ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: mHealth; ODK scan; mobile health application; digitizing data collection; data management processes; paper-to-digital system; technology-assisted data management; treatment adherence
Online: 2 September 2016 (03:17:38 CEST)
The present grievous situation of the tuberculosis disease can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology this can be achieved by quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, application and 3G enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to see the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed for quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, however, data verification and form filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, however, they were more concerned about the time consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Project Management; Information Theory; Uncertainty
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:43:14 CEST)
Projects are rarely executed exactly as planned. Often, the actual durations of a project’s activities differ from the planned ones, resulting in costs stemming from the inaccurate estimation of the activities’ completion dates. While monitoring the project at various inspection points is pricy, it can lead to better estimation of the project completion time, hence saving on costs. Nonetheless, identifying the optimal inspection points is a difficult task, as it requires evaluating a large number of the project’s path options, even for small-scale projects. This paper proposes an analytical method for identifying the optimal project inspection points by using Information Theory measures. We search for monitoring (inspection) points that can maximize the information about the estimated project’s duration or completion time. The proposed methodology is based on a simulation-optimization scheme using a Monte Carlo engine that simulates potential activities’ durations. An exhaustive search is performed of all possible control points to find those with the highest expected information gain on the project duration. The proposed algorithm’s complexity is not affected the number of activities, and can address large projects with hundreds or thousands of activities. Numerical experimentation and analysis of various parameters are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: isoflavones; menopause management; endometrial thickness; mammary density; liver function; plant extracts
Online: 27 October 2016 (12:21:59 CEST)
Long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination based on agnus castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI) and lactobacilli, and effectiveness on vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders in postmenopausal women, were assessed. A controlled study was carried-out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group) with formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group), at the dosage recommended. Kuppermann index, PSQI, and SF-36 were determined at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. 180 women (100 in ESP group and 80 in C group, mean age 55.5 years, in menopause for about 36 months) were enrolled in the study. At the treatment end, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. Kuppermann index, and particularly hot flushes, were progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. No adverse events were observed. Agnus castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. Endometrium, mammary glands and liver function, were unaffected after 12 months treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0101.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biodiversity conservation, livelihood, co-management, stakeholder, law enforcement
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:20:07 CET)
Despite of being an exceptionally biodiversity rich country, the forest coverage of Bangladesh is declining at an alarming rate. Declaration and management of protected areas in this regard is one of the efforts from government side to tackle the loss of biodiversity. The limited numbers of forest-protected areas (FPA), established to conserve the dwindling forest biodiversity of the country with high pressure on them for timber, non-timber forest products, and fuelwood - makes their management challenging. Moreover, most of the FPAs of the country declared only in the recent decades with very limited infrastructure, manpower and policy support for monitoring and governance. Some people-centred approaches for the management of FPAs and alternative livelihood and income generation subsidies although made available through a few project interventions, their number are still inadequate and performance remains less than satisfactory. This chapter provides a critical review of the FPAs of Bangladesh looking at their role in biodiversity conservation, management challenges, and key lessons from previous management interventions with recommendations for the future. It has been revealed that the FPA system of Bangladesh still poorly represents the diverse forest ecosystems with relatively small forest size and lack of corridors for the movement of wildlife. There are ample opportunities to render co-management of FPAs an effective strategy to minimize the conflicts in FPAs management in the country. It is, however, important to ensure the access of local forest-dependent people to different alternative income generating options that may adequately support their livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: co-management; livelihoods; conflicts; biodiversity conservation; sustainable development
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:25:34 CET)
Good governance in natural resource management (NRM) is one of the most challenging issues in developing countries that often inappropriately embedded in national policies and political agendas. It is, in fact, even more important for countries like Bangladesh with exceptionally high pressure and dependence on its natural resources for sustaining rural livelihoods. Globally, nowadays, good governance is considered as one of the key factor for achieving the goal of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Bangladesh, of late has responded to that global zeal by involving local communities in the management of country’s declining forest and other natural resources. The colonial legacy of the forestry sector of Bangladesh was planned and, managed as interim projects through donors’ prescriptions. Thus, institutions, management processes and conservation outcomes were problematic. The conventional approach adopted by colonial and post-colonial regimes for forest management also proved to be inefficient due to its top-down management system. The absolute dependency on donor support, and their prescription sometimes worsened the situation both ecologically and socially. Global, regional and local trends supported the need for a different dimension in the governance paradigms. The introduction of a pluralistic approach, known as co-management in protected areas (PAs) is an example of an attempt whereby shared governance mechanism are implemented to attain the desired goals of conservation that will also address the livelihoods and aspirations of communities living in and around PAs of the country. However, in designing future forest and PA regimes the concern of the external aid support and attached conditions remain a reality that needs to be addressed. Adequate attention should be given to our vanishing biodiversity, culture and community livelihoods through devising an appropriate governance mechanism recognizing and supporting local rights, access and participation in the environmental management. It is now time to mainstream the adhoc nature of governance according to our national conservation strategy and policy frameworks in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the Bangladesh NRM sector addressing the human and community right of people in the specific context of forest protected areas management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0081.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: resilience, land management, wildfire, Mediterranean dry forest
Online: 27 July 2016 (10:01:44 CEST)
Wildfires have always been a part of the history of Mediterranean forests. However, forest regeneration after a wildfire is not certain. It depends on many factors, some of which may be influenced by land management activities. Failure of regeneration will cause a regime shift in the ecosystem, reducing the provision of ecosystem services and ultimately leading to desertification. How can we increase Mediterranean forests’ resilience to fire? To answer this question, we did a literature review, investigating chains of processes that allow forests to regenerate (which we label “regeneration mechanisms”), and assessed the impact of selected management practices documented in the WOCAT database on the regeneration mechanisms. We identified three distinct regeneration mechanisms that enable Mediterranean forests to recover, as well as the time frame before and after a fire in which they are at work, and factors that can hinder or support resilience. The three regeneration mechanisms enabling a forest to regenerate after a fire consist of regeneration (1) from a seed bank; (2) from resprouting individuals; and (3) from unburned plants that escaped the fire. Management practices were grouped into four categories: (1) fuel breaks, (2) fuel management, (3) afforestation, and (4) mulching. We assessed how and under what conditions land management modifies the ecosystem’s resilience. The results show that land management influences resilience by interacting with resilience mechanisms before and after the fire, and not just by modifying the fire regime. Our analysis demonstrates a need for adaptive – i.e. context- and time-specific – management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1589.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: data management; cloud computing; RESTful API; eye-tracking; web portal
Online: 22 June 2023 (10:28:01 CEST)
The rapid development of technology has led to the implementation of data-driven systems whose performance heavily relies on the amount and type of the data itself. In the latest decades, in the fields of bioengineering data management, among others, eye-tracking data has become one of the most interesting and essential components for many medical, psychological, and engineering research applications. However, despite the large usage of eye-tracking data in many studies and applications, a strong gap is still present in the literature regarding real-time data collection and management, which led to strong constraints for the reliability and accuracy of on-time results. To address this gap, this study aims to introduce a system that enables the collection, processing, real-time streaming, and storage of eye-tracking data. The system is developed by using Java programming language, WebSocket protocol, and Representational State Transfer (REST), improving the efficiency in transferring and managing eye-tracking data. Results were computed in two test conditions, i.e., local and online scenarios, within a time window of 100 seconds. The experiments conducted for this study were carried out by comparing the time delay between two different scenarios. Even if preliminary, results showed a significantly improved performance of data management systems in managing real-time data transfer. Overall, this system can significantly benefit the research community by providing real-time data transfer and storing the data, enabling more extensive studies using eye-tracking data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0035.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: irrigation management, fertigation, TDR probe, ceramic extractors, salinity.
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:25:12 CET)
In precision agriculture in fertigated crops it is necessary to optimize the use of water and chemicals, and enable efficient application of fertilizers in order to ensure the best yield and avoid risks of soil salinization and contamination. In this study, an intelligent system was developed with the objective of monitoring, in real-time, moisture and solute concentrations in soil cultivated with lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum, var. Casablanca) fertigated under a protected environment. During one crop cycle, moisture was monitored in soil solution using TDR100 reflectometer and solute concentrations were monitored with ceramic cup extractors. Plants were fertigated with a solution containing five potassium concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg dm-3) applied when the soil reached moisture limits of 0.20, 0.15, 0.13, 0.11, and 0.09 cm3 cm-3. Experimental plots were arranged in a randomized block design in a 5 x 5 factorial scheme (moisture limits x potassium concentrations in soil solution), with four replicates. The proposed intelligent system enabled precise monitoring of moisture and electrical conductivity by TDR, and potassium, and other solute concentrations with extractors, being indicated for the management of lisianthus fertigation under greenhouse conditions with greater environmental safety and reduction of water consumption and risk of salinization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: glycine max; sampling; pest management; spectroradiometer
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:57:01 CEST)
Although monitoring and observing insect pest populations in the fields is essential in crop management, it is still a laborious and sometimes ineffective process. High infestation levels may diminish the photosynthetic activity of soybean plants, affecting their development and reducing the yield. An imprecise decision making in integrated pest management program may lead to an ineffective control in infested areas or the excessive use of insecticides. In order to reach a more efficient control of arthropods population it is important to evaluate the infestation in time to mitigate its negative effects on the crop and remote sensing is an important tool for monitoring. It was proposed that infested soybean areas could be identified, and the arthropods quantified from non-infested areas in a field by hyperspectral remote sensing. Thus, the goals of this study were to investigate and discriminate the reflectance characteristics of soybean non-infested and infested with Bemisia tabaci using hyperspectral remote sensing data. Therefore, samples of infested and non-infested soybean leaves were collected and transported to the laboratory to obtain the hyperspectral curves. The results obtained allowed to discriminate the different levels of infestation and to separate healthy from whitefly infested soybean leaves based on their reflectance.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: cave; microclimate; monitoring; sustainable management; Carpathians; Romania
Online: 4 January 2021 (10:26:38 CET)
(1) Background: Show caves are unique natural attractions and touristic traffic can trigger their degradation within a very short time. There are no universal solutions to counter the effects of the touristic impact upon cave environment and both protection protocols and management plans have to be established on a case-by-case basis; (2) Methods: The study includes four show caves from the Romanian Carpathians, where monitoring of the number of visitors, paralleled by the monitoring of the main physico-chemical parameters of the air and water (CO2, temperature, humidity, drip rate, conductivity, and pH) was implemented; (3) Results and Conclusions: The results of the study has: (i) established a monitoring protocol to be applied to each of the four show caves; (ii) established a set of basic principles to be enforced by the management of show caves; (iii) issued a set of preventive measures and instructions to be followed by the personnel and stakeholders of the caves.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0021.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: electrical and electronic waste; recycling; legislative frameworks; environmental management; landfilling
Online: 3 August 2016 (12:33:45 CEST)
Households and businesses are generating unprecedented levels of electrical and electronic wastes (e-waste), fueled by modernisation and rapid obsolescence. While the challenges imposed by e-waste are similar everywhere in the world, disparities in progress to deal with it exists; with developing nations such as South Africa lagging. The increase in e-waste generation increases the need to formulate strategies to manage it. This paper presents an overview of e-waste management on a global and South African scenarios with a specific case for Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) waste management practices in South Africa. CRTs present the biggest problem for recyclers and policy makers because they contain hazardous elements such as lead and antimony. Common disposal practices have been either landfilling or incineration. The research into the South African practices with regards to CRT waste management showed that there is still more to be done to effectively manage this waste stream. This is despite clear waste regulatory frameworks in the country. However, recent developments have placed e-waste as a priority waste stream, which should lead to intensified efforts in dealing with it. Overall, these efforts should aim to maximise diversion from landfilling and to create value-addition opportunities, leading to social and environmental benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0318.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Drinking water management; drinking water criteria; groundwater; reverse osmosis; sustainable development; water aesthetics
Online: 17 August 2022 (10:08:44 CEST)
