacting behavior in response to these policies. We found that there was a strong relationship between individuals' educational levels and political preferences with respect to compliance with each of these mandates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0451.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: text splitting; text tokenization; transfer learning; mask-fill prediction; NLP linguistic rules; missing punctuations; cross-lingual BERT model; Masked Language Modeling
Online: 26 August 2022 (05:19:39 CEST)
Long unpunctuated texts containing complex linguistic sentences are a stumbling block to processing any low-resource languages. Thus, approaches that attempt to segment lengthy texts with no proper punctuation into simple candidate sentences are a vitally important preprocessing task in many hard-to-solve NLP applications. In this paper, we propose (PDTS) a punctuation detection approach for segmenting Arabic text, built on top of a multilingual BERT-based model and some generic linguistic rules. Furthermore, we showcase how PDTS can be effectively employed as a text tokenizer for unpunctuated documents (i.e., mimicking the transcribed audio-to-text documents). Experimental findings across two evaluation protocols (involving an ablation study and a human-based judgment) demonstrate that PDTS is practically effective in both performance quality and computational cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0059.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: table detection; table recognition; cascade Mask R-CNN; atrous convolution; recursive feature pyramid networks; document image analysis; deep neural networks; computer vision, object detection.
Online: 3 September 2021 (11:05:10 CEST)
Table detection is a preliminary step in extracting reliable information from tables in scanned document images. We present CasTabDetectoRS, a novel end-to-end trainable table detection framework that operates on Cascade Mask R-CNN, including Recursive Feature Pyramid network and Switchable Atrous Convolution in the existing backbone architecture. By utilizing a comparatively lightweight backbone of ResNet-50, this paper demonstrates that superior results are attainable without relying on pre and post-processing methods, heavier backbone networks (ResNet-101, ResNeXt-152), and memory-intensive deformable convolutions. We evaluate the proposed approach on five different publicly available table detection datasets. Our CasTabDetectoRS outperforms the previous state-of-the-art results on four datasets (ICDAR-19, TableBank, UNLV, and Marmot) and accomplishes comparable results on ICDAR-17 POD. Upon comparing with previous state-of-the-art results, we obtain a significant relative error reduction of 56.36%, 20%, 4.5%, and 3.5% on the datasets of ICDAR-19, TableBank, UNLV, and Marmot, respectively. Furthermore, this paper sets a new benchmark by performing exhaustive cross-datasets evaluations to exhibit the generalization capabilities of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Time Series Prediction; ANN forecasting; New Coronavirus; COVID19 prediction cases; COVID19 prediction deaths; COVID19 prediction ICU, COVID19 Vaccination; COVID19 in Europe; COVID19 in Israel; COVID19 use of face mask.
Online: 6 May 2021 (16:58:01 CEST)
The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is a great contribution to medical studies since the application of forecasting concepts allows the analysis of future diseases propagations. In this context, this paper presents a study of the new coronavirus SARS-COV-2 with a focus on verifying the virus propagation associated with mitigation procedures and massive vaccination campaigns. There were proposed two methodologies to predict 28 days ahead the number of new cases, deaths, and ICU patients of five European countries: Portugal, France, Italy, United Kingdom, and Germany, and a case study of the results of massive immunization in Israel. The data input of cases, deaths, and daily ICU patients was normalized to reduce discrepant numbers due to the countries size, and the cumulative vaccination values by the percentage of population immunized, at least with one dose of vaccine. As a comparative criterion, the calculation of the mean absolute error (MAE) of all predictions presents the best methodology and targets other possibilities of use for the proposed method. The best architecture achieved a general MAE for the 1 to 28 days ahead forecast lower than 30 cases, 0,6 deaths and 2,5 ICU patients by million people.