ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; adenovirus; E1b; UV-irradiation; genomics
Online: 19 December 2016 (09:33:20 CET)
Adenoviruses (Ads) have been extensively manipulated for the development of cancer selective replication, leading to cancer cell death or oncolysis. Clinical studies using E1-modified oncolytic Ads have shown that this therapeutic platform was safe, but with limited efficacy, indicating the necessity of targeting other viral genes for manipulation. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic Ads, we treated the entire Ad genome repeatedly with UV-light and have isolated AdUV which efficiently lyses cancer cells as reported previously . In this report, we show that no mutations were observed in the early genes (E1 or E4) of AdUV while several mutations were observed within the Ad late genes which have structural or viral DNA packaging functions. This study also reported the increased release of AdUV from cancer cells. In this study, we found that AdUV inhibits tumor growth following intratumoral injection. These results indicate the potentially significant role of the viral late genes, in particular the DNA packaging genes, to enhance Ad oncolysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; biomarker; proteomics; QSOX1; secretome
Online: 17 September 2018 (13:13:39 CEST)
As lung cancer shows the highest mortality in cancer related death, serum biomarkers are demanded for the lung cancer diagnosis and its treatment. To discover lung cancer protein biomarkers, secreted proteins from primary cultured lung cancer and adjacent normal tissues from patients were subjected to LC/MS-MS proteomic analysis. Quescin sulfhydryl oxidase(QSOX1) was selected as a biomarker candidate from the proteins enriched in the secretion of lung cancer cells. QSOX1levels were higher in 82% (51 of 62 tissues) of lung cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Importantly, QSOX1 serum levels were significantly higher in cancer patients (p<0.05, AUC=0.89), when measured by multiple reaction monitoring(MRM). Higher levels of QSOX1 are also uniquely detected in lung cancer tissues among several other solid cancers by immunohistochemistry. QSOX1 knock-downed Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells was less viable from oxidative stress and had reduced migration and invasion. In addition, LLC mouse models with QSOX1 knock-down also proved that QSOX1 functions in promoting cancer metastasis. In conclusion, QSOX1 might be a lung cancer tissue-derived biomarker and involved in the promotion of lung cancers, and thus can be a therapeutic target for lung cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Environmental Pollution; Airborne Carcinogens; Lung Cancer;
Online: 11 February 2022 (12:23:22 CET)
The risk of lung cancer continues to elevate for both smokers and never-smokers. With the increasing morbidities and mortalities related to lung cancer, there is much interest on establishing other confounding factors that lead to lung cancer, other than smoking which is the most common cause. Some of the environmental factors have been identified as potential lung cancer causes. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to assess the relationship of environmental factors and lung cancer incidences by investigating various carcinogenic risks exposures that predispose an individual to lung cancer. The objective of this systematic review is thus to assess the evidence of relationship between environmental carcinogens and lung cancer incidence by systematically reviewing relevant studies. A standard criterion for the review methodology was formulated to guide the review process and data extraction. Online databases like PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus (EMBASE), Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CINAHL were systematically searched for articles published between 2000 and 2021 that explored potential environmental carcinogens that were believed to expose occupational workers and individuals within the environment with lung cancer risks. 25 studies were eligible based on the selection criteria, and were finally included in the systematic review among which four were case-control studies, seven were cohorts, five was prospective, four were previous systematic reviews and four were systematic analysis. Chemical exposures like pesticides were analyzed for their carcinogenesis. Air pollution was also discussed with particulate and coal being the core of evidence of association with lung cancer. Second hand smoke, Asbestos, metal compounds like copper, PVC dust particles and ionizing radiations also provided evidence of environmental carcinogenesis associating to lung cancer cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: peroxiredoxins; lung cancer; prognostic
Online: 19 August 2019 (04:35:15 CEST)
Background: Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) comprise antioxidant factors that are widely found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Abnormal expression of Prxs is closely related to tumorigenesis. Methods: This study examined the prognostic value and expression of Prxs in lung cancer by Human Protein Atlas (HPA), Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), UALCAN, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, cBioPortal and Functional Enrichment Analysis Tool (FunRich) databases. Results: We found that Prx1/2/3/4/5 were overexpressed in both lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) relative to normal lung cells. However, the expression level of Prx6 was lower in LUAD and higher in LUSC than normal lung cells. The level of Prx3 and Prx6 were associated with pathological stage. Prognostic analysis showed that elevated Prx1 and Prx2 expression were correlated with low Overall Survival (OS), whereas high Prx5 and Prx6 expression level predicted high OS. Conclusions: Our results effectively revealed the level of Prxs in lung cancer and its influence on the prognosis of lung carcinoma, contributing to the study of the role of Prxs in tumorigenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: dual-channel sensor; efficient capture; lung cancer biomarker; lung cancer screening
Online: 10 July 2019 (11:37:13 CEST)
Lung cancer remains the leading cancer killer worldwide. Early diagnosis can effectively increase the patient cure rate but existing diagnostic methods limit early lung cancer diagnosis. Therefore, development of a simple but efficient lung cancer screening method is important to improvement of both the diagnosis rate and the survival rate of lung cancer patients. In this study, ten photosensitive materials with high sensitivity and high specificity were screened accurately to construct a microarray sensor that can rapidly identify six types of lung cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath. Results from hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and difference maps showed that the classification of the analytes agreed with structure similarity laws. The detection results from parallel experiments and structurally similar analytes, in turn, cluster into a group; the fingerprints of the different analytes have specific response regions. The well-screened sensor chip fabrication workload and cost were both reduced by approximately two thirds, while the microfluidic device sensitivity and stability increased by approximately 1.3 times their corresponding values before optimization. The dual-channel device also offers real-time contrast detection and synchronous parallel detection functions and has potential application prospects for use in extensive screening of high-risk populations for lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1776.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: lung cancer; dehydroepiandrosterone; proliferation; viability; migration; autophagy
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:59:48 CEST)
Lung cancer is a prevalent and aggressive neoplasm worldwide, contributing to significant mortality rates. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) constitutes the bulk of the steroid hormone in human plasma, has a robust antiproliferative effect, and induces cell death in various tumor cells. However, its role in lung cancer cells remains unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the influence of DHEA on the proliferation, viability, autophagy, and migration of several lung cancer cell lines, including A549, HCC827, and NCI-H2347. Cell proliferation was assessed through crystal violet staining; cell number and viability were evaluated using trypan blue staining; viability was confirmed by MTT reduction, a method that is also an indicator of metabolic activity; migration was assessed via a wound healing assay. Autophagy was evaluated using a specific kit, while cell death was determined by annexin-V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and caspase-3/7 activity assay. The results indicate that DHEA significantly reduced proliferation, cell number, metabolic activity, and migration in all examined lung tumor cells. These effects correlate with an increased autophagy induced by DHEA. No signs of apoptosis or necrosis were observed across the range of DHEA concentrations used. Although these findings are preliminary, they suggest that DHEA could hold promise as an alternative treatment option for various subtypes of lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0112.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; epidemiology; histopathology; Central Iran; Isfahan
Online: 8 April 2020 (03:56:28 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer is one of the common causes of death worldwide. Although the incidence rate of lung cancer in Western countries is decreasing, it presents a growing trend in developed countries. Since there is no accurate enough information about the epidemiological and Histopathologic features of lung cancer in central Iran, Isfahan, we were motivated to conduct this research. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in central Iran, Isfahan. All demographic, histopathological and clinical data of the lung cancer patients registered in MACSA, a referral charity-based cancer center in central Iran, was analyzed within 2012-2018 using SPSS v.22 software. Results: Altogether 260 patients with lung cancer were included in this study from 6127 cancer patients registered within 2012-2018 (4.2%). Out of them, 66.2% were men, and 18.8 % of the patients were alive at the time of the study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 61.56 (SD=14.11, range: 9-93). Altogether, 63.1% of patients had metastasis of whom 57.6% were in stage IV at diagnosis. The Frequency of different types of lung cancer was 36.9% adenocarcinomas, 14.2% squamous cell carcinoma, 9.6% bronchogenic carcinoma and 8.1% small cell lung cancer, respectively. Altogether, 128 cases were smokers with an average 35.45 ± 14 pack- years. Only in 36.2% of the patients, the diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers had been checked, and CK7 was positive in 88.9% of the cases in which the biomarker had been checked. Conclusion: Despite to similar Iranian studies, the most common histopathologic type of lung cancer among the patients was adenocarcinoma that it may be attributed to the lower consumption of smoking in our population and their different genetic context. Molecular biomarkers had been checked in a small portion of the patients. More education of the clinicians along with the development of cancer molecular testing may lead to promote the personalized-based approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: human antibody; invasion; lung cancer; therapeutic target; VCAM-1; VCAM-1-D6
Online: 15 February 2017 (10:45:16 CET)
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is closely associated with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the relevance and role of VCAM-1 in lung cancer have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that VCAM-1 was highly overexpressed in lung cancer tissue compared with that of normal lung, and high VCAM-1 expression correlated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. VCAM-1 knockdown reduced invasion in A549 human lung cancer cells, and competitive blocking experiments targeting the Ig-like domain 6 of VCAM-1 (VCAM-1-D6) demonstrated that the VCAM-1-D6 domain was critical for VCAM-1-mediated A549 cell invasion. Next, we developed a human monoclonal antibody specific to human and mouse VCAM-1-D6 (VCAM-1-D6 huMab), which was isolated from a human synthetic antibody library using phage display technology. Finally, we showed that VCAM-1-D6 huMab had a nanomolar affinity for VCAM-1-D6 and that it potently suppressed invasion in A549 and NCI-H1299 lung cancer cell lines. Taken together, these results suggest that VCAM-1-D6 is a novel therapeutic target in VCAM-1-mediated lung cancer invasion and that our newly developed VCAM-1-D6 huMab will be a useful tool for inhibiting VCAM-1-expressing lung cancer cell invasion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1647.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Lung cancer; Cytokines; Therapy; Immune system; Anti-tumor
Online: 23 August 2023 (09:55:37 CEST)
Lung cancer accounts for the majority of cancer cases. In recent years, checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy (ICI) has emerged as a new treatment. A better understanding of the tumor microenvironment, or TMJ, or the immune system surrounding the tumor is needed. Cytokines are small proteins that carry messages between cells and are known to play an important role in the body's response to inflammation and infection. Cytokines are important for immunity in lung cancer. It promotes tumor growth (oncogenic cytokines) or inhibits tumor growth (anti-tumor cytokines) by controlling signaling pathways for growth, proliferation, metastasis, and apoptosis. The immune system relies heavily on cytokines. They can also be produced in the laboratory for therapeutic use. Cytokine therapy helps the immune system stop the growth or kill cancer cells. Interleukins and interferons are two types of cytokines used to treat cancer. This article begins by addressing the role of the tumor microenvironment (TMJ) and its components in lung cancer. This review also highlights the functions of various cytokines such as IL, TGF and TNF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; gene therapy; retrovirus vector
Online: 1 July 2022 (15:28:59 CEST)
Therapeutic efficacy of retroviral replicating vector (RRV)-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy has been demonstrated in a variety of tumor models, but clinical investigation of this approach has so far been restricted to glioma and gastrointestinal malignancies. In the present study, we evaluated replication kinetics, transduction efficiency, and therapeutic efficacy of RRV in experimental models of lung cancer. RRV delivering GFP as a reporter gene showed rapid viral replication in a panel of lung cancer cells in vitro, as well as robust intratumoral replication and high levels of tumor transduction in subcutaneous and orthotopic pleural dissemination models of lung cancer in vivo. Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec), a clinical-stage RRV encoding optimized yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the active drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), showed potent cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells upon exposure to 5-FC prodrug. In vivo, Toca 511 achieved significant tumor growth inhibition following 5-FC treatment in subcutaneous and orthotopic pleural dissemination models of lung cancer in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent hosts, resulting in significantly increased overall survival. This study demonstrates that RRV can serve as highly efficient vehicles for gene delivery to lung cancer, and indicates the translational potential of RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy with Toca 511/5-FC as a novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary malignancies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0146.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomedicine; drug resistance; lung cancer; chemotherapeutic agents; drug delivery
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:48:22 CET)
Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of cancer occurrence and mortality worldwide. Treatment of patients with advanced and metastatic LC presents a significant challenge as malignant cells use different mechanisms to resist chemotherapy. Drug resistance (DR) is a complex process that occurs due to a variety of genetic and acquired factors. Identifying the mechanisms underlying DR in LC patients and possible therapeutic alternatives for more efficient therapy is a central goal of LC research. Advances in nanotechnology resulted in the development of targeted and multifunctional nanoscale drug constructs. The possible modulation of the components of nanomedicine, their surface functionalization, and encapsulation of various active therapeutics provide promising tools to bypass crucial biological barriers. These attributes enhance the delivery of multiple therapeutic agents directly to the tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in reversal of LC resistance to anticancer treatment. This review provides a broad framework for understanding the different molecular mechanisms of DR in lung cancer; presents novel nanomedicine therapeutics aimed to improve the efficacy of treatment of various forms of resistant LC; outlines current challenges in using nanotechnology for reversing DR; and discusses the future directions for clinical application of nanomedicine in management of LC resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0501.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNA isoform; isomiR, miRNA editing; lung adenocarcinoma; race-disparities
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:41:04 CET)
Despite the development of targeted therapeutics, immunotherapy, and strategies for early detection, lung cancer carries a high mortality. Further, significant racial disparities in outcomes exist for which the molecular drivers have yet to be fully elucidated. The growing field of Epitranscriptomics has introduced a new layer of complexity to the molecular pathogenesis of cancer. RNA modifications can occur in coding and non-coding RNAs, such as miRNAs, possibly altering their gene regulatory function. The potential role for such modifications as clinically informative biomarkers remains largely unknown. Here, we concurrently profiled canonical miRNAs, shifted isomiRs (templated and non-templated), miRNAs with single-point modification events (RNA and DNA) in White American (W) and Black or African American (B/AA) lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. We found that while most deregulated miRNA isoforms were similar in W and B/AA LUAD tissues compared to normal adjacent tissues, there was a subgroup of isoforms with deregulation according to race. We specifically investigated an edited miRNA, miR-151a-3p with an A-to-I editing event at position 3, to determine how its altered expression may be associated with activation of divergent biological pathways between W and B/AA LUAD patients. Finally, we identified distinct race-specific miRNA isoforms that correlated with prognosis for both Ws and B/AAs. Our results suggest that concurrently profiling canonical and non-canonical miRNAs may have potential as a strategy for identifying additional distinct biological pathways and biomarkers in lung cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: lung cancer; cigarette smoking; air pollution; epidemiology; etiology
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:51:38 CEST)
Cigarette smoking and air pollution (particulate matter) are recognized as two major etiological factors for lung cancer. Of all the risk factors, cigarette smoking is significantly associated with lung carcinogenesis. The main mechanism lies in the metabolically activated carcinogens (majorly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines), which could covalently bind with DNA molecules and lead to irreversible mutations in pivotal cancer genes, such as TP53 and KRAS. Another major etiological factor for lung cancer is air pollution, which is with complex compositions and ubiquitous in daily life, especially in developing countries as China and India. The latest literatures on lung cancer epidemiology and etiology have been briefly summarized and reviewed in this work.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer; cisplatin; chemoresistance; molecular mechanisms
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:25:13 CEST)
Cancer cells utilize a number of mechanisms to increase their survival and progression as well as their resistance to anticancer therapy: deregulation of growth regulatory pathways by acquiring grow factor independence, immune system suppression, reducing the expression of antigens activating T lymphocyte cells (mimicry), induction of anti-apoptotic signals to counter the action of drugs, activation of several DNA repair mechanisms and driving the active efflux of drugs from the cell cytoplasm and epigenetic regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Due to the fact that it is commonly diagnosed late, lung cancer remains a major malignancy with a low five-year survival rate; when diagnosed, the cancer is often highly advanced and the cancer cells may have acquired drug resistance. This review summarizes the main mechanisms involved in cisplatin resistance and in interactions between cisplatin-resistant cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. It also analyses changes in the gene expression profile of cisplatin sensitive vs. cisplatin resistant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cellular model using the GSE108214 Gene Expression Omnibus database. It describes a protein-protein interaction network that indicates highly-dysregulated TP53, MDM2 and CDKN1A genes as they encodes the top networking proteins that may be involved in cisplatin tolerance, these all being upregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, it illustrates the multifactorial nature of cisplatin resistance by examining the diversity of dysregulated pathways present in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells based on KEGG pathway analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; SARS-CoV-2 vaccine; immunogenicity
Online: 4 April 2023 (04:58:31 CEST)
In comparison to the general population, lung cancer patients are more likely to suffer from severe Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and mortality associated with it. Considering this increased risk, and in order to prevent symptoms and severe disease, patients with lung cancer have been prioritized for COVID-19 vaccinations, primary and booster doses. Despite this, the pivotal clinical trials did not include these patients, which leaves open questions regarding vaccine efficacy and humoral immune response. This review outlines the findings of recent investigations into the humoral responses of lung cancer patients to COVID-19 vaccination, particularly the primary doses and first boost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1181.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: lung cancer; non-small cell lung cancer, autoantibody; biomarker; CYFRA21-1; ProGRP; NGAL; NSE
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:15:30 CEST)
Autoantibodies against specific lung cancer-associated antigens have been suggested for lung cancer diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of anti-gen-autoantibody immune complex (AIC) against its free antigens for CYFRA21-1, ProGRP, NGAL, and NSE in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In total, 85 patients with NSCLC and 120 healthy controls (HCs) were examined using a 9G DNA chip method. The ratios of AICs to their antigens and combinations of ratios consisting of two to four markers were calculated. The levels of AICs for CYFRA21-1, ProGRP, NGAL, and NSE were higher than their free antigens in all participants. The levels of each free antigen distinguished patients with NSCLC from HCs. The ratios of AIC to its antigen and seven combinations consisting of two to four ratios were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC than those in HCs. Excellent diagnostic performance was observed for all combination ratios (C4-1), with 85.9% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity at cutoff 3.51. Higher sensitivity was observed in the very early stages (0–I) and adenocarcinoma than in stages II–IV and other pathological types. The combination of all ratios of AICs and their antigens for all four markers is useful in the diagnosis of NSCLC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1800.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Angiogenesis; Growth factors; Lung cancer; Tumor microenvironment; Anti-angiogenic therapy
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:24:16 CEST)
Research has shown the role of growth factors in lung cancer angiogenesis. Angiogenesis promotes lung cancer progression by stimulating tumor growth, enhancing tumor invasion, contributing to metastasis, and modifying immune system responses within the tumor microenvironment. As a result, new treatment techniques based on the anti-angiogenic characteristics of compounds have been developed. These compounds selectively block the growth factors themselves, their receptors, or the downstream signaling pathways activated by these growth factors. The EGF and VEGF families are the primary targets in this approach, and several studies are being conducted to propose anti-angiogenic drugs that are increasingly suitable for the treatment of lung cancer, either as monotherapy or as combined therapy. The efficacy results are encouraging, but a caution must be placed on the higher risk of toxicity, outlining the importance of personalized follow-up in the management of these patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0893.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: lncRNAs; non-coding RNAs; lung cancer; metastasis; biomarkers; therapy resistance
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:24:56 CEST)
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are mRNA-like molecules that do not encode for proteins and that are longer than 200 nucleotides. LncRNAs play important biological roles in normal cell physiology and organism development. Therefore, deregulation of their activities is involved in disease processes such as cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths due to late stage at diagnosis, distant metastasis, and high rates of therapeutic failure. LncRNAs are emerging as important molecules in lung cancer for their oncogenic or tumor suppressive functions. LncRNAs are highly stable in circulation, presenting an opportunity for use as non-invasive and early-stage cancer diagnostic tools. Here, we summarize latest works providing in vivo evidence available for LncRNAs role in cancer development, therapy-induced resistance, and their potential as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, with a focus on lung cancer. Additionally, we discuss current therapeutic approaches to target LncRNAs. The evidence discussed here strongly suggests that investigation of LncRNAs in lung cancer in addition to protein-coding genes will provide a holistic view of molecular mechanisms of cancer initiation, development, and progression, and could open a new avenue for cancer treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0183.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: lung cancer; Lipid Metabolism; Glucose Metabolism; Krebs Cycle; Cholesterol Metabolism
Online: 10 January 2023 (10:39:28 CET)
Metabolic changes are an important component of tumor cell progression. Tumor cells adapt to environmental stresses via changes to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Autophagy, a physiological process in mammalian cells that digests damaged organelles and misfolded proteins via lysosomal degradation is closely associated with metabolism in mammalian cells acting as a meter of cellular ATP levels. In this review, we discuss the changes in glycolytic and lipid biosynthetic pathways in mammalian cells and their impact on carcinogenesis via the autophagy pathway. Also, we discuss the impact of these metabolic pathways on autophagy in lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0269.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: computed tomography; radiation dose; cancer risk; CTPA; lung effective diameter
Online: 23 August 2019 (10:53:52 CEST)
The present study aims to investigate radiation doses from Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) examinations based on the patient’s size and to estimate the probability of cancer risk induced from the examination. Data from 100 patients who had undergone CTPA examinations, such as scanning acquisition parameters, patient demography, as well as radiation dose exposure, were collected and analysed. All subjects which aged above 18 y/o were scanned using a Philips Brilliance 128 multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner. The mean dose value for Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol), Dose-Length Product (DLP) and effective dose (E) were 11.06 ± 7.17 mGy, 400.38 ± 259.10 mGy.cm and 8.68 ± 5.47 mSv respectively. In addition, with respective of patient’s effective diameter, the mean SSDE value for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were 9.93 ± 3.89, 13.70 ± 9.04 and 22.29 ± 7.35, respectively. Cancer risk per million procedure was calculated based on te recommendation by the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103 report. The organ dose and cancer risk attained for breast, lung and liver were 17.05 ± 10.40 mGy (194 per one million procedure), 17.55 ± 10.86 mGy (192 per one million procedure) and 15.04 ± 9.75 mGy (53 per one million procedure), respectively. In conclusion, CTDIvol underestimated, and SSDE was more accurate in describing the radiation dose. Lung and breast with larger lung effective diameter received the highest dose exposure which increase the probability of the cancer risk. Therefore, it is important to apply optimised protocols in order to reduce patient’s exposure during CTPA examination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0381.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Lung Cancer; Magnetic nanoparticles; Detection and monitoring; Theranostics
Online: 15 March 2021 (12:55:08 CET)
There are numerous challenges involved in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Globally, majority of people suffers from cancerous disease involving throat cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, cancerous brain tumor. Among these the most common ones is the lung cancer or lung carcinoma. The leading cause of the lung cancer is the smoking. Around 80% to 90% of deaths are caused due to Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The inadequate diagnostic techniques and low chances for the survival of lung cancer patients results from the lack of an early prognosis and incompetency in traditional therapies. However, such challenges involved in the prognosis and treatment of lung cancer are on decline with the progression in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) technology. Many break-through discoveries and inventions have been made in the field of cancer therapy by using magnetic nanoparticles. The implication of nanotechnology has led to the recent advancement in nanomedicine field. This has encouraged the improvement in different therapeutic and diagnosis strategies employing nanotechnology. The generation of immense technological benefits for nanoparticles systems has been accredited to its remarkable nanoscale physico-chemical properties. This in turns provides the early detection of lung cancer and active drugs delivery for an improved theranostics strategy. The present review provides a general idea of the current progression in the therapeutic and prognosis purpose of magnetic nanoparticles. Further, we disclose the development in the lung cancer theranostics by functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles. The established importance of magnetic nanoparticles in the theranostics centers for lung cancer has been revealed in this paper. The challenges existing in the theranostics of lung cancer are addressed through the functioning of magnetic nanoparticles in the process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Early diagnosis; lung cancer; biomarkers; body fluids; research management
Online: 2 November 2023 (09:32:59 CET)
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The main issue is the absence of a screening test available in clinical practice; the identification of non-invasive biomarkers is thus an urgent clinical necessity. Currently, low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) demonstrates a 20% reduction of lung cancer mortality. However, it is not particularly suitable for clinical practice because of the costs, radiation, and the false positive rate. Several studies have therefore focused on research into biomarkers in body fluids. Despite the power of certain molecules to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy subjects, no biomarker has yet been shown to significantly and reliably influence clinical decisions or to be translated from the laboratory to clinical practice. We performed an overview of the peer-reviewed biomedical literature published in the last 10 years on the research regarding biomarkers for the early diagnosis of lung cancer via a comprehensive analysis of the reviews published this past year. Our main aim was to bring to light the limitations and strengths of the research already conducted. Furthermore, future prospectives have been explored, bearing in mind the management of clinical trials and their integration into clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cost-effectiveness; pembrolizumab; etoposide-platinum; extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer; small cell lung cancer.
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:10:59 CET)
Background: The phase III KEYNOTE-604 study confirmed the benefit of pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer(ES-SCLC). Intergrated the clinical benefits of pembrolizumab and its high cost into account, this study aim to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding pembrolizumab to standard first-line etoposide-platinum (EP) for patients with ES-SCLC from the the US payer perspective. Methods: A Markov model was developed to compared the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of pembrolizumab plus EP and placebo plus EP over a 10-year time horizon. Clinical efficacy, treatment utilization and safety data were pooled from the KEYNOTE-604 trial. Utilities were obtained from published resources. Costs were mainly collected from Medicare in 2020. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examined the robustness of our model. Results: Adding pembrolizumab to standard first-line EP, resulted in better effectiveness than the use of EP alone for ES-SCLC by 0.22 QALYs. Pembrolizumab plus EP was dominated economically by placebo plus EP, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER) of $334,373/ QALY. Deterministic sensitivity analyses indicated that the uncertainty in model parameters exerts no substantial effect on our results. Probability sensitivity analysis indicated that probabilities for pembrolizumab plus EP being cost-effective within a wide rang of willingness to pay were modest. Conclusion: From the US payer perspective, the first-line treatment for ES-SCLC with pembrolizumab plus EP was not cost-effective compare with placebo plus EP. Although pembrolizumab combination chemotherapy was beneficial to the survival of ES-SCLC, price reduction may be the necessary measure to improve its cost-effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2221.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; microenvironment; lung metastases; gene expression
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:46:51 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) Lung metastases are rarely resected, therefore PCa lung metastases are insufficiently molecularly characterized. We recently identified carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) as a potential driver of pulmonary metastatic spread. Here, we show the biological significance of CEACAM6 in PCa cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration. CEACAM6 was silenced by siRNA in PC3 cells. Functional assessment of apoptosis, cell viability, proliferation and migration were performed in siRNA-CEACAM6 PC3 cells. Non-treated and scrambled (scr) RNA PC3 cells were used as control. Following a specific knockdown of CEACAM6 in PC3 cells, the expression of CEACAM6 protein was significantly decreased in comparison to controls. Cell viability and cell counts decreased in CEACAM6 silent PC3 cells. In contrast, caspase-3 activity was highly elevated in siRNA-CEACAM6 PC3. Furthermore, by performing a cell scratch assay, the migration ratio in siRNA-CEACAM6 PC3 cells were significantly diminished compared with the control group after 48 hours of post transfection incubation. CEACAM6 as a cell adhesion molecule has been implicated in promoting metastatic disease in several solid tumours such as colorectal or gastric cancer. We could show that silencing of CEACAM6 has a significant functional effect on PCa cells. CEACAM6 might play an important role in fostering metastatic spread to the lung of PCa patients via enhancing proliferation and suppressing apoptosis. CEACAM6 might therefore pose an attractive therapeutic target to prevent metastatic disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Nanobiotechnology; Biomarkers; Biosensors; Lung cancer; Skin Cancer; Colorectal Cancer
Online: 7 March 2022 (15:03:00 CET)
In the era of nanotechnology, researchers are implementing point to care service to cancer patients to detect malignancy beforehand and to reduce the mortality rate of cancers. Cancer is known to be the most fatal disease among all other diseases and the survivability from cancer is quite impossible if the stage of the cancer is an advanced level. Though the early detection of cancer can increase the chances of survival with a double fold. Biosensor is a part of nanotechnology which is capable to provide point to care service in the field of medicine. With the rising number of cancer occurrences being identified around the world and the increasing number of deaths because of the identification of advanced cancer, biosensors can play a significant part in the early detection of cancer. New molecular methods, including as genomic and proteomic approaches, are increasingly being used to study patient molecular profiles. When such diagnosis method is paired with bioinformatics tools, they generate new data that can be used to discover new disease biomarkers. Finding precise and sensitive indicators that are corelated to a specific disease, as with many other diseases, can be challenging. Furthermore, the concentration of biomarkers in biological fluids varies according to illness states and phases. Peptides, proteins, up or down regulated expression of gene markers, and gene alternation are all examples of molecular markers that are commonly used to diagnose cancer. In this article, we have highlighted six different deadliest cancers such as Ovarian, Breast, Prostrate, Lung, Colorectal and Liver cancer. The article contains distinct types of biomarkers which are normally found in these kinds of cancer and generally used as a potential diagnostic target in the medicine field. The article mainly summarized the application of different types of biosensors devices in the detection of the mostly found biomarkers in the above cancer types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Lung cancer; biomarker; gene ontology; protein-protein interaction networks; survival analysis
Online: 5 May 2020 (12:28:25 CEST)
Objective: The aim of study is to find key genes and enriched pathways associated with lung cancer. Participants and Methods: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) data of 54674 genes based on stage, tumor and status of lung cancer was taken from 66 patients of African American (AAs) origin. 2392 DEGs were found based on stage, 13502 DEGs were found based on tumor, 2927 DEGs were found based on status having p value (p<0.05). Results: Total 33 common DEGs were found from stage, tumor and status of lung cancer. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis was performed and 49 significant pathways were obtained, out of which 10 pathways were found to be exclusively involved in lung cancer development. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis found 69 nodes and 324 edges and identified 10 hub genes based on their highest degrees. Module analysis of PPI found that ‘Viral carcinogenesis’, ‘pathways in cancer’, ‘notch signaling pathway’, ‘AMPK signaling pathways’ had a close association with lung cancer. Conclusion: These identified DEGs regulate other genes which play important role in growth of lung cancer. The key genes and enriched pathways identified can thus help in better identification and prediction of lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0852.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Metastatic Breast Cancer; Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis; SH3PXD2B; Eribulin
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:12:03 CEST)
