ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0523.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Zimbabwe Stimulated Telephone Assisted Rapid Safety Surveillance (Zm-STARSS); mHealth active participant-centred (MAPC) Adverse Events Following Immunisation(AEFI) surveillance
Online: 30 March 2023 (03:51:08 CEST)
Abstract Introduction: The mHealth active participant centred (MAPC) adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) surveillance is a promising area for early AEFI detection resulting in risk minimisation. Passive (spontaneous) AEFI surveillance is the backbone for vaccine pharmacovigilance, but has inherent drawbacks of under reporting, and requires strengthening with active surveillance methods. The Zimbabwe stimulated telephone assisted rapid safety surveillance (Zm-STARSS) randomized controlled trial (RCT) sought to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of AEFI detection using a short message service (SMS) and computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) approach. Method: A multicentre Zm-STARSS RCT enrolled consented adult vaccinees or parents or guardians of children receiving vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, at study vaccination clinics. At enrolment study participants were randomised to either SMS-CATI group or control group. SMS prompts were sent on days 0-2 and 14 post-vaccination to SMS-CATI group to ascertain if a medical event following immunisation (MEFI) had occurred. However, no SMSs were sent to the control group. SMS-CATI group who responded “Yes” to SMS prompts were interviewed by research healthcare workers (RHCWs) who completed a CATI to determine if an MEFI/AEFI had occurred whilst an AEFI in control group was determined from passive AEFI reporting channels. The primary study outcome was the AEFI detection rate in the SMS-CATI group compared to the control group. Results: A total of 704 (31%) participants responded to the SMS prompts, with 75% (528/704) indicating “No” and 25% (176/704) "Yes” to experiencing a MEFI. However, 31% (55/176) who responded “Yes” did not complete a CATI survey, but 69% (121/176) did; and 64% (77/121) of these indicated negative to AEFI experience whilst 36% (44/121) were affirmative. There were no AEFI reported in control group participants. Zm-STARSS showed promising results in that the AEFI detection rate using SMS-CATI was 2% (44/2280) on an intention to treat cohort. Conclusion: Despite the low SMS response and CATI completion rate, we demonstrated that Zm-STARSS SMS system improves AEFI detection compared to passive AEFI surveillance. We recommend cost-effective multi-channel digital approaches for holistic pharmacovigilance to improve AEFI detection in LMICs for all vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: textile wearable technologies; flexible electronics; mHealth
Online: 23 September 2016 (04:02:38 CEST)
In this article we present the design and development of T-Shirt prototypes that embed novel textile sensors for the capture of cardio and respiratory signals. The sensors are connected through textile interconnects to either an embedded custom designed data acquisition and transmission unit or to snap fastener terminals for connection to external monitoring devices. Prototypes with diverse approaches of integration are presented. The performance of the wearable systems is addressed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio amplitude and signal interference caused by baseline wander and motion artifacts, through laboratorial tests with subjects in standing and walking conditions. Performance tests were also conducted in Hospital environment using a T-Shirt prototype connected to a commercial 3-channel Holter monitoring device. The textile sensors and interconnects were realized with the assistance of an industrial 6-needle digital embroidery tool and their resistance to wear addressed with normalized tests of laundering and abrasion. The main aspects of the system´s design leading to major improvements and failure factors are discussed. Pathways and methods for the overall system´s optimization are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0207.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Telehealth, mHealth, wellness, preventative medicine
Online: 10 August 2018 (14:30:16 CEST)
Objective: Health/wellness applications on mobile devices (Apps) may positively affect the health of seniors (persons age 65+). But for an App to promote health in its target audience, it must achieve meaningful use. Method: For one and a half years, residents at a Life Plan Community (mean age 86) used a wellness App running on iPad. In a digital survey, residents rated their overall satisfaction with the App on a scale from 1 (strongly dislike) to 10 (strongly enjoy). Results: User satisfaction (96 respondents of 252; 38% response rate) was distributed with maximum 8, median 7, mean 6.6, and standard deviation 2.3. Discussion: The results suggest that it is feasible to inspire seniors to pursue whole-person wellness using an App: technology may promote “active aging.”
