ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: longitudinal dispersion coefficient; machine learning algorithms; rivers; statistical parameters
Online: 9 May 2019 (12:42:50 CEST)
Longitudinal dispersion coefficient (LDC) plays an essential role in modeling the transport of pollution and sediment in the natural rivers. As a result of transportation processes, the concentration of pollution changes along the river. Different studies have been conducted to provide simple equations for estimating LDC. In this study, Support Vector Regression (SVR), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), M5P and Random Forest (RF) examined to predict the LDC in the natural streams. The hydraulic and geometric features of different rivers gathered for developing the mentioned models for LDC estimation and various statistical criteria were utilized to scrutinize of the models. Furthermore, the Taylor chart was used to evaluate the models and achieved results showed that among machine learning models, M5P displayed the superior performance with CC of 0.823, SI of 0.812, NS of 0.577 and WI of 0.879. As well, S-D model with CC of 0.795 SI of 0.827, NS of 0.558 and WI of 0.890 had more precise results than other empirical models. The results indicates that the developed M5P model with simple formulations was superior to other machine learning models and empirical models and therefore, it can be used as a proper tool for estimating LDC in natural rivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0461.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: chiroptera; Pteropodidae; longitudinal study; Henipavirus; Pararubulavirus
Online: 20 July 2021 (16:05:26 CEST)
Bats have been identified as the natural hosts of several emerging zoonotic viruses, including paramyxoviruses, such as Hendra and Nipah viruses, that can cause fatal disease in humans. Recently, African fruit bats with populations that roost in or near urban areas have been shown to harbour a great diversity of paramyxoviruses, posing potential spillover risks to public health. Understanding the circulation of these viruses in their reservoir populations is essential to predict and prevent future emerging diseases. Here, we identify a high incidence of multiple paramyxoviruses in urine samples collected from a closed, captive colony of circa. 115 straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum). The sequences detected have high nucleotide identities with those derived from free ranging African fruit bats and form phylogenetic clusters with the Henipavirus genus, Pararubulavirus genus and other unclassified paramyxoviruses. As this colony had been closed for 5 years prior to this study, these results indicate that within-host paramyxoviral persistence underlies the role of bats as reservoirs of these viruses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sepsis cardiomyopathy; left ventricular function; global longitudinal strain
Online: 5 November 2018 (02:51:26 CET)
Myocardial deformation imaging (strain imaging) is a technique to directly quantify the extent of myocardial contractility and overcomes several of the limitations of ejection fraction. The application of the most commonly used strain imaging method; speckle-tracking echocardiography to patients with sepsis cardiomyopathy heralds an exciting development to the field. However; the body of evidence and knowledge on the utility, feasibility and prognostic value of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in sepsis cardiomyopathy is still evolving. We conducted a review of literature on utility of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in sepsis cardiomyopathy. We discuss the role of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in mortality prediction, utility and limitations of the technique in the context of sepsis cardiomyopathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: food preferences; early childhood; variety; longitudinal; fruit; vegetables
Online: 20 June 2018 (08:42:52 CEST)
While it is generally accepted that food habits established during infancy will track into later childhood, longitudinal analysis of children’s food preferences is rare. This paper examines whether maternal-reported child food preferences at five years of age are the same as that reported at two years; and identifies any patterns of change from two- to five- years. Mothers in the Australian NOURISH trial reported child food preferences at two and five years of age. A four point scale was utilised - ‘like’, ‘neither like or dislike’, ‘dislike’, ‘never tried’. The proportion of children having the same preference at the two time points was calculated (95%CI) for 48 foods (cereals, 4; vegetables, 20; fruit, 14; meat/alternatives, 6; dairy, 4). For foods where ≤50% children had consistent preferences, the pattern of food preference change was determined. For 40/48 foods, more than half of the children were reported to have the same preference at two years of age, and three years later, at age five. Foods for which ≤50% children had the same preference at both ages were high-sugar breakfast cereals, zucchini, mushrooms, eggplant, spinach, lettuce, cabbage and celery. Findings reinforce the importance of promoting a consistent message regarding early and frequent exposure to a variety of healthy foods, particularly during the first 2 years of life, as the preferences established in these early years are likely to be maintained over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0429.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; perceived risk; communication; psychophysical strain; longitudinal study.
Online: 28 October 2021 (09:58:00 CEST)
The perceived risk of being infected at work (PRIW) with COVID-19 represents a potential risk factor for workers during the current COVID-19 pandemic. In line with the job demands-resources (JD-R) model applied to safety at work, in this longitudinal study we propose that PRIW can be conceptualized as a job demand, whereas communication (i.e., the exchange of good-quality information across team members) can be conceived as a job resource. Accordingly, we hypothesized that PRIW at Time 1 (T1) would positively predict psychophysical strain at Time 2 (i.e., four months later). Furthermore, we hypothesized that communication at T1 would negatively predict psychophysical strain at T2. Overall, 297 workers took part in the study. The hypothesized relationships were tested using multiple regression analysis. Results supported our predictions: PRIW positively predicted psychophysical strain over time, whereas communication negatively predicted psychophysical strain over time. Also, results did not change after controlling for age, gender, and type of contract. Overall, this study suggests that PRIW and communication can be considered as a risk and a protective factor for work-related stress, respectively. Hence, to promote more sustainable working conditions, interventions should encourage organizations to optimize the balance between job demands and job resources related to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0597.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Vis/NIR; repeated longitudinal measurements; apple maturation; precision horticulture
Online: 28 January 2021 (22:24:35 CET)
Optical sensor data can be used to determine changes in anthocyanins, chlorophyll and soluble solids content (SSC) in apple production. In this study, visible and near-infrared spectra (729 to 975 nm) were transformed to SSC values by advanced multivariate calibration models i.e. partial least square regression (PLSR) in order to test the substitution of destructive chemical analyses through non-destructive optical measurements. Spectral field scans were carried out from 2016 to 2018 on marked ’Braeburn’ apples in Southwest Germany. The study combines an in-depth statistical analyses of longitudinal SSC values with horticultural knowledge to set guidelines for further applied use of SSC predictions in the orchard to gain insights into apple carbohydrate physiology. The PLSR models were investigated with respect to sample size, seasonal variation, laboratory errors and the explanatory power of PLSR models when applied to independent samples. As a result of Monte Carlo simulations, PLSR modelled SSC only depended to a minor extent on the absolute number and accuracy of the wet chemistry laboratory calibration measurements. The comparison between non-destructive SSC determinations in the orchard with standard destructive lab testing at harvest on an independent sample showed mean differences of 0.5 % SSC over all study years. SSC modelling with longitudinal linear mixed-effect (LME) models linked high crop loads to lower SSC values at harvest and higher SSC values for fruit from the top part of a tree.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0457.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: disadvantages; living conditions; longitudinal; resilience; self-rated health; youth
Online: 28 June 2018 (05:10:36 CEST)
Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. Yet, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time, were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n=908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: public health; local self-government; institutional support; longitudinal research; Serbia
Online: 10 January 2023 (01:24:53 CET)
The objective of this quantitative study was to examine the impact of selected factors on the level and state of public health in local self-government units in 2021, with the consideration of data from 2020 and 2019. This survey included 77 out of 145 local self-government units in the Republic of Serbia and examined six dimensions defined by the Law on Public Health: social care for the public health of the city/municipality in regard to the physical, mental, and social health of the population; health promotion and disease prevention; the environment and health; working environments and population health; the organization and functioning of the health system; and actions in emergency situations. The results of the Pearson correlation showed that there were statistically significant correlations between the effectiveness of the realized program budget and microbiologically defective drinking water samples from the so-called village water supply systems, defective samples of drinking water from public taps, unsatisfactory analyses of wastewater samples, the total number of air samples on an annual level for PM25s, and the number of mandated fines issued. The results of the logistic regression model showed that the local self-government units that received assistance from the Permanent Conference of Cities and Municipalities were 5.6 times more likely to perform analyses of their health status. Furthermore, we determined that the units of local self-governments that appointed a coordinator of the health council identified vulnerable groups in the analysis of the state of health four and a half times more often. In contrast, the units of local self-governments that prepared health status analyses could be used to identify vulnerable groups to a six times greater extent within the framework of the health status analysis. The results showed that in improving the state of public health at the local level, it is necessary to provide systematic institutional support to cities and municipalities in exercising their responsibilities. Based on these results, recommendations were made for the further development of support, i.e., the planning of further activities aimed at strengthening the capacity of the health councils and local self-government units in this area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0688.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mHealth; multiple sclerosis; telemonitoring; longitudinal assessment; rehabilitation; fatigue; walking; cognition
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:26:43 CEST)
The development of mobile technology and internet mobile offers new possibilities in both rehabilitation and for patients’ assessment in a longitudinal and MS management perspective. However, because the mobile health applications (mHealth) have only been developed recently, the level of evidence supporting the use of mHealth in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is currently unclear. Therefore, this study aims to list and describe the different mHealth available for rehabilitation and self-assessment of pwMS and to define the level of evidence supporting these interventions for functioning problems categorized within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). 36 studies, performed with 22 different mHealth, were included in this review, 30 about rehabilitation and 6 for self-assessment, representing 3,091 patients. For rehabilitation, most of the studies were focusing on cognitive function and fatigue. Concerning the efficacy we found a small but significant effect of the use of mHealth for cognitive training (SMD = 0.28 [0.12 ; 0.45]) and moderate effect for fatigue (SMD = 0.61 [0.47 ; 0.76]). mHealth is a promising tool in pwMS but more studies are needed to validate these solutions in the others ICF categories. More replications studies are also needed as most of the mHealth have only been assessed in one single study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: echocardiography; speckle-tracking; frame rate; global longitudinal strain; left ventricle
Online: 15 April 2021 (09:39:24 CEST)
Background: global longitudinal strain (GLS) measures myocardial deformation and is a sensitive modality for detecting subclinical myocardial dysfunction and predicting cardiac outcomes. The accuracy of speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is dependent on temporal resolution. A novel software enables relatively high frame rate (Hi-FR) (~200 fps) echocardiographic images acquisition which empowers us to investigate the impact of Hi-FR imaging on GLS analysis. The goal of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of Hi-FR for STE. Methods: In this prospective study, we acquired echocardiographic images using clinical scanners on patients with normal left ventricular systolic function using Hi-FR and conventional frame rate (Reg-FR) (~50 FPS). GLS values were evaluated on apical 4-, 2- and 3-chamber images acquired in both Hi-FR and Reg-FR. Inter-observer and intra-observer variabilities were assessed in Hi-FR and Reg-FR. Results: There were 143 resting echocardiograms with normal LVEF included in this study. The frame rate of Hi-FR was 190 ± 25 and Reg-FR was 50 ± 3, and the heart rate was 71 ± 13. Strain values measured in Hi-FR were significantly higher than those measured in Reg-FR (all p < 0.001). Inter-observer and intra-observer correlations were strong in both Hi-FR and Reg-FR. Conclusions: We demonstrated that strain values were significantly higher using Hi-FR when compared with Reg-FR in patients with normal LVEF. It is plausible that higher temporal resolution enabled the measurement of myocardial strain at desired time point. The result of this study may inform clinical adoption of the novel technology. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the value of Hi-FR to assess myocardial strain in stress echocardiography in the setting of tachycardia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0689.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; mobility patterns; Rt; changepoint; modeling; Portugal; Longitudinal Study
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:31:54 CEST)
This study analyzes the relationship between the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) and the mobility patterns of the Portuguese population. By reducing mobility, the idea is that contacts are reduced, countering the spread of the virus in the community. As an indicator of the spread of the virus, the reproduction number (Rt) was used. Data from Google's Community Mobility Reports was used to evaluate changes in mobility patterns. This report uses location data from Android mobile phone users. The locations are divided into retail and recreation, grocery and pharmacy, parks, transit stations, workplaces and residential. In this year of the COVID-19 crisis in Portugal, population mobility patterns have changed over the various phases of the pandemic. At first, all mobility was affected uniformly, with the population avoiding much of the activity outside the home. In a second phase, there was some adaptation, and the areas considered to be of lower risk had less impact, emphasizing the changes in the relationship between daily life and the workplace.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0038.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: bilingual advantage; bilingualism; cognitive control; individual differences; longitudinal studies; methodology
Online: 4 February 2019 (14:02:53 CET)
Recently, doubts were raised about the existence of the bilingual advantage in cognitive control. The aim of the present review was to investigate the bilingual advantage and its modulating factors. We searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and ERIC databases for all original data and reviewed studies on bilingualism and cognitive control, with a cut-off date of October 31, 2018, thereby following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. The results of the 46 original studies show that, indeed, the majority, 54.3%, reported beneficial effects of bilingualism on cognitive control tasks; however, 28.3% found mixed results, and 17.4% found evidence against its existence. Methodological differences seem to explain these mixed results: particularly, the varying selection of the bilingual participants, the use of non-standardized tests, and the fact that individual differences were often neglected, and that longitudinal designs were rare. Therefore, a serious risk for bias exists in both directions (i.e., in favor of and against the bilingual advantage). To conclude, we found some evidence for a bilingual advantage in cognitive control; however, if significant progress is to be made, better study designs, bigger data, and more longitudinal studies are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0038.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: fibrous composites; longitudinal molulus; upper bound; strength of materials; interphase
Online: 2 May 2018 (12:42:48 CEST)
In this paper, an upper bound of the longitudinal elastic modulus of unidirectional fibrous composites is proposed according to strength of materials approach, on the premise that the fiber is much stiffer than the matrix. In the mathematical derivations, the concept of boundary interphase between fiber and matrix was also taken into account and the main objective of this work is the attainment of an upper bound for the interphase stiffness with respect to fiber concentration by volume. The novel element here is that the authors have not taken into consideration any specific variation law to approximate the interphase modulus. The theoretical results arising from the proposed formula were compared with those obtained from some reliable theoretical models as well as with experimental data found in the literature, and a satisfactory agreement was observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0045.v1
Subject: Keywords: longitudinal sound wave; electric field; electrons; kinetic equation; sound attenuation
Online: 8 March 2017 (05:27:52 CET)
In the present work the problem of the attenuation of longitudinal sound oscillations in a conducting medium are considered. The proposed approach is based on the dynamic interaction of electron gas with the lattice vibrations. This interaction is manifested in the modification of kinetic equation for electrons. The process is accompanied by generation of an electric field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Intensity standardisation; FSL-SIENA; longitudinal atrophy quantification; brain magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 15 December 2020 (11:03:11 CET)
Atrophy quantification is fundamental for understanding brain development and diagnosing and monitoring brain diseases. FSL-SIENA is a well-known fully-automated method that has been widely used in brain magnetic resonance imaging studies. However, intensity variations arising during image acquisition that may compromise evaluation, analysis and even diagnosis. In this work, we study whether intensity standardisation can improve longitudinal atrophy quantification. We considered seven methods comprising z-score, fuzzy c-means, Gaussian mixture model, kernel density, histogram matching, white stripe, and removal of artificial voxel effects by linear regression (RAVEL). We used a total of 330 scans from two publicly-available datasets, ADNI and OASIS. In scan-rescan assessments, that measures robustness to subtle imaging variations, intensity standardisation did not compromise the robustness of FSL-SIENA significantly (p>0.1). In power analysis assessments, that measures the ability to discern between two groups of subjects, three methods led to consistent improvements in both datasets with respect to the original: fuzzy c-means, Gaussian mixture model, and kernel density estimation. Reduction in sample size using these three methods ranged from 17% to 95%. The performance of the other four methods was affected by spatial normalisation, skull stripping errors, presence of periventricular white matter hyperintensities, or tissue proportion variations over time. Our work evinces the relevance of appropriate intensity standardisation in longitudinal cerebral atrophy assessments using FSL-SIENA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0304.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quasi-monochromatic waves; group velocity; dispersion relation; longitudinal modulation; coherence time
Online: 13 November 2018 (09:24:07 CET)
The wave packet consisting of two harmonic plane waves with the same frequencies, but with different wave vectors is considered. The dispersion relation of a packet is structurally similar to the dispersion relation of a relativistic particle with a nonzero rest mass. The possibility of controlling the group velocity of a quasi-monochromatic wave packet by varying the angle between the wave vectors of its constituent waves is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0178.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: quadcopter; ultrasonic weather station; turbulence, longitudinal and lateral spectra, scales, urban environment
Online: 12 January 2022 (16:19:23 CET)
The capabilities of a quadcopter in the hover mode for low-altitude sensing of atmospheric turbulence with high spatial resolution in urban areas characterized by complex orography are investigated. The studies were carried out in different seasons (winter, spring, summer, and fall), and the quadcopter hovered in the immediate vicinity of ultrasonic weather stations. The DJI Phantom 4 Pro quadcopter and AMK-03 ultrasonic weather stations installed in different places of the studied territory were used in the experiment. The smoothing procedure was used to main regularities in the behavior of the longitudinal and lateral spectra of turbulence in the inertial and energy production ranges. The longitudinal and lateral turbulence scales were estimated by the least-square fit method with the von Karman model as a regression curve. It is shown that the turbulence spectra obtained with DJI Phantom 4 Pro and AMK-03 generally coincide with minor differences observed in the high-frequency region of the spectrum. In the inertial range, the behavior of the turbulence spectra shows that they obey the Kolmogorov-Obukhov “5/3” law. In the energy production range, the longitudinal and lateral turbulence scales and their ratio measured by DJI Phantom 4 Pro and AMK-03 agree to a good accuracy. Discrepancies in the data obtained with the quadcopter and the ultrasonic weather stations at the territory with complex orography are explained by the partial correlation of the wind velocity series at different measurement points and the influence of the inhomogeneous surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns; tracking; stability; longitudinal change; generalized estimating equations; childhood; adolescence; adulthood
Online: 20 June 2017 (09:00:37 CEST)
Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (aged 8-15 years, at baseline) were included. Multiple 24-hour recalls were collected annually from 1991 to 1997, 2002 to 2005 and 2010 and 2011. Using principal component analysis, “Vegetarian-style”, “Western-like”, “High-fat, high-protein”, “Mixed” and “Snack” DPs were derived at baseline. Applied DP scores for all annual measurements were calculated using factor loading of baseline DPs and energy-adjusted food group intakes. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations. The tracking coefficient represents correlation between baseline dietary pattern scores and all other follow-up dietary pattern scores. We found a moderate tracking for the “Vegetarian-style” (ß=0.44, P<0.001) and “High-fat, high-protein” (ß=0.39, P<0.001) DPs in females and “Vegetarian-style” DP (ß=0.30, P<0.001) in males. Remaining DPs showed a poor-to-fair tracking in both sexes. No tracking for “Western-like” DP in females was observed. Assessing overall change in DP scores from childhood to young adulthood showed an increasing trend in adherence to “Vegetarian-style” DP and decreasing trend in adherence to “High-fat, high-protein” DP by age in both sexes (P<0.001). While “Western-like” and “Mixed” DP scores increased only in males (P<0.001). These findings suggest that healthy dietary habits established during childhood and adolescence moderately continue into adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0322.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: fluctuations; noise spectra; longitudinal and transverse electric fields; Nyquist noise; photon number noise
Online: 17 January 2022 (09:04:34 CET)
We derive the thermal noise spectrum of the Fourier transform of the electric field operator of a given wave vector starting from the quantum-statistical definitions and relate it to the complex frequency and wave vector dependent complex conductivity in a homogeneous, isotropic system of electromagnetic interacting electrons. We analyze separately the longitudinal and transverse case with their peculiarities. The Nyquist formula for vanishing frequency and wave vector, as well as its modification for non-vanishing frequencies and wave vectors follow immediately. Furthermore we discuss also the noise of the photon occupation numbers. It is important to stress that no additional assumptions at all were used in this straightforward proof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: severe aortic stenosis; longitudinal axis strain; late gadolinium enhancement; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 28 December 2018 (07:12:57 CET)
To analyze the predictive ability and incremental value of left ventricular longitudinal axis strain (LAS) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) using standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of severe aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with an indication for aortic valve replacement. We conducted a prospective study on 128 patients with severe AS and 52 volunteers. The evaluation protocol included standard biochemistry tests, novel biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis, 12-lead electrocardiograms and 24-hour Holter, the 6-minute walk test and extensive echocardiographic and CMR imaging studies. Outcomes were defined as the composite of major cardiovascular events (MACEs). Among AS patients, most (n = 17, 77.2%) of those who exhibited LGE at CMR imaging had MACEs during follow-up. Kaplan-Meier curves for event-free survival showed a significantly higher rate of MACEs in patients with LGE (p < 0.01) and decreased LAS (p < 0.001). In Cox regression analysis, only reduced LAS [hazard ratio 1.33, 95%CI (1.01 to 1.74), p < 0.01] and the presence of LGE [hazard ratio 11.3, 95%CI (1.82 to 70.0), p < 0.01] were independent predictors for MACEs. The predictive value increased if both LGE and reduced LAS were added to LVEF. None of the biomarkers of increased collagen turnover exhibited any predictive value for MACEs. LAS by CMR is an independent predictor of outcomes in patients with AS and provides incremental value beyond the assessment of LVEF and the presence of LGE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0489.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: sleep; academic performance; grade point average; college students; wearable device; longitudinal; nighttime sleep awakening
Online: 30 December 2021 (13:45:37 CET)
Although the relations between sleep and academic performance have been extensively examined, how sleep predicts future academic performance (e.g., 2 -3 years) remains to be further investigated. Using wearable smartwatches and a self-report questionnaire, we tracked sleep activities of 45 college students over a period of approximate half a month to see whether their sleep activities predicted their academic performance, which was estimated by grade point average (GPA). Results showed that both nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency in the tracking period were not significantly correlated with the GPA for the courses taken in the semester during sleep tracking (current GPA). However, both nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency inversely predicted the GPA for the rest of the courses taken after that semester (future GPA). Moreover, students with more difficulty staying awake throughout the day obtained lower current and future GPAs, and students with lower inconsistency of sleep quality obtained lower future GPA. Together, these findings highlight the importance of nighttime sleep awakening frequency and consistency in predicting future academic performance and emphasize the necessity of assessing the consistency of sleep measures in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: research ethics; longitudinal methodology; youth; phone survey; COVID-19; low- and middle-income countries
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:17:06 CEST)
In this paper, we draw on recent experiences from the Young Lives study to discuss some of the ethical and practical challenges facing longitudinal cohort studies in low- and middle-income countries in the time of coronavirus. We argue that COVID-19 has instigated an ‘ethics of disruption’ for social researchers across the world, and for longitudinal cohort studies like Young Lives, this requires navigating three core considerations: first, managing research relationships and reciprocity within an observational study design; second, maintaining methodological continuity and consistency across time; and third, balancing an immediate short-term response to COVID-19 against the longer-term perspective. We refer to the study’s plan to implement a new COVID-19 phone survey to illustrate how the team are navigating this altered ethical terrain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: risk factors; longevity, death; euthanasia; retirement; longitudinal; TeamMate; working dogs; herding dogs; working farm dogs