A Water demand per capita will rise in the Arab world as a result of climate change and population expansion. One of the most important aims in coping with population increase around the world is to conserve water supplies. As a result, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia constructed Al Wajeed Water Treatment System to meet the demands of the southern population. This research aims to assess the drinking water quality produced from the AlWajeed Water Treatment System. Monthly water samples were collected (January 2018 to January 2021) from the Al Wajeed Water Treatment Framework (4sites), extending to governorates; Bishah`s distribution system (5sites) and Tathleeth`s distribution system (7sites). Water quality criteria, such as physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, revealed that the majority of water samples collected from the Al Wajeed Water Framework and its environs are of a good quality matched the national and international standards. Few sites showed water quality criteria, such turbidity, fluoride and total coliform did not comply with national and global standards. The obtained results explained the importance of monitoring and follow-up programs for drinking water criteria. In addition, they can help the authorities and stakeholders in the sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0433.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CRS); Management Systems (MSs); ANOVA; Integration of Management Systems (IMS)
Online: 4 August 2023 (11:11:10 CEST)
The implementation of management systems has become a strategic advantage in achieving business goals, especially in industrial organizations, but the implementation of social responsibility requirements is especially ethical. Large multinational companies have long been developing and, in particular, implementing their own codes of conduct, which include their suppliers, to demonstrate their commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The compliance with CSR requirements from stakeholders is thus extended or intertwined with requirements in established management systems (MSs). The objectives of the study were to (1) analyze the different approaches to CSR in internationally recognized cross-industry and industry-specific standards and codes in different industries; (2) select the most appropriate framework for assessing the degree of applicability of CSR in the selected management systems and develop a methodology for its assessment; (3) apply the proposed methodology (referred to as SRIMS) in the selected areas: automotive industry, research organization, and metallurgical industry; (4) through ANOVA, validate its use for assessing the overall level of CSR applicability in an organization's established management systems. The application of the Bonferroni method confirmed the hypotheses that the developed SRIMS model is a sufficiently appropriate tool for assessing the overall level of applicability of CSR requirements to established MSs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0012.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: constraints; factors; household; solid waste management
Online: 9 September 2016 (07:42:15 CEST)
Solid waste management in Accra is a major challenge to the Metropolitan Authorities and inhabitants. The rapidly increasing population coupled with poor capacity of the municipal and private waste management companies to management waste effectively has created issues of environmental concern. Due to poor waste managements systems, most household dispose waste indiscriminately leading to floods and health issues. The study showed that about 60% of household waste is organic materials which has the potential to be converted to compost for agriculture purpose. Meanwhile plastics and rubbers which litters the environment as well as blocking major storm drains and gutters hence creating huge environmental hazard is made of 11% of the total component of most household waste generated daily. The study also revealed that among the methods of disposing waste, dumping waste in skip containers located at authorized places was the preferred means of disposing waste by household though others also dispose waste by other means such as burying and burning. Inadequate skip containers per population of household in an area coupled with irregularity of tracks picking these containers makes skip containers dumping site ugly scene, hence creating health issues. Among the constraints that impact negatively on sustainable waste management in Accra Metropolis, economic constraints was perceived as the main challenge which affect efficient waste management. Currently the country is going through serious economic challenges so government does not release money timely to fund projects which waste management is key. Most donor partners that use to support the government with funds have either reduced or redrawn their services as they have no confidence in the state of Ghana economy. Aside the constrains, the study also indicated that factors such as poor public attitude towards waste management, poor enforcement of sanitation by-laws, inadequate and untimely release of government funds were also seen as the main factors affecting waste management.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: ecological monitoring methods; vegetation composition; vegetation cover; vegetation structure; soil sampling methods; sample management; electronic data collection
Online: 15 November 2019 (08:56:27 CET)
Ecosystem surveillance monitoring is critical to managing natural resources and especially so under changing environments. Despite this importance, the design and implementation of monitoring programs across large temporal and spatial scales has been hampered by the lack of appropriately standardised methods and data streams. To address this gap, we outline a surveillance monitoring method based on permanent plots and voucher samples suited to rangeland environments around the world that is repeatable, cost-effective, appropriate for large-scale comparisons and adaptable to other global biomes. The method provides comprehensive data on vegetation composition and structure along with soil attributes relevant to plant growth, delivered as a combination of modules that can be targeted for different purposes or available resources. Plots are located in a stratified design across vegetation units, landforms and climates to enhance continental and global comparisons. Changes are investigated through revisits. Vegetation is measured to inform on composition, cover and structure. Samples of vegetation and soils are collected and tracked by barcode labels and stored long-term for subsequent analysis. Technology is used to enhance the accuracy of field methods, including differential GPS r plot locations, instrument based Leaf Area Index (LAI) measures, and three dimensional photo-panoramas for advanced analysis. A key feature of the method is the use of electronic field data collection to enhance data delivery into a publicly-accessible database.Our method is pragmatic, whilst still providing consistent data, information and samples on key vegetation and soil attributes. The method is operational and has been applied at more than 704 field locations across the Australian rangelands as part of the Ecosystem Surveillance program of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN). The methodology enables continental analyses, and has been tested in communities broadly representative of rangelands globally, with components being applicable to other biomes. Here we also recommend the consultative process and guiding principles that drove the development of this method as an approach for development of the method into other biomes. The consistent, standardised and objective method enables continental, and potentially global analyses than were not previously possible with disparate programs and datasets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0003.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: grazed grassland, rangelands, grazing management, soil carbon, nutrient cycles
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:08:14 CEST)
The sustainability of grazing lands lies in the nexus of human consumption behavior, livestock productivity, and environmental sustainability. Due to fast growing global food demands, many grazing lands have suffered from overgrazing, leading to soil degradation, air and water pollution, and biodiversity losses. Multidisciplinary efforts are required to understand how grazing lands can be better monitored, assessed and managed to attain predictable outcomes of optimal benefit to society. This paper synthesizes our understanding based on previous work done on impacts of grazing on ecosystem goods and services, identifies current knowledge gaps, and formulates a plan forward. We review the impacts of two contrasting grazing systems, continuous and multi-paddock rotational grazing, on soil carbon (C), nutrient cycling and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). We then extend our review to explore challenges of incorporating spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability into monitoring and modelling C and nutrient cycling in grazing lands. We revisit two process-based models (i.e., DNDC and DayCent) and two watershed models (i.e., SWAT and VIC) widely used to simulate C, nutrient and water cycles of these lands. Finally we identify research directions for improving the knowledge base which is essential to conserve grazing lands and maintain their ecosystem goods and services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1381.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: demography; landscape planning and management; population expansion; national parks; remote sensing
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:00:08 CEST)
Remote sensing (RS) as a landscape planning and management tool for socio-cultural diversity and inclusiveness in protected(reserved) areas through monitoring of the land-use changes, settlement/living patterns, predominant trades/socio-economic activities in the urban-rural locations, and the demography in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The eighteen federal governments recognized nature reserves in Nigeria being the giant of Africa because of their green landscapes, rich biodiversity, and human resources. This study aimed to explore the application of remote sensing to assess the extent of land degradation and encroachment in the 18 recognized national parks in Nigeria. A review of the protection of national parks using remote sensing and monitoring the trend of national park invasions which could either be natural or man-made. The study is in line with the United Nations SDG Goal 15: Life on Land- “Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss”. Located in the West Africa subregion lying on Latitude: 9° 04' 39.90" N (9.077899) and Longitude: 8° 40' 38.84" E (8.677599), with an estimated population of over 220,000,000 people. This study through an intensive review of various literature adopted a mixed approach for the analysis and assessment of the geospatial data, the updated aerial photographs obtained through the Landsat imageries (Google Earth Pro, 2023), and the use of GIS for Geospatial analysis which enables the collection and analysis of spatial and geographic data gathering land use/land covers (LULC) maps, soil type, and elevation maps. While exploring the geophysical ecology and biodiversity conservation of some selected national parks in Nigeria, while also providing cost-effective alternatives for biodiversity monitoring and conservation strategy development. A review of national implementation strategies on biodiversity conservation with the deployment of remote sensing technologies, it is now feasible to obtain large details of the surface of the planet without conducting arduous field activities with the assistance of the availability of multi-date, multi-resolution, multi-sensor aerial information to help prevent for encroachment, loss, and degradation of the natural landscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Insect Biotechnology; molecular entomology; pest management; Sterile Insect Technique; sperm storage; transgenesis; Tribolium castaneum
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:02:52 CEST)
Sperm marking represents a valuable monitoring tool for genetic pest control strategies such as the Sterile Insect Technique, but also provides a key tool for reproductive biology studies. Sperm-marked lines can be generated by introducing transgenes that mediate the expression of fluorescent proteins during spermatogenesis. Homozygous lines established by transgenesis approaches are going through a genetic bottleneck that can lead to reduced fitness. Transgenic SIT approaches have mostly focused on Dipteran and Lepidopteran pests so far. With this study, we provide sperm-marked lines for the Coleopteran pest model organism, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, based on the β2-tubulin promoter/enhancer driving red (DsRed) or green (EGFP) fluorescence. The obtained lines are reasonably competitive and were thus used for studies on reproductive biology confriming the phenomenon of ‘last male sperm precedence’ and that the spermathecae are deployed for long term sperm storage enabling the use of sperm from first matings even after secondary matings for a long period of time. The homozygosity and competiveness of the lines will enable future studies to analyze the controlled process of sperm movement into the long time storage organ as part of a post-mating cryptic female choice mechanism of this extremely promiscuous species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0278.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biomonitoring; metabarcoding; environmental DNA; biodiversity; implementation strategy; ecosystem management
Online: 24 January 2020 (11:01:41 CET)
A decade after environmental scientists integrated high-throughput sequencing technologies in their toolbox, the genomics-based monitoring of anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems is yet to be implemented by regulatory frameworks. Despite the broadly acknowledged potential of environmental DNA and RNA to cost-efficiently and accurately monitor biodiversity, technical limitations and conceptual issues still stand in the way of its routine application by end-users. In addition, the multiplicity of potential implementation strategies may contribute to a perception of the methodology as being premature or “in development”, hence restraining regulators from binding these tools into legal frameworks. This review focuses on the strengths and limitations of genomics-based strategies that have emerged over the past ten years and have been classified for this purpose into three broad strategies: (A) Taxonomy-based approaches that focus on known bio-indicators or the diversity of taxonomically described taxa, (B) De novo approaches that do not require well-established taxonomy, and (C) Function-based approaches that rely on community-wide metrics, where taxa are interchangeable, or on functional profiles instead of compositional turnovers. We finally propose a roadmap for the implementation of environmental genomics into routine monitoring programs that leverage recent analytical advancements, upon which some critical limitations are alleviated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Offshore Wind power; Operation and maintenance management; Intelligent operation and maintenance robot; Smart wind farm technology; 5g technology
Online: 27 April 2022 (08:57:55 CEST)
With the rapid development of global offshore wind power, the demand for offshore wind power operation and maintenance is also increasing. Wisdomization of offshore wind farms is a practical need to improve the operation level and benefit of offshore wind farms. This paper first introduces the current development situation and characteristics of global offshore wind power, and expounds the current situation and main challenges of offshore wind power operation and maintenance market. Therefore, our paper discusses the innovation of offshore wind power operation and maintenance from the aspects of operation and maintenance management of offshore wind power, monitoring and analysis technology of units, far-reaching wind field monitoring and operation and maintenance risks. Then, combined with information technology and lean management concept, a smart operation and maintenance management platform for wind farms in far-reaching sea areas is built to explore centralized and intelligent operation and maintenance management mode, improve operation and maintenance efficiency of wind farms in far-reaching sea areas, and minimize operation and maintenance costs. Finally, through the research on the characteristics of 5G technology, combined with the practical experience of operation and maintenance, and in view of the characteristics of offshore wind farms, we analyze and propose several typical application scenarios of 5G technology in the intelligent operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms, which provides a new solution for the efficient operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mucositis; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; pathophysiology; management; melatonin
Online: 9 March 2017 (04:46:30 CET)
The current treatment for cervico-facial cancer involves radio and/or chemotherapy. Unfortunately, cancer therapies can lead to local and systemic complications such as mucositis, which is the most common dose-dependent complication in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Mucositis can cause a considerably reduced quality of life in cancer patients already suffering from physical and psychological exhaustion. However, melatonin, whose role in the treatment of mucositis has recently been investigated, offers an effective alternative therapy in the prevention and/or management of radio and/or chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review focuses on the pathobiology and management of mucositis in order to improve the quality of cancer patients’ lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0571.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sustainability; Sport Performance; Sport Management; Value Added Reporting; Value Added Income Statement; Listed Football Clubs; Communities development; Fair Income Distribution.
Online: 28 October 2020 (08:48:28 CET)
Sports are framed within the context of the Olympic spirit and are, therefore, within the vision and mission of the Olympic Committee, aimed at “building a better world”. This is identified as a fundamental value and sustainability is therefore explicitly considered to be a “working principle” of this. In this research an analysis of the performance of professional European football teams publicly listed on stock markets, restating the income statements according to the Value-Added perspective is carried out. This takes into account the effective sustainable contribution in the distribution of added value with reference to the human, structural, debt, infrastructural, and risk capitals of these organisations. The Value-Added Statement is considered as a part of the broader CSR Reporting and can be traced back to the late 1970s. However, it is in widespread contemporary use and is regarded as being both a credible and a tested measure. In this paper, the authors apply a slightly modified and simplified version of this tool to these publicly listed European football clubs as a proxy for wider professional sport. This research demonstrates that, although professional sports clubs are profit-oriented, the distribution of wealth generated by the added value is unbalanced. In most cases, at least in financial terms, shareholders are the most disadvantaged and athletes are the most rewarded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0365.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Model predictive control; Mixed-integer linear programming; Multi-objective optimization; Energy storage management; Load management; More electric aircraft; Demand-side flexibility
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:43:38 CEST)
Abstract: Safety issues related to the electrification of more electric aircraft (MEA) need to be addressed because of the increasing complexity of aircraft electrical power systems and the growing number of safety-critical sub-systems that need to be powered. Managing the energy storage systems and the flexibility in the load-side plays an important role in preserving the system’s safety when facing an energy shortage. This paper presents a system-level centralized operation management strategy based on model predictive control (MPC) for MEA to schedule battery systems and exploit flexibility in the demand-side while satisfying time-varying operational requirements. The proposed online control strategy aims to maintain energy storage (ES) and prolong the battery life cycle, while minimizing load shedding, with fewer switching activities to improve devices lifetime and to avoid unnecessary transients. Using a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulation, different objective functions are proposed to realize the control targets, with soft constraints improving the robustness of the model. Besides, an evaluation framework is proposed to analyze the effects of various objective functions and the prediction horizon on system performance, which provides the designers and users of MEA and other complex systems with new insights into operation management problem formulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: continuous glucose monitoring; application in sports; carbohydrate management; active subjects; validation
Online: 16 May 2023 (03:52:33 CEST)
The objective of this pilot study was to compare glucose concentrations in capillary blood (CB) samples analysed in a laboratory by a validated method and glucose concentrations measured in the interstitial fluid (ISF) by continuous glucose monitoring under different physical activity levels in a postprandial state in healthy and active subjects without diabetes. Ten healthy, active subjects (26±4 years, 67±11 kg bodyweight (BW), 11±3 h) were included in the study. Within 14 days, they underwent six tests consisting of a) resting fasted (R/Fast), b) resting after intake of 1 g glucose/kg BW (R/Glc) and c) running for 60 minutes at moderate (65/Glc) and d) high (85/Glc) intensity after intake of 1 g glucose/kg BW. Data were collected in the morning, following a standardised dinner before test day. Sensor-based glucose concentrations were compared to simultaneous capillary blood glucose concentrations. Pearson’s r correlation coefficient was highest for R/Glc (.92, p<.001) compared to R/Fast (.45, p<.001), 65/Glc (.60, p<.001) and 85/Glc (.70, p<.001). Mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) and standard deviation (SD) was smallest for resting fasted and similar between all other conditions (R/Fast: 8±6%, R/Glc: 17±12%, 65/Glc: 22 ± 24%, 85/Glc: 18±17%). However, Bland-Altman plot analysis showed a higher range between lower and upper limits of agreement (95% confidence interval) of paired data under exercising compared to resting conditions. Under resting fasted conditions, both methods produce similar outcomes. Under resting postprandial and exercising conditions, respectively, there are differences between both methods. However, further data in healthy subjects need to be gathered considering physical activity and nutrition status.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1350.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: intubation granuloma; airway management; general anesthesia; pregnancy
Online: 20 July 2023 (05:12:06 CEST)
Anesthetic management for pregnant suffering from airway pathology poses unique challenges. The presence of bilateral vocal cord granuloma adds further complexity to the management, as it can potentially cause airway compromise and respiratory distress. This case presents a pregnant patient with bilateral vocal cord granuloma who underwent anesthesia using high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygenation and oxygen reserve index (ORi) monitoring. A 33-year-old pregnant woman, who had undergone intubation six month ago, experienced hoarseness and was ultimately diagnosed with bilateral granuloma. Due to the significant airway obstruction, neither intubation nor ventilation was feasible, thereby requiring a surgical intervention. Before the surgical removal, the patient’s oxygenation was ensured using HFNC oxygenation. After confirming sufficient oxygenation of the patient with ORi of 0.38, the operation commenced and as it lasted approximately 3 minutes, the patient was able to tolerate the brief period without additional oxygen supply. Post-surgical excision, mask bagging and HFNC oxygenation was resumed, driving ORi to 0.39, then the operation was resumed. Throughout the procedure, SpO2 remained above 98. The combination of HFNC and ORi ensured adequate oxygenation and allowed for early detection of hypoxemia during the procedure. This approach may be a good option for managing granuloma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1972.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: aerial; data; drones; urban; nature-based; photogrammetry; design; software; decision-making; stormwater; management
Online: 1 November 2023 (02:43:24 CET)
Urbanization and climate change have increased the need for stormwater management and nature-based solutions. Decisions made at project level impact the emergence of systemic traits of the stormwater network and the functionality of the catchment areas in urban planning. To that end, it is vital to introduce the decision-making tools for analyzing both the utilities and amenities of nature-based solutions (NBS) to increase their adoption to reduce the peak loads in the stormwater system, and to that end, mitigate the impacts of climate change. This paper demonstrates a workflow using drone-based photogrammetry, 3D modeling, and simulation software to generate visual and functional models assisting in informed decision-making in the design of stormwater systems as functional landscape architecture. Using aerial data from drones and modeled design solutions, the proposed workflow simulates rain events, infiltration, evaporation, water flow, and accumulation of stormwater in a way that allows the visual and quantified analysis of detailed landscape architecture designs. The paper provides an example of a rooftop site simulation demonstrating the infiltration and flow of water to the drainage. The visual decision-making method provided can aid in investment decisions for functional landscape design in support of stormwater management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0150.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Assessment Report (EAR); environmental health; Environmental Management/Environmental Management Systems (EM/EMS) Model; Environmental Management Plan (EMP); Multinational oil companies (MOCs); Niger Delta; Ogoni; Ogoniland; Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC); United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:39:30 CET)
In August 4 2011, United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) submitted an unprecedented, scientific, groundbreaking Environmental Assessment Report (EAR) of Ogoniland, to the Nigerian government. This was the outcome of a 14–month intensive evaluation of the extent of pollution. It was intended that UNEP’s recommendations would be implemented to restore the devastated environment, on the one hand, and on the other, counteract the numerous environmental health issues that have for decades, plagued Ogoniland. However, five years post EAR, and, despite the seriousness of the situation, no significant resolution has occurred, both on the part of the government, and on the part of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) or Shell. To date, millions of Niger Delta residents, particularly those living in the oil-bearing communities, continue to suffer severe consequences. Although, the assessment was conducted in Ogoniland, other communities in the Niger Delta are also affected. This article explores prevailing issues, using Ogoniland (a microcosm of the Niger Delta) as an example. A multidisciplinary approach for sustainable mitigation of environmental health risks in the Niger Delta is paramount, and Environmental Management tools offer valuable strategies. Adopting UNEP’s recommendations for addressing environmental health problems requires implementing the Environmental Management/Environmental Management System (EM/EMS) model.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Energy consumption monitoring system; Building energy conservation management; Insect Intelligent Building technology; Computing process node; Insect intelligent algorithm
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:27:48 CEST)
In this paper, the methodology using Insect Intelligent Building (I^2B) technology for establishing energy consumption monitoring system of public buildings is prevailed. The computing process node and distributed algorithm are utilized to implement the energy consumption collection and data transmission and data pre-processing. Taking a commercial building as a case study, CPNs are applied to set up the building energy consumption monitoring system, with the Spanning Tree Algorithm for generating network topology，and BPNN method for solving abnormal data and recovering missing data. The research results demonstrate the proposed method can effectively improve the performance of plug-and-play and self-identified and self-configuration of energy consumption monitoring system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sustainable waste management behaviors; protection motivation theory; pro-environmental behaviors; threat appraisal, coping appraisal
Online: 9 August 2016 (10:29:00 CEST)
This study aims to explain individual engagement in sustainable waste management behaviors (SWMBs) based on the application of protection motivation theory (PMT). SWMBs include waste avoidance, green purchasing behavior, reuse and recycle, and waste disposal behaviors. This study applies PMT to explore how individuals’ SWMBs are influenced by their perceived threats caused by environmental contamination from waste disposal and their perceived coping capability. The Bangkok metropolitan area was selected as a case study because it has faced serious waste management problems caused by massively increasing amounts of solid waste during the last ten years. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with 193 public and private officers residing in the city of Bangkok. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to justify the effect of individual threat appraisal and coping appraisal on the engagement in SWMBs. The results demonstrated that respondents’ self-efficacy highly influenced all types of SWMBs. The perceived probability of being impacted from pollutants influenced all of the SWMBs except green purchasing behaviors. Response efficacy did not influence all SWMBs; however, the perceived severity of adverse consequences caused by pollutants highly influenced reuse and recycle behaviors. It could be suggested that PMT is well suited for investigating low-cost and simple SWMBs. It could also be suggested that different communication campaigns should be established to enhance citizens’ engagement in each type of SWMB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0489.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Agriculture; Copernicus initiative; Farming; Food traceability; Organic Farming; Rice; Rice paddy fields; Water Management; Sentinels
Online: 20 May 2021 (12:32:52 CEST)
Whereas a vast literature exists on satellite-based mapping of rice paddy fields in Asia, where most of the global production takes place, little has been produced so far that focuses on the European context. Detection and mapping methods that work well in the Asian context will not offer the same performances in Europe, where different seasonal cycles, environmental contexts, and rice varieties make distinctive features dissimilar to the Asian case. In this context, water management is a key clue; watering practices are distinctive for rice with respect to other crops, and within rice there exist diverse cultivation practices including organic and non-organic approaches. In this paper, we focus on satellite-observed water management to identify rice paddy fields cultivated with a traditional agricultural approach. Building on established research results, and guided by the output of experiments on real-world cases, a new method for analysing time series of Sentinel-1 data has been developed, which can identify traditional rice fields with a high degree of reliability. This work is a part of a broader initiative to build space-based tools for collecting additional pieces of evidence to support food chain traceability; the whole system will consider various parameters, whose analysis procedures are still at their early stages of development.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: liquid biopsy; ctDNA; cell free DNA; non-operative management; neoadjuvant therapy
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:52:27 CET)
As non-operative management (NOM) of esophageal and rectal cancer is becoming more prevalent, blood-biomarkers such as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may provide clinical information in addition to endoscopy and imaging to aid in treatment decisions following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In this feasibility study, we prospectively collected plasma samples from locally advanced esophageal (n=3) and rectal cancer (n=2) patients undergoing multimodal neoadjuvant therapy to assess the feasibility of serial ctDNA monitoring throughout neoadjuvant therapy. Using the DIDA-Seq error-correction method, we serially interrogated plasma cell-free DNA at 28-41 tumor-specific genomic loci throughout therapy and in surveillance with an average limit of detection of 0.016% mutant allele frequency. In both rectal cancer patients, ctDNA levels were persistently elevated following total neoadjuvant therapy with eventual detection of clinical recurrence prior to salvage surgery. Among the esophageal cancer patients, ctDNA levels closely correlated with tumor burden throughout and following neoadjuvant therapy, which was associated with a pathologic complete response in one patient. In this feasibility study, patient and tumor-specific ctDNA levels correlated with clinical outcomes throughout multi-modality therapy suggesting that serial monitoring of patient ctDNA has the potential to serve as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker to risk-stratify esophageal and rectal cancer patients eligible for NOM. Further prospective investigation is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0007.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Crop production, Soil management, Soil Organic Carbon, Soil productivity
Online: 2 January 2017 (14:25:02 CET)
Crop productivity is directly dependent to soil fertility. High soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil is vital as it leads to improved soil quality, increased productivity, and stable soil-aggregates. In addition, with the signing of the climate agreement, there is growing interest in carbon sequestration in landscapes. This paper looks at how SOC can be increased so that it not only contributes to reduction of CO2, but also translates to increased food production thereby enhancing food security. This synergy between mitigation and enhancing food security is even more relevant for mountain landscapes of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region where there remains huge potential to increase CO2 sequestration and simultaneously address food security in the chronic food deficit villages. Soil samples were collected from seven transects each in Bajhang and Mustang and from 4 land use types in each transect. Samples of soils were taken from two depths in each plot; 0-15 cm below the soil surface and 15-30 cm below the soil surface to compare the top soil and subsoil dynamics of the soil nutrients. The lab analysis was performed to assess the soil texture, soil color, soil acidity in 'power of hydrogen' (pH), macro-nutrients as soil fertility. Secondary data was used to analyze the level of food deficit in the villages. The result shows that most of the sample soils from Mustang were clay (82.1%) which is 46 samples out of 56. The pH value of soil from Bajhang ranged from 5.29 to 9.09. The pH value of soil ranged from 5.65 to 8.81 in Mustang. SOC contents of sampled soils from Bajhang ranged from 0.20% to 7.69% with mean amount of 2.47% ± 0.17. SOC contents of sampled soils from Mustang ranged from 0.51% to 8.56% with mean amount of 2.60% ± 0.25. By land use type, forest land had the highest carbon (C) content of 53.61 t ha-1 in Bajhang whereas in Mustang, agricultural land had the highest C content of 52.02 tons ha-1. Based on these data, we can say that there is potential for increasing SOC through improved soil health and crop production and soil. Sustainable soil management should be practiced for higher productivity. Livestock may also provide farmyard manure, which can be used to fertilize cultivated soils, which increases soil productivity. Increasing productivity would aid in increasing the access and availability of food in these mountain villages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: waste management; economic instruments; pay-as-you-throw; municipal solid waste; recycling; environmental management
Online: 3 November 2016 (10:28:43 CET)
The “Pay-as-you-throw” scheme, PAYT, is an economic instrument of waste management that implements the “polluter pays” principle by charging inhabitants of municipalities according to the amount of residual, organic and bulky waste they send for third-party waste management. When combined with well-developed infrastructure to collect the different waste fractions (residual waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, bio waste, green cuttings, many recyclables) as well as with a good level of citizen’s awareness, its performance has frequently been linked to high collection rates of recyclables. However, the establishment and operation of PAYT systems can require significant resource inputs from municipalities. In this paper, PAYT is analysed through a case study from the German County of Aschaffenburg, covering nearly 20 years of implementation across 173,000 inhabitants. Key performance indicators applied include temporal trends in the county’s recyclables collection rate, waste treatment fees for residents and municipal waste management costs, benchmarked against German municipalities not implementing PAYT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0012.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Project Management; Artificial Intelligence (AI); Project Schedule Management; Project Cost Management; Project Risk Management
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:34:59 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to study the main areas in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) will impact the field of project management that relates to cost, risk and scheduling. The research model was based on a previous study of the ten project management knowledge areas presented in the PMI’s PMBOK 6th edition where project schedule-, cost- and risk management knowledge areas were identified as being the ones most likely to be affected by the development of AI. A group of experts that participated in the study agreed that AI will affect the project management profession in the future. Different elements of the three knowledge areas were considered to be affected more by AI than others. The schedule baseline is the element believed to be affected the most out of the project schedule management elements. For project cost management, the estimation of resource cost is believed to be affected the most. In the case of project risk management, the application of AI will have the strongest impact on the probability and impact format.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable development; Energy management; Environmental protection; Economic management
Online: 5 September 2023 (08:11:19 CEST)
This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Tai-wan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs in Taiwan and Scotland, respectively, attracting numerous high-tech and startup enterprises. Various means facilitate the growth of industries and foster innovations in different industrial spheres. Important factors contributing to this growth include policy support, availability of research materials, and provision of infrastructure. This research paper compares the successful case studies of two industrial parks, along with their environmental and economic management strategies. It explores the management principles that ensure the sustainable development and economic growth of industrial parks, aiming to assist decision-makers and relevant stakeholders in evaluating the sustainable development planning of industrial parks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0615.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Building management system; Smart building; Energy consumption management; Demand response management; Energy consumption optimization
Online: 25 May 2021 (14:19:32 CEST)
Considering the increasing rate of energy consumption and its environmental detrimental effects, as well as considering the use of non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, energy management issues have become more important. Given the 40% share of the building industry's total energy consumption, as well as the 80% share of energy consumed during the operation period, attention to the areas of energy management and optimization during the operation period of the buildings can have a major impact on buildings’ energy performance. In this research, through identifying building energy management tools and studying previous studies and assessing the effects of building energy management systems, the economic and environmental impacts of using building energy management systems on the annual energy consumption in an office building in Tehran as a case study has been investigated. The results indicate a 32 percent reduction in energy consumption and a significant reduction in the release of the environmental pollutants in smart mode compared to the base mode. Moreover, considering the social costs associated with the emitted pollutants as well as the return period, it has been attempted to identify the factors contributing to the economic justification of using smart heating and cooling systems. According to the results, the use of smart energy management systems can be considered as an effective step in optimizing and managing energy consumption in the construction sector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0079.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Systems Management, Biomedical Research Policy, Organizational Development, Quality Management
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:42:47 CET)
There has been a growing call for reform of the U.S. biomedical community in recent years. As a community, we face a growing list of issues including excessive waste, reproducibility, bias, inadequate training, and the absence of sustainable long-term planning that detract from the overall goal of advancing human health. In response to this debate, biomedical stakeholders have taken positive steps forward to remedy these issues. However, we must continually improve upon these steps to promote the long-term stability of the biomedical enterprise. Given the widespread interest of the scientific community in addressing these issues, there exists a unique opportunity to come together and create a new era of biomedical discovery. The completion of this exciting task requires reflection on our view and management of the system, and what the best route to sustainable change may be. Importantly, a coordinated approach that considers the collective make-up of the biomedical system and how processes and people influence collective output and create value for patients is needed. Here, these three areas and the concepts of systems theory, total quality management, and organizational development and their contribution to the management and effectiveness of biomedical discovery are discussed. Importantly recommendations are made concerning overall management strategy, process efficiency and quality research, administrative tasks, organizational cultural challenges, individual and team development, and funding strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0103.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Covid-19; shoes; smart management; shoemaking machinery; sustainable management
Online: 7 July 2022 (03:48:28 CEST)
During the Covid-19 pandemic in Taiwan, analytical tools of PEST (political, economic, social-cultural, and technological), SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat), nine building blocks of a business model canvas, and knowledge management were combined to develop a theoretical framework, and used to assess business, smart and sustainable management of two case companies: Tung Sheng Company Limited and its subsidiary, Strong Basic Enterprise Limited. A heuristic inquiry research design was adopted. In addition to secondary data from the two case companies, major top managers were interviewed to reveal constructive questions about the existing business models and to re-interpret strategy. The results showed that case companies own capabilities of R & D (research and development) as a foundation to further apply new smart ICT (information and communication technology) and execute green manufacturing. Additionally, strong key partnerships are used to diversify business investment for leveraging on limited resources given current insufficient qualified employees. Resilient practices adopted new and green technology to help mitigate the negative impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic. This study provides a useful framework and practical information about how to examine business models, smart and sustainable management processes of the two case companies and to make adjustments in strategies for the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Management; Improvement; System; Production process; Technologies; management methods
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:22:28 CEST)
Managers are often faced with the task of improving the management of the production 17process in order to maintain the sustainability of production efficiency in a highly competitive en-18vironment. The submitted contribution deals with the design of a system that will support them in 19the selection of progressive methods and technologies in order to improve the management of pro-20duction processes. Managers often follow new trends in this issue, but it is not easy to work on the 21knowledge that proven progressive technologies can bring them higher efficiency. The presented system is based on the use of knowledge of existing solutions of manufacturers of automotive components, where companies solve similar problems in production management. The mix of methods and technologies used in the management of production processes brings companies different results in the achieved efficiency. The proposed system for supporting the selection of the production management method and technology is designed from blocks of data collection, benchmarking of the performance of production processes of industrial enterprises, and further from data mining technology to obtain knowledge about the effect on efficiency from already implemented technologies. The last blocks help to examine the differences in the implementation of the same methods and technologies and allow to present the obtained results to the manager in the form of recommendations for choosing a suitable progressive method and technology.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0041.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: uncertainty management; risk management; safety; ISO 31000:2009; ISO 31010:2009; risk management framework; risk-sentience; safety culture; risk culture; enterprise risk management
Online: 19 June 2018 (12:58:28 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a new auxiliary enterprise risk management framework and process to serve as an enabler to the global ISO 31000 risk framework and ISO 31010 processes. This framework has been designed particularly for use within high-risk environments and those characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA). This paper proposes a methodology for optimization of structured sharing and grass-roots management of all available risk-sentience information with the assessed potential to develop into an identifiable risk in the future. The author introduces new risk terminology including risk-sentience, risk-sentience information, and risk-sentience management. The process involved the development of the Theory of Risk-Sentience (ToRS), Risk-Sentience Auxiliary Framework (RSAF) and a risk-sentience management process referred to as LUOMEAR (Learning from Uncertainties, Others Mistakes, Experiences and Anecdotal Reporting). Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF), SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, and a newly developed Risk-Sentience Fertility Checklist were used to conduct pre and post-trial evaluations. The findings include positive adjustments in safety culture, components of commitment to quality, communication and team-working around safety issues, access to evolving risk-information, and efficient sharing and management of recorded risk-information. Recommendations are made for more extensive application of both the proposed auxiliary risk framework and process within high-risk sectors to further explore its effectiveness and scope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: management methods; management; system; technologies; production process; process improvement
Online: 29 June 2022 (10:16:24 CEST)
The contribution deals with the selection of progressive methods and technologies to improve the management of production processes in the industrial area. The first chapter of the contribution summarises the theoretical starting points for the management of production processes and their progressive concepts. Chapter 2 deals with the analysis of the current state of play in the use of methods and technologies in production management and summarise its problem areas. Chapter 3 presents the design of a system for selecting the appropriate method and technology to improve the management of the production process. The system presented is designed from data collection blocks, a benchmark for the performance of industrial enterprises' production processes, and data mining to gain knowledge of the impact of the methods and technologies used on the performance of production processes. The last block of the system allows the presentation of the obtained results, which sets out the recommendation for the choice of progressive method and technology. The system is partially verified in the last chapter of the contribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1270.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: management method; sustainable management; sustainable enterprise; management effectiveness; management efficiency; efficiency indicator; effectiveness indicator
Online: 21 November 2023 (07:16:08 CET)
This article presents a novel sustainable business management technique, emphasizing description and estimation over the outdated profit metric. Due to the intricacies and challenges of implementing the 2019 capital management method based on capital valuation (implemented in 2020–2022), a simpler approach became essential. While it is plausible for organizations to implement capital management based on their valuation, undertaking it with no outside help presents a challenge. The new descriptive method is fundamentally distinct in that detailed monetary valuations of capitals are omitted in favor of description and estimation. This paper establishes the groundwork for applying the new approach in several stages and introduces three new management indicators—the overall accomplishment of management goals index (evaluating management efficacy), the capital level index, and the adjustment (compliance) index—replacing the profit metric. Noteworthy advantages include separating the assessment of management outcomes from the organization's condition, including human and social capital into efficiency evaluations, and removing the profit indicator for management purposes, which prevents resource waste and enhances company efficiency and effectiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes mellitus; obesity; meta-analysis; patient education; self-management; disease management
Online: 13 July 2022 (15:19:53 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity account for the highest burden of non-communicable diseases. There is increasing evidence showing therapeutic patient education (TPE) as a clinically and cost-effective solution to improve biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among people with DM and obesity. The present systematic review and meta-analysis presents a critical synthesis of development of TPE interventions for DM and obesity and the efficacy of these interventions across a range of biomedical, psychosocial and psychological outcomes. A total of 54 of these RCTs were identified among patients with obesity and diabetes and were thus, qualitatively synthesized. Out of these, 47 were included into quantitative synthesis. There was substantial heterogeneity in reporting of these outcomes (I2= 88.35%, Q= 317.64), with significant improvement (SMD=0.36, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.49) noted in biomedical outcomes in the intervention group. The effect sizes were comparable across interventions delivered by different modes and delivery agents. These interventions can be delivered by allied health staff, doctors or electronically as self-help programs, with similar effectiveness (P < 0.001). These interventions should be implemented in healthcare and community settings to improve health of patients suffering from DM and obesity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway infrastructure; high-speed rail; tracks; risk; management and monitoring; climate change; global warming; adaptation; operational readiness
Online: 5 August 2016 (05:11:02 CEST)
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and many of the observed changes are unprecedented over five decades to millennia. Globally the atmosphere and ocean is increasingly getting warmer, the amount of ice on the earth is decreasing over the oceans, and the sea level has risen. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the total increasing temperature globally averaged combined land and surface between the average of the 1850-1900 period and the 2003 to 2012 period is 0.78 °C (0.72 to 0.85). But should we prepare for such the relatively small change? The importance is not the mean of the warming but the considerable likelihood of climate change that could trigger extreme natural hazards. The impact and the risk of climate change associated with railway infrastructure have not been fully addressed in the literature due to the difference in local environmental parameters. On the other hand, the current railway network in Malaysia, over the last decade, has been significantly affected by severe weather conditions such as rainfall, lightning, wind and very high temperatures. Our research findings point out the extremes that can lead to asset system failure, degraded operation and ultimately, delays to train services. During the period of flood, the embankment of the track can be swept away and bridge can be demolished, while during drought, the embankment of the track can suffer from soil desiccation and embankment deterioration, high temperature increases the risk of track buckling and high winds can result in vegetation or foreign object incursion on to the infrastructure as well as additional quasi-static burden exerted. This review is of significant importance for planning and design of the newly proposed high speed rail link between Malaysia and Singapore.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1168.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: self-management; Covid-19; aging management; PTSD; PTG; anxiety
Online: 17 May 2023 (02:28:45 CEST)
The restrictions imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic left many older adults isolated and confined. Under active aging theory, self-management is crucial for well-being among older adults coping with aging. The current study examines how (a) initial self-management, and (b) changes in self-management due to independent physical training, affect psychological outcomes in a sample of care home residents following outbreak of the pandemic. 64 older adults (53 females, 11 males), mean age is 82.23, reported on their self-management abilities, then embarked on six months of training in chair exercises (one session per week). The training exercises were halted after 22 sessions due to the pandemic, but some residents continued to practice independently. Eight weeks after the outbreak of the pandemic, residents who had continued to practice at least once per week (n = 35) and those who had not continued to practice (n = 29) were questioned again about their self-management, and about five psychological outcomes: anxiety, traumatic stress, satis-faction, general mood, and post-traumatic growth (PTG). Self-management improved among older adults who independently practiced the exercises, and declined among those who did not. Pre-pandemic self-management significantly predicted post-outbreak traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, general mood, and satisfaction with life, but not PTG. However, the difference in self-management between the pre-pandemic and post-outbreak measures was associated with PTG, and made a unique contribution to prediction of the other effects. Self-management abilities among older adults can be seen as a protective factor against adverse psychological outcomes at times of trauma. Further, the improvement in self-management among older adults who independently practiced physical excises made a unique contribution beyond initial self-management abilities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0544.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: pillar-based lake management; object-based lake management; Lake Rawapening
Online: 29 November 2022 (08:49:57 CET)
Lake Rawapening, Semarang Regency, Indonesia, has incorporated a holistic plan in its management practices. However, despite successful target achievements, some limitations remain that a review of its management plan is needed. This paper identifies and analyzes existing lake management strategies as a standard specifically in Lake Rawapening by exploring various literature, both legal frameworks and scholarly articles indexed in Google Scholar and published in Water by MDPI about lake management in many countries. There are two major types of lake management, namely pillar-based and object-based. While the former is the foundation of a conceptual paradigm that does not comprehensively consider the roles of finance and technology in the lake management, the latter indicates the objects to manage so as to create standards or benchmarks for the implementation of various programs. Overall, Lake Rawapening management should include more programs on erosion-sedimentation control and monitoring of operational performance using information systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0164.v1
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:55:08 CEST)
Species of Acacia have been extensively entrenched in the tropical, and semi-arid regions as well as in the southern hemisphere. Acacia species have been bounteous faces the pest and pathogenic pressure. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an immensely important aspect of producing a healthy Acacia plantation without harmful impacts on the environment. Here an attempt was made to determine the possibilities of integrated pest management for Acacia. Overall, this information will be helpful to increase awareness about the integrated pest management of the members of the genus Acacia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0427.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Solid waste management; LED lamp; characterization protocol; recycling; LED waste management
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:25:18 CEST)
Solid-state lighting has been replacing conventional lighting in the market, raising concerns for implementing an efficient end-of-life management system. Since LED waste streams have not been quite dominant, characterization studies (product-level characteristics, component-wise information, bill of materials, diversity, and differences) are inconsistent and having substantial gaps. This study investigates the end-of-life LED lamp literature, focusing on the bill-of-materials, and reveals that the characterization procedure suffers from a severe lack of sample representativeness. Consequently, characterization results are widely varied and not generalizable. Moreover, most of the studies did not inform and document the detailed sample characteristics, precluding the possibility of identifying reasons for variation. Combining available information from the recent studies, we present a mass distribution at the component level, exemplifying the prospect for meeting EU regulatory limit and the need for more insight at the lamp and component level. To fill the disconnection between lamp level characteristics and component and material content, we propose a characterization protocol that carefully documents lamp, component, and material level information by establishing a lamp-component–material composition nexus. The protocol may help researchers, policymakers, and industrial stakeholders conduct a systematic characterization, analyze complexities and prepare for a sustainable solution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0834.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: atrial fibrillation; management; cardio-oncology
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:27:42 CEST)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly recognized comorbidity in patients with can-cer. Indeed, cancer patients have a significantly higher incidence of AF than that ob-served in the general population. A reciprocal relationship between these two diseases has been observed, as much as some assume AF as a marker for occult cancer screen-ing, especially in older adults. The pathophysiological mechanisms are many and var-ied, including the underlying pro-inflammatory state, specific treatments (chemo and radiotherapy) and surgery. The therapeutic management of patients with cancer and AF involves the same rhythm and frequency control strategies as the general popula-tion; however, the numerous interactions with chemotherapeutics, which lead to a sig-nificant increase in side effects, as well as the extreme fragility of the patient should be considered. Anticoagulant therapy is also a complex challenge to address, as bleeding and stroke risk scores have not been fully assessed in this subpopulation. Furthermore, in large studies establishing the efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), cancer patients have been underrepresented. In this review, we elaborate on mechanisms linking AF to cancer patients with a particular focus on therapeutic challenges in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: pandemic; green areas; protected areas; urban planning; visitor management; protected area management
Online: 11 January 2022 (18:23:29 CET)
Public green and open spaces fulfil various social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic roles, which complement each another, but can also compete with one another. COVID-19 pandemic catalysed multiple societal changes, including citizens’ perception, needs and expectations posed towards urban green spaces. This article discusses the extent to which the temporally and geographically changed patterns of experiencing these natural spaces also influenced users’ perception and behaviour as well as their appreciation of the conservation areas. The study is based upon two surveys carried out in the greater metropolitan region of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. A quantitative survey (representative online panel) among Viennese population (n=1012), as well as qualitive interviews with experts responsible for conservation areas, administrators of federal parks, along with NGOs representatives were carried out in spring and summer 2021. Our study shows the changed use of urban and suburban large green spaces and conservation areas: first, from the perspective of those responsible for the areas as well as the visitors. Both perspectives supplement one another. They highlight also changed perception of urban citizens towards green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. An increased importance of time spent in nature (68%) and possibility to visit large green areas (67%) was reported by Viennese citizens. Also, higher recognition of green spaces located close to home was observed among 69% of the respondents. Thus, the presented study contributes to the ongoing international discussion on the transition of societal needs and its effects on urban green spaces induced by the pandemic. Presented results deliver solid arguments highlighting the need of urgent transformation towards a more sustainable, resilient and healthy urban space.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Soil quality indicators; Grazing management; Ecosystem services; Permanent grasslands; Management practices
Online: 6 April 2023 (10:17:55 CEST)
Grasslands are at risk of degradation due to unsustainable management practices and climate change. Sustainable grassland soil management can promote ecosystem service delivery and improve the resilience of the entire grassland ecosystem to anthropogenic change. Here, we re-view the principal soil quality indicators (SQIs) and how they have been used to evaluate the sustainability of different grassland management practices globally. We then discuss sustainable grazing management practices, before reviewing some novel grassland species which may im-prove grassland resilience with relevance for grassland management in Europe and the UK. We also give an overview of current sustainable grassland management methods and their assessment at field scale. From this, we suggest that sustainable Grazing Management Plans (GMPs), together with the testing of drought-resistant grass species and appropriate SQIs monitoring, is key to increasing resilience of grassland ecosystems to anthropogenic change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Drug Resistant; Management; Awareness
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:00:05 CEST)
Background: Although Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest diseases known to mankind, many practitioners are still unaware of various aspects of management of TB including drug resistant TB. To be able to make an impact on the disease burden we need to understand the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of practitioners, both in government and private sector, towards TB case management. Methodology: A random cross-sectional survey of 99 respondents to assess the KAP towards TB case management using a digital semi-structured questionnaire which was pre-tested and administered to allopathic practitioners from across States in North and Central India. Results: 77% responders were government doctors and 23% were private practitioners. Chest physicians accounted for 61% of the responders. 26% of government and 78% of private doctors relied on sources which are difficult to validate for their knowledge on drug resistant TB management. There were large variations seen in knowledge on modes of transmission, standard precautions, extent of drug resistant TB, diagnostics as well as treatment regimen for drug resistant TB. Conclusion: The knowledge of both sector doctors especially amongst private practitioners with respect to the awareness of extent, diagnosis, and treatment and infection control measures for drug resistant TB is suboptimal which translates to poor diagnostic, therapeutic and infection control choices amongst private practitioners. If India has to achieve the targets for TB Elimination by 2025, serious work needs to be done to upgrade the knowledge of the private sector doctors on drug resistant tuberculosis. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, GoI needs to have regular educational programs for the private practitioners coupled with awareness campaigns and frequent surveys to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices being followed in the private sector for TB management including drug resistant TB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0996.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: airway management; panfacial fractures
Online: 17 October 2023 (12:03:24 CEST)
Abstract: Panfacial fractures are complex injuries involving multiple regions of the facial skele-ton simultaneously, which may necessitate multiple surgeries over a relatively short period. They are often associated with polytrauma and other injuries including brain trauma, which re-quire either immediate airway management, prolonged intubation, or repeated intubations for staged surgeries. Given the frequent need for intermaxillary fixation and the potential involve-ment of the central nasal complex or skull base, conventional oro-tracheal or nasotracheal intu-bation often presents challenges. Submental intubation is the most reported method of airway management with the aim to avoid tracheostomy and its related complications. A review of the different techniques of airway management in the elective treatment of panfacial fractures was performed focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Most of the literature consisted of retrospective studies, with only one prospective study comparing submental intu-bation to tracheostomy in panfacial fractures. There is abundant literature that favours the sub-mental intubation for its rapid establishment and low complication rate. Other techniques less reported were retromolar intubation, nasotracheal to orotracheal switch, tracheostomy or crico-thyroidotomy. An algorithm for the management of the airway in panfacial fractures is pre-sented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0094.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: entrepreneurship; innovation; management; performance; sustainability
Online: 31 July 2017 (15:43:49 CEST)
The study examines how the South African construction industry can nurture an entrepreneur and a large successful entrepreneurial construction company, even though the founder had no formal education and the company was founded during the Apartheid era. The question of whether entrepreneurs are born or are made is based on the age-old question of nurture and nature. The paper presents the narratives of a successful entrepreneur Mr. Sam Lubbe. The narratives presented are collected through a case study research approach. The data collected suggests that although Sam does not have any formal education, he succeeded based on nurturing given to him when he had the opportunity to work for a large South African construction company, his innate characteristics of self-confidence, task-result orientation, originality, future direction, and a unique business model which also helped him access international construction work opportunities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0173.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: e-reputation management; online management; hotel industry
Online: 13 February 2020 (13:50:11 CET)
The purpose of this study is to find out the e-reputation management of the hotel industry, as well as the social media channels used as the tools of hotel e-reputation building. This study used a qualitative approach by analyzing the in-depth interviews with hotel marketing communication practitioners of 15 hotel companies in Bandung City. The findings identified that e-reputation is considered a crucial factor in determining hotel performance due to the change of customers’ behaviors today and identified also three types of e-reputation management activities implemented by hotel companies, such as online activities, offline activities, and online/offline activities. The results of this study have implications for the hospitality industry, as a reference for formulating their marketing strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: MPS FESTO workstation; production management; cloud computing; process management; Android; iOS; RFID
Online: 10 November 2020 (15:09:37 CET)
Industria 4.0 is present in smart and digital manufacturing, making manufacturing companies improve productivity, reducing delivery time and related costs. The objective of this work is to demonstrate through three integrated MPS Festo stations (Distribution, Pick \& Place and Sorting), using the Internet of Things and Google Analytics technologies, the benefits in relation to remote performance monitoring. The intended objective is achieved through the implementation of the monitoring system at the three MPS Festo stations. The data obtained through the integration of the Festo stations and their respective sensors are processed and analyzed in a cloud infrastructure, so that the main metrics are visualized and transmitted on a panel. This monitoring system improves the perception of process performance, as the main performance metrics are displayed, such as productivity, cycle time and parts produced. The cloud infrastructure allows remote viewing and monitoring of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: adaptation; mental model refinement; food systems; knowledge management participatory modeling; system dynamics; systems thinking
Online: 27 November 2016 (04:12:49 CET)
Food systems will need to undergo considerable transformation. To be better prepared for and resilient to uncertainty and disturbances in the future, resource users and managers need to further develop knowledge about the food and farming system, with its dominating feedback structures and complexities, and to test robust and integrated system-based solutions. This paper investigates how participatory system dynamics modeling can be adapted to groups at the community level with low or no formal educational background. The paper also analyzes the refinement of workshop participants’ mental models as a consequence of a participatory system dynamics intervention. For this purpose, we ran two workshops with small-scale farmers in Zambia. Analysis of workshop data and post-workshop interviews shows that participatory system dynamics is well adaptable to support an audience-specific learning-by-doing approach. The use of pictures, objects and water glasses in combination with the basic aspects of causal loop diagramming makes for a well-balanced toolbox. Participants acquire understanding that is also relevant beyond systems thinking in that is offers a range of practical insights such as a critical evaluation of common food security strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0316.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: allergens; diagnosis; allergy; treatment; management
Online: 5 July 2023 (15:08:48 CEST)
Immunology is a branch of medicine that studies the immune system and its pathology. There are known scientific informations, that in medical immunology specific tests performed in the laboratory for diagnosis. In addition good to mention that allergies include medical diagnostic methods such as blood tests. Also there are used for detection the presence and the levels of IgE antibodies. These antibodies are produced by the human immune system in contact with certain allergens. Examples of allergens include for example pollen, house dust, some herbs or molds, some animals and certain foods. If a person has an allergy, their immune system overreacts to an allergen by producing antibodies, called Immunoglobulin E (IgE). Currently within the present describtion aim to discuss some aspects reffering to fungal allergen and mold allergy diagnosis, in a briefly following steps of our purposed shortly review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0937.v1
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:15:15 CEST)
Risk protection and precaution are noticeable present, especially in times of a pandemic like Covid 19. However, it is not only in times of abruptly upcoming and unexpected situations like Corona that companies and economic entities are exposed to opportunities and threats. Internal and external developments that could influence the organization’s aims are defined as risks. Hence, it is important to emphasize that every operational activity is associated with risks and is consequently a challenge for companies. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the identification and classification of individual risks. In this regard, the objectives and relevance of risk management are highlighted. Through the accomplishment of a classic literature review and the application of a comparative methodology the procedure of how hedging instruments are applied, is elaborated. The analysis indicates that various business concerns have a high awareness of risks inherent in business transactions, although they are still very hesitant to insert hedging instruments. Their uncertainties consist in defining and classifying the relevant risks plus identifying the appropriate hedging methods for them. Thus, this research can add new dimensions to hedging transactions and, particularly, express the benefits and opportunities of hedge accounting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0047.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: change management; decision-making model; risk management; resource management; process improvement; good governance
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:42:05 CEST)
Abstract: Purpose – In this article we lay out the change management practices adopted by financial firms in small states within the Eurozone. We determine whether these organisations have the ability to identify triggers for change (Red Flags) and subject them to eight thematic elements to understand whether management practices can continue to exist and support operational environments, even when unexpected circumstances affect their day to day operations and processes. In doing this we examine the extent to which the eight thematic elements from the model designed by Dalli Gonzi, (2019) (The Dali Model) can assist organisations in risk identification and business continuity planning. Design/methodology/approach – A self-administered questionnaire purposely designed for this study was administered to personnel working in internal controls within financial institutions of small Eurozone states. The participants were asked to grade statements using a 5-point Likert scale, ‘1’ being ‘totally disagree’ and ‘5’ being totally agree’ to the statement posed under the thematic elements forming the basis of the Dali Model. Findings – Factor analysis provided support for the eight hypothesised dimensions of the decision-making model: connection, capacity, governance, network, policy, training, process improvement, standards. Originality/value – The study provides a better understanding and support of “best practice” in change management through an understanding and assessment of the eight factors that are the basis of this model. It addresses practical recommendations to ensure application to a wider frame of use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0455.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Flying-fox, disaster management, heat events, heat stress, roost management, physiology, veterinary management.
Online: 24 September 2018 (12:28:19 CEST)
Flying-fox populations are increasingly threatened by heat events, starvation events and other stressors due to habitat clearing and human/flying-fox conflict.These factors are unlikely to resolve, meaning that a well-coordinated and timely approach to flying-fox disasters is imperative for the mitigation of further flying-fox population impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0436.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Water Framework Directive; River Basin Management Plan; Water Resource Management; Water Governance; Stakeholders
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:29:51 CEST)
The River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) is an essential component of the European Union Water Framework Directive that details an integrated approach required to protect, improve and sustainably manage water resources. RBMP were intended to be produced for the periods 2009-2015, 2016-2021 and 2022-2027. However, after two years of delays in the development processes, the Republic of Ireland produced its first RBMP in 2010. The second RBMP cycle was also implemented in 2018 and is expected to run until the end of 2021 to give way to the third RBMP, whose consultation processes have been ongoing since December 2019. This paper contributes to the forthcoming RBMP by assessing stakeholders’ perspectives on the second RBMP through a desk-based review and by conducting interviews with nine institutions (14 interviewees). The qualitatively analysed interviews reveal a broad spectrum of actors associated with water management and governance in the Republic of Ireland through a three-tier governance structure that has been delivered (with amendment) through the first two RBMPs. Organisations such as the An Fóram Uisce|The Water Forum, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Local Authority Waters, and the Agricultural Sustainability Support and Advisory Programme have responsibilities designated in the RBMPs to deliver improved water quality, integrated catchment management, community engagement and awareness-raising. Trust has also been building up among these organisations and other agencies in the water sector. Despite these responsibilities and progress, the interviews identified communication lapses, ineffective collaboration and coordination among stakeholders and late implementation to be hampering the successful delivery of the second RBMP, in addition to significant pressures acting on water bodies from agricultural activities and urban wastewater treatment. Towards the third RBMP, the paper concludes that optimised water sector finance, enhanced and well-resourced communications, and improved stakeholder collaboration are needed to foster effective and efficient water services delivery and quality. More so, given the cross-cutting impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on water resources and the interconnected relations among the goals, the paper further recommends the integration of the SDGs in the various plans of actions and a co-benefits approach to derive the triple benefits from biodiversity, climate change initiatives and water quality measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Malpighia emarginata; water salinity; fertilization management
Online: 16 May 2023 (04:37:27 CEST)
In the semi-arid region of Brazil, it is common to use saline or brackish water for crop production. However, this practice can negatively affect the soil, nutrient balance, and fruit quality and production. From this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of fertilization combinations with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) on the production and quality of West Indian cherry grown under salt stress in the second year of production. The study was conducted in a protected environment following a randomized block design with treatments distributed in a 2 x 10 factorial arrangement referring to two levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw) (0.6 and 4.0 dS m-1) and 10 NPK fertilization combinations (80-100-100; 100-100-100; 120-100-100; 140-100-100; 100-80-100; 100-120-100; 100-140-100; 100-100-80; 100-100-120 e 100-100-140% of the recommendation in the second year of production), with three replicates and one plant per lysimeter. The results indicate that irrigation of West Indian cherry crop irrigation at the water salinity of 4.0 dS m-1 negatively affected all fruit production variables. The interaction between the ECw of 0.6 dS m-1 and the 100-80-120 NPK fertilization combination increased the total number of fruits and the total fruit weight of West Indian cherry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1697.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: zakat Aplication; Agile; management system
Online: 26 July 2023 (11:19:52 CEST)
Abstract—The management of zakat in several mosques is still carried out using a manual system, which can cause the loss of some zakat recipient data and the calculation of funds that have been received by zakat recipients. The manual system is also considered less efficient for managing large amounts of data. To overcome this renowned problem, a Zakat management infor- mation system was designed. Agile methods are used in system development. It is hoped that this system will provide convenience to mosque administrators in managing zakat. We created a zakat management system using Agile Software Development Lifecycle which can make it easier to manage zakat at the al-iklas mosque
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2092.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Electronic waste; Waste management; Copper recovery
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:13:34 CEST)
The exponential growth in the consumption of electronics, in combination with the reduction in their useful life, leads to a significant increase in the volume of electronic material discarded. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are modules composed of ceramic, polymer and metallic materials of high economic value and with a great potential for damage to biotic and anthropic environments when inadequately discarded. The aims of this work was to study the main environmental impacts and the efficiency of mechanical operations in the electronic waste recycling process in optimizing the concentration of metallic copper. For this, the samples obtained were characterized according to their morphology and chemical composition, and subjected to physical and mechanical treatments: dismantling, grinding, separation by granulometry, density and magnetic property. The environment impacts were estimated by the Life Cycle Assessment of the pre-treatment processes, associated with copper extraction operations in WPCBs. According to the results obtained, it is possible to infer that the NM +1mm Concentrated product presents in its metallic composition around 78% of copper, which contributes to the efficiency of the hydrometallurgical extraction processes. It is noteworthy that the Concentrated class represents about 14% of copper (wt) taking into account the amount of 3.789 kg of PCB waste input material. The potential for reinsertion of the dust in the material recovery process is highlighted, given that the chemical composition of this particulate has a significant presence of metals. In general, it was found that due to the higher concentration (wt %) of the sample being allocated in the range of - 0.15mm + 0.05mm, the elements Fe (18.30%), Si (10.73%), Ca (9.21%) and Cu (8.89%) stand out regarding the participation of the elemental composition of this fraction and also regarding the general composition of the sample. Furthermore, the generation of dust during the fragmentation process, can be associated with occupational respiratory diseases when not managed. About the Life Cycle Assessment, in seven of the nine categories evaluated, crushing and screening activities accounted for more than 90% of the recorded impact values. In general, it is estimated that in the pre-treatment phase be generated 15.4 kg CO2 eq.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0275.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Africa; ecologically based rodent management; field rodents; pest management; rodent control; rodenticides; rodents; synanthropic rodents
Online: 7 December 2023 (10:36:20 CET)
The prevalent use of synthetic chemical rodenticides (both 1st or 2nd generation anticoagulants and acute rodenticides) is the primary method for managing rodents in sub-Saharan Africa. However, this practice poses substantial health and environmental risks and often fails to yield significant, sustainable reductions in rodent pest populations. In this paper, the second one of a two-part series, we advocate for a more responsible and sustainable approach to rodent management in urban and agricultural settings in sub-Saharan Africa. We propose a shift towards environmentally friendly rodent management strategies, specifically emphasizing the adoption of Ecologically-Based Rodent Management (EBRM) as a viable alternative to synthetic chemical rodenticides. EBRM relies on a comprehensive understanding of pest rodent biology, ecology, and behavior, along with the implementation of a range of community-based interventions. These actions are designed to ensure the consistent reduction of rodent pest populations to economically and hygienically acceptable levels. By embracing EBRM, we not only anticipate a reduction in the social impacts of pest rodents in a cost-effective manner but also a significant decrease in the risks posed by rodents and synthetic chemical rodenticides to human health and the environment. This paradigm shift towards EBRM promises a more sustainable and responsible approach to rodent management in sub-Saharan Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0263.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Bed management; COVID-19; Emergency Department; Overcrowding; Efficiency; Hospital management
Online: 19 January 2023 (03:45:21 CET)
Overcrowding in the emergency department is a problem that generates several implications for bed management, which is deemed one of a hospital's most critical processes. Effective management of hospital production capacity includes bed management processes, which can be improved in order to leverage hospital performance. Thus, this study sought to understand how bed management works and identify the main factors that influence its management. The study was performed through a case study, with data collected from semi-structured interviews and bibliographic research, which were triangulated. Thematic content analysis of the interviews and cross-analysis were performed. As a result, the main factors that influence hospital Bed management were identified: communication between teams and units; definition of performance goals; decisions shared between units; occupation and discharge planning by the teams; length of stay; the role of the nurses; and COVID-19. The greatest difficulties in the management process are related to these factors. Additionally, suggestions are provided to mitigate such reported difficulties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0277.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: gender; leadership; women in top management; career management, Chile
Online: 19 October 2018 (05:48:06 CEST)
The issue of women’s participation in top management and boardroom positions has received increasing attention in the academic literature and the press. However, the pace of advancement for women managers and directors continues to be slow and uneven. The novel framework of this study organizes the factors at the individual, organizational and public policy level that affect both career persistence and the advancement of women in top management positions; namely, factors affecting 1) career persistence (staying at the organization) and 2) career advancement or mobility (getting promoted within the organization). In the study location, Chile, only 32 percent of women “persist”, or have a career without interruptions, mainly due to issues with work–family integration and organizational environments with opaque and challenging working conditions. Women who “advanced” in their professional careers represent 30 percent of high management positions in the public sector and 18 percent in the private sector. Only 3 percent of general managers in Chile are women. Women in Chile have limited access and are still not integrated into business power networks. Our findings will enlighten business leaders and public policy-makers interested in designing organizations that retain and promote talented women in top positions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0281.v1
Online: 15 March 2023 (10:17:47 CET)
This article explores the results of a study on the improvement of the swiftlet house business with the goal of making appropriate legal measures for it. Area surveys, focus groups, and in-depth semi-structured interviews were among the data collection methods used. Swiftlet house entrepreneurs; central and local government officials; and citizens surrounding swiftlet houses significantly contributed to the research. Currently, the swiftlet house business is still illegal in Thailand because swiftlets are considered protected wildlife – protected by the Wildlife Preservation and Protection Act B. E. 2562 (2019). Additionally, it is not permitted to collect, damage, or occupy swiftlet nests without appropriate legal authority to do so. Moreover, there is still no legislation that specifically applies to the swiftlet house business. This study can guide the Thai Government and local governments to develop appropriate laws to govern the swiftlet house industry in Thailand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0529.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Project Management Office; PMO; Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO); EPMO Challenges; ANOVA; Efficiency
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:11:05 CET)
During the European unification process, they stated the need for drawing up a common energy strategic plan that will affects electricity production system in terms of infrastructure, production and generation. The EU strategic action plans included; reduction in emissions, an increase in renewable energies, energy efficiency. In this light therefore the energy efficiency was booked for researching. This article presents an in-depth study of the challenges in transforming a functioning PMO model to an EPMO model within four electricity companies from different countries within the EU and how those challenges can be address within companies implementing same methodology to bring about electricity production efficiency. Will these identified challenges make it impossible for the companies to achieve electricity production efficiency in the transformation from PMO to EPMO? PMO has been the major methodology used by these companies. To achieve production efficiency, the need for a heavyweight methodology was identified (EPMO) and implemented in four mega electricity producing companies with cross boarder distributions, one from France; Germany; Spain and UK
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0651.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Abstraction; Complexity Management; Patterns; Generative Patterns
Online: 25 March 2021 (17:29:09 CET)
According to many researchers, Abstraction is the basis of mathematics, computing, counting devices, and computer science and engineering. What is more, all of the above deal with complexity management in some way, and abstraction is the most basic mechanism of complexity management.Generative software development - whether in the sense of empowering humans by machine to create software or in the sense of reusing products - has been and is one of the serious concerns and goals of software engineering. The interesting thing is that in both views of generativity, the main issue is still, in a way, complexity management: whether this complexity management is to achieve diversity and reuse management (Czarnecki’s approach) or to Structuring from existing structures (the approach of Alexander and his followers in an object-oriented society).In this article, we will first look at complexity and its various definitions. The definitions that show, despite the different perspectives on complexity in different disciplines and domains, all point in one direction. We will conclude that complexity is rooted in multiplicity. In the following, we will formally define complexity. In the following discussion, we will look at the generative patterns of software development, and then we will look at the complexity management patterns at seven levels.In this article, the author has tried to maintain a comprehensive approach to complexity and to consider the approaches of different domains to complexity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Biostatistics; Data management; Reproducibility; Workflow automation
Online: 2 June 2020 (09:24:25 CEST)
The complexity of analysis pipelines in biomedical sciences poses a severe challenge for the transparency and reproducibility of results. Researchers are increasingly incorporating software development technologies and methods into their analyses, but this is a quickly evolving landscape and teams may lack the capabilities to set up their own complex IT infrastructure to aid reproducibility. Basing a reproducible research strategy on readily available solutions with zero or low set-up costs whilst maintaining technological flexibility to incorporate domain-specific software tools is therefore of key importance. We outline a practical approach for robust reproducibility of analysis results. In our examples, we rely exclusively on established open-source tools and free services. Special emphasis is put on the integration of these tools with best practices from software development and free online services for the biostatistics domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: fishery; bioeconomic; sustainability; tuna; management
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:09:47 CET)
Ocean temperatures are increasing. Little work has been done to examine the effects that these changes will have on fishery production. The study at hand seeks to incorporate the influence of climate change into established bioeconomic fishery models. Stock biomass is approximated to be a function of sea surface temperature. Following a feasible generalized least squares regression using data from the Western and Central Pacific, the interaction between fishery effort and temperature is found to be statistically significant. From this model, various functional forms relating effort, catch, and temperature are specified. In particular, a function that returns an effort requirement given a target catch level and temperature forecast is generated.The importance of these tools for fishery management is explored through application to Western and Central Pacific tuna fisheries. Recommendations for extensions into future research are made and the foundation for a model of efficient effort allocation across time and the entirety of a management area, given changing temperatures, is specified.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: emergency; hospital; emergency health; medicine; management
Online: 21 August 2017 (12:47:01 CEST)