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1611.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: mHealth; gestational diabetes; health professionals; obesity; Apps; postpartum
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:42:24 CEST)
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a common medical complication of pregnancy, which is associated with increased risk of future diabetes. mHealth (mobile health, in this paper applica-tions abbreviated to apps) can facilitate health modifications to decrease future risks. This study aims to understand mHealth app use and preferences among women with past GDM and healthcare professionals (HCP) in Australia. An explorative cross-sectional online survey was disseminated via social media, a national diabetes registry, and professional networks. Descrip-tive analyses were conducted on valid responses (women with prior GDM: n=1475; HCP: n=75). One third (33%) of women with prior GDM have used health apps, and a further 80% of non-app users were open to using a health app if recommended by their HCP. Over half (53%) of HCPs supported health information delivery via mHealth, although only 14% had recommended a health app to women post-GDM, and lack of knowledge about mHealth apps was common. Health app users reported that they preferred tracking features, while non-users desired credible health and dietary information and plans. Expanding mHealth app use could facilitate healthy behaviours, but endorsement by HCPs is important to women and currently lacking.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0641.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: COVID 19; IoT; Blockchain; Infection; Emerging Technologies; mHealth
Online: 26 July 2020 (16:45:25 CEST)
Currently, the COVID‐19 has directly affected the millions of humans lives. The symptoms of the disease involving fever, malaise, chest infection, and breathing difficulties, were identified, and its existence is continuously becoming restructured. The World Health Organization (WHO) had mentioned the wide diagnostics test besides COVID-19 that would also assist medical facilities to recognize infectious diseases as well as currently focusing efficiently on preventing and afterward defeating this viral disease. The infection is usually transmitted among human beings in direct contact, greatest through the liquid bubbles generated through cough, sneeze, or speaking. This paper reviews the COVID 19 pandemic, its history, current updates, contact tracing applications, and use of emerging technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain for stopping the spreading and provide service online to the patient from a distance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0093.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: mHealth; App; Stroke; Caregiver; Usability; User Experience; Needs; Design
Online: 7 February 2022 (15:17:42 CET)
(1) Background: Existing research has demonstrated the potential of mHealth apps in improving the caregiving outcomes of stroke. Since several apps were published in commercially available app stores without explaining their design and evaluation processes, it is necessary to identify the usability and user experience issues to promote long-term adherence and usage; (2) Methods: User reviews were extracted from the 47 previously identified apps that support stroke caregiving needs using a python-scraper. The reviews were pre-processed and filtered using python scripts. The final corpus was classified based on usability and user experience dimensions to highlight issues within the app; (3) Results: A total of 162,095 were extracted from the two app stores. After filtration, 15,818 reviews were included and classified based on the usability and user experience dimensions. Findings highlight critical issues related to the errors/effectiveness, efficiency and support that contribute to decreased satisfaction, emotion and frustration in using the app; (4) Conclusion: The study identified several usability and user experience issues due to the inability of the app developers to understand the needs of the user. Further, the study describes the inclusion of a participatory design approach to promote an improved understanding of user needs; therefore, limiting any issues and ensuring continued use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: mHealth devices; diagnosis; accuracy; sensitivity; specificity; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:27:39 CEST)
Mobile health devices are emerging applications that could help deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnosis, particularly in settings with limited laboratory infrastructure, such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The advent of coronavirus has resulted in an increased deployment and use of mHealth-linked POC diagnostics in SSA. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of mobile-linked point-of-care diagnostics in SSA. Our systematic review and meta-analysis were guided by the Preferred Reporting Items requirements for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). We exhaustively searched PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, and CINAHL with full-text via EBSCOhost databases from mHealth inception to March 2021. The statistical analyses were conducted using OpenMeta-Analyst software. All 11 included studies were considered for the meta-analysis. The included studies focused on malaria infections, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths, and trichuris trichiura. The pooled summary of sensitivity and specificity estimates were moderate compared to the gold reference standard. The overall pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio of mobile-linked POC diagnostic devices were as follows: 0.499 (95% CI: 0.458-0.541); 0.535 (95% CI: 0.401-0.663); 0.952 (95% CI: 0.60-1.324); 1.381 (95% CI: 0.391-4.879); and 0.944 (95% CI: 0.579-1.538), respectively. Evidence shows that mobile-linked POC diagnostics' diagnostic accuracy is presently moderate in detecting infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Future research is recommended to evaluate mHealth devices' diagnostics with excellent sensitivities and specificities in diagnosing diseases in this setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0584.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: telemedicine; mHealth; e-Health; telehealth; cardiology; cardiovascular medicine; myocardial infarction
Online: 8 September 2023 (10:45:49 CEST)