Online: 25 March 2021 (14:24:34 CET)
Working farm dogs are essential to many livestock farmers. Little is known about factors that influence dogs’ risk of being lost from work. This paper explores risk factors for farm dogs being lost through death, euthanasia and retirement. All enrolled dogs were working and minimum 18 months old. Five data collection rounds were done over four years. Data about dogs were collected from owners and dogs were given physical examinations by veterinarians. Dogs that were lost from work were counted and owner-reported reasons for loss were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to investigate risk factors for loss. Of 589 dogs, 81 were lost from work. Of these, 59 dogs died or were euthanized and 22 were retired. Farm dogs tended to reach high ages, with 38% being 10 years or older when last examined. Acute injury or illness was the most commonly owner-reported reason for loss. Age group (P < 0.0001) and lameness (P = 0.04, OR = 1.8) significantly affected dogs’ risk being lost. These results expand our knowledge about factors that affect health, welfare and work in farm dogs. Further investigation into reasons for lameness may help improve health and welfare in working farm dogs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: breakfast skipping; overweight; obesity; weight gain; BMI change; systematic review; meta-analysis; observational longitudinal studies
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:05:41 CET)
Globally, increasing rates of obesity are one of the most important health issues. The association between breakfast skipping and body weight is contradictory between cross-sectional and interventional studies. The systematic review and meta-analyses aim to summarize this association based on observational longitudinal studies. We included prospective studies on breakfast skipping and overweight/obesity or weight change in adults. Literature was searched until September 2020 in PubMed and Web of Science. Summary RRs with a 95% CI were estimated in pairwise meta-analyses by applying a random-effects model. In total, 9 studies were included in the systematic review and 6 of them were included in the meta-analyses. The meta-analysis indicated an 13% increased RR for overweight/obesity when breakfast was skipped on ≥ 3 days per week compared to ≤ 2 days per week (95% CI: 1.06, 1.21, n=3 studies). The meta-analysis on weight change displays a 21% increased RR for weight gain for breakfast skippers compared to breakfast eaters (95% CI: 1.05, 1.40, n=2 studies). The meta-analysis on BMI change displayed no difference between breakfast skipping and eating (RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.05, n=2 studies). This study provides low meta-evidence for an increased risk for overweight/obesity and weight gain for breakfast skipping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: platoon of heterogeneous trucks; lateral maneuvers; longitudinal maneuvers; truck platoon; multi-agent systems; autonomous trucks
Online: 7 June 2020 (08:13:32 CEST)
This paper presents control algorithms enabling autonomous heterogeneous trucks to drive in platoons. Heterogeneous trucks imply that the hardware information (e.g., truck length, break, accelerator, or engine) of a truck may be distinct from that of another truck. We define a platoon as a collection of trucks where a manually driven truck (leader truck) is followed by several automatically controlled following trucks. The proposed approach is to make every autonomous truck keep following the leader's trajectory while maintaining a designated distance from its predecessor truck. As far as we know, this paper is unique in developing both lateral maneuver and speed control considering a platoon of heterogeneous trucks. The efficiency of the proposed approach is verified using simulations.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0137.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; ethics; public health; longitudinal clinical trial; silent virus carrier
Online: 8 May 2020 (07:53:54 CEST)
Some of the European countries affected by COVID-19 have not learned from previous experience in China. Italy did not learn from China and Spain did neither learn from China nor from Italy. Confinement in Spain was postponed due to pressure from economic interests and traveling of infected people, especially from Madrid to the beaches in South-East Spain, was allowed. Strict confinement and border closure came late, when the curve of infected people and the death toll already had the worse trend worldwide. Tests to SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by PCR, were first unavailable and, later, faulty and/or detecting antibodies and not the virus itself. Instead of mobilizing research laboratories for making tests, and instead of making masks and ventilators, mediatic scientists asked for money for controversial clinical trials and for obtaining a vaccine. In this scenario, common sense indicates that ad hoc measures should be taken at the end of confinement in order to minimize pain. The chain of errors should be avoided in the management of next pandemics by designing Good Practice Rules (GPRs). In addition, post-confinement measures should be implemented as soon as possible to be ready for SARS-CoV-2 return next season. In this sense a longitudinal study in the most affected cities (Madrid, Barcelona, Vitoria and Pamplona) should be performed with the primary objective of detecting carriers with no symptoms, to stratify patients according to symptoms, and to early detection of virus reappearance. Also relevant is to sequence as many viruses as possible to detect possible variants; there are still patients that are PCR positive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0353.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Y-shaped confluence channel; non-submerged rigid vegetation; longitudinal velocity; secondary flow; turbulent kinetic energy.
Online: 20 August 2018 (11:27:58 CEST)
Vegetation has a significant influence on velocity distribution and turbulent energy in a confluence channel. A laboratory measurement with ADV was used to investigate the flow through a Y-shaped confluence channel partially covered with rigid vegetation on its inner bank. In this study, the flow velocities in cases with and without vegetation were measured by the ADV in a Y-shaped confluence channel. The results clearly show that the existence of non-submerged rigid plants has changed the internal flow structure, that the velocity in the non-vegetated area is greater than in the vegetated area, and that there is a large exchange of mass and momentum between the vegetated and non-vegetated areas. The velocity on both sides is significantly reduced when vegetation is present. In the vicinity of tributaries, due to the presence of vegetation, the high-velocity area moved rapidly to the middle of the non-vegetated area, and the secondary flow phenomenon disappeared. In the mainstream, when vegetation was present, circulation disappeared, and the degree of lateral mixing decreased. The presence of vegetation caused a great change in the internal flow structure and made the flow in non-vegetated areas more intense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0077.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: externalizing behavior; adolescence; gray matter volume; white matter integrity; heritability; genetic correlation; longitudinal; magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 4 February 2022 (15:07:45 CET)
Externalizing behavior in its more extreme form is often considered a problem to the individual, their families, teachers and society as a whole. Several brain structures have been linked to externalizing behavior and such associations may arise if the (co)development of externalizing behavior and brain structures share the same genetic and/or environmental factor(s). We assessed externalizing behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self Report, and brain volumes and white matter integrity (FA and MD) with magnetic resonance imaging in the BrainSCALE cohort, consisting of twins and their older siblings from 112 families measured longitudinally at ages 10, 13, and 18 years of the twins. Genes influenced externalizing behavior and changes therein (h2 up to 88%). More pronounced externalizing behavior was associated with higher FA (observed correlation rph up to +0.20) and lower MD (rph up to –0.20); with sizeable genetic correlations (FA ra up to +0.42; MD ra up to –0.33). Cortical gray matter (CGM; rph up to –0.20) and cerebral white matter (CWM; rph up to +0.20) volume were phenotypically but not genotypically associated with externalizing behavior. These results suggest a potential mediating role for global brain structures in the display of externalizing behavior during adolescence that are both partially explained by the influence from the same genetic factor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Long COVID; data acquisition source; post-infectious; longitudinal cohort study; patient-powered
Online: 25 November 2021 (13:51:54 CET)
ME/CFS (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) is a chronic, complex, heterogeneous disease that affects millions and lacks both diagnostics and treatments. Big data, or the collection of vast quantities of data that can be mined for information, has transformed the understanding of many complex illnesses like cancer (1,2) and multiple sclerosis (3,4), by dissecting heterogeneity, identifying subtypes, and enabling the development of personalized treatments. It is possible that big data can reveal the same for ME/CFS. Solve M.E. developed and launched the You + ME Registry to collect longitudinal health data from people with ME/CFS, people with Long COVID (LC) and control volunteers using rigorous protocols designed to harmonize with other groups collecting data from similar groups of people. The Registry is an invaluable resource because it integrates with a symptom tracking app, as well as a biorepository, to provide a robust and rich dataset that is available to qualified researchers. Accordingly, it facilitates collaboration that may ultimately uncover causes and help accelerate the development of therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: longitudinal study; emergency; infectious disease; organizational justice; stress; loneliness; compassion fatigue; meditation; prayer; insomnia; mental health; anaesthetists
Online: 23 August 2021 (10:22:05 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely tested the physical and mental health of health care workers (HCWs). The various stages of the epidemic have posed different problems; consequently, only a prospective study can effectively describe the changes in the workers’ health. This repeated cross-sectional study is based on a one-year investigation (spring 2020 to spring 2021) of intensive care physicians in one of the two COVID-19 hub hospitals in Central Italy. Changes in their work activity due to the pandemic were studied anonymously together with their perception of organizational justice, occupational stress, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, burnout, job satisfaction, happiness, and intention to quit. In May-June 2021, one year after the baseline, doctors reported an increased workload, isolation at work and in social life, lack of time for physical activity and meditation and compassion fatigue. Stress was inversely associated with the perception of justice in safety procedures and directly correlated with work isolation. Occupational stress was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, burnout, dissatisfaction, and intention to quit. Procedural justice was significantly associated with happiness. Doctors believed vaccinations would help control the problem; however, this positive attitude had not yet resulted in improved mental health. Doctors reported high levels of distress (73%), sleep problems (28%), anxiety (25%), depression (64%). Interventions to correct the situation are urgently needed.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: smart meter data; household survey; EPC; energy data; energy demand; energy consumption; longitudinal; energy modelling; electricity data; gas data
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:16:05 CEST)
The Smart Energy Research Lab (SERL) Observatory dataset described here comprises half-hourly and daily electricity and gas data, SERL survey data, Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) input data and 24 local hourly climate reanalysis variables from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for over 13,000 households in Great Britain (GB). Participants were recruited in September 2019, September 2020 and January 2021 and their smart meter data are collected from up to one year prior to sign up. Data collection will continue until at least August 2022, and longer if funding allows. Survey data relating to the dwelling, appliances, household demographics and attitudes was collected at sign up. Data are linked at the household level and UK-based academic researchers can apply for access within a secure virtual environment for research projects in the public interest. This is a data descriptor paper describing how the data was collected, the variables available and the representativeness of the sample compared to national estimates. It is intended as a guide for researchers working with or considering using the SERL Observatory dataset, or simply looking to learn more about it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Periodontal Disease; Electronic Dental Record; Longitudinal Data; Data Quality; Dental Infor-matics; Clinical Course of Periodontal Disease; Periodontal Cohort Generation
Online: 19 January 2023 (13:01:27 CET)
Objective: Determine the feasibility of utilizing longitudinal electronic dental record (EDR) data to track change over time in patient periodontal disease (PD) and to generate three patient cohorts: 1) patients whose disease did not change over time, 2) patients whose PD progressed, and 3) patients whose disease improved over time using informatics approaches. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 28,908 patients who received a comprehensive oral evaluation between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, at the Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) clinics. We developed and tested three automated computer applications to: 1) diagnose periodontitis cases from periodontal charting, 2) retrieve clinician-documented diagnoses from clinical notes, and 3) track disease change over time. We also evaluated the density of longi-tudinal EDR data for the following follow-up times: 1) none, 2) up to 5 years, 3) >5 and <=10 years, and 4) >10 and <=15 years Results: Thirty-four percent (n=9,954) of the study cohort had up to five years of follow-up visits with an average of 2.78 visits with periodontal charting information. An average of three patient visits per year that contained periodontal charts (63,552) were utilized to obtain a diagnosis, which is considered excellent. For clinician-documented diagnoses from clinical notes, 42% of patients (n=5,562) had at least two PD diagnoses to determine their disease change. In this cohort with cli-nician-documented diagnoses, 72% percent of patients (n=3,919) did not have a disease status change between their first and last visits, 669 (13%) patients' disease status progressed, and 589 (11%) patients’ disease improved. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing longitudinal EDR data to track disease changes over 15 years during the observation study period. We found excellent longitudinal data when diagnoses generated from periodontal charting were considered (three visits per pa-tient). This information can be now utilized for studying the clinical course of periodontitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0572.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: ocean and shore technology (OST); empirical formula; ultimate limit state; longitudinal compression; stiffened plate; ships and offshore structures; structural design
Online: 24 July 2020 (05:32:33 CEST)
This research aims to study the ultimate limit state (ULS) behaviour of stiffened panel under longitudinal compression by non-linear finite element method (NLFEM). There are different types of stiffeners being used in shipbuilding i.e. T-bar, flat-bar and angle-bar. However, this research focuses on the ultimate compressive strength behaviour of flat-bar stiffened panel. A total of 420 of reliable scenarios of flat-bar stiffened panel are selected for numerical simulation by ANSYS NLFEM. The ultimate strength behaviours obtained were used as data for the development of closed form shape empirical formulation. Recently, Kim et al.  proposed for advanced empirical formulation for T-bar stiffened panel and the applicability of the proposed formulation to flat-bar stiffened panel will be confirmed by this study. The accuracy of the empirical formulation obtained for flat-bar stiffened panel has been validated by FE simulation results of statistical analysis (R2 = 0.9435). The outcome obtained will be useful for ship structural designers in predicting the ultimate strength performance of flat-bar type stiffened panel under longitudinal compression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0356.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Component Structure Coherence Point Drift; parenchyma change induced by radiotherapy; computed tomography; feature point sampling; regional vascular point matching; longitudinal registration
Online: 20 December 2022 (07:28:27 CET)
Longitudinal image registration of pulmonary computed tomography (PCT) images may serve as an essential tool for investigating the relationship between radiation dose distribution and the occurrence and phenotype of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD). Although numerous longitudinal registration algorithms have been developed for PCT, most similarity-based approaches are not suitable for PCT involving RILD due to the complex tissue variation between two PCT images. Moreover, conventional feature-based approaches might fail to find a sufficient number of matched pairs of feature points due to the disparate lung deformation caused by breathing and RILD. To overcome the challenges resulting from RILD, component structure coherence point drift (CSCPD) was proposed to establish a deformation model by decomposing the chest into several components and matching them with individual parameters based on coherence point drift (CPD). Moreover, a regional vascular point matching (RVPM) algorithm was proposed to generate a vascular subtree and to substantially increase the number of corresponding pairs between two images. Eventually, the components were recomposed and aligned by a thin plate spline algorithm. A performance assessment on 15 pairs of PCT images of patients with RILD yielded recall and precision values of 0.85 and 0.89 for RVPM, respectively. Moreover, the target registration error of CSCPD with RVPM (2.3 ± 1.79) was significantly better than that of conventional CPD with RVPM (2.95 ± 1.89) and conventional CPD (5.04 ± 2.87). Therefore, the proposed registration system is robust enough to address the disparate deformation of lungs with RILD, and it improves registration accuracy within the parenchyma.