Breast Cancer metastasis remains a formidable challenge in cancer research, contributing significantly to patient mortality despite advances in medical research. Lung metastasis, associated with breast cancer, poses an ongoing clinical dilemma with limited curative treatment options. This study delves into the intricate mechanisms underlying Breast Cancer-Lung Metastasis (BC-LM) primarily focusing on the function of SH3PXD2B in maturation of invadopodia, inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, disruption of proteostasis network, and ultimately leading to metastasis of Breast Cancer (BC) cells. With an extensive analysis of differential gene expression using RNASeq data, comparing normal breast cancer cells to metastatic sub-populations in lung. Employing the New Tuxedo pipeline our investigation notably observes SH3PXD2B as a key regulator in lung metastasis samples. This trend is further substantiated by data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), and Human Protein Atlas (HPA) which highlights elevated SH3PXD2B expression in MDA-MB-468 cells, underscoring its significance in metastatic adenocarcinoma. Additionally, we checked the overall survival (OS) of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients pinpointing SH3PXD2B and its associated partners like SH3PXD2A, MMPs, CTTN, ADAMs, and EMT markers with substantial expression in both BC and lung cancer, prognosticating poorer patient survival. Further, our transcription factor – target gene (TFTG) network essentially elucidated the role of SH3PXD2B as a key node in the network unveiling its roles in regulating cell migration, communication, and developmental processes. Proteomics and Western blotting assays consistently confirm heightened SH3PXD2B expression in BC cell lines, reaffirming our findings. By employing computational structure biology along with cancer systems biology approach, we generated a high-confidence structural model of SH3PXD2B, indicating its SH3_2 and SH3_3 domains crucial for interactions with the drug molecules. Molecular docking simulations identify Eribulin as a promising therapeutic agent capable of targeting these domains. Thus, our multidisciplinary approach seamlessly amalgamates systems medicine principles, aiming to repurpose existing drugs that target SH3PXD2B based on molecular signatures. Targeted therapies have emerged as a promising avenue for addressing MBC and this mechanistic model introduces novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of BC-LM patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: biomarkers; coronary artery calcifications; emphysema; low-dose CT; lung cancer; lung nodules; mortality; radiations; screening; smoking
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:17:21 CEST)
The ITALUNG trial started in 2004 and compared lung cancer (LC) and other-causes mortality in 55-69 years-aged smokers and ex-smokers who were randomized to four annual chest low-dose CT (LDCT) or usual care. ITALUNG showed a lower LC and cardiovascular mortality in the screened subjects after 13 years of follow-up, especially in women, and produced many ancillary studies. They included recruitment results of a population-based mimicking approach, development of software for computer aided diagnosis (CAD) and lung nodules volumetry, LDCT assessment of pulmonary emphysema and coronary artery calcifications (CAC) and their relevance to long-term mortality, results of a smoking-cessation intervention, assessment of the radiations dose associated with screening LDCT, and the results of biomarkers assays. Moreover ITALUNG data indicated that screen-detected LCs are mostly already present at baseline LDCT, can present as Lung Cancer associated with Cystic Airspaces, and can be multiple. However, several issues of LC screening are still unaddressed. They include the annual vs biennial pace of LDCT, choice between opportunistic or population-based recruitment and between uni or multi-center screening, implementation of CAD-assisted reading, containment of false positive and negative LDCT results, incorporation of emphysema and CAC quantification in models of personalized LC and mortality risk, validation of ultra-LDCT acquisitions, optimization of the smoking-cessation intervention and prospective validation of the biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0739.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Blood lymphocytes; CCRT; non-small cell lung cancer
Online: 11 October 2023 (12:52:09 CEST)
In this study, we aimed to identify blood lymphocytes as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with locally advanced stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). We conducted a secondary analysis of 196 patients enrolled in the Korean Radiation Oncology Group 0903 phase III clinical trial to evaluate the prognostic significance of circulating blood lymphocyte levels. The median total lymphocyte count (TLC) reduction ratio during CCRT was 0.74 (range: 0.29 – 0.97). In multivariate analysis, patient age (p = 0.014) and gross tumor volume (GTV, p = 0.031) were significant factors associated with overall survival, while TLC reduction (p = 0.018) and pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; p = 0.010) were associated with progression-free survival (PFS). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pretreatment NLR, GTV, and heart V20 were significantly associated with TLC reduction. TLC reduction during CCRT is a significant prognostic factor for PFS, and heart V20 is significantly associated with TLC reduction. Thus, constraining the volume of the radiation dose to the whole heart must be prioritized to reduce TLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0897.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lung cancer; platinum-based chemotherapy; ERCC5; Genetic polymorphism; prognosis
Online: 13 October 2023 (11:34:21 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer is still the most lethal malignancy in the world from the report of Cancer Statistics in 2021. Platinum-based chemotherapy combined immunotherapy is the first-line treatment in lung cancer patients. However, the 5-year survival rate always affected by the adverse reaction and drug resistance caused by platinum-based chemotherapy. DNA damage and repair system is one of the important mechanisms which can affect the response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome in lung cancer patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to find the relationship between the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes with the prognosis in platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer patients. Patients and Methods: We performed genotyping in 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation group (ERCC) genes and X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing (XRCC) genes of 345 lung cancer patients by Sequenom MassARRAY. We used Cox proportional hazard models, state and plink to analyze the associations between SNPs and the prognosis of lung cancer patients. Results: We found that the ERCC5 rs873601 was associated with the overall survival time in lung cancer patients treat by platinum-based chemotherapy (p=0.031*). We also discovered that the polymorphisms in rs873601 was significantly associated with the prognosis in age more than 55 years, Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) and smoking patients, Long Intergenic Non-protein Coding RNA (PNKY) rs2444933 in age less than 55 years, SCLC, metastasis and stage III/IV/ED patients, Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR1) rs3740051 in SCLC and metastasis patients, PNKY rs1869641 in SCLC patients, XRCC5 rs1051685 in non-metastasis patients, respectively. Conclusion: The ERCC5 rs873601(G>A) maybe a valuable biomarker for predicting the prognosis in lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Statements and Declarations: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0801.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immunotherapy; lung cancer; PET; response to therapy; PD-L1
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:32:06 CEST)
Aim: to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing literature concerning the applications of positron emission tomography (PET)-radiomics in lung cancer patients candidates or undergoing immunotherapy. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted on databases and web sources. English-language original articles were considered. The title and abstract were in-dependently reviewed to evaluate study inclusion. Papers duplicate, out-of-topic, review or edi-torials articles and letters to editors were excluded. For each study, the radiomics analysis was assessed based on the relies on radiomics quality score (RQS 2.0). The review was registered on the PROSPERO database with the number CRD42023402302. Results: 15 papers were included, 13 were qualified as conventional radiomics approaches, and two were as Deep Learning radiomics. The content of each study was different, indeed, 7 papers investigated the potential role of radiomics to predict PD-L1 expression and tumor microenvironment before starting immunotherapy. Moreo-ver, 2 were relative to the prediction of response and 4 investigated the utility of radiomics to predict the response to immunotherapy. Finally, 2 papers were relative to the prediction of adverse events due to the immunotherapy. Conclusions: radiomics is promising in the evaluation of TME and for the prediction of response to immunotherapy, but some limitations should be overpassed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Kalanchoe tubiflora; bufadienolide; CL1-5 human lung cancer cells; autophagy
Online: 16 January 2018 (06:38:11 CET)
Lung cancer is almost the most common cause of cancer death in the world. Clinically, the conventional therapy to eradicate the cancer cells is chemotherapy but a better drug remains required. In this study, the effects of three bufadienolides, kalantuboside B, kalantuboside A and bryotoxin C, isolated from Kalanchoe tubiflora (Harvey) were evaluated and characterized in CL1-5 highly metastatic human lung cancer cells. Contrary to the apoptosis-promoting activity in other cancer cells, these three bufadienolides did not induce apoptosis in CL1-5 cancer cells. Instead, they activated an autophagy pathway, as indicated by the increase of autophagosomes formation. The induction of autophagy by these three bufadienolides was demonstrated to link to down-regulation of p-mTOR as well as up-regulation of LC3-II, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin-1. Moreover, among these three compounds, kalantuboside B in which a monosaccharide is attached at the bufadienolide aglycon, exhibited a better autophagy induction. Our findings revealed an alternative mechanism of drug action by bufadienolides in lung cancer cells and provided evidence for the possibility of treating highly metastatic human lung cancer through an autophagy pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Lung Cancer Prediction; Neural Network; Cross-validation; Gradient Boosting Classifier; Automated tool
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:56:30 CEST)
Lung cancer is known as lung carcinoma. It is a disease which is malignant tumor leading to the uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue. Lung Cancer disease is one of the most prominent cause of death in all over world. Early detection of this disease can assist medical care unit as well as physicians to provide counter measures to the patients. The objective of this paper is to approach an automated tool that takes influential causes of lung cancer as input and detect patients with higher probabilities of being affected by this disease. A neural network classifier accompanied by cross-validation technique is proposed in this paper as a predictive tool. Later, this proposed method is compared with another baseline classifier Gradient Boosting Classifier in order to justify the prediction performance.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: computer aided diagnosis; topological relations; TNM system; non-small Cells; lung cancer
Online: 20 November 2017 (07:57:32 CET)
Computers and artificial intelligence affect every field of life nowadays. In medical image interpretation automatic decision making using algorithms are used increasingly in every sub-field and computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is one of the main tools available to medical science today. CAD systems are used as an augmented option for both the medical practitioner and the patients, with image analysis and interpretation being of primary importance. In particular, spatial relations are used in knowledge representation, and these relations can be used for effective medical image interpretation. In this paper, we put forth an algorithm for defining non-small cells lungs cancer (NSCLC) stages in lungs images interpretation using topological spatial relations. We show an application case study in event motion predictions for lung cancer staging scoring - tumor, nodes and metastasis (TNM) - with combined topological and directional relations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: genetic polymorphism; ACE1 rs4646994; lung cancer; pulmonary nodules
Online: 27 April 2023 (07:47:55 CEST)
Background: Currently, many detection methods have high sensitivity to the diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some postoperative patients with pulmonary nodule were eventually diagnosed as benign nodules. The ideal evaluation of an individual with a pulmonary nodule would expedite therapy for a malignant nodule and minimize testing for those with a benign nodule.Methods: This case-control study is designed to explore the relationship between ACE1 rs4646994 polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules, 400 individuals with lung cancer and benign pulmonary nodules were included. A DNA extraction kit was used to extract plasm DNA from peripheral blood. The relationship between ACE1 rs4646994 and the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules was determined by chi-square test, logistic regression analysis and cross analysis. Results: The results showed that the DD genotype of ACE1 rs4646994 may increase the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules, and this correlation was more significant in the female subgroup. In the age stratification analysis, it was found that the risk of lung cancer was significantly increased in the DD genotype of ACE1 rs4646994 in the older subgroup (> 45 years). In addition, the possibility of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma patients with ACE1 rs4646994 DD genotype was lower than that of II or ID genotype carriers. Conclusions: Our study indicated that ACE1 rs4646994 polymorphism increases the risk of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodules from China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: lung cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitor; perioperative therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; adjuvant therapy
Online: 21 July 2021 (14:58:36 CEST)
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These achievements inspired investigators and pharmaceutical companies to conduct clinical trials in patients with early-stage NSCLC because both adjuvant and neoadju-vant platinum-based doublet chemotherapies (PT-DCs) showed only a 5% improve-ment in the 5-year overall survival. IMpower010, a phase 3 trial (P3), showed that ad-juvant PT-DC followed by maintenance atezolitumab significantly prolonged dis-ease-free survival than adjuvant PT-DC alone (hazard ratio, 0.79; stage II to IIIA). Since conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can promote im-munogenic cell death, which releases tumour antigens from dead tumour cells, ICI combination therapies with conventional therapies are widely proposed. Checkmate 816 trial (P3) indicated a significantly higher pathological complete response rate of neoadjuvant nivolumab/PT-DC combination therapy than neoadjuvant PT-DC alone (odds ratio, 13.9, for stage IB to IIIA). Detection of circulating tumour DNA is highly anticipated for the evaluation of minimal residual disease. Multimodal approaches and new ICI agents are being attempted to improve the efficacy of ICI treatment in phase 2 trials. This review presents the development of perioperative treatment using ICIs in patients with NSCLC while discussing problems and perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Lung neoplasm, early stage, epidermal growth factor receptor
Online: 6 November 2023 (09:26:40 CET)
Definitive surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Research into genetic alterations, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, in early stage NSCLC remains insufficient. Here, we investigated the prevalence of genetic alterations in early-stage NSCLC and the association between EGFR mutation and recurrence after complete resection. Between January 2019 and December 2021, 659 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgical resection at a single regional cancer center were recruited. We compared the clinical and pathological data between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the risk factors for recurrence. Among the 659 enrolled cases, the most common histology was adenocarcinoma (74.5%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (21.7%). The prevalence of EGFR mutation was 43% (194/451). Among them, L858R point mutation and exon 19 deletion was 52.3% and 42%, respectively. ALK rearrangement was found at 5.7% (26/453), and ROS1 fusion was found at 1.6% (7/441). The recurrence rate of the entire population was 19.7%. In multivariate analysis, the presence of EGFR mutation, stage II or III (vs. stage I), and pathologic subtype (presence of solid type) were associated with recurrence. Among the recurred group, 86.5% of the patients with EGFR mutation experienced distant recurrence compared to only 66.7% of wild-type (p = 0.016), with no significant difference in median disease-free survival (p = 0.983). In conclusion, the prevalence of EGFR mutation, ALK rearrangement, and ROS1 fusion was 43.0%, 5.7%, and 1.6%, respectively in patients with early-stage NSCLC who underwent curative resection. Along with stage II/III and solid pathologic subtype, EGFR mutation was an independent risk factor for recurrence. In the recurrence group, the rate of distant metastasis was higher in patients with EGFR mutation than in those with wild-type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; brain metastase; prognostic factors; stereotactic radiosurgery
Online: 5 September 2018 (16:22:01 CEST)
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is considered the initial treatment for lung cancer patients with small-sized and limited number of brain metastases. The objective of this study was to assess clinical outcomes of SRS treatment using CyberKnife (CK) for recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class II/III patients with one to three brain metastases from lung cancer and identify which patients in the high RPA class could benefit from SRS. A total of 48 lung cancer patients who received CK-based SRS for their metastatic brain lesions from 2010 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Radiographic response was evaluated during follow-up period. Overall survival (OS) and intracranial progression-free survival (IPFS) were calculated and prognostic variables associated with OS and IPFS were evaluated. Median follow-up time was 6.6 months. Local control rates at 6 months and 1-year following SRS were 98% and 92%, respectively. The median OS of all patients was 8 months. One-year and 2-year OS rates were 40.8% and 20.9%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, uncontrolled primary disease (p = 0.008) and ECOG performance status of 2 or 3 (p = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for inferior OS. These two factors were also significantly associated with inferior IPFS. In subgroup analysis according to RPA class, primary disease status was the only prognostic factor, showing statistically significant OS differences in both RPA class II and III (controlled vs. uncontrolled: 41.1 vs. 12.3 months in RPA class II, p = 0.031; 26.9 vs. 4.1 months in RPA class III, p = 0.011). Our results indicated that SRS could be an effective treatment option for RPA class II/III patients with brain metastases from lung cancer in the modern treatment era. SRS might be particularly considered for patients with controlled primary disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Herbal Informatics; Ayurveda; Lung Cancer; Ethnopharmacology; Natural Compounds; Alternative Medicine
Online: 7 December 2020 (09:35:10 CET)
The incidence of lung cancer has increased in recent years and causes major mortalities across the globe. Besides, the availability of the several chemotherapeutics modalities in the management, there is still a challenge to find out an efficient remedy with lesser or no toxic effects. Hence, there is a necessity to employ complementary research to establish effective management for lung cancer. In this study, we have implemented a novel herbal informatics model to find out the alternative remedy in the treatment of lung cancer. This model utilizes five major steps of the bioprospection process based on the classical surge followed by the binary index and rationale-based selection of herbal products targeting the cancer-causing factors which are explained in detail in the methodology section of this model. This study revealed 07 herbals such as Withania somnifera (Ws), Berberis vulgaris(Bv), Glycyrrhiza glabra(Gg), Andrographis paniculate(Ap), Azadirachta indica(Ai), Cinnamomum Verum(Cv), Piper longum(Pl) based on the fuzzy set optimization scoring(0.6-1) that could be further studied in vitro and in vivo level for utilization in the management of lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0477.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Exportin-1; Eriodictyol; Juglans mandshurica; Non-small cell lung cancer
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:19:32 CEST)
Exportin-1, the ubiquitous nuclear protein transporter, is widely confirmed as an active chemotherapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer condition while Juglans mandshurica is a well-studied anticancer plant in some lung cancer cell lines. We intend to find novel exportin-1 inhibitor from Juglans mandshurica with better potential tolerability and pharmaco-dynamo-kinetic properties than the current selective inhibitors of nuclear export in non-small cell lung cancer treatment. Osiris property explorer DataWarrior, Glide standard precision docking, quantum mechanics polarized ligand docking, MMGBSA binding free energy calculations, Jaguar density functional theory analysis, and the online web-based SwissADME were employed respectively in this study to filter the retrieved compounds based on tolerability, toxicity, and Lipinsky’s rule of five violation potential, determine their druggability, establish relative stability of the lead compound in water solvation model, and evaluates druglikeness, lead-likeness, as well as synthetic accessibility of the lead compound. This study reveals eriodictyol as having higher binding free energy (-40 kcal/mol) than that of standard (-39.56 kcal/mol) in exportin-1 active site, better synthetic accessibility score (3.15 versus 3.29), high GI absorption, non-blood brain barrier permeant, lacks Brenk and PAINS alert, obeying Lipinski’s, Ghose’s, Veber’s, Egan’s, and Muegge’s rule of druglikeness and lead-likeness as well as non-cytotoxic to HepG2 cells. We therefore found eriodictyol as a lead-like, non-toxic exportin-1 inhibitor with good predictive stability and pharmacokinetic potential and thus provided data for further validation of eriodictyol as a candidate exportin-1 inhibitor in both preclinical and clinical studies involving lung cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: advanced lung cancer; network-meta analysis; combination therapy; chemotherapy
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:11:51 CEST)
Background: At present, the treatments for patients with advanced lung cancer focus on chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of multiple treatments. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to compare the various chemotherapy-based combination therapies and find the best one for patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods: Based on database (PubMed, EMBASE and Medline) for randomized controlled trials of advanced lung cancer with combination therapy from 2008 to 2020, we searched literatures with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse as outcome indicators and established a Bayesian mesh meta-analysis for multiple treatment strategies. Then, we combined the results of four outcome indicators to find out the best chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategy for patients with advanced lung cancer, further, we tried to screen out the best drugs of which were commonly used now. Results: It contained a total of 51 studies, including five combination therapies: Chemotherapy/Chemotherapy plus placebo (CT), chemotherapy plus one targeted therapy drug (CT+T), chemotherapy plus two targeted therapy drugs (CT+T+T), chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy (CT+I) or chemotherapy combined with biotherapy (CT+B). In terms of four outcome indicators, CT+I showed the best therapeutic benefits. In the comparison of immunotherapy drugs, pembrolizumab showed the best effect. Conclusion: Our results showed that, among the multiple chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategies, chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy is the best choice for patients with advanced lung cancer, and pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy has the best effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0439.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: non-ionizing radiation; lung cancer; millimeter waves; cell morphology; 75-110 GHz
Online: 17 April 2020 (12:49:49 CEST)
Efficiently targeted cancer therapy without causing detrimental side effects is necessary for alleviating patient care and improving survival rates. This paper presents observations of morphological changes in H1299 human lung cancer cells following W-band MMW irradiation (75 – 105 GHz) at a non-thermal power density of 0.2 mW/cm2, investigated over 14 days of subsequent physiological incubation following exposure. Microscopic analyses of physical parameters measured indicate MMW irradiation induces significant morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis and senescence. The Immediate short-term responses translate into long-term effects, retained over the duration of the experiment(s); reminiscent of the phenomenon of Accelerated Cellular Senescence (ACS) achieving terminal tumorigenic cell growth. Further, results were observed to be treatment-specific in energy (dose) dependent manner and were achieved without the use of chemotherapeutic agents, ionizing radiation or thermal ablation employed in conventional methods; thereby overcoming associated side effects. Adaptation of the experimental parameters of this study for clinical oncology concomitant with current developmental trends of non-invasive medical endoscopy alleviates MMW therapy as an effective treatment procedure for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5); secondhand smoking; cigarette smoking
Online: 10 January 2020 (04:59:44 CET)
Background: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide with 25% of deaths due to lung cancer occurring in Europe. This study therefore sought to assess the burden of lung cancer by country and to evaluate the magnitude of fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and cigarette smoking by country in Europe. Methods: An ecological study nested on the World Health Organization air pollution database 2016 was conducted. We sampled 30 European Countries, with a total of 1625 mean annual samples of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) collected from 1625 designated sites (n = 1625). We further used the ‘World Health Disease Rankings’ database to extract Lung Cancer Morbidity and Mortality Rate by country. We used SAS version 9.4 to indicate the distribution of PM2.5 and Lung Cancer Mortality Rate. Results: Lung cancer Relative Risk (RR) was 1.0 in all never- smokers. RR for Ex-smokers for Adeno carcinoma was 3.5 in males and 1.1 in females, small cell carcinoma was 16.2 in males and 3.8 in females. RR for current smokers for Adeno carcinoma was 8.0 in males and 4.1 in females, small cell carcinoma was 57.9 in males and 18.2 in females. Mean annual PM2.5 by country ranged from 6.01 to 37.28µg/m3 whereas lung cancer mortality rate by country ranged from 19.67 to 54.26 deaths per 100,000 population. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking and exposure to both second hand smoke and high concentration of PM2.5 resulted into increased burden of lung cancer in Europe. Countries should re-strategize to reduce the burden of lung cancer in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Lewis lung cancer; miRNAs; transcription factors; extracellular matrix; cancer cachexia
Online: 1 September 2019 (08:37:12 CEST)
Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle, leading to a significant weight loss that impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Given the complexity of gene regulatory networks that control gene expression, our objective was to perform an integrative mRNA and miRNA profiling to identify genetic programs that capture essential mechanistic details that promote muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia. Here, we used RNA sequencing to analyze miRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles in tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of the Lewis lung carcinoma model of cancer cachexia. In addition, we compared these findings with RNA-Seq data from C2C12 myotubes treated in vitro with the cachectic factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations were validated by picrosirius staining, western blot, and fractal dimension analyses. We found 1,008 mRNAs and 18 miRNAs differentially expressed in cachectic mice. This set of genes was associated with the ECM, proteolysis, and inflammatory response. Enrichment analysis of transcriptional factor binding sites revealed activation of the atrophy-related transcriptional factors: NF-κB, Stat3, AP-1, and FoxO. Furthermore, the integration of mRNA and miRNA expression profiles identified post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs of genes involved in ECM organization, cell migration, transcription factors binding, ion transport, and FoxO signaling pathway. C2C12 myotubes treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ similarly down-regulate subsets of ECM genes, including collagens. Our integrative analysis of miRNA-mRNA co-profiles comprehensive characterized regulatory relationships of molecular pathways and revealed miRNAs targeting ECM-associated genes in cancer cachexia. We also confirmed in C2C12 myotubes that changes in ECM-associated genes are dependent on inflammatory signaling of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1542.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Metastatic spinal cord compression; Lung cancer; Survivor; Prognostic factors
Online: 24 July 2023 (09:32:54 CEST)
Purpose: Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a severe complication of cancer that can lead to irreversible neurological impairment, necessitating prompt recognition and intervention. This retrospective, single-center study aimed to determine the prognostic factors and survival rates among patients presenting with MSCC secondary to lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 74 patients with epidural metastases-related spinal cord compression and a history of lung cancer, through the electronic database of Medway Maritime Hospital in United Kingdom (UK), spanning the period from April 2016 to September 2021. Among them, 39 were below 55 years old, while 35 were aged 55 years or older, whereas 24 patients were diagnosed with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and 50 patients had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results: The median overall survival (OS) was 5.5 months, with 52 out of 74 patients dying within 6 months of the diagnosis of MSCC. For the entire cohort, the statistically significant variables on multi-variate analysis were: cancer type (NSCLC had improved OS), number of involved vertebrae (one to two vertebrae involvement had improved OS) and time taken to develop motor deficits (≤10 days to develop motor deficits had worsened OS). For the NSCLC cohort, the statistically significant variables on multivariate analysis were: molecular alterations (patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation), pre-treatment ambulatory status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and time taken to develop motor deficits. Conclusions: Within the entire cohort, patients diagnosed with NSCLC and spinal metastases affecting one to two vertebrae exhibited enhanced OS. Within the NSCLC subgroup, those with EGFR mutations, who were ambulatory, and possessed an ECOG performance status of 1-2, demonstrated improved OS. In both the entire cohort and NSCLC subgroup, the development of motor deficits within a period of ≤10 days was associated with poorer OS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0082.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Resveratrol; TRAIL; apoptosis; lung cancer cells; NF-κB; Cytochrome c
Online: 13 August 2018 (06:18:03 CEST)
Aims TRAIL is a promising anticancer agent that has the potential to sensitize a wide variety of cancer or transformed cells by inducing apoptosis. However, resistance to TRAIL is a growing concern. Current manuscript aimed to employing combination treatment to investigate resveratrol induced TRAIL sensitization in NSCLC. Method A549 and HCC-15 cells were used in experimental design. Cell viability was determined by morphological image, crystal violet staining and MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by LDH assay, Annexin V and DAPI staining. Autophagy and apoptosis indicator protein were examined by western blotting. TEM and puncta assay were carried out to evaluate the autophagy. MTP and ROS activity were evaluated by JC-1 and H2DCFDA staining. Findings Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound capable of activation of tumor suppressor p53 and its pro-apoptotic modulator PUMA. Herein, we showed the p53-independent apoptosis by decrease the expression of phosphorylated Akt-mediated suppression of NF-κB that is also substantiated with the downregulation of anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl in NSCLC, resulting in an attenuation of TRAIL resistance in combined treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis was induced in TRAIL-resistant lung cancer cells with a co-treatment of resveratrol and TRAIL assessed by the loss of MMP, ROS generations which resulting the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, autophagy flux was not affected by resveratrol-induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC. Significance Overall, targeting the NF-κB (p65) pathway via resveratrol attenuates TRAIL resistance and induces TRAIL-mediated apoptosis which could be the effective TRAIL-based cancer therapy regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; digital pathology; whole slide imaging; artificial intelligence; deep learning; convolutional neural networks; computer-aided diagnosis
Online: 10 November 2022 (15:06:51 CET)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, and it is urgently necessary to diagnose it as early as possible. Usually, the diagnostic process begins with a radiological examination which, when a possible tumour is present, is followed by a biopsy to extract tissue samples from the patient's lungs. Therefore, the purpose of this study is the development of an artificial intelligence algorithm that will analyse the Whole Slide Image (WSI) generated by the digitisation of the glass slides obtained from the extracted samples and detect if there is a tumour. The developed learning algorithms as well as the tested neural networks (NNs) were trained on a dataset composed of previously annotated WSI tiles, classified as Tumour or Non-Tumour. From these, four developed convolutional neural networks stood out and were selected to be compared with each other and with the tested NNs. When the best result of each of the developed architectures was compared to the highest result of the tested NNs, it was possible to denote that version 4 of CancerDetecNN achieved an average accuracy of 89.749 \% and an average loss of 0.220. Furthermore, the results for the four selected versions are in agreement with the results reported in the literature, however, the limited size of the given dataset must be considered. Given the results obtained, the fourth version has the potential to optimise the lung cancer diagnosis process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0308.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: gold nanoparticles; green chemistry; Piper betle; Lung cancer cell line (A549); nanomedicine
Online: 25 December 2018 (14:05:09 CET)
The present work encompasses an application-oriented perspective to the possible employment of gold nanoparticles as nanomedicine in cancer therapeutics. The rationale of the work lies in the growing needs for assessment of advanced alternative treatment of cancer employing functionalized nanoparticles as nanomedicine. Gold nanoparticles fabricated via green chemistry methods by leaves of a time-honored medicinal plant, Piper betle were ascertained for their synthesis and properties under the umbrella of characterization of nanoparticles, through various techniques like UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity assay of well-characterized gold nanoparticles was monitored against lung cancer cell line (A549) by metabolic and imaging assays. MTT assay or the metabolic assay was performed for a range of nanoparticles’ concentrations. The results were promising and proved to be a leading-edge venture, envisaging the possibility of gold nanoparticles for cancer therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0217.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Chicken-sine Cosine algorithm; Deep Belief Network; Lung nodule detection
Online: 15 June 2022 (09:02:28 CEST)
Malignant growth is the most widely recognized repulsive infections winning around the world, and the patients with disease are saved just when the malignant growth is distinguished at the beginning phase. Each kind of disease is interesting, with its own arrangement of development properties and hereditary changes. This paper presents the lung knob division and disease characterization by proposing an enhancement calculation. The general technique of the created approach includes four stages, such as pre-processing, division, highlight extraction, and the order. From the outset, the CT picture of the lung is taken care of to the division. When the division is done, the highlights are extricated through morphological and measurable and surface highlights like LOOP and LGP. At long last, the extricated highlights are given to the order step. Here, the characterization is done dependent on the Deep Belief Network (DBN) which is prepared by utilizing the proposed Chicken-Sine Cosine Algorithm (CSCA) which distinguish the lung tumor, giving two classes in particular, knob or non-knob. The presentation assessment of lung knob division and malignant growth grouping dependent on CSCA is figured utilizing three measurements to be specific, precision, affectability, and the explicitness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer; locally advanced; COVID; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 15 April 2020 (09:50:21 CEST)
Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic is currently accelerating. Patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) may require treatment in locations where resources are limited and the prevalence of infection is high. Patients with LA-NSCLC frequently present with comorbidities that increase the risk for severe morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. These risks may be further increased by treatments for LA-NSCLC. Observation: We present expert thoracic oncology multidisciplinary (radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology) consensus of alternative strategies for the treatment of LA-NSCLC during a pandemic. The overarching goals of these approaches are to reduce the number of visits to a healthcare facility, reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, and attenuate the immunocompromising effects of lung cancer therapies. Patients with resectable disease can be treated with definitive non-operative management if surgical resources are limited or the risks of perioperative care are high. Non-operative options include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy, and radiation therapy with sequential schedules. The order of treatments may be based on patient factors and clinical resources. Whenever radiation therapy is delivered without concurrent chemotherapy, hypofractionated schedules are appropriate. For patients who are confirmed to have COVID-19, usually cancer therapies may be withheld until symptoms have resolved with negative viral test results. Conclusions and Relevance: The risk of severe treatment-related morbidity and mortality is significantly elevated for patients undergoing treatment for LA-NSCLC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adapting alternative treatment strategies as quickly as possible may save lives and should be implemented through communication with the multidisciplinary cancer team.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: beta adrenoblocker; anticancer; non-small cell lung cancer; clonogenic; apoptosis; necrosis
Online: 25 July 2019 (06:20:58 CEST)
Beta adrenoblockers is a large class of drugs mainly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms. Over the last couples of decades, the anticancer effects of these compounds has been extensively studied. There is much evidence about their activity in non-small cell lung, pancreatic, breast, colorectal, prostate and ovarian cancer. However, the mechanism of beta blockers anticancer activity is still not known, and more detailed studies are needed. The aim of our study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of beta adrenoblockers in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299. In order to find the relationship with their selectivity to beta adrenoreceptors, in our study we used selective (atenolol, betaxolol, esmolol, metoprolol) and non-selective (pindolol, propranolol and timolol) beta blockers. The effect on cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay and the activity on cell ability to form colonies was tested by clonogenic assay. The type of cell death was evaluated by cell double staining with Hoechst 33342 and Propidium iodide. The most active adrenoblockers against both tested cancer cell lines were propranolol and betaxolol. They completely inhibited lung cancer cell colony formation at 90% of EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) value. Most tested compounds induced cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. In A549 cell lines apoptosis was mainly induced while in H1299 cell line compounds induced both apoptosis and necrosis. There was no correlation established between beta adrenoblocker anticancer activity and their selectivity to beta adrenoreceptors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0522.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: lung cancer; NSCLC; lipidomic analysis; saliva; plasma; feces; LC-ESI-MS/MS
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:49:40 CEST)
A comprehensive lipid profile was analyzed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using nanoflow ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The study investigated 297, 202, and 166 lipids in saliva, plasma, and fecal samples, respectively, comparing NSCLC patients to healthy controls. Lipids with significant changes (>2-fold, p<0.05) were further analyzed in each sample type. Both saliva and plasma exhibited similar lipid alteration patterns in NSCLC, but saliva showed more pronounced changes and fecal lipids had weak correlation with those of saliva and plasma. Total triglycerides (TGs) increased (>2–3 folds) in plasma and saliva but decreased in fecal samples. Three specific TGs (50:2, 52:5, and 54:6) were significantly increased in NSCLC across all sample types. A common ceramide species (d18:1/24:0) decreased in both plasma and saliva but increased in fecal samples. Additionally, phosphatidylinositol 38:4 decreased by approximately 2-fold in plasma and saliva. Phosphatidylserine 36:1 was selectively detected in saliva and showed a subsequent decrease, making it a potential biomarker for predicting lung cancer. The study identifies 27 salivary, 10 plasma, and 16 fecal lipids as candidate markers for NSCLC by statistical evaluations. Moreover, it highlights the potential of saliva in understanding changes in lipid metabolism associated with NSCLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: connexins; Cx43; gap junctions; lung cancer; immunohistochemistry; prognosis; nuclear
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:30:49 CET)
Direct intercellular communication, mediated by gap junctions formed by the connexin transmembrane protein family, is frequently dysregulated in cancer. Connexins have been described as tumour suppressors, but emerging evidence suggests that they can also act as tumour promoters. This feature is connexin- and tissue-specific and may be mediated by complex signalling pathways through gap junctions or hemichannels or by completely junction-independent events. Lung cancer is the number one cancer in terms of mortality worldwide, and novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Our objective was to gain a better understanding of connexins in this setting. We used several in silico tools to analyse TCGA data in order to compare connexin mRNA expression between healthy lung tissue and lung tumours and correlated these results with gene methylation patterns. Using Kaplan-Meier plotter tools, we analysed a microarray dataset and an RNA-seq dataset of non-small cell lung tumours in order to correlate connexin expression with patient prognosis. We found that connexin mRNA expression is frequently either upregulated or downregulated in lung tumours. This correlated with both good and poor prognosis (overall survival) in a clear connexin isoform-dependent manner. These associations were strongly influenced by the histological subtype (adenocarcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma). We present an overview of all connexins but particularly focus on four isoforms implicated in lung cancer: Cx26, Cx30.3, Cx32 and Cx43. We further analysed the protein expression and localization of Cx43 in a series of 72 human lung tumours. We identified a subset of tumours that exhibited a unique strong nuclear Cx43 expression pattern that predicted worse overall survival (p=0.014). Upon sub-stratification, the prognostic value remained highly significant in the adenocarcinoma subtype (p=0.002) but not in the squamous carcinoma subtype (p=0.578). This finding highlights the importance of analysis of connexin expression at the protein level, particularly the subcellular localization. Elucidation of the underlying pathways regulating Cx43 localization may provide for novel therapeutic opportunities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0406.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biosensors; ultra-short circulating tumor DNA; Lung Cancer; Liquid biopsy; EGFR
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:44:49 CEST)
Liquid biopsy is a rapidly emerging field which involves the minimal/non-invasive assessment of signature somatic mutations through analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) shed by tumor cells in bodily fluids. The broad, unmet need for liquid biopsy lung cancer detection is the lack of multiplex platform that can detect a mutation panel of lung cancer genes using minimum amount of sample, especially for ultra-short ctDNA (usctDNA). Here we developed a non-PCR and non-NGS-based single droplet based multiplexing microsensor technology “Electric Field-Induced Released and Measurement (EFIRM) Liquid Biopsy” (m-eLB) for lung can-cer-associated usctDNA. The m-eLB provides multiplexable assessment of usctDNA within a single droplet of biofluid in only one well of micro-electrodes, as each electrode coated with dif-ferent probes for the ctDNA. In this m-eLB prototype, it demonstrates accuracy for 3 tyrosine ki-nase inhibitor related EGFR target sequences in synthetic nucleotides. The accuracy for the multi-plexing assay has an AUC of 0.98 for L858R, Ex19del, AUC of 0.94 for Ex19 deletion and AUC of 0.93 for T790M. By combining the 3 EGFR assay together, the AUC was 0.97 for the multiplexing assay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer; Targeted Gene Therapy; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Machine Learning
Online: 4 July 2023 (07:57:03 CEST)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) making up 80% of cases. Some genetic factors leading to NSCLC development include genetic mutations and PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 proteins are targeted in an NSCLC treatment called targeted gene therapy. However, this treatment is effective in a low percentage of patients. This study aimed to create machine learning models to use features like the number of mutations and the level of PD-L1 proteins in cancer cells, along with others, to predict whether a patient will receive clinical benefit from gene therapy treatment. This was done by downloading and merging datasets from cbioportal.org to create a sample size for the model. Features with high correlations to clinical benefit were identified. Three machine-learning models were created using these features to predict clinical benefits in patients, and each model’s accuracy was evaluated. All three models were accurate between 55-85%, with two of the models averaging an accuracy around 75%. Doctors can use these models to more accurately predict whether gene therapy treatment is likely to work in a patient before prescribing it to them.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1721.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Monoamine Oxidase; Lung Cancer; Therapeutic Index; Computer Aided Design; Clinical Evidence
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:14:43 CET)
Lung cancer, globally recognized as the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, presents a pressing need for innovative treatment strategies. Increasing evidence points towards the potential of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors in modulating cancer progression, primarily due to their role in regulating cellular metabolism and apoptotic pathways. This extraordinary study delves into the multifaceted therapeutic implications of MAO inhibitors in lung cancer management, elucidating their ability to pave the way for clinical advancement via novel targets and pathways. Capitalizing on recent advances in molecular biology, this research explores the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer actions of MAO inhibitors. By examining their impact on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines, we provide insight into the intricate signaling pathways and biochemical processes modulated by these compounds. The study also investigates the synergistic effects of MAO inhibitors in combination with established chemotherapeutic agents, elucidating their potential to enhance treatment efficacy and reduce cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we delve into the implications of MAO inhibitors on the tumor microenvironment, evaluating their influence on angiogenesis, immune regulation, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This comprehensive analysis enables the identification of novel molecular targets, which hold promise for the development of advanced therapeutics tailored for specific lung cancer subtypes. To substantiate our findings, in this review, we thoroughly analyze the existing literature using state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools." in vivo orthotopic lung cancer models, and clinical patient cohorts. This robust and multidisciplinary approach permits the generation of clinical evidence supporting the integration of MAO inhibitors in lung cancer management. Conclusion: This ground-breaking study establishes the therapeutic potential of monoamine oxidase inhibitors in lung cancer management by unearthing novel pathways and targets for clinical advancement. The outcomes open doors for the development of innovative treatment strategies and inspire continued research efforts to combat the global burden of lung cancer.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0492.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Adenocarcinoma of lung; Ductal carcinoma; Breast Neoplasms; ErbB receptors; Germ cells
Online: 29 September 2021 (11:41:12 CEST)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon-19 deletion is one of the most common mutations detected in lung cancer patients. Although exon-19 deletion is frequently detected in adenocarcinoma, observing this mutation in germline cells is very rare. Besides, the co-occurrence of homozygous and heterozygous mutations in dual primary cancers in a person is very uncommon. This article presents a 53-year-old Iranian woman with no history of smoking who was diagnose with two primary cancers; invasive ductal carcinoma, and primary pulmonary lung adenocarcinoma. The case reported a history of breast cancer in her sister and a history of lung cancer in her father. To select the best choice of treatment the EGFR gene was analyzed with Sanger’s sequencing method from DNA extracted from the patient’s lung tissue sample. Observing two primary cancers in this patient and considering her family pedigree, germline cells were also analyzed using samples recruited from the patient’s peripheral blood to investigate any EGFR mutations in her germline cells. The obtained data revealed that the lung tissue of the patient carried a homozygous form of EGFR exon-19 deletion while her peripheral blood contained a heterozygous form of this mutation, which is exceptionally rare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: experimental lung cancer; immunomodulators; oxidative stress; autophagy; tumor growth; sirtuin-1
Online: 10 June 2019 (16:12:57 CEST)
Background: Lung cancer (LC) is a major leading cause of death worldwide. Immunomodulators that target several immune mechanisms have proven to reduce tumor burden in experimental models through induction of the immune microenvironment. We hypothesized that other biological mechanisms may also favor tumor burden reduction in lung cancer-bearing mice treated with immunomodulators. Methods: Tumor weight, area, and immune cells (T, B, macrophages, and TNF-alpha levels, immunohistochemistry) and tumor growth, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and sirtuin-1 markers were analyzed (immunoblotting) in subcutaneous tumor of BALB/c mice injected with LP07 adenocarcinoma cells treated with monoclonal antibodies (CD-137, CTLA-4, PD-1, and CD-19, N=9/group) and non-treated control animals. Results: Compared to non-treated cancer mice, in tumors of monoclonal-treated animals, tumor area and weight and ki-67 significantly reduced, while T cell counts, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and sirtuin-1 marker increased. Conclusion: Immunomodulators elicited a reduction in tumor burden (reduced tumor size and weight) through decreased tumor proliferation and increased oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and sirtuin-1 levels, which may have interfered with the immune profile of the tumor microenvironment. Future research should be devoted to the elucidation of the specific contribution of each biological mechanism to the reduced tumor burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: exploratory regression analysis; built environment; influencing factors; incidence rate for female lung cancer
Online: 20 May 2020 (09:06:39 CEST)
Objective: Application of ERA methods to investigate the atmospheric pollution and built environment factors influencing lung cancer incidence rate in Chinese women. Methods: Lung cancer incidence rate among Chinese women at 339 cancer registries were obtained from the China Cancer Registry Annual Report 2017, air quality and built environment data were obtained from the Greenpeace and China Construction Yearbook. After multiple covariates variables were eliminated, an exploratory regression analysis was performed using the world standardized population incidence rate as the dependent variable. Air quality and built environment factors as the independent variable. Results: Shandong Peninsula, Hebei and Liaoning are high incidence rate areas of female lung cancer in China, with significant regional aggregation. In addition to air quality factors such as industrial smoke emission data, the association between built environmental factors such as urbanization rate, development LUI, population density and greening coverage of built-up areas and female lung cancer incidence rate is statistically significant. Conclusion: In addition to air quality factors, urban spatial factors can also significantly affect respiratory health. The LUI is positively while urbanization rates and population density are negatively correlated with the incidence rate of lung cancer. The role of green space for respiratory health has not been proven. In addition, there is little relationship between income and health, and similar findings are found for indicators such as the public transportation and roads network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Medicago orbicularis; Lung cancer; Herbal medicine; Antioxidants; hemolytic; cisplatin; A549 cells
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:23:46 CEST)
Cancer is second leading cause of death, worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Plant-based therapeutics and herbal medicine have played a vital role in the development of several anti-cancerous agents, and has been used to reduce the severe side effects of chemotherapy as well. Since the anti-lung cancer properties of the plant Medicago. orbicularis are not explored yet, we identified its phytochemical composition and investigated the anti-oxidant, anti-hemolytic, and anti-cancerous properties of extracts of this plant in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Results show that all parts of M. orbicularis (stems, leaves, and fruits) exhibit remarkable anti-oxidant and hemolytic activities. In addition, all extracts showed a dose-dependent anti-cancerous cytotoxic activity against A549 cells; with fruit extracts being the most potent. This cytotoxic effect could be related, at least partly, to the induction of apoptosis, where M. orbicularis fruit extracts activated Caspase-3 and PARPP-1, and reduced the ratio of anti-apoptotic BCL-2/ pro-apoptotic BAX, thereby promoting cellular death. Furthermore, the use of M. orbicularis, in combination with a conventional chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin, was assessed. Indeed, combination of cisplatin and M. orbicularis fruit extracts was more cytotoxic and induced more aggregation of A549 cells than either treatment alone. GC-MS analysis and total polyphenol and flavonoid content determination indicated that M. orbicularis is rich in compounds that have anti-cancerous effects. M. orbicularis may be a potential source of anti-cancerous agents to manage progression of lung cancer and its resistance to therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1694.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis; Lung Neoplasms; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; Database
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:01:14 CEST)
Little is known about the effect of statin use in lung cancer development in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We analyzed the database of the National Health Insurance Service to further investigate the clinical impacts of statin on lung cancer development and overall survival (OS) in IPF patients. The analysis included 9,182 individuals diagnosed with IPF, of which 3,372 (36.7%) were statin users. Compared to statin non-users, the time from diagnosis of IPF to lung cancer development and OS were longer in statin users in IPF patients. In Cox proportional hazard regression models, higher statin compliance, statin use, and being female had an inverse association with lung cancer risk, while older age at diagnosis of IPF and smoking history were associated with higher risk of lung cancer in IPF patients. For OS, statin use, female sex, higher exercise frequency, and diabetes were associated with longer survival. In contrast, older age at diagnosis of IPF and smoking history were associated with shorter OS in IPF patients. These data from a large population indicate that statin had an independent protective association with lung cancer development and mortality in IPF patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0051.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: lung cancer; molecular signature; molecular pathway; differentially expressed genes; protein-protein interaction; reporter biomolecules and bioinformatics
Online: 3 July 2019 (08:54:37 CEST)
Lung cancer is one of the most important health risks worldwide for human. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of premature death from malignant disease. This study provides in-depth insights from systems biology analyses to identify molecular to inform systemic drug targeting in NSCLC. Gene expression profiles from non small cell lung cancer were analyzed with genome-scale biomolecular networks (I,e., protein-protein interaction, transcriptional and post transcriptional regulatory networks). The aim of the study was to determine the pathways and expression profile of the genes to discover molecular signature at RNA and protein levels which could serve as potential drug targets for therapeutics innovation and the identification of novel targets. Eight proteins, six TFs and seven miRNAs came into prominence as potential drug targets. The differential expression profiles of these reporter biomolecules were cross-validated by independent RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq. Risk discrimination performance of the reporter biomolecules NPR3, JUN, PPARG, TP53, CKMT1A, SP3 and TFAP2A were also evaluated. Total 213 drugs and 7 proteins were found for non small cell lung cancer through dgidb. Among these identified drugs seven drugs such as- Gemcitabine, Carboplatin, paclitaxel, Docetaxel, Crizotinib, Bevacizumab and Gemcitabine is used for NSCLC which is approved by National Cancer Institute. The molecular signatures and repurposed drugs presented here permit further attention for experimental studies which are offer significant potential as biomarkers and candidate therapeutics for precision medicine approaches to clinical management of NSCLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0491.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: epidemiology, causality, association, smoking, lung cancer, vitamin D, sun exposure, multiple sclerosis
Online: 29 June 2018 (15:42:02 CEST)
If environmental exposures are shown to cause an adverse health outcome, reducing exposure should reduce the disease risk. Links between exposures and outcomes are typically based on ‘associations’ derived from observational studies, and causality may not be clear. Randomised controlled trials to ‘prove’ causality are often not feasible or ethical. Here the history of evidence that tobacco smoking causes lung cancer – in observational studies – is compared to that of low sun exposure and/or low vitamin D status as causal risk factors for the autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis. Evidence derives from in vitro and animal studies, as well as ecological, case-control and cohort studies, in order of increasing strength. For smoking and lung cancer, the associations are strong, consistent, and biologically plausible – the evidence is coherent or ‘in harmony’. For low sun exposure/vitamin D as risk factors for MS, the evidence is weaker, with smaller effect sizes, but coherent across a range of sources of evidence, and biologically plausible. The association is less direct – smoking is directly toxic and carcinogenic to the lung, but sun exposure/vitamin D modulate the immune system, which in turn may reduce the risk of immune attack on self-proteins in the central nervous system. Opinion about whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that low sun exposure/vitamin D increase the risk of multiple sclerosis, is divided. General public health advice to receive sufficient sun exposure to avoid vitamin D deficiency (<50nmol/L) should also ensure any benefits for multiple sclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Breast; Targeted Radiotherapy; Lung injury; Heart injuries; Health-Related Quality Of Life; Irradiation toxicity.
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:17:52 CET)
TomoBreast hypothesized that hypofractionated 15 fractions/3 weeks image-guided radiation therapy (H-IGRT) can reduce lung-heart toxicity, as compared with normofractionated 25-33 fractions/5-7 weeks conventional radiation therapy (CRT). 123 women with stage I-II operated breast cancer were randomized to receive CRT (N=64) or H-IGRT (N=59). The primary endpoint used a four-items measure of the time to 10% alteration in any of patient self-reported measure, physician clinical evaluation, echocardiography or lung function tests, analyzed by intention-to-treat without exclusion. Results found comparable survivals, but H-IGRT significantly reduced the toxicity measured by lung diffusion capacity and alveolar volume as compared with CRT, G1 in 53% (31/59) versus 72% (44/61) patients, P=0.006; G2, 29% versus 48%, P=0.020. H-IGRT significantly reduced the risk of composite cardio-pulmonary alteration at 5 years, 10.2% versus 26.7%, P=0.024. In conclusion, TomoBreast is a proof-of-concept that image-guided radiation-therapy can improve the overall balance of lung-heart outcomes in breast cancer adjuvant therapy. Furthermore, the significance of the findings supports the efficacy of a small trial size design, which can be critical when clinical research resources are limited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cancer; mortality; electromagnetic fields; breast neoplasms; lung neoplasms; esophageal neoplasms; uterine cervical neoplasms
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:47:54 CET)
Background. This study aims to estimate the rate of death by cancer, according to Radio Base Stations (RBS) radiofrequency exposure, especially for the types of breast, cervix, lung and esophagus cancer. Methods. We collected information about the number of deaths by cancer, gender, age group, Gross Domestic Product per capita, death year and the amount of exposure over the lifetime. We investigated all cancer types and some specific types (breast, cervix, lung and esophagus cancers). Results. In capitals where RBS radiofrequency exposure was higher than 2,000/antennas-year, the average mortality rate was 112/100,000 for all cancers. The adjusted analysis showed that the higher the exposure to RBS radiofrequency, the higher cancer mortality. The highest adjusted risk was observed for cervix cancer (Rate Ratio = 2.18). The spatial analysis showed that the highest RBS radiofrequency exposure was observed in a city in southern Brazil, which also showed the highest mortality rate for all types of cancer and specifically for lung and breast cancer. Conclusion. The balance of our results indicates that the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from RBS increases the rate of death by all types of cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitor; Bayesian meta-analysis; Review
Online: 30 December 2021 (12:13:58 CET)
We performed Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) to suggest frontline treatments for patients with high PD-L1 expression (at least 50%). A total of 5,237 patients from 22 studies were included in this NMA. In terms of progression-free survival, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) plus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy had the highest surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) value (98.1%), followed by ICI plus chemotherapy (82.9%). In terms of overall survival (OS), dual immunotherapy plus chemotherapy had the highest SUCRA value (79.1%), followed by ICI plus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (73.4%). However, there was no significant difference of survival outcomes among treatment regimens combined with immunotherapy. Moreover, ICI plus chemotherapy failed to reveal a significant OS superiority to ICI monotherapy (hazard ratio = 0.978, 95% credible internal: 0.771-1.259). In conclusion, this NMA indicates that ICI plus chemotherapy with/without bevacizumab might to be the best options in terms of OS for NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression. Considering there was no significant difference of survival outcomes among treatment regimens incorporating immunotherapy and ICI plus chemotherapy failed to show significant survival benefits over ICI monotherapy, however, ICI monotherapy may be reasonable as first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression and no targetable aberrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; apoptosis; SIRT6; Hedgehog signaling; non-small cell lung cancer cells
Online: 24 October 2017 (05:43:16 CEST)
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to exert anticancer effects by inducing apoptotic cell death. However, the mechanism for DHA-induced cell death in lung cancer is not fully understood. Here, we show that DHA induces apoptosis in two human EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, and that DHA-induced cell death is accompanied by SIRT6 activation and attenuated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Knockdown of SIRT6 using siRNAs inhibited DHA-induced apoptosis, whereas SIRT6 overexpression increased apoptotic cell death. DHA-induced SIRT6 activation was associated with downregulation of Hh signaling, and knockdown of SIRT6 resulted in augmentation of Hh signaling. Pretreatment of NSCLC cells with a Smoothened agonist prevented DHA-induced decreases in the levels of Hh signaling proteins and increases in cleaved PARP levels. Moreover, endogenous production of ω3-PUFAs in PC9 cells via fat-1 expression resulted in elevated SIRT6 levels and reduced levels of Hh signaling molecules, including Gli, following DHA treatment. Overall, these results implicate that ω3-PUFAs induce apoptosis by downregulating Hh signaling via SIRT6 activation in human EGFR mutant NSCLC cells. These findings suggest that ω3-PUFAs potentially represent an effective therapy for the chemoprevention and treatment of NSCLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer; prognosis; Naples Prognostic Score; thoracic surgery; survival; prognostic score.
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:45:17 CET)
Different prognostic scores have been applied to identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer who have a higher probability of poor outcome. In this study we evaluated whether Naples Prognostic Score, a novel index which considers both inflammatory and nutritional values, was associated with long-term survival. The study is a retrospective propensity score matching analysis of patients who underwent curative surgery for non-small cell lung cancer from January 2016 to December 2021. The score considered four pre-operative parameters: neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte to monocyte ratio, serum albumin and total cholesterol. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relation between the score and disease-free survival, overall survival and cancer-related survival. A total of 260 patients were selected for the study, reduced to 154 after propensity score matching. Post-propensity Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant correlation between Naples Prognostic Score and overall survival (p=0.018) and cancer-related survival (p=0.007). Multivariate Cox regression analysis further validated the score as an independent prognostic indicator for both these survivals (p=0.007 and p=0.010 respectively). Naples Prognostic Score proved to be an easily achievable prognostic factor of long-term survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer after surgical treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma; CT; PET-CT; lung cancer
Online: 18 July 2023 (05:10:16 CEST)
Summarizing radiological characteristics between primary lung adenocarcinoma subtypes and correlate them with FDG uptake on PET-CT are important for further treatment. A PET-CT examination was performed on some of the patients and the values of SUV-max were also correlated with the histological and morphological characteristics of masses in the lungs. Results of this analysis showed that the mean size of AIS-MIA cancer was significantly lower than for all other cancer types, while mean size of the acinar cancer was smaller than in solid type of cancer. Metastases were significantly more frequent in solid adenocarcinoma than in acinar, lepidic and AIS-MIA cancer subtypes. The maximum standardized FDG uptake was significantly lower in AIS-MIA than in all other cancer types, and in acinar compared to solid cancer. Papillary adenocarcinoma had higher odds to develop contralateral lymph node involvement compared to other types. Solid adenocarcinoma was associated with higher odds of having metastases and with higher SUVmax. AIS-MIA was associated with lower odds of one unit increase in tumour size, ipsilateral lymph node involvement. Radiology has a significant role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease, and in determining its prognosis, and influence on the decision on the method of treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: chorioamnionitis; fetal lung; vascularization; alveolarization; lung inflammation
Online: 8 November 2022 (02:33:57 CET)
There is disagreement on the associations between chorioamnionitis and pneumonia/sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and bronchopulmonary (BPD)dysplasia, three pulmonary outcomes of concern for preterm newborns. Determining clear correlations is challenging due to the intricacy of the prenatal, postnatal, and therapeutic practices that affect the diagnosis of RDS, pneumonia/sepsis, and BPD, two long-term outcomes, as well as their short- and long-term consequences. Owing to the interconnected nature of the variables, the vaguely defined fetal exposures, and the imprecise identification of disorders like RDS and BPD, multivariant studies of huge data sets are unreliable methods for defining associations. On the other hand, research using animal models offers reliable data regarding the effects of exploratory chorioamnionitis on the fetal lung. Understanding the clinical intricacy and the experimental consequences of chorioamnionitis together will help us understand on the impact on the fetal lung .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0519.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Lung cancer classification; dimensionality reduction; feature selection techniques; STFT; Particle Swarm Optimization; Harmonic Search; Non-Linear Regression; Mixture Model; Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Lung Cancer; Microarray gene expression dataset
Online: 7 July 2023 (16:30:59 CEST)
Microarray gene expression-based detection and classification of medical conditions have been prominent in research studies over the past few decades. However, extracting relevant data from the high-volume microarray gene expression with inherent nonlinearity and inseparable noise components raises significant challenges during data classification and disease detection. So, this paper proposes a two-level strategy involving feature extraction and selection methods before the classification step. The feature extraction step utilizes Short Term Fourier Transform (STFT), and the feature selection step employs Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Harmonic Search (HS) metaheuristic methods. The classifiers employed are Non-Linear Regression, Gaussian Mixture Model, Softmax Discriminant, Naive Bayes, SVM (Linear), SVM (Polynomial), and SVM (RBF). The two-level extracted relevant features are compared with raw data classification results, including Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) Methodology. Among the methods, STFT with PSO feature selection and SVM (RBF) classifier produced the highest accuracy of 94.47%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs); Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); PD-1 , PD-L1; CTLA-4
Online: 19 July 2023 (02:48:47 CEST)
The advent of immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), improving the prognosis of this disease and becoming a key part of the treatment, especially in the population without an oncogenic driver mutation. Two different groups of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are used in lung cancer: Anti- Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (Anti-CTLA 4) and Anti- T-cell receptor programmed cell death-1 or its ligand (Anti-PD-1 and Anti PD-L1). Here in, we review an uptodate on the use of immunotherapy for advanced NSCLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0766.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mathematical modeling; non-small cell lung cancer; tumor microenvironment; patient-derived tumor organoids
Online: 12 October 2023 (05:05:42 CEST)
Mathematical models of non-small cell lung cancer are powerful tools that use clinical and experimental data to describe various aspects of tumorigenesis. The developed algorithms capture phenotypic changes in the tumor and predict changes in tumor behavior, drug resistance, and clinical outcomes of anti-cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to propose a mathematical model that predicts the changes in the cellular composition of patient-derived tumor organoids over time with a perspective of translation of these results to the parental tumor, and therefore to possible clinical course and outcomes for the patient. Using the data on specific biomarkers of cancer cells (PD-L1), tumor-associated macrophages (CD206), natural killer cells (CD8), and fibroblasts (αSMA) as input, we proposed a model that accurately predicts the cellular composition of patient-derived tumor organoids at a desired time point. Combining the obtained results with “omics” approaches will improve our understanding of the nature of NSCLC. Moreover, their implementation into clinical practice will facilitate a decision-making process on treatment strategy and develop a new personalized approach in anti-cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1496.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: OGG1; NFκB; gene regulation; microenvironment; EMT; innate immunity; cancer stem cells; lung cancer; acute myeloid leukemia; oxidant stress
Online: 23 November 2023 (10:47:24 CET)
8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), which was initially identified as the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the DNA base excision repair pathway, is now known also as a modulator of gene expression. What is important for cancer, is that OGG1 acts as a modulator of NFκB-driven gene expression. Specifically, oxidant stress in the cell transiently halts the enzymatic activity of substrate-bound OGG1. The stalled OGG1 facilitates DNA binding of transactivators, including NFκB, to their cognate sites to enable expression of cytokines and chemokines, with ensuing recruitment of inflammatory cells. Recently, we highlighted chief aspects of OGG1 involvement in regulation of gene expression, which have a significance in lung cancer development. However, OGG1 has also been implicated in the molecular underpinning of acute myeloid leukemia. In general, the capacity of cancer cells to adapt to oxidative stress depends on molecular systems such as the interface of OGG1 with NFκB, which bestows a cancer cell with the molecular mechanism of transformation of its microenvironment to enable adaptation and survival of malignant clones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0524.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hsp70; sandwich ELISA; liquid biopsy; tumor biomarker; exosomes; prediction; response monitoring; non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); glioblastoma
Online: 21 May 2021 (15:06:37 CEST)
In contrast to normal cells, tumor cells of multiple entities overexpress the Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) not only in the cytosol, but also present it on their plasma membrane in a tumor-specific manner. Furthermore, membrane-Hsp70 positive tumor cells actively release Hsp70 into lipid microvesicles termed exosomes into the blood. Due to conformational changes of Hsp70 in the lipid environment, most commercially available antibodies fail to detect membrane-bound and exosomal Hsp70. To fill this gap and to assess the role of exosomal Hsp70 in the circulation as a potential tumor biomarker, we established the novel complete Hsp70 (compHsp70) sandwich ELISA using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are able to recognize both, free and lipid-associated Hsp70 on the cell surface of viable tumor cells and exosomes. The epitopes of the mAbs cmHsp70.1 (aa 451-461) and cmHsp70.2 (aa 614-623) that are conserved among different species reside in the substrate-binding domain of Hsp70, with measured affinities of 0.42 nM and 0.44 nM, respectively. Validation of the compHsp70 ELISA revealed a high intra- and inter-assay precision, linearity in a concentration range of 1.56 to 25 ng/ml, high recovery rates of ‘spiked’ liposomal Hsp70 (>84%), comparable values between human serum and plasma samples, and no interference by food intake or age of the donors. Hsp70 concentrations in the circulation of patients with glioblastoma, squamous cell or adeno non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) at diagnosis were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers. Hsp70 concentrations dropped concomitantly with the decrease in viable tumor mass on irradiation of patients with approximately 20 Gy (range 18 – 22.5 Gy) or after completion of radiotherapy (60 - 70 Gy). In summary, the compHsp70 ELISA presented herein provides a highly sensitive and reliable tool for measuring free and exosomal Hsp70 in liquid biopsies of tumor patients, levels of which can be used as a predictive tumor-specific biomarker, risk assessment and for monitoring therapeutic outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: radiomics; radiotherapy; artificial intelligence (AI; prognosis prediction; clinical factors; machine learning; non-small cell lung cancer
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:32:52 CEST)
In this study, we propose a radiomics-clinical probability weighted model for the prediction of prognosis for NSCLC. The model combines radiomics features extracted from RT planning images with clinical factors such as age, gender, histology, and tumor stage. CT images with radiotherapy structures of 422 NSCLC patients were retrieved from The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). Radiomic features were extracted from gross tumor volume (GTV). Five machine learning algorithms, namely decision trees (DT), random forests (RF), extreme boost (EB), support vector machine (SVM) and generalized linear model (GLM), were optimized by a voted ensemble machine learning (VEML) model. A probabilistic weighted approach is used to incorporate the uncertainty associated with both radiomic and clinical features and to generate a probabilistic risk score for each patient. The performance of the model is evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Radiomic model, clinical factors model and combined radiomic-clinical probability weighted model demonstrated good performance in predicting NSCLC survival with AUC of 0.941, 0.856 and 0.949 respectively. The combined radiomics-clinical probability weighted enhanced model achieved significantly better performance than radiomic model in 1-year survival prediction (chi-square test, p<0.05). The proposed model has the potential to improve NSCLC prognosis and facilitate personalized treatment decisions.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer; EGFR-TKI; intrinsic resistance; resistance mechanisms
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:08:42 CEST)
Activating mutations in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor gene occur as early cancer-driving clonal events in a subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and result in increased sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Despite very frequent and often prolonged clinical response to EGFR-TKIs, virtually all advanced EGFR-mutated (EGFRM+) NSCLCs inevitably acquire resistance mechanisms and progress at some point during treatment. Additionally, 20-30% of patients do not respond or respond for a very short time (< 3 months) because of intrinsic resistance. While several mechanisms of acquired EGFR-TKI-resistance have been determined analyzing tumor specimens obtained at disease progression, the factors causing intrinsic TKI-resistance are less understood. However, recent comprehensive molecular-pathological profiling of advanced EGFRM+ NSCLC at baseline has illustrated the co-existence of multiple genetic, phenotypic, and functional mechanisms that may contribute to tumor progression and cause intrinsic TKI-resistance. Several of these mechanisms have been further corroborated by preclinical experiments. Intrinsic resistance can be caused by mechanisms inherent EGFR or by EGFR-independent processes, including genetic, phenotypic or functional tumor changes. This comprehensive review describes the identified mechanisms connected with intrinsic EGFR-TKI-resistance and differences and similarities with acquired resistance and among clinically implemented EGFR-TKIs of different generations. Additionally, the review highlights the need for extensive pre-treatment molecular profiling of advanced NSCLC for identifying inherently TKI-resistant cases and designing potential combinatorial targeted strategies to treat them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0828.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: osteopontin; OPN; SPP1; CD44; lung cancer; polymorphism; cancer progression; metastasis; prognosis; radiotherapy; curative treatment
Online: 13 November 2023 (13:06:01 CET)
Osteopontin (OPN)-CD44 signaling plays an important role in promoting tumor progression and metastasis. In cancer, OPN and CD44 overexpression is a marker of aggressive disease and poor prognosis, and correlates with therapy resistance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OPN and CD44 genes with clinical outcomes in 307 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. The potential impact of the variants on plasma OPN levels was also inves-tigated. Multivariate analysis showed that OPN rs11730582 CC carriers had a significantly in-creased risk of death (p = 0.029), while the CD44 rs187116 A allele correlated with reduced risk of locoregional recurrence (p = 0.016) in the curative treatment subset. The rs11730582/rs187116 combination was associated with an elevated risk of metastasis in these patients (p = 0.016). Fur-thermore, the OPN rs1126772 G variant alone (p = 0.018) and in combination with rs11730582 CC (p = 7x10-5) was associated with poor OS in the squamous cell carcinoma subgroup. The rs11730582 CC, rs187116 GG and rs1126772 G, as well as their respective combinations, were in-dependent risk factors for unfavorable treatment outcomes. The impact of rs11730582-rs1126772 haplotypes on OS was also observed. These data suggest that OPN and CD44 germline variants may predict treatment effects in NSCLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: signal transduction; γ-ionizing radiation; cancer invasion; non-small cell lung cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; tumor microenvironment
Online: 22 January 2020 (03:04:00 CET)
Previously, we demonstrated that IR triggers the invasion/migration of A549 cells via activation of an EGFR–p38/ERK–STAT3/CREB-1–EMT pathway. Here, we have demonstrated the involvement of a novel intracellular signaling mechanism in γ-ionizing radiation (IR)-induced migration/invasion. Expression of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 was initially increased upon exposure of A549, a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, to IR. IR-induced RIP1 is located downstream of EGFR and involved in the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and vimentin, suggesting a role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our experiments showed that IR-induced RIP1 sequentially induces Src-STAT3-EMT to promote invasion/migration. Inhibition of RIP1 kinase activity and expression blocked induction of EMT by IR and suppressed the levels and activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and vimentin. IR-induced RIP1 activation was additionally associated with stimulation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB. Specifically, exposure to IR triggered NF-κB activation and inhibition of NF-κB suppressed IR-induced RIP1 expression followed by a decrease in invasion/migration as well as EMT. Based on the collective results, we propose that IR concomitantly activates EGFR and NF-κB and subsequently triggers the RIP1–Src/STAT3–EMT pathway, ultimately promoting metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0626.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: BTB and CNC homology 1 BACH1; mitochondrial metabolism; glycolysis; heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1); mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC); Nrf2 (encoded by Nfe2l2); metformin; hemin; breast cancer; lung cancer
Online: 29 January 2021 (13:57:41 CET)
BTB domain and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) is a highly expressed transcription factor in tumors including breast and lung, relative to their non-tumor tissues. BACH1 is known to regulate multiple physiological processes including heme homeostasis, oxidative stress response, senescence, cell cycle, and mitosis. In a tumor, BACH1 promotes invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, and the expression of BACH1 presents a poor outcome for cancer patients including breast cancer patients. Recent studies identified novel functional roles of BACH1 in the regulation of metabolic pathways in cancer cells. BACH1 inhibits mitochondrial metabolism through transcriptional suppression of mitochondrial membrane genes. In addition, BACH1 suppresses activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a key enzyme that converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for the citric acid (TCA) cycle through transcriptional activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Moreover, BACH1 increases glucose uptake and lactate secretion in aerobic glycolysis through the expression of metabolic enzymes involved such as hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of BACH1 could reprogramme metabolic pathways, subsequently rendering metabolic vulnerability of cancer cells. Furthermore, inhibition of BACH1 decreased antioxidant-induced glycolysis rates as well as reduced migration and invasion of cancer cells, suggesting BACH1 as a potentially useful cancer therapeutic target.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: systemic sclerosis; interstitial lung disease; lung diseases; Raynaud’s syndrome
Online: 18 October 2023 (17:05:56 CEST)
Systemic sclerosis (also known as scleroderma) is a chronic fibrosing autoimmune disease with both skin and multisystem organ involvement. Scleroderma has the highest mortality among all rheumatic diseases. The pathophysiology mechanism of systemic sclerosis is a progressive self-amplifying process, which implicates the widespread microvascular damage, followed by a dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity and inflammation, and diffuse fibrosis of the skin and visceral organs. Fibrosis of internal organs is a hint for systemic sclerosis, moreover associated with interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) is a complex process. We report a case of a 56 years old female, diagnosed with Systemic Sclerosis 16 years ago. The systemic and clinical manifestations, respiratory functional tests, radiological aspects and specific therapy were discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer; performance status; cytotoxic chemotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitor; cancer cachexia
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:53:12 CEST)
Most pivotal clinical trials in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have excluded patients with poor performance status (PS), and data on the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy have not been fully accumulated. For NSCLC patients with PS 2 and without druggable genetic alterations, monotherapy with cytotoxic agents or carboplatin-based combination therapy is usually administered based on the results of several randomized trials. However, the evidence of cytotoxic chemotherapy for patients with PS 2 is insufficient, with limited efficacy and toxicity concerns. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a promising treatment for patients with PS 2 because of lower incidence of severe toxicity compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Meanwhile, several reports suggest that anti-PD-1 antibodies monotherapy is less effective for patients with PS 2, especially for those with PS 2 caused by disease burden. Although the combination therapy of nivolumab and ipilimumab is a promising treatment option, there is a divergence in efficacy data between clinical trials. The standard of care for advanced NSCLC with PS 2 has not been established, and future therapeutic strategies should take into account the heterogeneity of the PS 2 population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer; Circulating tumor cells; Circulating tumor-derived endothelial cells; Biomarkers; SE-iFISH
Online: 6 January 2021 (15:32:40 CET)
Effective biomarkers are essential to the early diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, a retrospective study of 49 newly diagnosed and recurrent NSCLC patients, 31 patients with benign pulmonary disease and 24 healthy volunteers was conducted, to evaluate the diagnostic value of circulating rare cells for NSCLC. The expression of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor-derived endothelial cells (CTECs) in peripheral blood were measured by subtraction enrichment-immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization (SE-iFISH). The level of CTCs (P＜0.001) and CTECs (P＜0.001) was significantly higher in NSCLC group than that in benign pulmonary disease group. The proportion of small CTCs (P＜0.001) and CTECs (P＜0.0001) significantly increased from benign lung disease individuals to NSCLC patients. The AUC of ROC curves of total CTCs and CTECs were 0.815 (95%CI: 0.722~0.907), 0.739 (95%CI: 0.618~0.860), respectively. The cut-off values for discriminating NSCLC with benign lung disease patients were total CTCs 11.5 units/6ml and total CTECs 10.5 units/6ml, with sensitivity and specificity being 67.3% and 83.9%, 77.6% and 77.4%, respectively. When CTCs and CTECs were combined, predictive value significantly increased to 82.6% as measured by the area under the curve. Small CTCs and triploid CTCs had high positive predictive value (PPV) and positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of the diagnosis of NSCLC in early stage. CTCs and CTECs can not only be used as new biomarkers for the diagnosis of NSCLC, but can also improve diagnostic performance of the early stage NSCLC. Moreover, the combined examination of CTCs and CTECs is be superior to the single.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: checkpoint inhibitors; tuberculosis; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); Anti-PD-1; toxicity management; immunotherapy; pembrolizumab
Online: 13 May 2020 (04:38:50 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) – anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) and their ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) have become widely used in the treatment of several malignancies. Many immune-related adverse events have been linked to these agents. However, tuberculosis (TB) reactivation during their use is increasingly reported. Herein, we present a 58-year-old lady with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ALK-negative, EGFR wild, and PD-L1 Immune histochemistry (IHC) strongly positive in 95% of tumor cells. The patient presented with high-grade fever and a history of productive cough for a 1-week duration. A few days later, she was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis following the 6th cycle of Pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody. AFB smear and TB PCR from BAL were positive (rifampin resistance not detected), and she was accordingly started on Anti-TB medications. Immunotherapy was held. Of note, the patient had a history of sick contact with a patient with active TB infection ten years ago, but there was no documentation of latent TB or previous TB infection. Her HIV status is negative. Her sputum AFB smear continued to be positive after four weeks of anti-TB medications. Later, the patient was discharged after her sputum was cleared from AFB (negative x 2 sets). We assumed that our patient developed reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis secondary to an immune checkpoint inhibitor (Pembrolizumab). She was not re-challenged with Pembrolizumab following TB diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case from the Arab and the Middle East; it reinforces the previous observations of the association between ICIs administration and the development of MTB. Nevertheless, further studies in the clinical setting are necessary to establish the exact mechanism involved in this association. Oncologists' awareness & prompt recognition of this potential hazardous consequence are essential. Since there is no clear evidence whether LTBT prior PD-1/PD targeted immunotherapy is required, targeted LTBT before starting ICIs immunotherapy with TB chemoprophylaxis; yet to be explored, particularly in the regions where the MTB prevalence is high.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0141.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: A549 lung cancer; nanoparticles; cell-penetration, drug affinity, dissociation constants; molecular docking; antibacterial; hydroxychloroquine
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:54:14 CEST)
The current study describes the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), widely used in traditional medicine due to its diverse phar-macological and medicinal uses. This work aims to combine the HCQ drug with CS NPs to generate a novel nanocomposite with improved characteristics and bioavailability. HCQ@CS NPs is roughly shaped like roadways and has a smooth surface with an average size of 159.3±7.1 nm, a PdI of 0.224±0.101, and a zeta potential of +46.6±0.8 mV. To aid in the development of pharmaceutical systems for use in cancer therapy, the binding mech-anism and affinity of the interaction between HCQ and HCQ@CS NPs and BSA were ex-amined using stopped-flow, other spectroscopic approaches, supplemented by molecular docking analysis. HCQ and HCQ@CS NPs binding with BSA is driven by a ground-state complex formation that may be accompanied by a non-radiative energy transfer process, and binding constants indicated that HCQ@CS NPs-BSA was more stable than HCQ-BSA. The stopped-flow analysis demonstrated that, in addition to increasing BSA affinity, the nano formulation HCQ@CS NPS changes the binding process and may open up new routes for interaction. Docking experiments verified the development of the HCQ-BSA complex, with HCQ binding to the site I on the BSA structure, primarily with the amino acids Thr 578, Gln 579, Gln 525, Tyr 400, and Asn 404. Furthermore, the nano-formulation HCQ@CS NPS not only increased cytotoxicity against the A549 lung cancer cell line (IC50 = 28.57±1.72 g/ml) compared to HCQ (102.21±0.67) g/ml), but also exhibited higher anti-bacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria when compared to HCQ and chloramphenicol which in agreement with the binding constants. The nano formulation developed in this study may offer a viable therapy option for A549 lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Astragalus polysaccharide, PG2, cisplatin, macrophages, monocytes, M1/M2 polarization, immunotherapy, maintenance therapy,lung cancer, NSCLC
Online: 9 August 2019 (12:13:24 CEST)
Background: Recently we demonstrated that Astragalus polysaccharide (PG2), the active ingredient in dried roots of astragalus membranaceus, ameliorates cancer symptom clusters and improve quality of life (QoL) in patients with metastatic disease by modulating inflammatory cascade, against the background that inflammatory cells including macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in tumor initiation, metastasis, and progression. Nevertheless, the role of PG2 in the modulation of anticancer immunogenicity and therapeutic response remains relatively underexplored and unclear. Purpose: The present study investigates how and to what extent PG2 modulates cellular and biochemical components of the inflammatory cascade, enhance anticancer immunity, and the therapeutic implication of same in patients with lung cancer. Methods and Results: Herein, we demonstrated that PG2 significantly increased the M1/M2 macrophage polarization ratio in non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) H441 and H1299 cells. This PG2-induced preferential pharmacologic up-regulation of tumoral M1 population in vitro, positively correlated with the downregulation of tumor-promoting IL-6 and IL-10 expression in NSCLC cell-conditioned medium, with concomitant marked inhibition of cell proliferation, clonogenicity and tumorsphere formation. Our ex vivo results, using clinical sample from our NSCLC cohort, demonstrated that PG2 also promoted the functional maturation of DCs with consequent enhancement of T cell-mediated anticancer immune responses. Consistent with the in vitro and ex vivo results, our in vivo studies showed that mice treated with PG2 exhibited significant time-dependent depletion of the tumor-associated M2 population, synergistically enhanced the anti-M2-based anticancer effect of cisplatin, and inhibition of xenograft tumor growth in the NSCLC mice models. Moreover, in the presence of PG2, cisplatin-associated dyscresia and weight-loss was markedly suppressed. Conclusion: These results do indicate a therapeutically-relevant role for PG2 in modulating the M1/M2 macrophage pool, facilitating DC maturation, and synergistically enhancing the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin; thus laying the foundation for further exploration of the curative relevance of PG2 as surrogate immunotherapy and/or clinical feasibility of its use for maintenance therapy in patients with lung cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); EGFR; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); Uncommon mutation; Compound mutation; Intracranial activity; Immunotherapy
Online: 3 May 2023 (09:29:08 CEST)
The majority of EGFR mutations (85–90%) are exon 19 deletions and L858R point mutation of exon 21, characterized by high sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Less is known about uncommon mutations (10-15% of EGFR mutations). Predominant mutation types in this category include exon 18 point mutations, exon 21 L861X, exon 20 insertions and exon 20 S768I. This group presents a heterogeneous prevalence, partly due to the different testing methods and to the presence of compound mutation, which in some cases leads to shorter overall survival and different sensitivity to different TKIs than simple mutations. EGFR-TKI sensitivity may also vary depending on the specific mutation and the tertiary structure of the protein. The best strategy remains uncertain and the data of TKIs efficacy are founded of few prospective and some retrospective series. Newer investigational agents are still under study and there are no other approved specific treatment targeting uncommon EGFR mutations. Defining the best treatment option for this patient population remain un unmet medical need. The objective of this review is to evaluate existing data on outcomes, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of lung cancer patients with rare EGFR mutations, with a focus on intracranial activity and response to immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lung ultrasound; children; pneumothorax
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:21:27 CET)
Objectives- We prospectively analyzed children with acute chest pain and clinical suspicion of pneumothorax (PNX) evaluated at the pediatric Emergency Department. Methods- After clinical examination and before Chest X-Ray, children underwent LUS to evaluate the presence of PNX. We enrolled 70 children, 13 (18,57%) received a final diagnosis of PNX. Results- In all 13 (100%) patients LUS showed the “bar-code sign”, the absence of lung sliding and the absence of B lines while in 12 (92,3%) there was the lung point, giving a diagnosis of PNX. All cases had PNX features on CXR. The “bar-code sign”, the absence of lung sliding and the absence of B lines had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. The “bar-code sign” had a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 100% for the detection of PNX. Conclusions- LUS is highly accurate in detecting or excluding pneumothorax in children with acute chest pain evaluated in the pediatric emergency department.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1378.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: lung cancer; isotropic voxel reconstruction; lung nodule classification; radiomics; computer-aided diagnosis
Online: 23 October 2023 (05:34:43 CEST)
Lung cancer (LC) stands as the foremost cause of cancer-related fatality rates worldwide. Early diagnosis significantly enhances patient survival rate. Nowadays, low dose computed tomography (LDCT) is widely employed on chest as a tool for large-scale lung cancer screening. Nonetheless, a large amount of chest radiographs causes an onerous burden on radiologists. Some computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools can provide insights to medical images for diagnosis and augmenting diagnostic speed. However, due to variation in parameter settings across different patients, substantial discrepancies in image voxels persist. We find different voxel-size causing a compromise between model generalization and diagnostic efficacy. This study investigates the performance disparities of diagnostic models trained on original images and LDCT images reconstructed to different voxel-sizes but isotropic. The application is to differentiate a nodule to be benign or malignant. Using 11 features, a support vector machine (SVM) is trained on LDCT images with an isotropic voxel having side-length of 1.5 mm for 225 patients in house. The result yields a favorable model performance with an accuracy of 0.9596 and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC/AUC) of 0.9855. In addition to furnish CAD tools for clinical applications, future research is encouraged to include LDCT images from multi-centers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COPD; Interstitial lung disease; Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema; interstitial lung abnormalities
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:56:28 CEST)
Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) have distinct clinical features, both diseases may coexist in a patient because they share similar risk factors such as smoking, male sex, and old age. Patients with both emphysema in upper lung fields and diffuse ILD are diagnosed with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), which causes substantial clinical deterioration. Patients with CPFE have higher mortality compared with patients who have COPD alone, but results have been inconclusive compared with patients who have idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Poor prognostic factors for CPFE include exacerbation, lung cancer, and pulmonary hypertension. The presence of interstitial lung abnormalities, which may be an early or mild form of ILD, is notable among patients with COPD, and is associated with poor prognosis. Various theories have been proposed regarding the pathophysiology of CPFE. Biomarker analyses have implied that this pathophysiology may be more closely associated with IPF development, rather than COPD or emphysema. Patients with CPFE should be advised to quit smoking and undergo routine lung function tests, and pulmonary rehabilitation may be helpful. Various pharmacologic agents may be beneficial in patients with CPFE, but further studies are needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1853.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs); non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1); therapeutic resistance
Online: 27 June 2023 (07:16:09 CEST)
In the past decade, targeted therapies for solid tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), have advanced significantly, offering tailored treatment options for patients. However, individuals without targetable mutations pose a clinical challenge, as they may not respond to standard treatments like immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and novel targeted therapies. While the mechanism of action of ICIs seems promising, the lack of a robust response limits their widespread use. Although the expression levels of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells are used to predict ICI response, identifying new biomarkers, particularly those associated with the tumor microenvironment (TME), is crucial to address this unmet need. Recently, inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) have emerged as a key area of focus and hold significant potential implications for future clinical practice. Combinatorial approaches of IL-1β inhibitors and ICIs may provide a potential therapeutic modality for NSCLC patients without targetable mutations. In this review, we discuss the role of IL-1β in NSCLC, its involvement in inflammatory pathways, and explore its potential role in the treatment of NSCLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0296.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: W-band (75-105 GHz) MMW; H1299 human lung cancer cells; non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human epithelial cells; in vitro
Online: 15 June 2020 (06:44:57 CEST)
Therapeutically effective treatments of cancer are limited. To calibrate the efficiency of the novel technique we recently discovered to modulate cancer cell viability using tuned electromagnetic fields; H1299 human lung cancer cells were irradiated in a sweeping regime of W-band (75-105 GHz) millimeter waves (MMW) at 0.2 mW/cm2 (2 W/m2). Effects on cell morphology, cell death and senescence were examined and compared to that of non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human epithelial cells. MMW irradiation led to alterations of cell and nucleus morphology of H1299 cells, significantly increasing mortality and senescence over 14 days of observation. Extended irradiation of 10 minutes duration resulted in complete death of exposed H1299 cell population within two days, while healthy MCF-10A cells remained unaffected even after 16 minutes of irradiation under the same conditions. Irradiation effects were observed to be specific to MMW treated H1299 cells and absent in the control group of non-irradiated cells. MMW irradiation affected nuclear morphology of H1299 cells only and not of the immortalized MCF-10A cells. Irradiation with low intensity MMW shows an antitumor effect on H1299 lung cancer cells. This method provides a novel treatment modality enabling targeted specificity for various types of cancers.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; non small cell lung cancer; double primary cancers; B7-H3; gefitinib; chemotherapy
Online: 14 May 2019 (13:04:44 CEST)
Management of multiple primary cancers, a not so infrequent event in oncology practice, is a critical issue due to the lack of literature . In this study, we reported the case of a patient with metachronous double metastatic non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) who received gefitinib in combination with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and with mFOLFOX6 in first and second line, respectively. She achieved a progression free survival and an overall survival (OS) of 28 months for NSCLC and PFS-1 and OS of 20 and 13 months, respectively for PDAC. Moreover, the combination of gefitinib and chemotherapies treatments displayed a good safety profile. Given the insignificant frequency of this case, we performed a molecular characterization of both neoplasms with the aim to investigate the existence of particular activated pathways and/or similar immunological mutations. it is interesting to note that two neoplasms shared a commune mutation of B7-H3 gene, with the consecutive impairment of its expressed protein. In both PDAC and NSCLC, the expression of this protein was associated with a worse survival. Since B7-H3 is an anti-apoptotic protein, the reduction of its expression or function should justify a pro-apoptotic activity with a putative justification of the long survival of the patient considered in this report.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0765.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: ferroptosis; regulation; lung adenocarcinoma; therapy
Online: 12 September 2023 (10:36:16 CEST)
Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common lung cancers, which accounts for about 35%-40% of all lung cancer patients. Despite therapeutic advancements in recent years, the overall survival time of the LUAD patients still remain poor, especially KRAS mutant LUAD. Therefore, it is necessary to further explore novel targets and drugs to improve the prognosis of LUAD. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent regulated cell death (RCD）caused by lipid peroxidation, has attracted much attention recently as an alternative target for apoptosis in LUAD therapy. Ferroptosis has been found closely related with LUAD, at its every stage, including initiation, proliferation and progression. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview on ferroptosis mechanisms, it’s regulation in LUAD, and application of targeting ferroptosis for LUAD therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: asbestos; chrysotile; mesothelioma; lung cancer
Online: 26 July 2022 (09:43:02 CEST)
Asbestos-related risks have been estimated on the basis of data from the past, when professional exposures were higher. Fibers are present in the environment due to erosion of surface deposits and human activities unrelated to asbestos industry. If searched for, asbestos fibers are frequently found at autopsies. Bias can be encountered in asbestos research e.g. attributing of mesothelioma and lung cancer to asbestos when fibers are present, although cause-effect relationships remain unproven. Some studies rely on work or residence histories of questionable reliability. Asbestos is banned in some countries while others are increasing production and exports. Asbestos is a low-cost material and an excellent reinforcing fiber. Different asbestos types have their technical advantages and preferred application areas. The traffic is safer with asbestos-containing brake linings. Asbestos cement constructions are sturdy and inexpensive. The fireproofing properties of asbestos are well known. It can be reasonably assumed that the non-use of asbestos-containing brakes, fireproofing and insulation lagging has increased the damage and numbers of victims of traffic accidents, fires and armed conflicts. Nowadays, when a probability of conflicts seems to be enhanced, the attitude to asbestos should be changed. Most importantly, asbestos-related science must be separated from economical and political interests. Reliable information can be obtained in lifelong bioassays.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0427.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cellular senescence; Lung fibrosis; Pathogenesis
Online: 19 May 2021 (07:35:10 CEST)
:Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic and fatal lung disease that significantly impacts the aging population globally. To date, anti-fibrotic, immunosuppressive, and other adjunct therapy demonstrate a limited efficacy. Advancing our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of lung fibrosis provides a future path for the cure. Cellular senescence has gained substantial interest in the past decades due to the increased incidence of fibroproliferative lung diseases in the older age group. Furthermore, the pathologic state of cellular senescence that includes maladaptive tissue repair, decreased regeneration, and chronic inflammation resembles key features of progressive lung fibrosis. This review describes regulatory pathways of cellular senescence and discusses the current knowledge on the senescence of critical cellular players of lung fibrosis, including epithelial cells (alveolar type 2 cells, basal cells, etc.), fibroblasts, and immune cells, their phenotypic changes, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which these cells contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. A few challenges in the field include establishing appropriate in vivo experimental models and identifying senescence targeted signaling molecules and specific therapy to target senescent cells, known collectively as "senolytic" or “senotherapeutic” agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Air pollution; coal-fired thermal power plant; oil thermal power plant; geocoded; lung cancer; bladder cancer; North-eastern Italy
Online: 20 June 2017 (08:50:26 CEST)
This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged >75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. The findings of this descriptive study indicated that air pollution may have a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers, limited to women aged ≥ 75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1139.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer; ionizing radiation; DNA repair; PrimPol; DNA damage tolerance; translesion synthesis; Pol iota (Polι ); clonogenic survival; cancer stem-like cells
Online: 17 November 2023 (07:47:41 CET)
Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the main approaches of cancer therapy, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Radiation-induced DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), single-stranded DNA breaks (SSBs) and oxidized nucleobases cause replication fork stalling, chromosomal instability or point mutagenesis and can lead to cell death. Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is one of the DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways promoting replication of damaged DNA. Here, we explored the effects of the knockout of primase-polymerase PRIMPOL (PRIMPOL −/−) and TLS polymerase POLI (POLI −/−) genes in two different monoclonal lines derived from human NSCLC A549 cells. Our study aimed to investigate the impact of their absence on the susceptibility of these cells to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced stress. Without IR, cells that do not have PRIMPOL or POLI experience a considerable rise in apoptosis by day 7 of continuous cultivation and a noteworthy decline in cell migration under spatial confinement when compared to the parental wild-type cells. Despite this, we have found that PRIMPOL −/− exhibited higher clonogenic survival compared to wild-type cell lines in response to IR stress. Both of these cell lines demonstrated remarkable resilience to radiation stress, surpassing the survival rate of the original A549 cells. POLI deficiency reduces cellular γH2AX foci accumulation, while the presence of highest number of γH2AX foci in PRIMPOL−/− cells was ATM-independent. We report for the first time that increased post-irradiation clonogenic survival of PRIMPOL −/− A549 cells might be associated with the increase of CD133+ but not CD44+ populations of cancer stem-like cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1406.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: hemoptysis; pulmonary artery; embolization; lung cancer
Online: 23 October 2023 (08:39:09 CEST)
(1) Background: Bronchial artery embolization has been shown to be effective in the management of neoplastic hemoptysis. However, knowledge of pulmonary artery embolization is lacking. To evaluate safety and efficacy of pulmonary artery embolization in patients presenting with hemoptysis related to lung tumors. (2) Methods: This retrospective study reviewed all consecutive patients with cancer and at least one episode of hemoptysis that required pulmonary artery embolization from December 2008 to December 2020. The endpoints of the study were technical success, clinical success, recurrence of hemoptysis and complications. (3) Results: A total of 92 patients were treated with pulmonary artery embolization (63.1 years ± 9.9; 70 men). Most patients had stage III or IV advanced disease. Pulmonary artery embolization was technically successful in 82 (89%) patients and clinically successful in 77 (84%) patients. Recurrence occurred in 49% of patients. Infectious complications occurred in 15 patients (16%). The 30-days mortality rate was 31%. At 3 years, survival rate was 3.6%. Tumor size, tumor cavitation and necrosis and pulmonary artery pseudo-aneurysm were significantly associated with recurrence and higher mortality. (4) Conclusions: Pulmonary artery embolization is an effective treatment to initially control hemoptysis in patient with lung carcinoma but recurrence rate remains high and overall survival remains poor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis; interstitial lung disease; pathogenesis
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:28:49 CEST)
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the most serious extra-articular complications of rheu-matoid arthritis (RA), which increases the mortality of RA. Because the pathogenesis of RA-ILD remains poorly understood, appropriate therapeutic strategies and biomarkers have not yet been identified. Thus, the goal of this review was to summarize and analyze the reported data on the etiology and pathogenesis of RA-ILD. The incidence of RA-ILD increases with age, and is also generally higher in men than in women and in patients with specific genetic variations and eth-nicity. Lifestyle factors associated with an increased risk of RA-ILD include smoking and exposure to pollutants. The presence of an anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, high RA disease activity, and rheumatoid factor positivity also increase the risk of RA-ILD. We also explored the roles of biological processes (e.g., fibroblast–myofibroblast transition, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and immunological processes), signaling pathways (e.g., JAK/STAT and PI3K/Akt), and the his-topathology of RA involved in RA-ILD pathogenesis based on published preclinical and clinical models of RA-ILD in animal and human studies.