Telemedicine, telehealth, e-Health, and other related terms refer to the exchange of medical information or medical care from one site to another through electronic communication between a patient and healthcare provider. As telemedicine infrastructure has changed since the COVID-19 pandemic, this review provides an overview of telemedicine use and effectiveness in cardiology, with emphasis on the post-pandemic context. Pre-pandemic studies tend to report statistically insignificant or modest improvements in cardiovascular disease outcome from telemedicine use to usual care. By contrast, post-pandemic studies tend to report positive outcomes or comparable acceptance of telemedicine use to usual care. Today, telemedicine can effectively replace in person follow-ups to produce comparable (but not necessarily superior) outcomes in cardiovascular disease management. A major benefit of telemedicine is the significant reduction in follow-up time or time-to-intervention which may lead to earlier detection and prevention of adverse events. Nonetheless, there remain barriers to effective telemedicine implementation in the post-pandemic context. Providing accuracy and ease-of-use of telemedicine devices, ensuring adherence to remote rehabilitation procedures, and implementing widespread telemedicine infrastructure are such examples. Current knowledge gaps include the true economic cost of telemedicine infrastructure, feasibility of use in specific cardiology contexts, and sex/gender differences of health outcomes through telemedicine use. Future telemedicine developments will need to address these concerns to achieve widespread acceptance as the new standard of care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: mHealth; pregnancy; app; first 1000 days; co-design; expectant parents
Online: 5 December 2022 (14:43:03 CET)
Background. To improve maternal and child health, it is essential to adhere to health-promoting and preventive measures. However, reliable information as well as effective tools are not easy to identify in this field. Our cross-sectional study investigated the needs and expectations of expectant and new mothers and fathers -primary users of an app supporting the first 1000 days of life. Methods. Between May and August 2022, we recruited expectant and new parents by administering a 71-item 5-point Likert scale questionnaire related to content, functionalities, and technical features of a hypothetical app. We stratified responses by sociodemographic characteristics and then performed ward hierarchical clustering. Results. The 94 women and 69 men involved in our study generally agreed with the proposed content, but expressed low interest in certain app functionalities, especially those related to interaction mechanism and interactivity. Women were generally more demanding than men, and family income declined as the needs and expectations increased. Conclusions. Our findings, resulting from the engagement of end-users, may be useful for designers and technology providers to implement mHealth solutions that, in addition to conveying reliable information, are tailored to the needs and preferences of end-users in the first 1000 days of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0688.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mHealth; multiple sclerosis; telemonitoring; longitudinal assessment; rehabilitation; fatigue; walking; cognition
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:26:43 CEST)
The development of mobile technology and internet mobile offers new possibilities in both rehabilitation and for patients’ assessment in a longitudinal and MS management perspective. However, because the mobile health applications (mHealth) have only been developed recently, the level of evidence supporting the use of mHealth in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is currently unclear. Therefore, this study aims to list and describe the different mHealth available for rehabilitation and self-assessment of pwMS and to define the level of evidence supporting these interventions for functioning problems categorized within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). 36 studies, performed with 22 different mHealth, were included in this review, 30 about rehabilitation and 6 for self-assessment, representing 3,091 patients. For rehabilitation, most of the studies were focusing on cognitive function and fatigue. Concerning the efficacy we found a small but significant effect of the use of mHealth for cognitive training (SMD = 0.28 [0.12 ; 0.45]) and moderate effect for fatigue (SMD = 0.61 [0.47 ; 0.76]). mHealth is a promising tool in pwMS but more studies are needed to validate these solutions in the others ICF categories. More replications studies are also needed as most of the mHealth have only been assessed in one single study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0180.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: mHealth; Blockchain; Internet of Things; Smart devices; Communication; Smart Devices; Emerging Technologies
Online: 14 June 2020 (15:07:26 CEST)
The mHealth is a term that is used for mobile health supported by smart devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and wearable smart devices, etc. The smart devices strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of interaction with patients, physicians, and specialists. Patients nowadays would like to be intimately involved in their diagnosis as well as to make more informed decisions concerning their care. It has begun to measure the success of the quality of treatment. This was a reason that patients trust mHealth to provide them with consistency in their communications with the physicians. Most wireless strategies do not measure up to this standard so that patient engagement ultimately ended up decreasing. The blockchain can boost mHealth through storing and sharing electronic data securely and transparently. It can enhance the accessibility of patient information in real-time. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a unique identification number to every connected device such as mobile devices, medical devices, and wearable devices. This framework uses the blockchain and IoT technologies together to provide quick help to the patients, monitor remotely, reduce the cost and unnecessarily hospitalization physically and find the real diagnosis. In order to increase patient involvement, mHealth framework with blockchain and IoT technologies has built with the key objective of providing patients with full information on their treatment and diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: mHealth; mobile data collection; data quality; data quality assessment framework; Tuberculosis control; developing countries