Introduction: The management performance of hospitals in emergency departments in coping with clinical hazards is necessary for their success in providing quality services. The purpose of this study is to provide an optimization procedure and applying management performance in health and medical emergency on the rate of emergency preparedness of the suburb city hospitals. Research method: A semi-experimental and interventional descriptive study in the emergency department of Shahid Motahari Hospital in 2015-2016. Data was collected through the standard checklist of hospital emergency responsiveness test to WHO disasters with 90 questions in 9 domains which is codified by the World Health Organization, in the form of interviews and observing evidences , and if necessary a numerical analysis. Initially, the situation was measured according to this checklist. In the next stage, a set of solutions was developed and then the solutions were implemented according to the obtained information. Data analysis before and after proposing the procedure and its application in order to improve the quality of health management performance and emergency preparedness was performed using central indices, and for describing and presenting the survey results, tables and graphs were used. Results: The highest and lowest emergency preparedness rates for disasters and emergencies before the proposed procedure were the Communication Factor (%77/8) and Human resource factor (%2/8) respectively. The degree of preparedness of the medical center was measured in the management performance according to the model (WHO) before proposing the procedure (%77.98). The researcher's procedure provided and applied based on the information obtained from survey environment, location and type of hospital structure. After providing the procedure, the maximum and minimum rates were the continuity of service factor (%58.3) and post-accident rebuilding factor (%100), respectively. Generally, the rate of emergency preparedness of studied medical center in management performance for coping with disasters and medical emergencies was measured (%97.2) according to hospital emergency responsiveness test for accidents and (WHO). The significance level is less than 0.05, so we can say that the effectiveness with confidence (95%) was effective. Conclusion: According to the statistics of accidents and disasters in the suburb cities, the results of the research and the importance of the role of emergency departments in interurban hospitals in controlling accidents, the need for planning and implementation of practical measures such as conducting training courses on health management in disasters and emergencies, having an estimate of critical and essential resources, changing the structure, providing manpower (emergency management) in order to more precise control and ease of service, maintenance and repair of equipment, timely triage and retrofitting of hospitals were effective in improving their preparedness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generation; demand-side management; hybrid power system; micro grid; renewable energy resources; supply-side management
Online: 15 September 2022 (03:18:48 CEST)
Sources are classified into two depending upon the factor of reviving. These sources, which cannot be revived into their original shape once they are consumed, are considered as nonrenewable energy resources, i.e., (coal, fuel) Moreover, those energy resources which are revivable to the original condition even after being consumed are known as renewable energy resources, i.e., (wind, solar, hydel) Renewable energy is a cost-effective way to generate clean and green electrical energy Now a day’s majority of the countries are paying heed to energy generation from RES Pakistan is mostly relying on conventional energy resources which are mostly nonrenewable in nature coal, fuel is one of the major resources, and with the advent of time their prices are increasing on the other hand RES have great potential in the country with the deployment of RES greater reliability and an effective power system can be obtained In this thesis, a similar concept is being used and a hybrid power system is proposed which is composed of intermixing of renewable and nonrenewable sources The Source side is composed of solar, wind, fuel cells which will be used in an optimal manner to serve load The goal is to provide an economical, reliable, uninterruptable power supply. This is achieved by optimal controller (PI, PD, PID, FOPID) Optimization techniques are applied to the controllers to achieve the desired results. Advanced algorithms (Particle swarm optimization, Flower Pollination Algorithm) will be used to extract the desired output from the controller Detailed comparison in the form of tables and results will be provided, which will highlight the efficiency of the proposed system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0403.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Working Capital Management, Profitability, Cement Industry, Bombay Stock Exchange, Panel Data, India.; Working Capital Management
Online: 6 December 2023 (10:44:00 CET)
Optimum usage of working capital is always considered the key to the success of an enterprise. There is much evidence in the financial literature that an efficient management of working capital has a positive impact on the performance of the organisation. Results of empirical analysis show that there is a strong relationship between the firm’s profitability and its working capital management efficiency i.e., optimization of working capital. Present research work is an endeavour in this direction of establishing the factual importance of efficient management of working capital to any organization, particularly to Indian cement companies. The research work is backed by a research design of methodology including objectives, scope, significance, hypotheses, tools, techniques, etc. To make it more comprehensive in its approach, it is designed with both descriptive and econometric tools. The study employs a quantitative approach to examine whether the Indian cement companies optimally use their working capital, which is analysed by establishing the relationship between the working capital management and profitability using 11-year (2010-2021) financial data of 31 cement companies listed in Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). Findings: The study shows that the inventory turnover period (ITP) and cash conversion cycle (CCC) have a negative impact on returns on assets (ROA) whereas the accounts receivable period (ARP) does not significantly predict the return on assets of cement companies. The current ratio (CR) is negatively related to ROA whereas the quick ratio (QR) favourably predicts ROA of the cement companies. It was observed that only ITP and CCC are significantly related to return on equity (ROE) where the direction of the relationship is negative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1466.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Web-Based Application; Waste Management; Laravel
Online: 21 July 2023 (05:23:06 CEST)
Waste management is a significant issue that Indonesia must face. The presence of waste will always exist as long as life continues. One of the main challenges in waste management is the proper separation of organic and inorganic waste. As a solution to address this issue, the Ministry of Environment has made efforts to develop Waste Banks. However, it also creates new problems related to manual data collection, lack of monitoring by the community in implementing waste management activities, and a lack of specific reports regarding waste management conducted by officers. We propose the creation of a website using the Agile Development SDLC method. This website involve several steps and incorporate functions for data digitalization and expedited data collection, such as the addition of QR Code functionality, Monthly Reporting Function, and enhanced data security. The method used in this research is Agile Development. The application has been developed with a user-friendly interface and the latest web development technologies to ensure smooth performance. Overall, the web-based application for organic and inorganic waste using Laravel is an important step to promoting sustainable waste management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0165.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Training; competence; incentives; management; performance.
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:55:28 CEST)
Background.Nurse gives professional nursing service to patients according to competence owned. Based on these services in the end of every year, nurses are given incentives for medical services as financial incentive. Purpose. To analyze the impact of competence training and incentives medical services’ distribution upon the achievement of nurse’s performances in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Matterial and method. Observational survey research with cross sectional design. Population. Nurses in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Technique. Total sampling technique with number of samples 183 respondents. Inclusive criteria of samples are willing to be interviewed, nurse’s status, permanent offices without limitation from particular working unit or poly in hospital. Independent variable: (1) competence training; (2) Incentives for medical services. Dependent variable; Nurse’s performance achievement. Variables are measured by using Lickert scale. Information are recorded through questionnaire. Analyzes using linier regression. Result. There are impacts of competence training (α=.000;ß=.489)and distribution of incentives for medical services(α=.012; ß=.152)upon nurse’s performances achievement in General Hospital of Prof.W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Conclusion.The training of nursing service status that could increase competences among nurses with affair incentives for medical services’ distribution simultaneously end up in the increasing of nurse’s performances achievement in a hospital
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0145.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Requirement Change Management; Methodology; Change Management Process; Software System
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:41:40 CET)
During software development requirement gathering is an important phase. Requirements are the basis of software development. The success or failure of any software depends upon level of understanding developed in requirements. During software development requirements keeps on changing due to different reasons. Hence requirements are such a critical phase that leads to the total project failure. So, to understand the impacts and to identify the conflicts with existing requirements, it is important to manage and analyze the requirements well. Requirement change management is the interest of this paper. Different requirement change management techniques has been discussed in this paper and analyzed them well and finally conclude the results accordingly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Biocontainment; Bioexclusion; Biosecurity; Health-management; Poultry
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:19:29 CET)
Biosecurity is a tool used to alleviate the introduction, emergence and spread of diseases caused by infectious agents. It comprises different health-management activities that need to be followed to reduce the passage and dissemination of infectious agents within and among farms, poultry flocks, and humans, as well as within a country, among countries, or the whole globe. In terms of public health measures, biosecurity applies to practices that will reduce contact between poultry and humans and thereby reduce zoonotic disease transmission. Two of the common biosecurity measures are bioexclusion and biocontainment which themselves are further categorized as segregation/isolation, movement control and hygiene/sanitation/disinfection. Isolation is about putting poultry under an exclusively isolated environment where it lives alone without any interference from any source external to the poultry or at least under reduced and controlled interference. Movement/traffic control and sanitation measures are practices to follow the isolation of poultry or preparatory phase as in the case of sanitation of poultry houses before introduction of poultry. These techniques have been effective in controlling poultry diseases like avian influenza, exotic Newcastle, Marek’s disease, and any other diseases. Depending upon the underlying situation either bioexclusion or biocontainment measure will be used to control these infectious diseases of poultry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: backyard chicken; biosecurity; management; knowledge gap; Bangladesh
Online: 14 March 2023 (04:00:24 CET)
Backyard chickens are the most popular poultry in Bangladesh due to their production potential, and income generation. However, this farming can be a factor in zoonotic disease transmission. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to biosecurity and management among backyard chicken households in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 295 households in six sub-districts of different six divisions of Bangladesh. The study used a convenient sampling technique to choose the divisions, then the districts and sub-districts. A well-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to interview randomly selected households. In this study, most of the respondents relied on agriculture crop production (n=128) as their primary source of income, relied on scavenging for their birds’ feeding (34%), or fed their chickens whole or broken rice (32%), used tube well water (58%), used ash (38%) or sand (28%) as litter material. A significant proportion of households (40%) did not use any nest box at all. Results also showed that the most reported poultry diseases among backyard poultry farmers were Newcastle disease (49%), followed by coccidiosis (30%), fowl cholera (12%), and fowl pox (9%). In the multivariate logistic regression model, knowledge of biosecurity was associated with the household type (OR=1.4, p=0.04), knowledge of vaccination (OR=3.7, p=0.02), don’t know category (OR=4.2, p=<0.001), provision of the nest box (OR=9.5, p<0.001), training (OR=0.1, p=0.04), and air pollution (OR=0.1; p=0.04). The study found a huge knowledge gap on management and biosecurity practices present among backyard chicken farmers, which can negatively impact public health for instance in the outbreak of zoonotic diseases. Increasing farmers' biosecurity awareness through education and outreach activities could minimize the risk of disease transmission and improve both public and poultry health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0728.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Irrigation water management; Agriculture; Remote sensing; Optimization
Online: 23 April 2023 (02:29:15 CEST)
Due to the impacts from climate change, the allocation of water resources must urgently be optimized worldwide to ensure that the needs of both water managers and farmers are balanced. In this study, manager-oriented and farmer-oriented assessment models were developed for irrigation water optimization and allocation. The distance from water sources and hydraulic head were the main factors in the manager-oriented assessment model; crop value, water demand of crops, and soil type were additional factors in the farmer-oriented assessment model. The developed assessment models were used to assess irrigation water allocation in five villages in Neimen District. Cadasters at high elevation were discovered to not be suitable for cultivation of crops because of the difficulties in constructing irrigation facilities and the loss of irrigation water during transportation. The result obtained from the manager-oriented assessment system was related to the costs involved in the construction and maintenance of irrigation facilities, which indicated that cadasters located at long distances from water sources and at high elevation are unsuitable for cultivation. By contrast, the result obtained from the farmer-oriented assessment system was related to the profits of farmers and revealed that more cadasters would be suitable for cultivation if suitable crops were chosen.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: engagement; adolescents; obesity; diet; prevention; management
Online: 5 June 2018 (11:21:25 CEST)
Obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing today’s adolescents. Dietary interventions are the foundation of obesity prevention and management. As adolescents are digital frontrunners and early adopters of technology, digital health interventions appear the most practical modality for dietary behaviour change interventions. Despite the rapid growth in digital health interventions, effective engagement with adolescents remains a pertinent issue. Key strategies for effective engagement include co-designing interventions with adolescents, personalisation of interventions, and just-in-time adaptation using data from wearable devices. The aim of this paper is to appraise these strategies, which may be used to improve effective engagement and thereby improve the dietary behaviours of adolescents now and in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0237.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: crop diversification; resilience; water management; water efficiency
Online: 15 July 2022 (14:54:43 CEST)
The specialisation and intensification in agriculture have increased the productivity but have also led to the spread of monocultural systems, simplifying production and reducing genetic diversity. The purpose of this study was to propose crop diversification as a tool to increase biodiversity and achieve sustainable and resilient intensive agriculture, particularly in areas with water scarcity. In this paper, a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) was applied to evaluate the environmental and economic sustainability of a differentiated system of cultivation (pomegranate, almond and olive), according to modern intensive and superintensive cropping systems. Based upon the results obtained, it is deduced that pomegranate cultivation generated the highest environmental load, followed by almond and olive. From the financial analysis, it emerged that almond is the most profitable, followed by pomegranate and olive.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: offsite construction; housing associations; strategic management
Online: 10 December 2021 (09:02:12 CET)
Offsite construction is increasingly being presented as a way to increase housing delivery and reduce the housing crisis. Housing Associations play a pivotal role in the delivery of affordable homes and therefore offsite construction could be beneficial in alleviating the crisis. For offsite construction uptake to increase, the conceptual and pragmatic advantages and challenges surrounding offsite housing in relation to evolving social domestic needs to be explored and understood. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the viability of offsite construction as not only a full-service solution to social housing provision, but an integral strategic partner for meeting the range of specialised fabrication needs for these new properties. A literature review is carried out to explore the conceptual and pragmatic advantages and challenges encountered by HAs adopting offsite construction methods. The paper also investigates which the housing tenures are most suited to offsite construction technology. The paper highlighted that whilst individual case studies and example homes offer one mode of justification for Housing Associations to move forward, it is the cumulative effect of cost savings, sustainability, specialised skill sets, labour reduction, structural innovation, and rate of construction that should be weighed and incorporated into this consideration-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1663.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Ata; crop management; farming practices; Matigsalog; sustainable agriculture
Online: 23 May 2023 (14:33:00 CEST)
The Philippines is an archipelagic country composed of different indigenous cultural communities (ICCs) spread across various islands. Many of these Indigenous Peoples (IP) are marginalized and do not have access to common resources enjoyed in the lowland areas. An initial assessment focusing on the evaluation of their available livelihood and resources was conducted, in order to find common solutions to existing problems. The assessment took place at the office of the tribal council of Matigsalog in barangay Datu Salumay, Marilog District, Davao City from April 11 to 13, 2023. There were about 42 participants in total for Matigsalog tribes (26 men and 16 women) who attended the meeting and there were 15 participants from the Ata tribe (7 men and 8 women). Validation of the study separately took place through a brief presentation of the results before 15 members of the tribe and a hiking visit in their farmlands. The study determined the existing livelihoods in the two areas which are mainly agricultural, farming of crops (rice, corn, cassava, sweet potato) and fruit trees (coconut, banana, durian, jackfruit, pomelo) and the resources as well as the community’s knowledge, systems, and practices with regards to agricultural crops including climate change. Their sustainable farming practices include intercropping, seed-saving, and exchange practices, preserving these crop varieties and ensuring their availability for future planting seasons, no usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. To conclude, the tribe’s aspirations and resulting recommendations are summarized, to facilitate more directed and effective governmental assistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1998.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: relational energy; humor; psychological capital; positive leadership; management; organizational behavior; human resource management; interpersonal communication; performance; COVID-19
Online: 30 November 2023 (14:30:31 CET)
This study delves into the dynamics of relational energy (RE) within organizational context, examining some of its antecedents and decedents. Specifically, it investigates the influence of psychological capital (PsyCap) and humor on RE, and subsequently, the latter’s impact on job performance (JB) mediated by job engagement (JE). A research model based on structural equation modelling carried out with 481 employees in private service industries demonstrates several key relationships. It reveals that both PsyCap and affiliative humor positively affect RE, while aggressive humor exerts a negative influence. Furthermore, RE shows positive association with JE and JP, with JE serving as a mediator. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present an integrated model encompassing this exact combination of influencers and consequences of RE as well as to be investigated within Western Balkans cultural context. Therefore, it represents a novel approach. Additionally, the research addresses crucial questions regarding the existence and strategic significance of RE within organizational interactions. The findings offer valuable insights for organizations seeking to enhance employee engagement, performance, and wellbeing – even during health crises such as COVID-19 – by fostering RE. The study advances the understanding of RE in organizational settings and provides a foundation for future research in this domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0134.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: risk; resilience; pandemic; prioritization; risk management; Arctic
Online: 4 June 2021 (10:40:38 CEST)
The Arctic is a remote region that has become increasingly globalised yet remains extremely vulnerable to many risks. The COVID-19 pandemic presented new challenges to the region. Using the Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis (SALSA) approach to conduct a meta-synthesis of the academic and grey literature on the impacts of the pandemic, an assessment is conducted of the types of risks that have been presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, the scales, and the national response strategies for mitigating the risks. Two case studies are explored, Iceland and Greenland, island nations that exemplify the extremes of the Arctic and reliance on tourism, a sector that was nearly entirely suspended by the pandemic. An evaluative matrix is employed which combines five different scales of risk – nano, micro, meso, macro and cosmic – with a sustainability categorisation of impacts. The risks of the pandemic cut across the respective scale and categories, with the potential for macro-scale events (systemic risk) to unfold linked to economic spillover effects driven by the curtailment of tourism and various supply chain delays. Both Iceland and Greenland have exemplified risk mitigation strategies which prioritise health over wealth, very strictly in the case of the latter. Strict border controls and domestic restrictions have enabled Iceland and Greenland to have much lower case and death numbers than most nations. In addition, Iceland has led the way, globally, in terms of testing and accumulating scientific knowledge concerning the genetic sequencing of the virus. The academic contribution of the paper concerns its broadening of understanding concerning systemic risk, which extends beyond financial implications to includes sustainability dimensions. For policymakers and practitioners, the paper highlights successful risk mitigation and science-based measures that will be useful for any nation tackling a future pandemic, regardless of whether they are island states, Arctic nations or another country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0269.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: information and accounting support; accounts receivable; management; business
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:32:41 CEST)
The article explores the subject of information and accounting solutions for accounts receivable management that include appropriate accounting solutions and analytical techniques. The study focuses on the statutory framework for accounting for accounts receivable under the Russian Accounting Standards (RAP), International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The analytical techniques are described in the context of the authors' view on the essence of accounts receivable management that implies analysis, the establishment of a credit policy and of a discount policy. The article places emphasis on the use of available information technology for accounts payable management, such as blockchain-based smart contracts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0706.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Asset management; Sustainability management; Geographical information system; Building integrated modelling
Online: 12 September 2023 (02:54:52 CEST)
The efficiency success status of organization built environment assets management needs robust and comprehensive maintenance processes which depends on the efficiency of the contract information documents for the maintenance management within the assets life cycle and achieve positive return of the investments. Therefore, this paper highlights on the appropriate interactive approach to structuring information flow scope of the asset facilities management contract for construction projects based on GIS and BIM integration processes, sustainability standards, and As-built contractual documents of the project to support the organization owner and stakeholder to improve the asset management processes. Using expert interviews with comprehensive understand for the information type in several facility management contracts conducted in common Organization types based on reviewing available international facility management standards manual and contract of procedures for different services types, and required information flow inside international facility management firms. The study classify and build significant integrated information and data flow model contract drafting with measures and indicators of performance efficiency as guideline for monitoring, technically evaluating, and financially procedures for performance efficiency and quality of services provided in the facilities management contract for King Faisal University campus projects as a case study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0798.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Blood supply chain; queueing system; disaster management; Blood inventory management
Online: 10 August 2023 (07:31:31 CEST)
The problem of blood delivery has been a critical concern in past decades. However, the unsteady behavior of blood donors, along with the uncertainties associated with demands in a crisis imposes several challenges for resource management. In this research work, we analyze the blood delivery behavior in a crisis modeled by coupled queues of patients and blood sources. Using Markovian modeling and results associated with G-network, we derive two critical probabilities, namely lack of unit of blood (unit of donations) or not having any storage capacity left to accept new donors' blood. We propose a closed-form solution to calculate the optimal blood storage size, and also we suggest sufficient conditions that guarantee the feasibility of the model. Finally, we conduct a sensitivity analysis to investigate the impact of model parameters on storage size and the proportion of time that storage is full.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1512.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Bollworm; Cotton crops; Uzbekistan; Integrated pest management; Sustainable pest management.
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:36:15 CEST)
Bollworm poses a significant threat to cotton crops worldwide, including in the Fergana province of Uzbekistan. This study aims to explore innovative approaches to bollworm control and contribute to the global understanding of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Using an extensive literature review and field observations, the study evaluates the effectiveness of an integrated protection system in reducing reliance on chemical inputs while increasing overall efficiency. The results highlight the multigenerational life cycle of bollworm, its impact on various crops, and the need for artificial biological control methods and targeted insecticide applications. In addition, the study highlights the need to adopt globally accepted IPM practices to ensure sustainable pest management. The findings underscore the importance of collaboration among researchers, farmers, policymakers, and industry representatives in developing and implementing advanced control measures. Through integrated approaches and the incorporation of scientific advances, bollworm infestations can be contained while safeguarding agricultural productivity and minimizing environmental risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0392.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: forest management methods; adaptive forest management; climate change; ecological norm
Online: 27 July 2022 (04:40:00 CEST)
The compelling effects of climate change on forests may have been underestimated in the past few decades in practical forestry. Although the first attempts to draw attention to this complex problem appeared almost half a century ago, the debate has been conceptual rather than experimental and applicative. At first glance, the con-cerns were mainly related to sustainable forest management (SFM) issues, which obviously needed attention. Over time, the effects of climate change have been mainly considered in the context of the SFM; they started from various and somewhat different scales and goals. Over time, more research and awareness of the im-portance of SFM under the pressure of climate change have led to the development of a clearer field that can be defined as ‘adaptive forest management’ - to climate change. One of the characteristics of this discipline is to be featured by the absence of univocal methods and / or objectives to be pursued but to identify, verify, and adapt methods to the various climatic and forest types and conditions found in the field. Therefore, this work shows some phases of forest planning and management concepts and criteria over time and recalls some innovative and / or adaptive methods related to the approach to forest planning and management under climate change
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Humble leadership; employee creativity; top management support; project management effectiveness
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:40:27 CEST)
This paper aims to explore the effect of humble leadership on project success by integrating the mediating role of employee creativity. Top management support moderates the direct relationship (humble leadership and project management effectiveness) and indirect relationships through employee creativity. Time-lagged data were obtained from 332 persons working in the matrix organization across the information technology. The results showed that humble leadership enhance project management effectiveness by mediating and moderating processes. This study provides a solution to an underlying research question that has gone unanswered in prior studies. What are the strategies proposed for humble leadership in fostering the effectiveness of the project?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 15 October 2020 (12:05:44 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0174.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: cloud computing; big data; fog computing; software-defined; networking; network management; resource management; topology.
Online: 26 February 2020 (15:34:25 CET)
Cloud infrastructure provides computing services where computing resources can be adjusted on-demand. However, the adoption of cloud infrastructures brings concerns like reliance on the service provider network, reliability, compliance for service level agreements (SLAs), etc. Software-defined networking (SDN) is a networking concept that suggests the segregation of a network’s data plane from the control plane. This concept improves networking behavior. In this paper, we present an SDN-enabled resource-aware topology framework. The proposed framework employs SLA compliance, Path Computation Element (PCE) and shares fair loading to achieve better topology features. We also present an evaluation, showcasing the potential of our framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0601.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Extension; Manure; Mortality; Management; Virtual Reality
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:31:38 CET)
This study presents virtual reality (VR) videos as an effective technique for delivering extension educational materials on manure and mortality management. Virtual reality is a technology that can enable immersive distance learning. Using VR tours can enable the public to learn manure and mortality management technologies without in-person farm visits, thus saving traveling time and money and avoiding exposure to pathogens and noxious odors in farms. As the first part of this project, 360° VR tours were created on multiple aspects of manure management, including composting, anaerobic digestion, and preliminary wastewater treatment. These videos were presented to a diverse audience of agricultural producers, extension specialists, and researchers through in-person and online extension events and the Texas Manure YouTube channel. The effectiveness of videos was evaluated using surveys, which measured the audience's awareness of the topics before and after watching VR videos. Statistical analysis revealed that the increase in awareness after watching the videos was statistically significant, with a p-value of less than 0.0001. Statistical analysis also revealed that job classification and professional experience significantly impacted the change in awareness. Researchers, extension specialists/agents, and participants with less experience in manure and mortality management experienced a greater change in awareness than agricultural producers and participants with more experience. Interest and impression of the audience on the VR videos was also evaluated. According to survey data, the majority of the audience rated these videos as an effective technique for educating the public about manure and mortality management, found the VR videos interesting, were willing to learn more content through VR videos, and were likely to recommend them to their colleagues. A statistically significant correlation could be observed between the awareness change and the effectiveness rating given to the videos by the participant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0895.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid pandemic; Bed Management; system solidness.
Online: 25 April 2023 (07:13:13 CEST)
The last decade was characterized by the reduction of hospital beds throughout Europe. When facing Covid pandemic, this has been an issue of major importance as hospitals were seriously overloaded with an unexpected growth in demand. The dichotomy formed by the scarcity of beds and the need for acute care was handled by the Bed Management (BM) function. This study explores how BM was able to help the solidness of the healthcare system, managing hospital beds at best and recruiting others in different set-tings as intermediate care, in a large Local Health Authority (LHA) in central Italy. Ad-ministrative data show how the provision of appropriate care was achieved recruiting approximately 500 beds belonging to private healthcare facilities affiliated with the re-gional healthcare system and exercising at best the BM function. The ability of the system to absorb the extra demand caused by Covid was made possible using intermediate care beds, which allowed to stretch the logistic boundaries of the hospitals, and by the promptness of Bed Management in converting beds in Covid beds and reconverting them and timely managing internal patient logistic, thus creating space according to the healthcare demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0479.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Project Management
Online: 28 February 2023 (01:35:26 CET)
IKEA is a massive international conglomerate company, and the purpose of this exploratory qualitative research is to investigate how the burgeoning academic field known as "artificial intelligence" (AI) could assist IKEA in resolving some of the challenges that it is currently dealing with in relation to its efforts to source sustainable materials. According to the conclusions of this study, artificial intelligence has the potential to aid in the resolution of at least some of the issues associated with sustainable sourcing, at least to some degree. This was developed by mapping the issues, analyzing the potential for adopting artificial intelligence as a solution, and defining the components that are required for efficient adoption of the technology. A number of prerequisites need to be satisfied by businesses before artificial intelligence may be used in the area of sustainable sourcing. In addition, a number of artificial intelligence's constraints need to be addressed before the technology can be put into practice by the same businesses. In conclusion, the findings of this study offer some management implications and ideas for businesses that have the goal of sourcing in a way that is less harmful to the environment by making use of technological breakthroughs such as artificial intelligence. This can be accomplished through the utilization of innovative technologies.