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:34:33 CEST)
Background Increasingly, healthcare organizations are using technology for the efficient management of data. The aim of this study was to compare the data quality of digital records with the quality of the corresponding paper-based records by using data quality assessment framework. Methodology We conducted a desk review of paper-based and digital records over the study duration from April 2016 to July 2016 at six enrolled TB clinics. We input all data fields of the patient treatment (TB01) card into a spreadsheet-based template to undertake a field-to-field comparison of the shared fields between TB01 and digital data. Findings A total of 117 TB01 cards were prepared at six enrolled sites, whereas just 50% of the records (n=59; 59 out of 117 TB01 cards) were digitized. There were 1,239 comparable data fields, out of which 65% (n=803) were correctly matched between paper based and digital records. However, 35% of the data fields (n=436) had anomalies, either in paper-based records or in digital records. 1.9 data quality issues were calculated per digital patient record, whereas it was 2.1 issues per record for paper-based record. Based on the analysis of valid data quality issues, it was found that there were more data quality issues in paper-based records (n=123) than in digital records (n=110). Conclusion There were fewer data quality issues in digital records as compared to the corresponding paper-based records. Greater use of mobile data capture and continued use of the data quality assessment framework can deliver more meaningful information for decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1449.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: chronic non-communicable diseases; disease management; digital health technologies; technology-based applications; mHealth; mobile apps
Online: 20 June 2023 (14:25:24 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Elders’ needs are rarely examined beforehand, and thus, although technology-based tools can enhance self-management, acceptability rates are still low. This study aimed to examine and compare self-reported needs, priorities, and preferences of elders with heart failure (HF), diabetes mellitus (DM), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) toward technology use to enhance self-management. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 473 participants over 60s (60.5% females), diagnosed with HF (N=156), DM (N=164), or COPD (N=153) was recruited. They were administered a questionnaire about the usefulness of technology in general and in specific areas of disease management. Results: Most participants (84.7%) admitted that technology is needed for better disease management. This was equally recognized across the three groups both for the overall and specific areas of disease management (in order of priority: ‘Information’, ‘Communication with Physicians & Caregivers’, and ‘Quality of Life & Wellbeing’). Sociodemographic differences were found. Cell phones and PCs were the devices of preference. The four common features prioritized by all three groups were related to ‘information about disease management’ (i.e., monitoring symptoms, reminders for medication intake, management and prevention of complications), whereas the fifth one was related to ‘communication with physicians and caregivers (i.e., in case of abnormal or critical signs). The top disease-specific feature was also monitoring systems (of respiratory rate or blood sugar or blood pressure, oxygen), whereas other disease-specific features followed (i.e., maintaining normal weight for HF patients, adjusting insulin dose for DM patients, and training on breathing exercises for COPD patients). Conclusions: Elders in these three samples seem receptive to technology in disease management. mHealth tools, incorporating both common and disease-specific features and addressing different chronic patients, and being personalized at the same time, could be cost-saving and useful adjuncts in routine clinical care to improve self-management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0029.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Sleep tracking; Context aware recommender system; Quantified self; Personal informatics; Ubiquitous computing; Mobile computing; mHealth; CBI-I
Online: 5 May 2022 (09:34:09 CEST)
The practice of quantified-self sleep tracking is increasingly common nowadays among healthy individuals as well as patients with sleep problems. However, existing sleep-tracking technologies only support simple data collection and visualization, and are incapable of providing actionable recommendations that are tailored to users' physical, behavioral and environmental context. Here we coined the term context-aware sleep health recommender system (CASHRS) as an emerging multidisciplinary research field that bridges ubiquitous sleep computing and context-aware recommender systems. In this paper, we presented a narrative review to analyze the type of contextual information, the recommendation algorithms, the context filtering techniques, the behavior change techniques, the system evaluation, and the challenges in peer-reviewed publications that meet the characteristics of CASHRS. Analysis results identified current research trends, the knowledge gap, and future research opportunities in CASHRS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: mHealth; ODK scan; mobile health application; digitizing data collection; data management processes; paper-to-digital system; technology-assisted data management; treatment adherence
Online: 2 September 2016 (03:17:38 CEST)
The present grievous situation of the tuberculosis disease can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology this can be achieved by quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, application and 3G enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to see the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed for quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, however, data verification and form filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, however, they were more concerned about the time consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements.