ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0484.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: lipoprotein lipase; neuronal metabolism; fatty liver; brain-liver-axis; FLIM
Online: 20 September 2020 (15:32:43 CEST)
The autonomic regulation of hepatic metabolism offers a novel target for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the molecular characteristics of neurons that regulate the brain-liver axis remain unclear. Since mice lacking neuronal lipoprotein lipase (LPL) develop perturbations in neuronal lipid-sensing and systemic energy balance, we reasoned that LPL might be a component of pre-autonomic neurons involved in the regulation of hepatic metabolism. Here we show that despite obesity, mice with reduced neuronal LPL (NEXCreLPLflox [LPL KD]) show improved glucose tolerance and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation with aging compared to WT controls (LPLflox). To determine the effect of LPL deficiency on neuronal physiology, liver-related neurons were identified in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus using the transsynaptic retrograde tracer PRV-152. Patch-clamp studies revealed reduced inhibitory post-synaptic currents in liver-related neurons of LPL KD mice. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) was used to visualize metabolic changes in LPL-depleted neurons. Quantification of the free vs. bound Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) revealed increased glucose utilization and TCA cycle flux in LPL-depleted neurons compared to controls. Global metabolomics from hypothalamic cell lines either deficient in, or over-expressing, LPL recapitulated these findings. Our data suggest that LPL is a novel feature of liver–related preautonomic neurons in the PVN. Moreover, LPL loss is sufficient to cause changes in neuronal substrate utilization and function, which may precede changes in hepatic metabolism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Nutrition; Amino acids; Leukocytes; Skeletal muscle; Gut; Liver.
Online: 24 September 2018 (13:20:58 CEST)
Glutamine is the most abundant and versatile amino acid in the body. In health and disease, the rate of glutamine consumption by immune cells is similar or greater than glucose. For instance, in vitro and in vivo studies have determined that glutamine is an essential nutrient for lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, macrophage phagocytic plus secretory activities and neutrophil bacterial killing. Glutamine release to the circulation and availability is mainly controlled by key metabolic organs, such as the gut, liver and skeletal muscles. During catabolic/hypercatabolic situations glutamine can become essential for metabolic function, but its availability may be compromised due to impairment of homeostasis in the inter-tissue metabolism of amino acids. For this reason, glutamine is currently part of clinical nutrition supplementation protocols and/or recommended for immune suppressed individuals. However, in a wide range of catabolic/hypercatabolic situations (e.g. ill/critically ill, post-trauma, sepsis, exhausted athletes) it is currently difficult to determine whether glutamine parenteral or enteral supplementation should be recommended based on the amino acid plasma concentration (glutaminemia). Although the beneficial immune based effects of glutamine supplementation is already established, many questions and evidence for positive in vivo outcomes still remain to be presented. Therefore, this paper provides an integrated review on how glutamine metabolism in key organs is important to cells of the immune system. We also discuss glutamine metabolism, action and important issues related to the effects of glutamine supplementation in catabolic situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0496.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: zinc, HCC, liver function, Zn concentration
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:38:25 CEST)
Background and Aim: Zinc plays a pivotal role in various zinc enzymes, resulting in the maintenance of liver function. Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs) usually have lower concentrations of zinc, which decrease further as liver fibrosis progresses. It remains unknown whether long-term zinc supplementation improves liver function and reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Patients and Methods: Two hundred sixty-seven patients with CLDs who received a zinc preparation (Zn-group; 196 patients), or who did not receive zinc (no Zn-treatment group; 71 patients) were retrospectively analyzed in this study. The Zn-group was divided into 4 groups according to their serum Zn concentrations at 6 months after the start of Zn treatment. Results: Liver function significantly deteriorated in the no Zn-treatment group, while no notable change was observed in the Zn-group. The cumulative incidence rates of events and HCC at 3 years were lower in the Zn-group (9.5%, 7.6%) than in the no Zn-treatment group (24.9%, 19.2%) (p<0.001). According to the serum Zn concentrations, the cumulative incidence rates of events and HCC were significantly decreased in patients with Zn concentrations ≥ 70 µg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Zinc supplementation appears to be effective at maintaining liver function and suppressing events and HCC development, especially among patients whose Zn concentration is greater than 70 µg/dl.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Liver; NAFLD; NASH; Biomarkers; Reactive Species; Oxidative Stress; Lipid Peroxidation; Antioxidants.
Online: 14 September 2018 (14:11:31 CEST)
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is a term that covers a range of hepatic disorders involving fat deposits in the liver. NAFLD begins with simple steatosis and progresses into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) characterised by inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction and release of adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Oxidative stress and antioxidants are known to play a vital role in the pathogenesis and severity of NAFLD/NASH. A number of oxidative stress and antioxidant markers are employed in the assessment of the pathological state and progression of the disease. In this article, we review several biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidants that have been measured at clinical and experimental levels. The levels/ activity in various models reviewed are also included. Also included is a comprehensive description of oxidative stress, sources and contribution to the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: alcoholic liver disease; cognitive function; calorie intake; nutrition; BMI
Online: 3 December 2020 (14:22:03 CET)
Malnutrition and cognitive dysfunction are typical features of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and are correlated with the development of complications. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of nutritional state and diet on cognitive function in ALD. A total of 43 patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis were enrolled, and neuropsychological test was assessed according to body mass index (BMI, <22 and ≥22). In the ALD animal study, mice were divided into 5 groups (n=9/group; normal liquid, 5% EtOH+regular liquid, 5% EtOH+high-carbohydrate liquid, 5% EtOH+high-fat liquid, and 5% EtOH+high-protein liquid diet) and fed the same calories for 8-week. To assess cognitive function, we performed T-maze studies weekly before/after alcohol binging. In cognitive function (BMI <22 /≥22), language score of Korea mini-mental state (7.4±1.4/7.9±0.4), Rey-complex figure (72.0±25.9/58.4±33.6), Boston naming (11.7±2.7/13.0±1.8), forward digit span (6.7±1.8/7.5±1.6), Korean Color Word Stroop (24.2±26.5/43.6±32.4), and interference score (33.9±31.9/52.3±33.9) revealed significant differences. In the T-maze test, alcohol significantly delayed the time to reach food, and binge drinking provided a temporary recovery in cognition. The alcohol-induced delay was significantly reduced in the high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet groups. Synaptic function exhibited no changes in all groups. Cognitive dysfunction is affected by nutritional status and diet in ALD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: liver; Neuropilin-1; Toll-like receptors; COVID-19
Online: 10 August 2022 (05:05:04 CEST)
Purpose: The study aimed to investigate if there were any links between liver function biomarkers and immunoglobulins levels in serum, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1) in COVID-19 patients. The study also aimed to assess the accuracy—sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) by the receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis for immunoglobulins levels and TLRs expressions. Patients and Methods: This study included 150 patients (100 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 50 healthy volunteers as a control group). Patients with COVID-19 were subdivided into two groups according to the severity of symptoms (moderate and severe, with 50 patients each). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and IgM levels were estimated. TLRs (TLR2 and TLR4) and NRP1 gene expression in blood samples were investigated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). ROC analysis was also applied to determine the accuracy of various detected parameters in predicting the possibility of COVID-19 infection. Results: In COVID-19 patients, serum parameters related to liver function, except serum albumin, CRP, IgG, IgM, and TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 mRNA expression levels, significantly elevated compared to controls. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibited significantly higher liver enzymes (ALT, AST and LDH), CRP, and TLR2 mRNA expression levels and lower albumin levels than the moderate group. In the moderate and severe groups, ALT, CRP, TLR2, and TLR4 had a significant positive correlation with IgM levels. ALT, AST, LDH, CRP, TLR2, and TLR4 showed a significant positive correlation with IgG levels in both groups. In both the moderate and severe groups, NRP1 expression was found to be significantly correlated with CRP, IgG, IgM, TLR2, and TLR4. In contrast, serum albumin levels exhibited a significant negative correlation with IgG and IgM levels only in the severe group, but they showed a significant negative correlation with TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 expression in both moderate and severe groups. Serum ALT and AST activities were positively correlated with NRP1 expression in the moderate group but not in the severe group and as well as TLR2 and TLR4 expression in both the moderate and severe groups. ROC analysis indicated that AUC was higher than 0.800 for serum IgM level and TLR4 gene expression in moderate COVID-19 group. Conclusions: The increased liver function biomarkers in serum and NRP1 expression are closely correlated with sustained activations in humoral and innate immune responses during COVID-19 infection. As a result, TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 could be targets for limiting COVID-19 infection and impairment effects on liver function. Moreover, detection of IgM level in serum and TLR4 expression in blood have a good accuracy in predicting the possibility of infection with COVID-19 in moderate cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Total metabolic tumor volume; bone marrow to liver ratio; PET/CT; overall survival; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitor; standardized uptake value; response prediction
Online: 12 November 2021 (14:59:35 CET)
Quantitative biomarkers derived from positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have been suggested as prognostic variables in immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). As such data for first-line ICI therapy and especially for chemotherapy-ICI combinations are still scarce, we retrospectively evaluated baseline 18F-FDG-PET/CT of 85 consecutive patients receiving first-line pembrolizumab with chemotherapy (n=70) or as monotherapy (n=15). Maximum and mean standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis and bone marrow-/ spleen to liver ratio (BLR/SLR) were calculated. Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox-regression models were used to assess progression-free/overall survival (PFS/OS) and their determinant variables. Multivariate selection for PFS/OS revealed MTV as most relevant PET/CT biomarker (p<0.001). Median PFS/OS were significantly longer in patients with MTV≤70mL versus >70mL (PFS: 10 months (M; 95% confidence interval 4-16) vs. 4M (3-5), p=0.001; OS: not reached vs. 10M (5-15), p=0.004). Disease control rate was 81% vs. 53% for MTV≤/>70mL (p=0.007). BLR ≤1.06 versus >1.06 was associated with better outcomes (PFS: 8M (4-13) vs. 4M (3-6), p=0.034; OS: 19M (12-/) vs. 6M (4-12), p=0.005). In patients with MTV>70mL, concomitant BLR≤1.06 indicated a better prognosis. Higher MTV is associated with inferior PFS/OS in first-line ICI treated NSCLC, with BLR allowing additional risk stratification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: liver cirrhosis; liver fibrosis; gut microbiome' gut-liver axis
Online: 1 December 2020 (18:19:00 CET)
Liver cirrhosis is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases worldwide. In addition to viral hepatitis, genetic conditions such as steatohepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, and Wilson’s disease can also lead to cirrhosis. Moreover, alcohol can cause cirrhosis on its own and exacerbate chronic liver disease from other causes. The treatment of cirrhosis can be divided into addressing the cause of cirrhosis and reversing liver fibrosis. To this date, there is still no clear consensus on the treatment of cirrhosis. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in potential treatments that modulate the gut microbiota and gut-liver axis for the treatment of cirrhosis. According to recent studies, modulation of the gut microbiome by probiotics ameliorates the progression of liver disease. The precise mechanism for relieving cirrhosis via gut microbial modulation has not been identified. This paper summarizes the role and effects of the gut microbiome in cirrhosis based on experimental and clinical studies on absorbable antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. Moreover, it provides evidence of a relationship between the gut microbiome and liver cirrhosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: metabolic syndrome; colorectal cancer; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; liver surgery; hepatic resection; fatty liver; nutrition; protein
Online: 5 August 2021 (14:55:25 CEST)
Over the recent years, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disorder in the developed world, accounting for 20% to 46% of liver abnormalities. Steatosis is the hallmark of NAFLD and is recognized as an important risk factor for complication and death after general surgery, and even more so after liver resection. Similarly, liver steatosis also impacts the safety of live liver donation and transplantation. We aim to review surgical outcomes after liver resection for colorectal-metastases in patients with steatosis, and discuss the most common pre-operative strategies to reduce steatosis. Finally, as illustration, we report the favourable effect of a low-caloric, hyper-protein diet during a two-stage liver resection for colorectal metastases in a patient with severe steatosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; pediatric liver transplantation; immunosuppression; living donor liver transplantation
Online: 9 May 2022 (03:59:57 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 infection has received the attention of the scientific community due its respiratory manifestations and association with evolution to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). There are few studies characterizing SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric immunocompromised patients, such as liver transplanted (LT) patients.The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of the larger cohort of pediatric liver transplant recipients (PLTR) from a single center in Brazil who where contaminated with COVID-19 during the pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Primary outcomes: COVID-19 severity. The Cox regression method was used to determine independent predictors associated with the outcomes. Results: 74 PLTR were included. Patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of COVID-19 disease: moderate-severe COVID and asymptomatic-mild COVID. Patients categorized as moderate-severe COVID were younger (12.6 months vs. 82.1 months, p 0.03), higher prevalence of transplantation with deceased donor (50% vs. 4.3%, p 0.02) and with a higher prevalence of COVID-infected patients before 6 months after LT (75% vs. 5.7%, p 0.002). The independent predictor of COVID-19 severity identified in the multivariate analysis was COVID-19 infection < 6 months after LT (HR=0.001, 95% CI=0.001-0.67, p 0.03). Conclusion: The time interval of less than 6 months between COVID-19 infection and LT was the only predictor of disease severity in pediatric patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; Chronic viral hepatitis C; Liver fibrosis; Liver cirrhosis; Diagnosis of liver fibrosis; Machine learning
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:31:11 CET)
Aim. The purpose of the work was the development of a machine learning model for diagnosing the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C according to the data of routine clinical examination. Materials and methods. A total of 1240 patients with chronic viral hepatitis C was examined. A set of data obtained from 689 patients balancing by the stage of liver fibrosis was used for developing and testing machine learning models. 9 routine clinical parameters were selected as the most important predictors for determining the likelihood of liver fibrosis the 3–4 stages presence: age, height, weight and body mass index of the patient, the number of platelets in the clinical blood test, levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and total bilirubin in a biochemical blood test. Results. The accuracy of the developed method for determining the 3–4 stages of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C in comparison with the «gold standard» of diagnosis (liver biopsy) was 80.56% (95% CI: 69.53–88.94%), sensitivity — 66.67%, specificity — 94.44%. Conclusion. The developed method is an alternative to more expensive and geographically inaccessible studies. The method does not require the purchase of additional equipment or software, as well as additional laboratory tests, when used in real clinical practice. The introduction of the method into clinical practice can help to solve the problem of low material and territorial availability of diagnostic tests and allow determining the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; visceral fat; non-obese; fatty liver; insulin resistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:38:15 CEST)
Asians are known to more likely than Westerners develop fatty liver and lifestyle-related diseases despite their weight. However, the relationship between fat accumulation and lifestyle-related diseases in non-obese Asians is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze visceral fat and hepatic fat in participants with a normal body mass index (BMI) and examine their characteristics during a medical checkup. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 663 of 1,142 patients who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and who had an alcohol intake (converted to ethanol) of <30 g/day for males and <20 g/day for females and a BMI of <25 kg/m2 during a health checkup. Participants were classified into four groups: group A, visceral fat accumulation (VFA) (−) and fatty liver (FL) (−) (n = 549); group B, VFA (+) and FL(−) (n = 32); group C, VFA (−) and FL (+) (n = 58); and group D, VFA (+) and FL (+) (n = 24). The frequencies of lifestyle-related disease complications, liver function tests, and liver fibrosis were evaluated among the four groups. Compared with group A (control), groups B, C, and D had higher number of males; BMI; abdominal circumference, ALT, AST, γ-GTP, triglyceride, uric acid, fasting blood sugar levels; and incidence of hyperlipidemia. Groups C and D had higher ALT, HbA1c, cholinesterase, and triglyceride levels; FIB4 index; and number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than groups A and B; however, there was no difference between groups A and B. FL is a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis in non-obese Japanese individuals; however, VFA only is not a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0265.v1
Online: 20 December 2019 (06:44:08 CET)
Excess alcohol consumption is a top risk factor for death and disability. Fatty liver will likely develop and the risk of liver disease increases. We have previously demonstrated that an essential amino acid supplement (EAAS) improved protein synthesis and reduced intrahepatic lipid in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the influence of EAAS on intrahepatic lipid (IHL), body composition, and blood lipids in individuals with mild to moderate alcohol use disorder (AUD). Following consent, determination of eligibility, and medical screening, 25 participants (18 males at 38±15 years/age and 7 females at 34±18 years/age) were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of two dosages: a low dose (LD: 8 grams of EAAS twice/day (BID)) or high dose (HD: 13 grams of EAAS BID). Both groups consumed the supplement for 4 weeks. Pre- and post-EAAS administration, IHL was determined using magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, body composition was analyzed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and blood parameters were measured by LabCorp. T-tests were used for statistical analysis and considered significant at P<0.05. While there was no significant change in IHL in the LD group, there was a significant 23% reduction in IHL in the HD group (p=0.02). Fat mass, lean tissue mass, bone mineral content, and blood lipids were not altered. Post-EAAS phosphatidylethanol was elevated and remained unchanged in LD at 407±141 ng/ml and HD at 429±196 ng/ml, indicating chronic and excess alcohol consumption. Based on these results, we conclude that 13 grams of proprietary EAAS consumed BID lowers IHL in individuals with mild to moderate AUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0124.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: nonalcoholic liver disease; triglyceride and glucose index; metabolic syndrome; liver biopsy; obesity
Online: 8 October 2021 (13:34:38 CEST)
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a component of metabolic syndrome, which has insulin resistance (IR) as the primary physiopathological event. The aim of study was to establish the association between IR, assessed using triglyceride and glucose index (TyG), and histopathological features of NAFLD lesions. Methods: The study included patients with metabolic syndrome. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting lipid profiles and liver enzymes were measured. IR was assessed by TyG index. Liver biopsy was performed for assessment steatosis and fibrosis. Results: TyG index had a mean value of 8.93 ± 1.45, with a higher value in the patients with overweight (p=0.002) and obesity (p=0.004) than in the patients with normal weight. TyG index mean value of 8.78 ± 0.65 in subjects without NASH, 8.91 ± 0.57 in patients with borderline NASH and 9.13 ± 0.55 in patients with definite NASH. Significant difference was found between subjects without NASH and the ones with definite NASH (p=0.004). The analysis of the area under the ROC curve proved that TyG index is a predictor for NASH (p=0.043). Conclusion: TyG index is a facile tool used to identify individuals at risk for NAFLD, but not for the progression of liver lesions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; liver fibrosis; amino acids; insulin resistance
Online: 7 May 2020 (13:29:39 CEST)
Altered amino acid levels have been found in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is not clear whether this alteration is due to altered hepatic metabolism or insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association among amino acid levels, fatty liver, and liver fibrosis while eliminating the influence of insulin resistance. NAFLD and liver fibrosis were diagnosed using transient elastography and subjects were divided in three groups: normal, NAFLD, and liver fibrosis. To exclude the influence of insulin resistance, the subjects were matched using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The amino acid serum levels were compared among the groups. Of 731 enrolled subjects, 251 and 33 were diagnosed with NAFLD and liver fibrosis. Although significant differences were observed among the groups in the serum levels of most amino acids, all but those of glutamate and glycine disappeared after matching for HOMA-IR. The multivariate logistic regression revealed that glutamate, glycine, and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for liver fibrosis. The altered serum levels of most amino acids were associated with insulin resistance, while the increase in glutamate and the decrease in glycine levels were strongly associated not only with insulin resistance, but also with altered liver metabolism in patients with liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0146.v1
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:03:10 CEST)
Fenugreek seeds are widely used in Asia and other places of the world for their nutritive and medicinal properties. In Asia, Fenugreek seeds are also widely recommended for the geriatric populations. Here, we evaluated for the first time the effect of fenugreek seed feed supplementation on the liver antioxidant defense systems in aging mice. The study was conducted on 12 months aged mice which were given fenugreek seed dietary supplement. We have evaluated the activities of various antioxidant defense enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and estimated the phenolics and free radical scavenging properties in mice liver upon fenugreek supplementation. The estimation of SOD, GPx and GR activities in aged mice liver revealed a significant (P<0.01) difference among all the liver enzymes. Overall, this study reveals that fenugreek seed dietary supplementation has a positive effect in on the activities of the hepatic antioxidant defense enzymes in the aged mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0438.v1
Online: 24 April 2020 (10:53:36 CEST)
COVID-19 breakout in Italy has caused a huge number of severely ill patients with a serious increase in mortality. Although lungs seem to be the main target of the infection very few information are available about liver involvement in COVID-19 infection, that could possibly evocate a systemic disease targeting a lot of organs. Since now there are no reports of large series of histological evaluation of liver morphology in this setting. Knowledge of histological liver findings connected to clinical data is crucial in management of this disease.Post-mortem wedge liver biopsies from 48 patients died for COVID-19 infection were available from two main hospitals located in northern Italy, Lombardy; all sample were obtained during autopsies. No patient has a significant clinical complain of liver disease or signs of liver failure before and during hospitalization; for each of them laboratory data focused on liver were available. All liver samples showed minimal inflammation features; on the other side, many histological pictures compatible with vascular alterations were observed, characterized by portal vein braches number increase associated with lumen massive dilatation, partial or complete recent luminal thrombosis of portal and sinusoidal vessels, fibrosis of portal tract, focally severely enlarged and fibrotic. Our preliminary results concerning histological liver involvement in COVID-19 infection confirm the clinical impression that liver failure is not a main concern and this organ is not the target of significant inflammatory damage; histopatological findings are highly suggestive for marked alteration of intrahepatic blood vessel network secondary to systemic alterations induced by virus that could target, besides lung parenchyma, cardiovascular system, coagulation cascade or endothelial layer of blood vessels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1030065
Online: 16 December 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Toll-like receptor 5 ligand, flagellin, and Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1) are involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine whether VAP-1 mediates flagellin-induced hepatic fat accumulation. The effects of flagellin on adipocyte VAP-1 expression were first studied in vitro. Then, flagellin (100 ng/mouse) or saline was intraperitoneally injected to C57BL/6J WT and C57BL/6-Aoc3-/- (VAP-1 KO) mice on high-fat diet twice a week every two weeks for 10-weeks. After that, the effects on inflammation, insulin signaling, and metabolism were studied in liver and adipose tissues. Hepatic fat was quantified histologically and biochemically. Because flagellin challenge increased VAP-1 expression in human adipocytes, we used VAP-1 KO mice to determine whether VAP-1 regulates the inflammatory and metabolic effects of flagellin in vivo. In mice, VAP-1 mediated flagellin-induced inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and lipolysis in visceral adipose tissue. Consequently, increased release of glycerol led to hepatic steatosis in WT but not KO mice. Flagellin-induced hepatic fibrosis was not mediated by VAP-1. VAP-1 KO mice harbored more inflammation-related microbes than WT, while flagellin did not affect the gut microbiota. Our results suggest that by acting on visceral adipose tissue, flagellin increased leukocyte infiltration that induced lipolysis. Further, the released glycerol participated in hepatic fat accumulation. In conclusion, the results describe that gut microbial flagellin through VAP-1 induced hepatic steatosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: tacrolimus; CYP3A5; liver transplant; pharmacokinetics
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:14:34 CET)
The body of evidence available in paediatrics population is limited for making clinical decisions regarding pharmacotherapy optimization of tacrolimus. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms and their relationship with tacrolimus requirements in paediatric population. This was a longitudinal cohort study, with two-year follow-up of 77 patients under 18 who had liver transplant over the period 2009-2012 at the Paediatric Hospital J. P Garrahan. Tacrolimus levels from day 5 to 2-year post-transplant were obtained from hospital records of routine therapeutic drug monitoring. The genotyping of CYP3A5 (CYP3A5*1/*3 or *3/*3) were performed in liver biopsies of both the donor and the recipient. Recipients frequency of CYP3A5 *1 expression was 37.1% and 32.2% for Donors. Patient who received an organ expresser showed lower Co/dose especially after 90 days post-surgery. The role of each polymorphism is different according to days after transplantation proceeds and it must be taken into account to optimize the benefits of TAC therapy during the post-transplant induction and maintenance phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: afamin; adropin; alcoholic liver cirrhosis
Online: 30 March 2018 (06:21:07 CEST)
Introduction: Liver cirrhosis develops in about 10% of alcohol abusers. To date, a number of cells and cytokines have been identified, which are involved in induction of liver fibrotic processes. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine serum concentrations of afamin and adropin in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and to define their correlation with the stage of disease. Materials and methods: The study included 99 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis from the region of Lublin, (Eastern Poland). Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed based on clinical features, history of heavy alcohol consumption, laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasonography. The control group consisted of 20 healthy individuals without liver disease who did not abuse alcohol. The serum afamin and adropin concentrations were determined using ELISA kits. Results: The concentration of afamin was found to be significantly lower in patients with compensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis, i.e. P-Ch B (85.1±40.6 μg/ml) and P-Ch C (56.4±32.3 μg/ml) individuals, as compared to the control group (135.9±43.6 μg/ml); p-value was <0.01 and <0.001, respectively. As far as adropin is concerned, a reverse relationship was demonstrated: the highest concentration was found in patients with P-Ch C (11.7±5.7 ng/ml) cirrhosis. Furthermore, the above concentration was significantly higher compared to patients with P-Ch A cirrhosis (7.2±2.8 ng/ml; p<0.05) and controls (7.5±2.6 ng/ml; p<0.05). Conclusions: The concentration of afamin decreases with the severity of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, which most likely results from impaired hepatic synthesis. Otherwise, the higher the stage of disease according to the Child-Pugh score, the higher the concentration of adropin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0166.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: FTO; liver; gluconeogenesis; lipogenesis; glucose; insulin; type 2 diabetes; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Online: 9 October 2018 (03:52:49 CEST)
Common genetic variants of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are strongly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. FTO is ubiquitously expressed, but appears to have tissue-specific roles. Earlier studies have focused on the role of hypothlamic FTO in the regulation of metabolism. However, it appears that FTO plays a role in the regulation of metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Recent studies suggest that expression of hepatic FTO is regulated by metabolic signals such as nutrients and hormones and altered FTO levels in liver affects glucose and lipid metabolism. This review outlines recent findings on hepatic FTO in the regulation of metabolism, with particular focus on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. It is proposed that abnormal activity of hepatic signaling pathways involving FTO links metabolic impairments such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, a better understanding of these pathways may lead to therapeutic approaches to treat these metabolic diseases by targeting hepatic FTO. The overall goal of this review is to place FTO within the context of hepatic regulation of metabolism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: liver fibrosis; NASH; innate immune cells.
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:48:02 CEST)
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, is the most severe variation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This disease is a consequence of several metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia that trigger different pathways of cell dysfunction and systemic inflammation which ultimately affect the liver. Furthermore, those mechanisms activate a complex cascade of immune response after repeated cell aggression. In the liver cytokines and interleukins interact with network of innate immune cells, including Kupffer cells (KCs), dendritic cells (DCs), lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSC). These cells translate those signals into immune responses and pathologic hepatic changes during the development of NASH. In this scenario the development of fibrosis is the most important change since it is an adaptive mechanism that in the short time has the objective of repair the damaged tissue but after prolonged injury it progresses to parenchymal scarring, cellular dysfunction and finally to organ failure. Finally, since NASH is an important cause of liver cirrhosis; this review addresses the cellular pathways of fibrosis in the setting of NASH explained by the interaction between immune and hepatic cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: brucellosis; elevated liver enzymes; hepatomegaly; children
Online: 29 August 2019 (17:22:42 CEST)
Background and Objective: In the present study, the purpose was to compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory results of pediatric brucella cases who had liver involvement and who had no specific organ involvement. Material and Methods: The data of 248 patients between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with Brucellosis between July 2017 and August 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who had liver involvement and who did not have other specific organ involvement were compared in terms of presentation, physical examination findings, age, gender, hemogram, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubines, sedimentation, CRP, clinical and laboratory findings, and culture and relapse rates. Results: No significant differences were detected between the patients who had liver involvement (n=92) and who did not have specific organ involvement (n=156) in terms of diagnosis age and gender. Loss of appetite, nausea and sensitive stomach were higher in the patients who had hepatic involvement, and weariness was determined to be more in the control group patients. In the patients who had hepatic involvement, the hemoglobin and platelet values were lower, and the sedimentation, CRP and blood culture growth were higher. The relapse rates were lower in patients who had liver involvement. Conclusion: In patients who have liver involvement, in addition to elevated hepatomegaly and transaminase levels, the growth rate of the acute-phase reactants and brucella is higher in blood culture; and the relapse rate is lower after treatment. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatomegaly and transaminase elevation where brucellosis is seen endemically. We believe that early diagnosis of brucellosis is important in treatment response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0659.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: miRNAs; colorectal cancer; exosomes; liver; metastases
Online: 29 October 2018 (06:55:09 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies with a high incidence and mortality. An essential challenge in colorectal cancer management is to identify new prognostic factors that could better estimate the evolution and treatment responses of this disease. Considering their role in cancer development, progression and metastasis, miRNAs have become an important class of molecules suitable for cancer biomarkers discovery. We performed a systematic search of studies investigating the role of miRNAs in colorectal progression and liver metastasis, published until October 2018. In this review, we present up-to-date information regarding the specific microRNAs involved in CRC development, considering their roles in alteration of Wnt/βcatenin, EGFR, TGFβ and TP53 signaling pathways. We also emphasize the role of miRNAs in controlling the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CRC cells, a process responsible for liver metastasis in a circulating tumor cell-dependent manner. Furthermore, we discuss the role of miRNAs transported by CRC-derived exosomes in mediating liver metastases, by preparing the secondary pre-metastatic niche and in inducing liver carcinogenesis in a Dicer-dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: liver fibrosis; Smad; decoy; oligodeoxynucleotide; CCl4
Online: 30 June 2018 (14:36:06 CEST)
Hepatic fibrosis is the wound-healing process of chronic hepatic disease that leads to end-stage of hepatocellular carcinoma and demolition of hepatic structures. EMT has been identified to phenotypic conversion of the epithelium to mesenchymal phenotype that occurred during fibrosis. Smad decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) is a synthetic DNA fragment containing complementary sequence of Smad transcription factor. Thus, this study evaluated the anti-fibrotic effects of Smad decoy ODN on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. As shown in histological results, CCl4 treatment triggered hepatic fibrosis and increased Smad expression. On the contrary, Smad decoy ODN administration suppressed fibrogenesis and EMT process. The expression of Smad signaling and EMT-associated protein was markedly decreased in Smad decoy ODN treatment mice compared with CCl4-injuried mice. In conclusion, these data indicate the practicability of Smad decoy ODN administration for preventing hepatic fibrosis and EMT processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Lymphocytes; liver function biomarkers; WBCs; and CRP
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:28:34 CEST)
Abstract Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the clinical laboratory features of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients among a cohort of the Egyptian population. The study also aimed to assess the accuracy—sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of various detected parameters in predicting the severity of COVID-19 infection. Patients and methods: One hundred diagnosed COVID-19 patients and fifty healthy participants in total were involved in current study. COVID-19 patients were categorized based on how severe their symptoms into two groups. Estimates were made for serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as white blood cells (WBCs) count, lymphocytes count, and hemoglobin content (Hb) content. Results: COVID-19 patients displayed increased serum levels of liver enzymes and CRP as well as WBCs count when compared to healthy individuals. On the other hand, Hb content, lymphocytes count, and albumin level fell in all COVID-19 patients. The severe group showed a statistically significant rise in liver enzymes, WBCs, and CRP levels, compared with moderate group. WBCs and lymphocytes counts were closely correlated with age, ALT, LDH, and CRP in all cases. WBCs and lymphocytes counts also had a negative correlation with albumin Level. Additionally, WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level have higher AUC in severe than in moderate cases. WBCs count, LDH activity and CRP level have AUC above 0.80 in the severe group. Conclusion: The current investigation found a significant correlation between WBCs count, lymphocytes count, CRP level and liver injury in COVID-19 patients. WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level were effective indicators for determining the severity of COVID-19.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0406.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Yellow fever; Liver; Vascular endothelium; Adhesion molecule.
Online: 24 December 2021 (11:41:19 CET)
Yellow fever (YF) is a pansystemic disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV), the prototype species of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus, and has a highly complex host-pathogen relationship, in which endothelial dysfunction reflects viral disease tropism. In this study, the in situ endothelial response was evaluated. Liver tissue samples were collected from 21 YFV-positive patients who died due to the disease and five flavivirus-negative controls who died of other causes and whose hepatic parenchyma architecture was preserved. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissues in the hepatic parenchyma of YF cases showed significantly higher expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and very late antigen-4 in YFV-positive cases than in flavivirus-negative controls. These results indicate that endothelium activation aggravates the inflammatory response by inducing the expression of adhesion molecules that contribute to the rolling, recruitment, migration, and construction of the inflammatory process in the hepatic parenchyma in fatal YF cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: CDAHFD; NASH; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Liver; Oxidative stress
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:47:44 CEST)
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been rapidly increasing worldwide. A choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined high fat diet (CDHFD) has been used to create a mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). There are some reports about the effects on mice of being fed CDAHFD for a long time, 1 to 3 months. However, the effect of this diet over a short period has been unknown. Therefore, we examined the effect of one week of feeding CDAHFD on the mouse liver. Feeding this diet for only one week induced lipid droplet deposition in the liver with increasing activity of liver-derived enzymes in the plasma. On the other hand, it did not induce fibrosis and cirrhosis. Additionally, it was demonstrated that mitochondrial respiration is significantly impaired with severe oxidative stress in the liver by CDAHFD, associated with a decreasing mitochondrial DNA copy number and complexes-proteins. In the gene expression analysis of the liver, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were significantly increased by CDAHFD. These results demonstrated that one week of feeding CDAHFD to mice induces steatohepatitis with mitochondrial dysfunction and severe oxidative stress, without fibrosis, which can partially mimic the early stage of the NASH in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0411.v1
Online: 16 March 2021 (10:14:06 CET)
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. The recently developed HDV mouse model based on the delivery of HDV replication-competent genomes using adeno-associated vectors (AAV) develop a liver pathology very similar to the human disease, and allowed us to perform mechanistic studies. We have generated different AAV-HDV mutants to eliminate the expression HDV antigens (HDAgs), characterized them both in vitro and in vivo. We confirmed that S-HDAg is essential for HDV replication and cannot be replaced by L-HDAg or host cellular proteins, and the L-HDAg is essential for HDV infectious particle production. We have also found that the lack of L-HDAg resulted in the increase of of S-HDAg expression levels and the exacerbation of liver damage which is T cell independent but is associated with an increment in liver inflammation. Interestingly, early expression of L-HDAg significantly ameliorated the liver damage induced by the mutant expressing only the S-HDAg. In summary, the use of AAV-HDV represents a very attractive platform to interrogate in vivo the role of viral components in the HDV life cycle and to better understand the mechanism of HDV-induced liver pathology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0114.v1
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:57:14 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that has resulted in a global pandemic. The clinical symptoms of the disease vary from mild illness to acute respiratory issues. Older age, diabetes, cardiac diseases predict poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Various reports mention the incidence of liver injury with transient elevations in the levels of aminotransferases (liver function enzymes). The clinical characteristics, etiology and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver damage in SARS-CoV2 infected patients need to be explored. This review highlights the severity of the hepatic injury in COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Extrac cellular matrix; Relaxin; liver fibrosis; MMPs
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:16:49 CET)
BACKGROUND Relaxin (RLX), a hormone-like molecule with pleiotropic effects, has been found to reduce matrix deposition and mediate collagen degradation in animal models of chronic liver injuries and might be considered as an adjuvant therapeutic agent for progressive liver diseases. AIMS In the present study, we evaluated whether RLX affects the development of liver fibrosis in an experimental mouse model of NASH in C57BL6 male mice fed with a methionine-choline deficient diet (MCD). Methods Mice were treated per os as we intended to assess the enteric absorption and bioavailability of orally administered RLX (RLX purified from pig ovaries, IBSA SA, Lugano, Switzerland). Mice were fed the MCD diet for 6 weeks. After the initial 3 weeks, one group received drinking water supplemented with RLX (25 mcg/ml) whereas the other continued to receive regular water. A third group of mice fed a regular diet served as control. After 3 additional weeks mice were anesthetized and sacrificed. Results A significant, reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and of relevant markers of active fibrogenesis and extracellular matrix deposition, Col1A1 and α-SMA, was observed in mice treated with RLX vs controls. RLX also induced a significant decrease of TIMP1 and an increase of both MMP 2 and 9 when evaluated by zymographic analysis in liver extracts. Conclusions Although preliminary pharmacokinetics experiments showed barely detectable amounts of RLX in the blood of mice treated per os, these data support the absorption of orally administered RLX and confirm its potential therapeutic use in the management of liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: alcoholic fatty liver disease; PARP; PJ34; triglyceride
Online: 24 April 2017 (05:30:53 CEST)
The specific role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) were unclear. Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) is a NAD-consuming enzyme and its specific role in the pathogenesis of AFLD is still elusive. In current investigation, we found that chronic alcohol exposure enhanced hepatic PARP expression and activity and lowered hepatic NAD+ level. PARP activity inhibitor PJ34 decreased the intracellular TG content in hepatocyte. Moreover, PJ34 suppressed the gene expression of DGAT1 and DGAT2 and elevated the intracellular NAD+ level in hepatocyte. These mechanistic observation was validated in alcohol-fed mice injected with PJ34 intraperitoneally. PJ34 injection attenuated hepatic TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. Further, the gene expression of hepatic SERBP-1c, DGAT1 and DGAT2 were lowered by PJ34 injection, while the hepatic NAD+ level was augmented by PJ34 injection in alcohol-fed mice. At last, the nicotinamide riboside supplementation alleviated hepatic TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. These data indicate that applying PARP specific inhibitor PJ34 by intraperitoneal injection attenuated hepatic NAD+ depletion and TG accumulation in alcohol-fed mice, which might be a potential candidate for AFLD therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: salidroside; inflammation; alcoholic liver injury; TLR4; TAK1
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:45:06 CEST)
The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14. SDS inhibited LPS-triggered phosphorylation of LPS-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were effectively blocked by SDS. SDS concentration-dependently suppressed LPS mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels, as well as their downstream products, NO. SDS significantly inhibited protein secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. Additionally C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated SDS for continuous 5 days, followed by three gavages of ethanol every 30 min. Alcohol binge drinking caused the increasing of hepatic lipid accumulation and serum transaminases levels. SDS pretreatment significantly alleviated liver inflammatory changes and serum transaminases levels. Further investigation indicated that SDS markedly decreased protein level of IL-1β in serum. Taken together, these data implied that SDS inhibits liver inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory liver injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0444.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: F. thonningii; ethnomedicine; obesity; lipid profile; liver disease
Online: 24 November 2021 (08:17:39 CET)
BACKGROUND: Ficus thonningii extracts exhibit hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. We investigated the potential of methanolic F. thonningii stem-bark extracts (MEFT) to protect growing Sprague-Dawley (SD) against high-fructose diet-induced metabolic derangements (MD) in a model mimicking children fed obesogenic diets. METHODS: Eighty (40 males; 40 females) 21-days old SD rat pups were randomly allocat-ed to and administered, for 8 weeks, five treatment regimens: 1 - standard rat chow (SC) + water (PW), 2 - SC + 20% (w/v) fructose solution (FS), 3 - SC + FS + fenofibrate at 100 mg/kg bwt/day, 4 - SC + FS + low dose MEFT (LD; 50 mg/kg bwt/day) and 5 - SC + FS + high dose MEFT (HD; 500 mg/kg bwt/day). Body weight, glucose load tolerance, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride, plasma insulin concentration, sensitivity to insulin, liver mass and fat content, steatosis and inflammation were determined. RESULTS: Fructose had no effect on the rats’ growth, glucose and insulin concentration, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity (P>0.05) but increased triglycerides in females; in-duced hepatic microsteatosis and inflammation in both sexes but macrosteatosis in females (P<0.05). In females, MEFT prevented fructose-induced plasma triglyceride increase. Low dose MEFT increased liver lipid content in females (P<0.05). The MEFT protected the rats against hepatic steatosis and inflammation but fenofibrate protected against hepatic mi-crosteatosis. CONCLUSION: MEFT can be used as prophylaxis against dietary fructose-induced ele-ments of MD but caution must be taken as low dose MEFT increases hepatic lipid accretion in females predisposing to fatty liver disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0350.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: amidated alginate; tetrahydrolipstatin; fat; cholesterol; serum; liver; faeces
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:30:49 CET)
The effects of octadecylamide of alginic acid (amidated alginate) and tetrahydrolipstatin on serum and hepatic cholesterol, and the faecal output of fat and sterols were compared in rats. Amidated alginate is a sorbent of lipids, tetrahydrolipstatin is inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Rats were fed diets containing cholesterol and palm fat at 10 and 70 g/kg, respectively. Palm fat was provided by coconut meal. Amidated alginate at 40 g/kg diet significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL and hepatic cholesterol, hepatic lipids, and increased faecal output of fat and coprostanol. Tetrahydrolipstatin at 300 mg/kg diet significantly decreased LDL cholesterol, hepatic lipids and increased faecal output of fat. The intake of feed was not significantly influenced, however the weight gains in rats fed amidated alginate was lower than in rats of the control group. Both amidated alginate and tetrahydrolipstatin modified fatty acid profile in excreta lipids. Concentrations of saturated fatty acids were decreased and that of unsaturated fatty acids were increased. Despite different mode of action, amidated alginate and tetrahydrolipstatin were equally efficient in the removing dietary fat from the body.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: liver radioembolization; cancer therapy; dose optimization; TARE; SIRT
Online: 9 February 2021 (09:49:36 CET)
Liver radioembolization is a treatment option for unresectable liver cancers, performed by infusion of 90Y or 166Ho loaded spheres in the hepatic artery. As tumoral cells are mainly perfused via the liver artery unlike hepatic lobules, a twofold tumor to normal liver dose ratio is commonly obtained. To improve tumoral cells killing while preserving lobules, co-infusion of arterial vasoconstrictor has been proposed but with limited success: the hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR) and hepatic vascular escape mechanism hamper the arterioles vasoconstriction. The proposed project aims to take benefit of the HABR by co-infusing a mesenteric arterial vasodilator: the portal flow enhancement inducing the vasoconstriction of the intra sinusoids arterioles barely impacting liver tumors that are mainly fed by novel and anarchic external arterioles. Animal studies were reviewed and dopexamine was identified as a promising safe candidate reducing by 4 the hepatic lobules arterial flow. A clinical trial design is proposed. A four to sixfold improvement of the tumoral to normal tissue dose ratio is expected, pushing the therapy towards a real curative intention, especially in HCC where ultra-selective spheres delivery is often not possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: prebiotic; oligosaccharides; gut microbiota; fatty liver; metabolism; mitochondria
Online: 11 September 2020 (04:17:52 CEST)
Understanding the importance of gut microbiota (GM) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has raised the hope for therapeutic microbes. We have shown that high hepatic fat associated with low abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in humans and further, administration of F. prausnitzii prevented NAFLD in mice. Here, we aimed to target F. prausnitzii by prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) to treat NAFLD. First, the effect of XOS on F. prausnitzii growth was assessed in vitro. Then, XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat-diet for 12-weeks in Wistar rats (n=10/group). XOS increased F. prausnitzii growth having only minor impact on the GM composition. When supplemented with HFD, XOS prevented hepatic steatosis. The underlying mechanisms involved enhanced hepatic β-oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. 1H-NMR analysis of caecal metabolites showed that compared to HFD, LFD group had healthier caecal short-chain fatty acid profile and the combination of HFD and XOS was associated with reduced caecal isovalerate and tyrosine, metabolites previously linked to NAFLD. Caecal branched-chain fatty acids associated positively and butyrate negatively with hepatic triglycerides. In conclusion, our study identifies F. prausnitzii as a possible target to treat NAFLD with XOS. The underlying preventive mechanisms involved improved hepatic oxidative metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0610.v1
Online: 27 August 2020 (10:32:16 CEST)
Signaling through GPR109a, the putative receptor for the endogenous ligand β-OH butyrate, inhibits adipose tissue lipolysis. Niacin, an anti-atherosclerotic drug that can induce insulin resistance, activates GPR109a at nM concentrations. GPR109a is not essential for niacin to improve serum lipid profiles. To better understand the involvement of GPR109a signaling in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, we treated GPR109a wildtype (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice with repeated overnight injections of saline or niacin in physiological states characterized by low (ad libitum fed) or high (16h fasted) concentrations of the endogenous ligand, β-OH butyrate. In the fed state, niacin increased expression of PEPCK mRNA independent of genotype, while increasing CPT1 mRNA only in GPR109a -/- mice. Niacin decreased fasting serum non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in both GPR109a +/+ and -/- mice. Independent of GPR109a expression, niacin blunted fast-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) mRNA expression. Surprisingly, GPR109a knockout did not affect glucose or lipid homeostasis or hepatic gene expression in either fed or fasted mice. In turn, GPR109a does not appear to be essential for the metabolic response to the ketogenic state or the pharmacological benefits associated with niacin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Liver cirrhosis; epidemiology; etiology; risk factors; pathophysiology; diagnosis.
Online: 11 March 2019 (09:44:18 CET)
Liver cirrhosis is a chronic disease that is characterized by the presence of fibrosis and regeneration of nodules in the liver whose consequences are the development of portal hypertension and liver failure. Cirrhosis arises from a wide variety of chronic diseases, which progresses slowly after years or decades. Liver cirrhosis is a public health problem. It is usually associated with viral hepatitis, consumption of alcohol, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune processes, storage diseases, toxic substances, and medications. Cirrhosis is the fourteenth most common cause of death in adults throughout the world, the fourth in Europe and the ninth in the United States. The prevalence of this disease is underestimated because it is symptomatic it is not diagnosed in initial stages, and it usually goes to the decompensated stage at a rate of 5 to 7% per year. We review here the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, and diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0448.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: liver stiffness; MERTK; chronic hepatitis C; cirrhosis; SNPs
Online: 19 October 2018 (10:56:19 CEST)
Background: The myeloid-epithelial-reproductive tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is involved in hepatic steatosis, inflammation and liver fibrosis. Here we evaluated the association between the MERTK rs4374383 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective study (repeated measures design) in 208 patients who had liver stiffness measurement (LSM), which was assessed by transient elastography No patient had cirrhosis at baseline (LSM≥12.5 kPa). Results: At baseline, 53.8% were male, the median age was 47.1 years, 13.5% reported a high intake of alcohol, 10.1% were prior injection drug users, 85.3% were infected by HCV genotype 1, and 22.6% had previously failed antiviral therapy (pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin). During a median follow-up of 46.6 months, 26 patients developed cirrhosis. The rs4374383 G carriers had a higher risk of increasing LSM (adjusted arithmetic mean ratio (aAMR)=1.14; p=0.006) and a higher likelihood of having an increase in LSM greater than 5 kPa (ΔLSM≥5 kPa) [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.37; p=0.029], and greater than 7 kPa (ΔLSM≥7 kPa) [aOR=3.24; p=0.032], after controlling for confounding. The SNP’s association with cirrhosis progression was close to statistical significance (aOR=2.18; p=0.070). Conclusions: MERTK rs4374383 A carriers had a lower risk of liver fibrosis progression than G carriers, supporting the hypothesis that this SNP seems to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of liver disease in HCV-infected patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0468.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: esculetin; cancer; oxidative stress; inflammation; arthritis; diabetes; fatty liver
Online: 29 August 2022 (05:25:05 CEST)
Esculetin is a coumarin compound, which belongs to the class of benzopyrone enriched in various plants such as Sonchus grandifolius, Aesculus turbinata, and many others. Glycosides and caffeic acid conjugates are the common forms of esculetin present in medicinal plants. Esculetin acts as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-hepatic, and anti-cancer agent by inhibiting the production of free radicals, inflammatory mediators, and genes that cause liver diseases and cancer. It also aids in the regulation of blood sugar. Scientists developing pharmaceutical formulations require some rationale and preliminary studies for drug design, but a small number of clinical studies on humans containing esculetin limit its potential for use as a safe alternative drug. Therefore, in this review article, the published studies have been reviewed to identify the pathogenesis of cancer, oxidative stress, inflammation, arthritis, diabetes and fatty liver along with the discussion on potential therapeutic strategies of esculetin. Advancements in our understanding of these diseases will aid in the development of new and innovative medications for treating many ailments. In conclusion, esculetin has immense potential to be used as a safe drug against many diseases but requires further testing and confirmation through clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Anorexia; adolescents; pediatric; liver injury; aminotransferase; renal injury; refeeding
Online: 2 June 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Background: Only few pediatric reports exist regarding the prevalence, cause and evolution of liver and renal injury in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of hepatic and renal failure at admission and during hospitalization, especially during refeeding in a cohort of hospitalized adolescents with AN.Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of adolescents with AN in a single hospital of Marseille from 2013 to 2019, we compared four groups on admission: elevated aminotransferases (AT)/normal AT and renal injury/no renal injury to analyze the differences between them (demographic factors, anthropometric factors, disease duration, initial prescribed calories, speed of refeeding, aminotransferase level, glomerular filtration rate). We observed the evolution of AT and renal injury for these four groups during refeeding (by the increase of kilocalories). Results: A total of 29 subjects with AN met eligibility criteria (age: 14.2 years, female (86.2%), BMI at admission (Z-score= -2.8 standard deviation (SD)) with elevated AT (20.7 %) and renal injury (13.8 %) on admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-4.05 vs -2 SD, p = 0.013), lower expected weight for height (69% vs 76%, p = 0.034) and longer disease duration (2.1 vs 0.9 years, p =0,032) were significantly associated with elevated liver enzymes at admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-3.35 vs -2.5 SD, p = 0.002), lower expected weight for height at admission (69% vs 74,5%, p = 0.002) and loss of weight before admission (0.66 vs à 0.20 kg per day, p = 0.002) were associated with renal injury at admission. Time nadir BMI (13.5 vs 6.5 days, p = 0.034) and duration of hospitalization (55 vs 41 days, p = 0.036) were longer in elevated enzymes on admission group. During refeeding, liver enzymes (95% confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) aspartate aminotransferase: -0.07 [-0.11; -0.03] and OR alanine aminotransferase: -0.16 [-0.27; -0.06]) and renal injury (95% CI, OR creatinine: -0.013 [-0.017; -0.008]) have normalized with the increase of calories, with significant association.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that degree of malnutrition is associated with liver and renal injury on admission. Theses failures disappeared with refeeding. In the future, prospective multicentric studies could examine evolution of renal and hepatic failure undergoing refeeding in large pediatric cohort of AN.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: in vivo magnetic resonance; liver metabolism; hyperpolarization; stable isotopes
Online: 23 August 2021 (15:34:21 CEST)
The liver is a key node of whole-body nutrient and fuel metabolism and is also the principal site for detoxification of xenobiotic compounds. As such, hepatic metabolite concentrations and/or turnover rates inform the status of both hepatic and systemic metabolic diseases as well as the disposition of medications. As a tool to better understand liver metabolism in these settings, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers a non-invasive means of monitoring hepatic metabolic activity in real time both by direct observation of concentrations and dynamics of specific metabolites as well as by observation of their enrichment by stable isotope tracers. This review summarizes the applications and advances in human liver metabolic studies by in vivo MRS over the past 35 years and discusses future directions and opportunities that will be opened by the development of ultra-high field MR systems and by hyperpolarized stable isotope tracers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Corticosteroids; Glucocorticoids; Solid organ transplantation; Liver; Kidney; Heart; Lung
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:30:41 CEST)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been the mainstay of immunosuppressive therapy in solid organ transplantation (SOT) for decades due to their potent effects on the innate immunity and tissue protective effects. But, some SOT centers are reluctant to administer GCs for long-time due to the various side effects. This review summarizes advantages and disadvantages of GCs in SOT. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched from 2011 to April 2021 using search syntaxes cover “transplantation” and “glucocorticoids”.GCs are used in transplant recipients, transplant donors, and organ perfusate solution to improve transplant outcomes. In SOT recipients GCs are administered as induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. GCs are also the cornerstone to treat acute anti-body- and T-cell-mediated rejections. Addition of GCs to organ perfusate solution and pretreatment of transplant donors with GCs are recommended by some guidelines and protocols to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury peri-transplant. GCs with low bioavailability and high potency for GC receptors such as budesonide, nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of GCs to specific organs, and combination use of dexamethasone with inducers of immune-regulatory cells are new methods of GC usage in SOT patients to reduce side effects or induce immune-tolerance instead of immunosuppression. Various side effects on different non-targeted organs/tissues such as bone, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, skin, and gastrointestinal tract have been noted for GCs. There are also potential drug-drug interactions for GCs in SOT patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: FGR; fetal programming; food restriction; metabolic disorders; liver proteomics
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:54:56 CET)
1) Background: Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and epigenetic modifications that impact gene expression leading to permanent changes of fetal metabolic pathways and thereby influence development of disease in childhood and adult life. Both clinical and experimental studies showed that maternal nutrition during pregnancy is critical since malnutrition adversely affects fetal growth and physiology. In this study, we investigated the result of maternal food restriction on liver protein expression in Wistar male newborn pups. (2) Materials & methods: Pups born to food restricted mothers were subdivided to FGR and non-FGR groups. Livers of control, FGR and non-FGR groups were analyzed using quantitative proteomics. (3) Results: In total 6665 proteins were profiled. Of these, 451 and 751 were differentially expressed in FGR and non-FGR vs. control respectively, whereas 229 were common between the two groups. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in FGR vs. control revealed: induction of the super-pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis and inhibition of thyroid hormone metabolism, fatty acid beta oxidation and apelin liver signaling pathway. In the DEPs of non-FGR vs. control groups there was inhibition of thyroid hormone metabolism, fatty acid beta oxidation and apelin liver signaling pathway as well. (4) Conclusion: This study demonstrates the impact of prenatal food restriction on the proteomic liver profile of FGR and non-FGR offspring underlying the importance of both prenatal adversities and birth weight on liver dependent postnatal disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: MAFLD; NAFLD; fatty liver; metabolic syndrome; obesity; children; nomenclature
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:36:49 CET)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, which predispose to more serious hepatic conditions. It ranges from simple liver steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may progress to cirrhosis and even end-stage liver disease. Since obesity became one of the most important health concerns wordwide, a considerable increase in the prevalance of NAFLD and other metabolic implications has been observed, both in adults, and children. Due to the coexistence of visceral obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, NAFLD is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS). These relationship between NAFLD and MetS led to set up in adults new term combining both of these conditions, called metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Based of these findings, we propose set of criteria, which may be useful to diagnose MAFLD in children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: AKT; D-Pinitol; ghrelin; insulin; insulin resistance; liver; phosphorylation
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:11:01 CEST)
To characterize the metabolic actions of D-Pinitol, a dietary inositol, in male Wistar rats, we analysed its oral pharmacokinetics and its effects on a) the secretion of hormones regulating metabolism (insulin, glucagon, IGF-1, ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin), b) insulin signaling in the liver and c) the expression of glycolytic and neoglucogenesis enzymes. Oral D-Pinitol administration (100 or 500 mg/Kg) resulted in its rapid absorption and distribution to plasma and liver compartments. Its administration reduced insulinemia and HOMA-IR, while maintaining glycaemia thanks to increased glucagon activity. In the liver, D-Pinitol reduced the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase and decreased the phosphorylation of the enzymes AKT and GSK-3. These observations were associate with an increase in ghrelin concentrations, a known inhibitor of insulin secretion. The profile of D-Pinitol suggests its potential use as a pancreatic protector decreasing insulin secretion through ghrelin upregulation while sustaining glycaemia through liver-based mechanisms of glycolysis control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0074.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Heavy metals; Mining; Balochistan gerbil; liver injury; Kidney damage.
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:14:09 CEST)
Mining can impact the environment, biodiversity and human health through direct and indirect practices. This study investigated the effects of gold mining on Gerbillus nanus, pointing to organ dysfunction and redox imbalance. Soil samples, Lycium shawii and G. nanus were collected from a site near a mining planet and a control site. Soil and L. shawii samples from the mining site showed a significant increase cadmium (Cd), cupper (Cu), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). Hepatic, renal and pulmonary Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu, Fe, As and V concentrations were increased significantly in G. nanus at the mining site. Markers of liver and kidney function were elevated in serum, and several histological manifestations were demonstrated in liver, kidney and lung of G. nanus at the mining site. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were increased, and glutathione and antioxidant enzyme were declined in the liver and kidney of G. nanus. In conclusion, mining practices triggered tissue damage and oxidative stress in G. nanus living close to the mining site. These findings can represent the scientific basis for evaluating the environmental and health impact of mining in the on the nearby communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Cirrhosis; Bone marrow; Mesenchymal stem cells; Characteristics; Liver regeneration
Online: 5 June 2019 (15:43:03 CEST)
Liver cirrhosis leads to hepatic dysfunction and life-threatening conditions. Though clinical efficacy of autologous bone marrow-drived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) transplantation in alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) was demonstrated, the relevant mechanism has not been elucidated. We aimed to identify predictive factors and gene/pathways for responders after autologous BM-MSC transplantation. Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven AC underwent autologous BM-MSC transplantation. The characteristics of responders who showed improvement in fibrosis score (≥ 1) after transplantation were compared with those of non-responders. BM-MSCs were analyzed with cDNA microarrays to identify genes and pathways that were differentially expressed in responder after transplantation. Thirty-three patients (66%) were responders. In the multivariate analysis, initial high Laennec score (p=0.007, odds ratio 3.73) and performance of BM-MSC transplantation (p=0.033, odds ratio 5.75) were predictive factors for responder. Three genes (olfactory receptor 2L8, microRNA4520-2, and chloride intracellular channel protein 3) were upregulated in responders and 11 metabolic pathways (inositol phosphate, ATP-binding cassette transporters, protein kinase signaling, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, endocytosis, phagosome, hematopoietic cell lineage, adipocytokine, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, fat digestion/absorption, and insulin resistance) were upregulated in non-responders (p<0.05). BM-MSC transplantation is warranted treatment for AC patients with high Laennec score. Cell-based therapy utilizing response-relating genes or pathway can be treatment candidate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0267.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, gut microbiota, gut-liver axis, intestinal dysbiosis
Online: 28 March 2019 (13:43:07 CET)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the leading causes of death worldwide, has a causal nexus with liver injury, inflammation, and regeneration that accumulate over decades. Observations from recent studies have accounted for the involvement of the gut-liver axis in the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for HCC. The human intestine nurtures a diversified colony of microorganisms residing in the host ecosystem. The intestinal barrier is critical for conserving the normal physiology of the gut microbiome. Therefore, a rupture of this barrier or dysbiosis cause the intestinal microbiome to serve as the main source of portal-vein endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in the progression of hepatic diseases. Indeed, increased bacterial translocation is a key sign of HCC. Considering the limited number of clinical studies on HCC with respect to the microbiome, we focus on the clinical as well as animal studies involving the gut microbiota with the current understandings of the mechanism by which the intestinal dysbiosis promotes hepatocarcinogenesis. Future research might offer mechanistic insights into the specific phyla targeting the leaky gut, as well as microbial dysbiosis, and their metabolites, as key pathways that drive HCC-promoting microbiome-mediated liver inflammation and fibrosis, thereby restoring the gut barrier function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0026.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: AMPK; liver; lipid metabolism; fatty acid oxidation; indirect calorimetry
Online: 1 August 2018 (16:06:39 CEST)
The energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key player in the control of energy metabolism. AMPK regulates hepatic lipid metabolism through the phosphorylation of its well-recognized downstream target acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). Although AMPK activation is proposed to lower hepatic triglyceride (TG) content via the inhibition of ACC to cause inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), its contribution to the inhibition of FAO in vivo has been recently questioned. We generated a mouse model of AMPK activation specifically in the liver achieved by expression of a constitutively active AMPK using adenoviral delivery. Indirect calorimetry studies revealed that liver-specific AMPK activation is sufficient to induce a reduction in the respiratory exchange ratio and an increase in FAO rates in vivo. This led to a more rapid metabolic switch from carbohydrate to lipid oxidation during the transition from fed to fasting. Finally, mice with chronic AMPK activation in the liver display high fat oxidation capacity evidenced by increased [C14]-palmitate oxidation and ketone body production leading to reduced hepatic TG content and body adiposity. Our findings suggest a role for hepatic AMPK in the remodeling of lipid metabolism between the liver and adipose tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: green bitter weed; Hymenoxys odorato; liver and kidney toxicity
Online: 14 June 2018 (11:07:44 CEST)
Background: Medicinal plants are of great importance to health of individual and communities. About 80% of the population in Uganda relies on traditional medicine because western-trained medical personnel are limited especially in villages. Most Ugandans use Hymenoxys odorato for medicinal purposes e.g. to treat colds, fever, coughs, anti-helminthes, locally used as tea, anti-allergy and also as an anti-venom to relieve snake bites. Method: A group of 25 male wistar rats of 150 g–210 g were kept for 14 days while being fed and treated with the extract. At 14th day, anesthesia was given and blood samples collected by cardiac puncture for hematological and biochemical investigations. Serum was analyzed for Alkaline Phosphatase, Aspartate Transaminase and Alanine Transaminase while whole blood was used for complete blood count. The liver and kidney were removed and placed in 10% formalin to prepare for histology staining using haematoxylin and eosin technique. Results: The extract elevated hepatic biomarker enzymes i.e. ALP, ALT and AST. The increase was found to be significantly different (P > 0.05) at 400 and 500 mg/kg doses as compared to the control group. Histological sections of the liver showed distortion of liver cytoarchitecture, steatosis, necrosis of hepatocytes and congestion of the sinusoids at high doses 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg body weight. In the sections of the kidney, there was mild distortion of the integrity of the kidney with glomerular hypercellularity at high doses (400 and 500 mg/kg per body weight). Conclusion: Hymenoxys odorato aqueous extract has toxic effects on the liver and kidney of wistar rats. The effects were observed to be in a dose dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0219.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Akebia quinata extracts; alcohol; liver disease; CYP2E1; COX-2
Online: 31 May 2017 (11:38:36 CEST)
In this study, we investigated the effects of Akebia quinata ethanol extract (AE), Akebia quinata sikhye (AS), and Akebia quinata water extract (AW) on alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. The hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant effects of AE, AS, and AW were examined. Experimental animals were randomly divided into five groups: normal, ethanol, AE (10 mL/kg), AS (10 mL/kg), and AW (10 mL/kg). Each group was administered the respective treatment orally once per day for 21 days. CYP2E1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the AE, AS, and AW groups than that in the ethanol group. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including cyclooxygenase-2, IL-6, and TNF-α increased significantly in the ethanol group but these increases were ameliorated with AE, AS, and AW treatment. Moreover, the expression of the apoptosis-associated proteins Bax, p53, procaspase-3, and PARP decreased after treatment with AE, AS, and AW. The expression of antioxidant enzymes including BCL-2, SOD, and GST slightly decreased in the ethanol group, but AE, AS, and AW treatment augmented their activities. AQ extracts and AS attenuated ethanol-induced increases in the levels of phosphorylated p-AKT, p-ERK, and p-JNK. These results demonstrate that AQ is a competence indicator for inhibiting alcoholic liver injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0103.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: fructose; obesity; liver; aerobic exercise; strength exercise; combined exercise
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:02:06 CET)
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance. However, physical exercise has been indicated for the treatment of several chronic diseases. In this review, we show how each exercise protocol (aerobic, strength or a combination of both) promote improvements in the obesogenic state created by fructose consumption as an improvement in the serum and liver lipid profile (HDL increase and decrease TG and LDL levels) and a reduction of markers of inflammation caused by an excess of fructose. Therefore, it is concluded that the practice of aerobic physical exercise, strength or a combination of both is essential for attenuating the complications developed by the consumption of fructose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0142.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: aflatoxin B1; transaminases; hepatocellular carcinoma; Saudi patients; liver dysfunction
Online: 29 December 2016 (10:59:51 CET)
Background: Exposure to chronic low levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination can lead to immune suppression and nutritional consequences that might greatly contributed in the increase of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The toxicity of AFB1 is greatly vary between different population, affected by age, gender, and environmental factors. Material and subjects: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was measured in 50 blood samples collected from non B, C hepatitis viruses and non CMV-Ab liver disease patients from different general hospitals and polyclinic in KSA during period 01-2013 to 06-2014. All Patients demonstrate elevation of ALT and AST with unknown etiology. Serum samples were obtained and kept at −20 °C for AFB1detection. Results: Out of the 50 blood samples, 38 demonstrate a detectable serum level of AFB1 while the remaining 12 patients were AFB1 negative and used as control participants. While AST was non-significantly different in AFB1 exposed patients, ALT was significantly higher in AFB1 positive samples compared to control AFB1-negative. AFB1 was positively correlated with AST and ALT as liver function enzymes and with age as a risk factor of long duration of AFB1 chronic exposure. Multiple linear regression analysis ascertained the association between AFB1 chronic exposure and ALT increase in liver dysfunction Saudi patients. Conclusion: Measurement of elevated ALT as marker of liver injury in AFB1 chronically exposed Saudi patients can help to avoid the future development of HCC. Moreover, early detection of AFB1 exposure, together with early vaccination against HBV and HCV can remove the synergistic effects of these two etiological factors and thus decrease the risk of developing liver cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: chemokine; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; inflammation; immune cells
Online: 19 May 2022 (07:51:15 CEST)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Sustained hepatic inflammation is a key driver of the transition from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the more aggressive form of NAFLD. Hepatic inflammation is orchestrated by chemokines, a family of chemoattractant cytokines, which are produced by hepatocytes, Kupffer cells (liver resident macrophages), hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Over the last three decades, accumulating evidence from both clinical and experimental investigations demonstrated that chemokines and their receptors are increased in the livers of NAFLD patients and that CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2 and CCL5, in particular, play a pivotal role in inducing insulin resistance, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver disease. Cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual antagonist of these chemokine’s receptor, CCR2 and CCR5, has been tested in clinical trials in patients with NASH-associated liver fibrosis. Additionally, recent studies revealed that other chemokines, such as CCL3, CCL25, CX3C chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1), CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), and CXCL16 can also contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, we review recent updates on the roles of chemokines in the development of NAFLD and their blockade as potential therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0276.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: liver receptor homolog-1; perilipin 5; triglyceride; fasting; lipid droplet
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:36:17 CET)
Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has emerged as a regulator of hepatic glucose, bile acid, and mitochondrial metabolism. However, the functional mechanism underlying the effect of LRH-1 on lipid mobilization has not been addressed. This study investigated the regulatory function of LRH-1 in lipid metabolism during fasting. The wild-type (WT) and LRH-1 liver-specific knockout (LKO) mice were either fed or fasted for 24 h, and the liver and serum were isolated. During fasting, the LRH-1 LKO mice showed greater accumulation of triglycerides in the liver compared to that in WT mice. Interestingly, LRH-1 LKO liver decreased the perilipin 5 (PLIN5) expression and genes involved in β-oxidation. Additionally, the LRH-1 agonist dialauroylphosphatidylcholine also enhanced PLIN5 expression in human cultured HepG2 cells. To identify new target genes of LRH-1, these findings directed to analyze the PLIN5 promoter sequence, which revealed −1620/−1614 to be a putative binding site for LRH-1. This was confirmed by promoter activity and chromatin immuno-precipitation assays. Moreover, fasted WT primary hepatocytes showed increased co-localization of PLIN5 in lipid droplets (LDs) compared to that in fasted LRH-1 LKO primary hepatocytes. Overall, these findings suggest that PLIN5 might be a novel target of LRH-1 to mobilize LDs and manage the cellular needs.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: peritoneal catheter; PleurX, liver cirrhosis, refractory ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis,
Online: 2 October 2020 (10:39:07 CEST)
Background and objectives: Refractory ascites markedly worsens prognosis in cirrhosis. Large volume paracentesis (LVP) is standard treatment, but complications are common. In a randomized controlled case-series, we assessed a permanent tunneled peritoneal catheter versus LVP in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Materials and Methods: Random allocation was computer-generated, and concealment used opaque envelopes. Patients were included from 01-2017 to 12-2018. Inclusion criteria were cirrhosis and recurrent ascites and expected survival of more than 3 months. Results: Thirteen patients were enrolled (PleurX =6 versus LVP =7). Seven were female, age range 51 to 80 years. No procedure-related complications occurred. Two patients died due to variceal bleeding (PleurX-group) and sepsis (LVP-group). One patient was withdrawn due to hyponatremia (PleurX-group). Two patients were withdrawn due to bacterial peritonitis and infection of unknown origin (Control-group). In the PleurX-group, all patients colonized the catheter, two developed bacterial peritonitis. The most common bacterial colonization was Staph. Epidermidis (n=4). Conclusions: In selected patients, the PleurX catheter mobilizes ascites and may be an alternative to LVP. The risk of infection should be considered in each case. The impact of colonization and risk of infections needs further investigation. Trial Registration: EudraCT: CIV-16-10-017324; clinicaltrials.gov: NCT 03027635; Scientific Ethics Committee journal no: H-1604179
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: FOLFIRINOX; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; surgery; liver metastases; long term survival
Online: 27 August 2019 (05:16:03 CEST)
Metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma pancreatic (PDAC) is characterized by poor prognosis and short survival. Today, the use of new polytherapeutic regimens increases clinical outcome of these patients opening new clinical scenario. A crucial issue related to the actual improvement achieved with these new regimens is represented by the occasional possibility to observe a radiological complete response of metastatic lesions in patients with synchronous primary tumor. What could be the best therapeutic management of these patients? Could surgery represent an indication? Herein we reported a case of a patient with a PDAC of the head with multiple liver metastasis, who underwent first line chemotherapy with mFOLFIRINOX. After 10 cycles, he achieved a complete radiological response of liver metastases and a partial response of pancreatic lesion. A, duodenocephalopancreasectomy was performed. Due to liver a lung metastases after 8 months from surgery, a second line therapy was started with a disease free survival and overall survival of 8 months and 45 months, respectively. Improvement in the molecular characterization of PDAC could help in the selection of patients suitable for multimodal treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: GPETAFLR peptide; protein hydrolysate; liver; hepatic steatosis; high-fat diet
Online: 15 July 2019 (06:09:04 CEST)
Bioactive peptides are related to the prevention and treatment of many diseases. GPETAFLR is an octapeptide which was isolated from lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and showed anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential activity of GPETAFLR to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or an HFD. Two of the groups fed the HFD diet were treated with GPETAFLR in their drinking water at 0,5 mg/kg/d or 1 mg/kg/d. To determine the ability of GPETAFLR to improve the onset and progression of NAFLD, histological studies, hepatic enzyme profile, inflammatory cytokine and lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins were analyzed. Our results suggest that HFD-induced inflammatory metabolic disorders were alleviated by treatment with GPETAFLR. In conclusion, dietary lupine consumption could repair HFD-induced hepatic damage, possibly via modifications in the liver’s lipid signalling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: alcohol; liver cirrhosis; selenium; interleukin-6; growth differentiation factor-15
Online: 27 March 2017 (16:12:33 CEST)
According to some authors, the serum selenium level is strongly associated with the severity of liver diseases including liver cirrhosis. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of selenium and pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines – interleukin-6 (IL-6) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The parameters studied were determined in serum of 99 alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients divided based on the severity of disease according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh criteria. In patients with liver cirrhosis, the serum selenium concentration was statistically lower whereas serum IL-6 and GDF-15 concentrations were higher than those in the control group. Moreover, the concentration of selenium negatively correlated with the levels of GDF-15 and IL-6. The above results may indicate a role of selenium deficiency in the pathogenesis and progression of alcoholic liver disease.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: liver failure; microRNAs (miRNAs); placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs); phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 (PRL-1); regenerative medicine; stem cells homing; vascular remodeling
Online: 1 July 2019 (17:00:18 CEST)
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have been highlighted as therapeutic sources in several degenerative diseases. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were mediated one of the therapeutic mechanisms of PD-MSCs in regenerative medicine. To enhance the therapeutic effects of PD-MSCs, we established functionally enhanced PD-MSCs with phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 overexpression (PRL-1(+)). However, the profile and functions of miRNAs induced by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs in a rat model with hepatic failure prepared by bile duct ligation (BDL) remained unclear. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to analyze the expression of miRNAs and investigate their therapeutic mechanisms for hepatic regeneration via PRL-1(+) in a rat model with BDL. We selected candidate miRNAs based on microarray analysis. Under hypoxic conditions, compared with invaded naïve PD-MSCs, invaded PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs showed improved integrin-dependent migration ability through RHO family-targeted miRNA expression (e.g., hsa-miR-30a-5p, 340-5p, and 146a-3p). Moreover, rno-miR-30a-5p and 340-5p regulated engraftment into injured rat liver by transplanted PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs through the integrin family. Additionally, an increase in PDGFRA by suppressing rno-miR-27a-3p improved vascular structure in rat liver tissues after PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs transplantation. Furthermore, decreased rno-miR-122-5p was significantly correlated with increased proliferation of hepatocytes in liver tissues by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs by activating IL-6 signaling pathway through the repression of rno-miR-21-5p. Taken together, these findings improve the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms based on miRNA-mediated stem cell therapy in liver diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: aggressive treatment; Liver transplant; nonaggressive treatment; Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma; tumor resection
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:57:24 CET)
Background and Aims: Of all primary liver tumors, primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) is a rare and aggressive malignant vascular tumor. The standard therapeutic care for hepatic angiosarcoma remains unclear. This study compared the survival outcomes of aggressive treatment (resection and liver transplant) and nonaggressive treatment (chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization [TACE], and conservative treatments) for patients with PHA and analyzed the prognostic factors influencing survival. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed as having PHA at our facility were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was survival time. The secondary outcome was calculated baseline characteristics. Results: We included a total of 19 patients, who were divided into 2 treatment groups: aggressive (8 patients had undergone resection or transplants) and nonaggressive (11 patients had undergone TACE, chemotherapy, or conservative treatment). The mean survival time was 233.1 ± 189.7 days in the aggressive treatment group and 146.5 ± 115.8 days in the nonaggressive treatment group. A Kaplan-Meier plot revealed no significant difference in survival time between the 2 treatment groups (P = .3256). Conclusions: The survival time of patients receiving aggressive treatment was longer than that of those receiving nonaggressive treatment. The long term survival time in some selective cases of aggressive treatment will be achieved. Thought a difference was not significant between the groups. Because the number of patients was limited, more cases are required to confirm these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0732.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: trace element; liver transplantation; selenoprotein P; glutathione peroxidase; hepatitis C virus
Online: 29 December 2020 (15:18:30 CET)
The trace element selenium (Se) is taken up from the diet and becomes metabolized mainly by hepatocytes. Selenoprotein P (SELENOP) constitutes the liver-derived Se transporter. Biosynthesis of extracellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) in kidney depends on SELENOP-mediated Se supply. We hypothesized that Se status may serve as a useful prognostic marker for outcome in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Serum samples from patients were routinely collected before and after transplantation. Concentration of serum SELENOP and total Se as well as GPx3 activity were determined by standardized tests and related to survival, aetiology and pre-operative Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Scores. A total of 314 serum samples from 78 transplanted patients were available for analysis. The Se and SELENOP concentrations were on average below the reference ranges of healthy subjects. Patients with ethanol toxicity-dependent aetiology showed particularly low SELENOP and Se concentrations and GPx3 activity. Longitudinal analysis indicated declining Se concentrations in non-survivors. We conclude that severe liver disease necessitating organ replacement is characterized by a pronounced Se deficit before, during and after transplantation. A recovering Se status after surgery is associated with positive prognosis, and an adjuvant Se supplementation may thus support convalescence.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: sarcopenia; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; obesity; skeletal muscle mass; inflammation
Online: 14 December 2020 (08:20:04 CET)
Although sarcopenia is known to be a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whether NAFLD is a risk factor for the development of sarcopenia is not clear. We investigated bidirectional relationships between NAFLD and low skeletal muscle mass index (LSMI) using three different datasets. Participants were classified into LSMI and normal groups. LSMI was defined as a body mass index (BMI)-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass <0.789 in men and <0.512 in women or as the sex-specific lowest quintile of BMI-adjusted total skeletal muscle mass. NAFLD was determined according to NAFLD liver fat score or abdominal ultrasonography. The NAFLD groups showed a higher hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for LSMI than the normal groups (HRs=1.213, 95% CIs=1.050–1.402). The LSMI groups also showed a higher HRs with 95% CIs for NAFLD than normal groups (HRs=1.564, 95% CIs=1.378–1.775). Participants with NAFLD had consistently less skeletal muscle mass over 12 years of follow-up. In conclusion, LSMI and NAFLD showed a bidirectional relationship. Maintaining muscle mass should be emphasized in the management of NAFLD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: liver failure 1; encephalopathy 2; delirium 3; coma 4; cirrhosis 5
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:00:51 CET)
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a form of brain dysfunction that is specifically caused by liver insufficiency and/or portal-systemic shunt. The exact nature of HE is debated, so that conflicting uses of the term HE may cause inconsistencies in its detection and, in turn, issues with its management. This review highlights the meaning of the term HE on the basis of both its historical origins and current consensus. It also provides criteria for the diagnosis of the condition, on the basis of its phenotypes and the risk factors for its occurrence. The procedure for differential diagnosis from other conditions which result in similar phenotypes is considered, together with precipitants and confounders. Finally, the current multidimensional approach for the correct clinical recording of HE episodes is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; multidetector computed tomography; liver; neoplasm metastasis; gadoxetic acid
Online: 31 May 2020 (18:32:40 CEST)
To investigate the impact of radiologic experience on the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography CT vs. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reporting for liver metastases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (LM of PDAC). Intra-individual CT and MRI examinations of 112 patients with clinically proven LM of PDAC were included. Four radiologists with varying years of experience (A > 20, B > 5, C > 1 and D < 1) assessed liver segments affected by LM of PDAC, as well as associated metastases occurring in each patient. Their sensitivity and specificity in evaluating the segments were compared. Cohen's Kappa (κ) for diagnosed liver segments and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC) for the number of metastatic lesions in each patient were calculated. The radiologists’ sensitivity and specificity for the CT vs. MRI were, respectively: Reader A -94.4, 90.3% vs. 96.6, 94.8%; B - 86.7, 79.7% vs. 83.9, 82.0%; C - 78.0, 76.7% vs. 83.3, 78.9% and D - 71.8, 79.2% vs. 64.0, 69.5%. Reviewers A and B achieved greater agreement in assessing results from the MRI (κ = 0.72, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.73, p < 0.001) vs. the CT (κ = 0.58, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.61, p < 0.001), in contrast to readers C and D (MRI: κ = 0.34, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.42, p < 0.001, and CT: κ = 0.48, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.59, p < 0.001). Our results indicate that accurate diagnosis of LM of PDAC depends more on radiologic experience in MRI over CT scans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: insulin-resistance; hyperlipidemia; non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); OCTN1; OCTN2
Online: 8 April 2020 (03:22:50 CEST)
Hyperlipidemia and insulin-resistance are often associated with Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) thereby representing a true issue worldwide, due to increased risk of developing cardiovascular and systemic disorders. Although clear evidence suggests that circulating fatty acids contribute in pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NAFLD and hyperlipidemia, further studies are required for better identify potential beneficial approaches for counteracting such a disease state. Recently, several artichoke extracts have been used for both reducing hyperlipidemia, insulin-resistance and NAFLD, though the mechanism is unclear. Here we used a wild type of Cynara Cardunculus extract (CyC), rich in sesquiterpens and antioxidant active ingredients, in rats fed and High Fat Diet (HFD) compared to Normal Fat Diet (NFD). In particular, in rats fed HFD for four consecutive weeks, we found a significant increase of serum cholesterol, triglyceride and serum glucose. This effect was accompanied by increased body weight and by histopathological features of liver steatosis. The alterations of metabolic parameters found in HFD were antagonised dose-dependently by daily oral supplementation of rats with CyC 10 and 20 mg/Kg over 4 weeks, an effect associated to significant improvement of liver steatosis. The effect of CyC (20 mg/Kg) was also associated to enhanced expression of both OCTN1 and OCTN2 carnitine-linked transporters. Thus, present data suggest a contribution of carnitine system in the protective effect of CyC in diet-induced hyperlipidemia, insulin-resistance and NAFLD.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Andrographis paniculata; 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide; NLRP3 inflammasome; liver injury; steatohepatitis
Online: 16 January 2020 (03:07:25 CET)
14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (deAND), a diterpenoid in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, acts as a bioactive phytonutrient that can treat many diseases. To investigate the protective effects of deAND on reducing fatty liver disease, male mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet without or with 0.05% and 0.1% deAND supplementation. Cholesterol accumulation, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in liver and liver injury were evaluated after deAND treatment. The results show that deAND treatment for 7 weeks reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and lowered hepatic cholesterol accumulation, tumor nuclear factor-α, and histological lesions. 0.1% deAND treatment reduced HFHC diet-induced apoptosis by lowering the caspase 3/pro-caspase 3 ratio. After 11-weeks of deAND treatment, increased NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), capase-1, and interleukin-1β protein levels in liver were suppressed by deAND treatment. In addition, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression, heme oxygenase-1 protein expression, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased in mice fed the HFHC diet. However, those activities of antioxidant enzymes or proteins were also upregulated by 0.1% deAND treatment. Furthermore, deAND treatment tended to lower hepatic lipid peroxides. Finally, deAND treatment reversed the depletion of hepatic glutamate level induced by HFHC diet. These results indicate that deAND may ameliorate HFHC diet-induced steatohepatitis and liver injury by increasing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa berries; cadmium; liver; oxidative/antioxidative balance; oxidative stress; protection
Online: 7 November 2018 (10:47:33 CET)
The study investigated, in a rat model of low-level and moderate environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd; 1 or 5 mg Cd/kg diet, respectively, for 3-24 months), whether the co-administration of 0.1% extract from Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (AE) may protect against oxidative stress in the liver. The intoxication with Cd, dose- and duration-dependently, weakened the enzymatic antioxidative barrier (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), decreased the concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione and total thiol groups), and increased the concentrations of oxidized glutathione, hydrogen peroxide, xanthine oxidase, and myeloperoxidase in this organ. These resulted in a decrease in the total antioxidative status (TAS), an increase in the total oxidative status (TOS), and development of oxidative stress in the liver (evaluated based on the index of oxidative stress calculated as the ratio of TOS and TAS). The administration of AE at both levels of Cd treatment significantly improved the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative barrier, decreased the concentration of pro-oxidants, and protected from the development of oxidative stress in the liver. In conclusion, consumption of aronia products may prevent Cd-induced destroying the oxidative/antioxidative balance and development of oxidative stress in the liver protecting against this organ damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: high and low molecular weight chitosan; lipid metabolism; liver lipid accumulation
Online: 3 July 2018 (12:13:20 CEST)
The present study examined and compared the effects of high- and low-molecular weight (MW) chitosan, a nutraceutical, on intestinal and liver lipid metabolism in rats fed with high-fat diet. Both high- and low-MW chitosan decreased liver weight, elongated small intestine, improved the dysregulation of blood lipids and liver fat accumulation, and increased fecal lipid excretion in high-fat diet-fed rats. Supplementation of both high- and low-MW chitosan significantly inhibited the decreased phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α protein expressions and the increased lipogenesis/cholesterogenesis-associated protein expressions (sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)1c, SREBP2, and PPARγ) and the decreased apolipoprotein (Apo)E and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) protein expressions in the livers of high-fat diet-fed rats. Both high and low-MW chitosan supplementation could also suppress the increased MTTP protein expression and the decreased angiopoietin-like protein (Angptl)4 protein expression in the intestines of high-fat diet-fed rats. Comparison between high and low-MW chitosan, high-MW chitosan has a higher efficiency than low-MW chitosan on the inhibition of intestinal lipid absorption and the increase of hepatic fatty acid oxidation, which can improve liver lipid biosynthesis and accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cytomegalovirus; alanine transaminase; aspartate transaminase alkaline phosphatase; γ-glutamyltranspeptidase; liver function
Online: 5 December 2016 (11:08:57 CET)
Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major pathogen that cause remarkable rate of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. It is important to find risk factors associated with CMV viremia. We studied the differences in CMV seropositivity in relation to liver function biomarkers in male and female Saudi population in an attempt to understand the variation in the CMV seroprevalence with sex and find the risk factor to develop liver dysfunction or hepatocellular carcinoma. Material and subjects: The CMV- IgG and IgM were screened in serum samples of 150 non- A-G hepatities patients with elevation of liver profiles (ALT, AST, ALP and GGT) and categorized as males and females. Samples were collected from different general hospitals and polyclinic in KSA from March 2014 to June 2015. A correlation between CMV seropositivity measured with both antibodies and liver enzymes were tested. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and multiple regressions were done for the obtained data. Results: Our study shows that females had much higher IgG and IgM compared to age-matching males. A significant correlation between both antibodies and liver enzymes (AST, ALT) was recorded. Less significant correlation of both IgG and IgM with GGT was also observed. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed that both IgG and IgM can be used as excellent predictive markers for CMV infection as both recorded 100% specificity and sensitivity together with area under the curve of 1 in males and females. Multiple regression analysis ascertain the correlation between both antibodies as dependent variables and liver enzymes as independent variables with ALT being the most affected enzyme with CMV seropositivity especially in females. Conclusion:he data discussed above This study shows that CMV is capable of initiating and accelerating liver dysfunction in both sexes. The high seroprevalence in females at reproductive age is especially important as they can transmit the virus to their developing fetus. Prevention of CMV infection in young girls 11-14 years old, through counseling on hygiene or possible future vaccination, may lead to a decrease of congenital CMV infections with the concomitant risk of developing liver dysfunction or hepatocellular carcinoma. Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase Alkaline phosphatase, γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase, liver function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: isoflavones; menopause management; endometrial thickness; mammary density; liver function; plant extracts
Online: 27 October 2016 (12:21:59 CEST)
Long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination based on agnus castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI) and lactobacilli, and effectiveness on vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders in postmenopausal women, were assessed. A controlled study was carried-out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group) with formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group), at the dosage recommended. Kuppermann index, PSQI, and SF-36 were determined at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. 180 women (100 in ESP group and 80 in C group, mean age 55.5 years, in menopause for about 36 months) were enrolled in the study. At the treatment end, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. Kuppermann index, and particularly hot flushes, were progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. No adverse events were observed. Agnus castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. Endometrium, mammary glands and liver function, were unaffected after 12 months treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0159.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: metabolomics; NMR; PEMT; knockout; aging; mice; liver; intestine; white/brown adipose tissue
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:36:04 CEST)
Phospholipid metabolism, including phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis, is crucial for various biological functions and is associated to longevity. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) is a protein that catalyzes the biosynthesis of PC, the levels of which change in various organs such as brain and kidney during aging. However, the role of PEMT for systemic PC supply is not fully understood. To address how PEMT affects aging-associated energy metabolism in tissues responsible for nutrient absorption, lipid storage and energy consumption, we employed NMR-based metabolomics to study liver, plasma, intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), brown/white adipose tissues (BAT, WAT), and skeletal muscle of young (9–10 weeks) and old (96–104 weeks) wild-type (WT) and PEMT knockout (KO) mice. We found that the effect of PEMT-knockout was tissue-specific and age-dependent. Deficiency of PEMT affected the metabolome of all tissues examined, among which the metabolome of BAT from both young and aged KO mice was dramatically changed in comparison to WT mice, whereas the metabolome of jejunum was only slightly affected. As for aging, the absence of PEMT increased the divergence of metabolome during aging of liver, WAT, duodenum and ileum and decreased the impact on skeletal muscle. Overall, our results suggest that PEMT plays a previously unexplored critical role in both aging and energy metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Avocado; Calcium carbide; hepatotoxicity; liver; Persea Americana; seed extract; toxicity; wistar rats.
Online: 7 February 2022 (13:22:28 CET)
Context: Persea Americana is reported to have medicinal value. Calcium Carbide (CaC2), a fruit-ripening agent, has been shown to be toxic to body organs. Objective: To determine the effect of avocado seed extract (ASE) on CaC2-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methodology: Four experimental groups, each of 5 adult wistar rats were fed respectively with normal diets (group A); 250mg/kg ASE (group B); 100mg/kg CaC2 (group C); combination of 100mg/kg CaC2 and 250mg/kg ASE – group D. Changes in the rats’ behaviours, body weights, and liver function were assessed over 21 days. Data were analyzed using SPSS. The cumulated rat weights, rat liver weights and serum liver enzyme levels for groups B, C, and D rats were compared to group A. Results: Abnormal behavior was most observed in group C rats. Rats in group A showed a significant increase in weight before and three weeks following administration of feeds while rats in groups B, C, and D showed significant decrease in weight – more marked in group C rats. Only the mean liver weights of rats in group C showed significant decrease compared to that in group A, p = 0.001. Similarly, only the cumulated liver enzyme levels of rats in group C demonstrated significant increase when compared to group A rats - indicating hepatotoxicity. Conclusion In this study, hepatotoxicity occurred in CaC2-administered rats. However, the combination of CaC2 and ASE showed no liver toxicity indicating a mitigating effect of ASE to CaC2-induced hepatotoxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Budd-Chiari syndrome; Living donor; Liver transplantation; Propensity score-Matched Analysis; Outcomes
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:52:48 CEST)
Introduction: There are unique technical and management challenges associated with living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for Budd-Chiari Syndrome (BCS). The outcomes of LDLT for BCS in comparison to other indications remains unclear and warrants elucidation. Methods: Data of 24 BCS patients who underwent LDLT between January 2012 and June 2019 were analyzed. There were 20 adults and 4 children. The early and long-term outcomes of adult LDLT BCS patients were compared to a control group of LDLT patients for other indications and matched using propensity scoring methodology. Results: Primary BCS was observed in 22(91.7%) patients. Caval replacement was performed in 7(29.1%) patients. Early and late hepatic venous outflow tract (HVOT) complications were seen in 1(5.5%) and 3(16.7%) patients. Preoperative acute kidney injury was identified as a risk factor for mortality in the BCS cohort (p =0.013). On comparison, BCS recipients were younger with fewer comorbidities, more large volume ascites and higher rates of PVT. They also had longer cold ischemia time, increased blood loss and transfusion requirements, increased hospital stay, and higher late outflow complications. The 1-year and 3-year survivals were similar to non-BCS cohort (84.2% vs 94% and 70% vs 91.9%, respectively, log rank test p=0.09). Conclusion: LDLT is remains a good option for symptomatic BCS who have failed non-transplant interventions. The clinical and risk factor profile of BCS recipients is distinct from non-BCS recipients. By following an algorithmic management protocol, we show on propensity-score matched analysis that outcomes of LDLT for BCS are similar to non-BCS indications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Valproic acid; Drug-induced liver injury; Adverse drug reaction; Case-control study
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:11:04 CET)
Introduction: Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug extensively used for treating partial and generalised seizures, acute mania and as prophylaxis for bipolar disorder. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) persists as a significant issue related to fatal outcomes by VPA. The aim of this study was to increase our knowledge about this condition and to better identify patients affected. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective case-control study that identified cases of DILI by VPA from the Pharmacovigilance Programme from our Laboratory Signals at La Paz University Hospital from January 2007 to December 2019. From the Therapeutic VPA Monitoring Programme, two control groups were assigned, VPA-tolerant patients and the other with patients who developed mild VPA-related hepatitis but who did not meet the DILI criteria, matched for date, age and sex. Results: A total of 60 patients were included in the study: 15 cases of DILI, 30 VPA-tolerant controls and 15 controls with mild hepatitis. Mean age for the cases was 45.7 years, 4(26.7%) were women and 5(33.34%) were children under 18 years, of them 3(20%) were fatal. Polytherapy with other antiepileptic drugs (p=0.047) and alcohol consumption (p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of developing DILI by VPA. A diagnosis of epileptic seizure was more frequently related to DILI when compared with the VPA-tolerant controls (p<0.001). The cases developed hepatocellular hepatitis (p<0.001), while the mild hepatitis controls had a higher rate of cholestatic hepatitis (p<0.001). The laboratory lactate dehydrogenase values were statistically higher (even at baseline) in patients with DILI than in both control groups (p= 0.033 and p=0.039). Conclusions: VPA hepatotoxicity remains a considerable problem. This study offers interesting findings for characterising VPA-induced liver injury and at-risk patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0822.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Sarcopenia; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Obesity, Insulin Resistance; Prevalence; Metabolic Diseases
Online: 31 December 2020 (15:34:29 CET)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continues to rise and has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease among all ages and ethnicities. Metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance are closely associated with sarcopenia and NAFLD. Sarcopenic obesity is a clinical disorder characterized by the simultaneous loss of skeletal muscle and gain of adipose tissue. It is associated with worse outcomes in individuals with NAFLD. It is projected that NAFLD and sarcopenia will rise as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase at an unparallel rate. Recently, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have gained considerable interest, but we still lack a well-defined definition and a management approach. Therefore, it is imperative to continue shining the light on this topic and better understand the underlying mechanism as well as treatment options. In this review article, we aimed to address the pathophysiology, impact, and outcomes of sarcopenic obesity on NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0409.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: liver fibrosis; hepatic stellate cells; coculture; transforming growth factor beta; oxygen tension
Online: 20 October 2020 (11:35:01 CEST)
During chronic liver injury, inflammation leads to the development of liver fibrosis— particularly due to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). However, the involvement of inflammatory cytokines in HSC activation is unclear. Many existing in vitro liver models do not include these non-parenchymal cells (NPCs), and hence, do not represent the physiological relevance found in vivo. Herein, we demonstrated the hierarchical coculture of primary rat hepatocytes with NPCs such as the human-derived HSC line (LX-2) and the human-derived liver sinusoidal endothelial cell line (TMNK-1). The coculture tissue had higher albumin production and hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 activity compared to the monoculture. We then further studied the effects of stimulation by both oxygen tension and key pro-fibrogenic cytokines, such as the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), on HSC activation. Gene expression analysis revealed that lower oxygen tension and TGF-β1 stimulation enhanced collagen type I, III, and IV, alpha-smooth muscle actin, platelet-derived growth factor, and matrix metallopeptidase expression from LX-2 cells in the hierarchical coculture after fibrogenesis induction. This hierarchical in vitro cocultured liver tissue could, therefore, provide an improved platform as a disease model for elucidating the interactions of various liver cell types and biochemical signals in liver fibrosis studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0459.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Superparamagnetic iron oxide; Magnetic resonance imaging; Solid lipid nanoparticles; Galactose; Liver-targeted
Online: 24 July 2018 (14:01:51 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop a novel nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with hepatocytes targeting as carriers for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (i.e., magnetic nanostructured lipid carriers, MNLCs), and to evaluate the targeting ability of the MNLCs with T2-weighted MRI both in vitro and in vivo. Here, the galactose-octadecylamine (Gal-ODA) conjugates were synthesized by chemical coupling reaction between lactose acid (LA) and octadecylamine (ODA). Then the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (conjugated by Gal-ODA, Gal-NLC-SPIO) was prepared by emulsification-ultrasonic method using monoglyceride as lipid materials. The Gal-NLC-SPIO with a diameter of about 50 nm could specifically internalize into LO2 (human hepatic cell line) cells. In vitro MRI results also proved the specific targeting ability of Gal-NLC-SPIO to LO2 cells. The in vivo MR imaging experiments using an orthotopic intrahepatic xenograft tumor model further validated the hepatocytes targeted effect of Gal-NLC-SPIO. The results of this study suggested that Gal-NLC-SPIO can be used as a contrast agent to aid in the diagnosis of hepatic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: SLC25A13; amino acid ratio; citrullinemia; latent liver dysfunction; mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier
Online: 26 December 2017 (10:18:45 CET)
Citrullinemia is the earliest identifiable biochemical abnormality in neonates with intrahepatic cholestasis due to a citrin deficiency (NICCD) and it has been included in newborn screening panels using tandem mass spectrometry. However, only one neonate was positive among 600,000 infants born in Sapporo city and Hokkaido, Japan between 2006 and 2017. We investigated 12 neonates with NICCD who were initially considered normal in newborn mass screening (NBS) by tandem mass spectrometry, but were later diagnosed with NICCD by DNA tests. Using their initial NBS data, we examined citrulline concentrations and ratios of citrulline to total amino acids. Although their citrulline values exceeded the mean of the normal neonates and 80 % of them surpassed +3SD, all were below the cutoff of 40 nmol/mL. The ratios of citrulline to total amino acids significantly elevated in patients with NICCD compared to the control. By evaluating two indicators simultaneously, we could select about 80% of patients with missed NICCD. Introducing an estimated index comprising citrulline values and citrulline to total amino acid ratios could assure NICCD detection by NBS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0117.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: blunt snout bream; high carbohydrate; transcriptome; metabolomics; insulin resistance; fatty liver disease
Online: 26 January 2017 (03:52:10 CET)
A high intake of carbohydrates, associated with obesity, is one of the major causes of fatty liver disease in humans. This study investigated how high carbohydrate intake induces fatty liver disease in Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Blunt snout bream were fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCBD) for 60 days. Their growth indices were evaluated, and the transcriptomes, metabolites, biochemistry, and histology of their blood and livers were analyzed. The final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio were all higher in the HCBD group than in the control group, but not significantly so (P > 0.05). The hepatosomatic index (HSI) differed significantly in the two groups (P < 0.05), and the metabolomics results showed that a high carbohydrate intake induced significant increases in plasma α/β-glucose, succinate, and tyrosine, which could increase hepatic glycogen and triglyceride. Low levels of betaine were also found in the livers of the HCBD group. The histology and blood biochemistry results suggested abnormal liver, with excessive lipid accumulation and liver damage. A transcriptome analysis and quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (RT–qPCR) indicated that the expression of the factors INSR, IRS, PI3K, PDK, AKT, ACC, IL6, AP1, ChREBP-MLX, PEPCK, and FBP in the insulin signaling pathway was significantly upregulated and that of SOCS3, GSK3β, and AMPK significantly downregulated in the HCBD. This pattern is associated with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathway. This study extends our understanding of how high carbohydrate causes increased fat deposition in the liver, enhanced glycolysis (α/β-glucose) in the plasma, and reduced betaine in the liver. This leads to activation of hepatocyte insulin resistance and lipogenesis by regulating the expression of genes related to fatty liver disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Liver; biochemistry tests; function; COVID-19; injury; SARS-CoV-2; infection; severity; mortality
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:14:53 CEST)
Globally, over the past several months millions of persons contracted the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulting in significant mortality. Health care systems are negatively impacted including the care of individuals with cancers and other chronic diseases such as chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are various probable pathogenic mechanisms that have been presented to account for liver injury in COVID-19 patients such as hepatotoxicity cause by therapeutic drugs, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of the bile duct cells and hepatocytes, hypoxia and systemic inflammatory response. Liver biochemistry tests such as AST, ALT, GGT and ALP are deranged in COVID-19 patients with liver injury. Hepatocellular damage results in the elevation of serum AST and ALT levels in early onset disease while a cholestatic pattern that develops as the disease progress causes higher levels of ALP, GGT, direct and total bilirubin. These liver biochemistry tests are prognostic markers of disease severity and should be carefully monitored in COVID-19 patients. We conducted a systematic review of abnormal liver biochemistry tests in COVID-19 and the possible pathogenesis involved. Significant findings regarding the severity, hepatocellular pattern, incidence and related clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients are highlighted.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: hyperoxaluria; oxalate; inhibitor; small molecule drug; glycolate oxidase; lactate dehydrogenase; liver selective distribution
Online: 31 December 2020 (08:59:47 CET)
Primary hyperoxalurias (PHs) are a group of inherited alterations of the hepatic glyoxylate metabolism. PHs classification based on gene mutations parallel a variety of enzymatic defects, and all involve the harmful accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals that produce systemic damage. These geographically widespread rare diseases have a deep impact in the life quality of the patients. Until recently, treatments were limited to palliative measures and kidney/liver transplants in the most severe forms. Efforts made to develop pharmacological treatments succeeded with the biotechnological agent lumasiran, a siRNA product against glycolate oxidase, which has become the first effective therapy to treat PH1. However, small molecule drugs have classically been preferred since they benefit from experience and have better pharmacological properties. The development of small molecule inhibitors designed against key enzymes of glyoxylate metabolism is on the focus of research. Enzyme inhibitors are successful and widely used in several diseases and their pharmacokinetic advantages are well known. In PHs, effective enzymatic targets have been determined and characterized for drug design and interesting inhibitory activities have been achieved both in vitro and in vivo. This review describes the most recent advances towards the development of small molecule enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of PHs, introducing the multi-target approach as a more effective and safe therapeutic option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0020.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Omega-3 ethyl esters; monkfish liver oil; COSMO-RS, fungal resting cells; selectivity.
Online: 2 September 2020 (03:13:05 CEST)
The search for economical and sustainable sources of PUFAs within the framework of the circular economy is encouraged by their proven beneficial effects on health. The extraction of monkfish liver oil (MLO) for the synthesis of omega-3 ethyl esters was performed evaluating two blending systems and four green solvents. Moreover, the potential solubility of the MLO in green solvents was studied using the predictive simulation software COSMO-RS. The production of the ethyl esters was performed by one or two step reactions. Novozym 435, two resting cells (Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus oryzae) obtained in our laboratory and mix of them were used as biocatalysts in a solvent-free system. The yields for Novozym 435, R. oryzae and A. flavus in the one-step esterification were 63%, 61% and 46%, respectively. The hydrolysis step in the two-step reaction led to 83%, 88% and 93% of free fatty acids (FFA) for Novozym 435, R. oryzae and A. flavus respectively. However, Novozym 435 showed the highest yield in the esterification step (85%) followed by R. oryzae (65%) and A. flavus (41%). Moreover, selectivity in front of polyunsaturated fatty acids of R. oryzae lipase was evidenced, since it did slightly esterified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in all the esterification reactions tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: biliary atresia; Kasai portoenterostomy; cholangitis; portal hypertension; bile ducts dilatations; native liver survival
Online: 7 August 2020 (09:27:14 CEST)
The prospective study enrolled 144 patients after surgical treatment of biliary atresia in early infancy. We analyze the immediate effectiveness of the surgery and the age-related structure of complications in the up to 16-year follow-up. The immediate 2-year survival rate after the surgery constituted 49.5%. At the time of this writing, 17 of the patients have celebrated their 10th birthdays with good quality of life and no indications for LT. The obtained results underscore the critical importance of surgical correction of BA by Kasai surgery during the first 60 days of life and subsequent dynamic follow-up of the patients for the purpose of the early detection and timely correction of possible complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0218.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: aflatoxins; liver cancer; public health risk; foods and feeds; control means; climatic change
Online: 25 September 2019 (08:00:58 CEST)
Among the array of structurally and toxicologically diverse mycotoxins, aflatoxins have attracted the most interest of scientific research due to their high toxicity and incidence in foods and feeds. Despite the undeniable progress made in various aspects related to aflatoxins, the ultimate goal consisting of reducing the associated public health risks worldwide is far from being reached due to multiplicity of social, political, economic, geographic, climatic, and development factors. However, a reasonable degree of health protection is attained in industrialized countries owing to their scientific, administrative, and financial capacities allowing them to use high-tech agricultural management systems. Less fortunate situation exists in equatorial and sub-equatorial developing countries mainly practicing traditional agriculture managed by smallholders for subsistence, and where the climate is suitable for mould growth and aflatoxin production. A situation that worsens by the climatic change being increasingly suitable for aflatoxigenic mold growth and toxin production. Accordingly, it is difficult to harmonize the regulatory standards of aflatoxins worldwide, which prevents agri-foods of developing countries from access to the market of industrialized countries. To tackle the multi-facetted aflatoxin problems, actions should be taken collectively by the international community involving scientific research, technological and social development, environment protection, awareness promotion, etc. International cooperation should foster technology transfer and exchange of pertinent technical information. This review presents the main historical discoveries leading to our present knowledge on aflatoxins and the challenges that should be addressed presently and in the future at various levels to ensure higher health protection for everybody. In short, it aims to elucidate where we come from and where we should go in terms of aflatoxin research/development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0290.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: molecular hydrogen; hydrogen-rich water; xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes; membrane transporters; liver; oxidative stress
Online: 28 June 2019 (07:36:20 CEST)
Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that may reduce the development and progression of many diseases. In this study, Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was obtained by reacting hybrid magnesium-carbon hydrogen storage materials with water. Then the effects of intake of HRW on the activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, membrane transporters, and oxidative stress in rats were investigated. Rats were given HRW ad libitum for 4 weeks. Results showed that intake of HRW had no significant effect on the activities of various cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E1, 3A, 4A), glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Except for a slight lower plasma glucose concentration, intake of HRW had no effect on other plasma biochemical parameters in rats. P-Glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp)2 protein expressions in liver were elevated after intake of HRW. However, HRW had no significant effects on glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, or lipid peroxidation in liver. Results from this study suggest that consumption of HRW may not affect xenobiotic metabolism or oxidative stress in liver. However, intake of HRW may increase the efflux of xenobiotics or toxic substances from the liver into bile by enhancing the expression of p-glycoprotein and Mrp2 protein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0041.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; high fat-sucrose diet; metabolomics; HPLC-QTOF-MS; quercetin
Online: 4 January 2019 (14:04:13 CET)
As metabolomics is widely used in the study of disease mechanisms, more and more studies have found that metabolites play an important role in the occurrence of diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and mechanisms of quercetin in high-fat-sucrose diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development using nontargeted metabolomics. A rat model of NAFLD was established by feeding with a HFD for 30 and 50 days. Results indicated quercetin exhibited hepatoprotective activity in HFD-induced NAFLD rats in 30 days by regulating fatty acids related metabolites (adrenic acid, etc.), inflammation related metabolites (arachidonic acid, etc.), oxidative stress related metabolites (2-hydroxybutyric acid) and other differential metabolites (citric acid, etc.). However, quercetin couldn’t improve NAFLD in 50 days maybe it couldn’t reverse the inflammation condition induced by long-term high-fat diet. These data indicate that dietary quercetin may be beneficial to NAFLD at early stages. Furthermore, combining metabolomics and experimental approaches opens up avenues of effects and mechanisms of drugs for complex diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; NAFLD; omega-3 fatty acid; EPA; DHA; PUFA;
Online: 13 July 2018 (14:47:22 CEST)
Background & Aims: This RCT aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of MF4637, a medical food comprising highly concentrated, highly purified, long chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids, (460 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 380 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) in correcting the omega-3 fatty acid nutritional deficiency present in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The potential for MF4637 to reduce liver fat was evaluated in a subset of patients. Methods: 176 subjects with NAFLD were randomised to receive 3 g/d of LC-omega-3 fatty acids (n=87) or placebo (olive oil; n=89) for 24 weeks, in addition to following standard-of-care dietary guidelines for these patients. Thus, interventions were given on top of the dietary advice. The omega-3 index, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio (primary outcome) and quantitative measurements of red blood cell (RBC) EPA and DHA (secondary outcome) were determined at baseline and study completion. Magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) assessment of change in liver fat fraction was conducted in a subset of patients. Results: Of the 176 randomised subjects, 167 were analysed for the primary and secondary outcomes (n=81 in the MF4637 group; n=86 in the placebo group). Supplementation with MF4637 for 24 weeks significantly increased the omega-3 index and absolute values of RBC EPA and DHA, and decreased the omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio in NAFLD patients compared to placebo (p<0.0001). There was a statistically significant reduction in liver fat content within both groups with no difference between them. An inverse relationship between change in absolute RBC EPA+DHA and change in liver fat, AST and ALT levels was seen suggesting that a greater increase in omega-3 content was associated with a reduction for both liver fat content and improvement in liver enzyme levels. Additionally, a significant liver fat-lowering effect of MF4637 compared to placebo was demonstrated in a subset of patients with baseline fatty liver index (FLI) score ≥ 40. There were no serious adverse events related to study interventions. Conclusions: The study results demonstrate that the medical food MF4637, was able to correct the nutritional deficiency of omega-3 in NAFLD patients above and beyond that obtained with nutritional counselling. This demonstrates that MF4637 is beneficial in raising the low omega-3 index observed in these patients. A reduction in hepatic steatosis was demonstrated with both intervention groups although no distinction between groups was seen. Further analyses demonstrate the potential to identify omega-3 sensitive patients using an easily available clinical tool for steatosis prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0027.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Liver X receptor (LXR); Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ); Adipose expansion; Insulin resistance
Online: 10 October 2016 (07:56:30 CEST)
Liver X receptors (LXR) are deemed as potential drug targets for atherosclerosis, whereas a role in adipose tissue expansion and its relation to insulin sensitivity remains unclear. To assess the metabolic effects of LXR activation, C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with the dual LXRα/β agonist T0901317 (30 mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Differentiated 3T3-L1 was used for analysing the effect of T0901317 on glucose uptake.T0901317 reduced fat mass, accompanied by a massive fatty liver and lower adipokine levels in circulation of HFD mice. Increased adipocyte apoptosis and macrophage infiltration were found in epididymal fat of T0901317-treated HFD mice. In addition, T0901317 treatment promoted basal lipolysis, but blunted the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. Furthermore, LXR activation antagonized PPARγ target genes in epididymal fat and PPARγ-PPRE binding activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Although the glucose tolerance was comparable to that in vehicle-treated HFD mice, the insulin tolerance was significantly decreased in T0901317-treated HFD mice, indicating decreased insulin sensitivity by T0901317 administration, and which was further supported by impaired insulin signalling found in epididymal fat and decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 by T0901317administration. These findings reveal that LXR activation impairs adipose expansion which contributes to decreased insulin sensitivity.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: periodontal disease; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; exercise; clinical trial; oral microbiota; saliva components
Online: 14 January 2021 (13:13:47 CET)
Exercise can be hypothesized to play an important role in NAFLD treatment by changing the oral bacterial flora and in the mechanism underlying periodontal disease. We performed salivary component analysis before and after an exercise regimen, and genome analysis of the oral bacterial flora to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Obese middle-aged men with NAFLD and periodontal disease were allocated to 12-week exercise (n=49) or dietary restriction (n=21) groups. We collected saliva to compare the oral microflora; performed predictive analysis of metagenomic functions; and measured the salivary immunoglobulin A, cytokine, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lactoferrin concentrations. The exercise group showed improvements in clinical indices of oral environment. Salivary component analysis revealed significant reductions in LPS, and lactoferrin during the exercise regimen. Diversity analysis of oral bacterial flora revealed higher alpha- and beta-diversity after the exercise regimen. Analysis of the microbial composition revealed that the numbers of Campylobacter (+83.9%), Corynebacterium (+142.3%), Actinomyces (+75.9%), and Lautropia (+172.9%) were significantly higher and that of Prevotella (−28.3%) was significantly lower. The findings suggest that an exercise regimen improves the oral environment of NAFLD patients by increasing the diversity of the oral microflora and reducing the number of periodontal bacteria that produce LPS and its capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0492.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 2D fatty liver in vitro model; Blu-Ray disc; Plasmonic Nanomaterials; Label-Free Biosensing
Online: 19 November 2020 (07:30:22 CET)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a metabolic disorder related with a chronic lipid accumulation within the hepatocytes. This disease is the most common liver disorder worldwide and it is estimated that is present in up to 25% of the world's population. However, the real prevalence of this disease and the associated disorders is unknown mainly because reliable and applicable diagnostic tools are lacking. It is known that the level of albumin, a pleiotropic protein synthetized by hepatocytes, is correlated with the correct function of the liver. The development of a complementary tool that allow the direct, sensitive, and label-free monitoring of albumin secretion in hepatocyte cell culture can provide insight about the mechanism and drugs action in NAFLD. With this aim, we have developed a simple integrated plasmonic biosensor based on gold nanogratings from periodic nanostructures present in commercial Blu-ray optical disc. This sensor allows the direct and label-free monitoring of albumin in a 2D fatty liver disease model under flow conditions using highly specific polyclonal antibody. This technology avoids both the amplification and blocking steps showing a limit of detection within pM range (≈ 0.39 ng/mL). Thanks to this technology, we identified the optimal fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration to maximize the lipid accumulation within the cells. Moreover, we discovered that at third day from lipids challenge, the hepatocytes increased the amount of albumin secreted. These data demonstrate the ability of hepatocytes to respond to the lipid stimulation releasing more albumin. Further investigation needed to unveil the biological significance of that cell behaviour.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: miRNAs; Obesity; Children; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Endothelial dysfunction
Online: 16 November 2020 (15:44:40 CET)
Rising child obesity rate creates a need for tools quantifying metabolic changes in obese children and adolescents for purposes of comorbidities early detection or prevention. A candidate for such role seem to be miRNAs – in vivo serving as the suppressing factors of the gene expression. The aim of this study was to review the recent discoveries in this field and to conclude directions of research or application of studied molecules. Repeated browsing of databases, followed by screening for eligibility of results, led to final approval of 9 articles. Filtered studies examined the differences in miRNA (miR) expression levels of obese subjects and children suffering from obesity comorbidities. Studies concerning the endothelial dysfunction (ED) identified miR-630 as a possible treatment option. Search for the alternative markers in diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) suggested value of miR-199a-5p and miR-122. MiR-486, miR-146b and miR-15b may serve as a panel of markers grading the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children, although further research raised doubts in that matter. Another panel of miRNA molecules was indicated as useful in early detection of alterations leading to metabolic syndrome (MetS). No valid link between studied miRNAs and atherosclerosis (AS) was found. MiRNAs seem to be promising prognostic markers for the diagnosis of NAFLD, T2DM and MetS in children. Further studies are required to support these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0064.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: microcystins; climatic factors; chronic liver disease and cirrhosis; daily sunlight; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Online: 3 July 2019 (11:46:09 CEST)
Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) may rapidly propagate under favorable conditions, forming dense blooms. As water blooms deteriorate, blue-green algae can generate potent toxins, potentially harmful to companion animals, wildlife, and even humans. One widely recognized cyanobacterial toxin is microcystin. This algal toxin has been implicated in surface waters globally, increasing liver cancer and/or disease risk amongst those who depend on sources prone to microcystin contamination. Interestingly, no study looked at weather conditions when connecting liver health outcomes to freshwater cyanotoxins. The purpose of this study was to determine if climate was an important determinant of liver mortality and total microcystins at the ecological level. Secondary data was used to evaluate the proposed hypothesis. Environmental data (CDC WONDER) and toxin data (USEPA) were used in multivariate regression analysis. Mean daily sunlight and total microcystins were significant predictors of age-adjusted chronic liver disease and cirrhosis death rates. Mean annual precipitation and mean daily max temperature were non-significant predictors. This study demonstrated how microcystins in combination with climate may increase liver mortality. The results can prompt others to study environmental exposures of terminal liver diseases, guiding environmental health and the water industry of human survival needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0097.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: lamb; n-3 LC-PUFA; muscle; liver; heart; kidney; rice bran; canola; cocksfoot; lucerne
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:08:19 CET)
The enhancement of health-beneficial omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) contents in the muscle, liver, heart and kidney of Australian prime lambs through pasture grazing and supplementation with oil infused pellets was investigated. Forty-eight first-cross prime lambs were randomly assigned into a split-plot design with pasture type as the main plot effect and pellet supplementation as a sub-plot effect in a feeding trial that lasted for nine weeks. The n-3 LC-PUFA content in Longissimus dorsi muscle of all lambs was well above the 30 mg threshold for “omega-3 source” nutrition claim under the Australian Food Standards and Guidelines. Pasture type impacted the fatty acid contents in muscle, heart and kidney of prime lambs. Lambs grazing cocksfoot only had the highest 18:3n-3 (ALA) and n-3 LC-PUFA contents (67.1 mg/100g and 55.2 mg/100 g, respectively). Supplementation of pellets with or without oil infusion to grazing lambs decreased the ALA and n-3 LC-PUFA contents and increased n-6/n-3 ratio in Longissimus dorsi muscle. The fatty acid content in internal organs of grazing lambs was also affected by pellet supplementation. The liver and kidney of grazing lambs were both “good sources” (60 mg/100 g) of omega-3. The cocksfoot grass showed considerable potential for producing healthy, premium quality meat with high contents of n-3 and n-3 LC-PUFA which may consequently enhance the omega-3 intake of Australian lamb consumers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Spleen; Islet Transplantation; Transplant site; Immunity; Tolerance; Regeneration; Diabetes mellitus; Liver; Intrasplenic; Stem cell
Online: 15 February 2018 (10:42:16 CET)
Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy to treat severe diabetes mellitus, but its clinical outcome is unsatisfactory at present. One factor in clinical success of this therapy is selection of the most appropriate transplantation site. In this review, we review evidence showing the advantages of the spleen as a transplantation site for islets. The spleen has been studied for a long time as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity. Recently it has also been shown that the spleen contributes to the regeneration of transplanted islets and that splenic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into islet cells. The spleen also has some disadvantages associated with the transplantation procedure itself (bleeding, thrombosis and splenic infarction). The efficacy of transplantation is not as high as that obtained with intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established before the spleen can be effectively used in the clinic to support the engraftment of multiple transplanted islets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020043
Subject: Keywords: lactate dehydrogenase; alanine transaminase; MDR2 knockout; dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization; perfused precision cut liver slices
Online: 10 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The clinical characterization of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions in the liver and differentiation from heterogeneous inflammatory or fibrotic background is important for early detection and treatment. Metabolic monitoring of hyperpolarized 13C-labeled substrates has been suggested as a new avenue for diagnostic magnetic resonance. The metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate was monitored in mouse precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) of aged MDR2-KO mice, which served as a model for heterogeneous liver and HCC that develops similarly to the human disease. The relative in-cell activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to alanine transaminase (ALT) were found to be 0.40 ± 0.06 (n = 3) in healthy livers (from healthy mice), 0.90 ± 0.27 (n = 3) in heterogeneously inflamed liver, and 1.84 ± 0.46 (n = 3) in HCC. Thus, the in-cell LDH/ALT activities ratio was found to correlate with the progression of the disease. The results suggest that the LDH/ALT activities ratio may be useful in the assessment of liver disease. Because the technology used here is translational to both small liver samples that may be obtained from image-guided biopsy (i.e., ex vivo investigation) and to the intact liver (i.e., in a non-invasive MRI scan), these results may provide a path for differentiating heterogeneous liver from HCC in human subjects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: food safety; risk assessment; Cannabis sativa; tetrahydrocannabinol; food supplements; cannabidiol; benchmark dose; reference dose; liver toxicity
Online: 5 September 2022 (04:34:49 CEST)
At present, foods containing cannabidiol (CBD) and other cannabinoids are internationally being widely advertised and sold in increasing quantities. In the European Union (EU), these products require pre-marketing authorisation under the novel food regulation, so that all available CBD oils and CBD-containing food supplements in the EU are currently placed on the market with an infringement of the food laws. Currently, 19 CBD applications are under assessment at the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). During the initial assessment of the application files, EFSA located several knowledge gaps that need to be addressed before the safety evaluation of CBD can be concluded. Namely, the effect of CBD on the liver, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, nervous system, psychological function, and reproductive system needs to be clarified. Nevertheless, the available literature allows a benchmark dose (BMD)-response modelling of several bioassays, resulting in a BMD lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 20 mg/kg bw/day for liver toxicity in rats. Human data in healthy volunteers found increases in the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in a study at 4.3 mg/kg bw/day, which was defined by EFSA as a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). The EFSA panel currently concluded that the safety of CBD as a novel food cannot be evaluated, leading to a so-called clock stop of the applications until the applicants provide the required data. Meanwhile, the authors suggest that CBD products still available on the EU market despite the lack of authorisation must be considered as “unsafe”. Products exceeding a reference dose of 10 mg/day must be considered as being “unfit for consumption” (Article 14(1) and (2) (b) of Regulation No 178/2002), while the ones in exceedance of the human LOAEL must be considered “injurious to health” (Article 14(1) and (2) (a) of Regulation No 178/2002).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: glycolysis; GEMs; oxidative phosphorylation; UGCG; glucosylceramide; normal liver cells; gangliosides; lacto/neo-lacto series GSLs; sulfatides
Online: 23 March 2022 (04:39:25 CET)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent type of primary liver cancer. Low numbers of HCC patients being suitable for liver resection or transplantation and multidrug resistance development during pharmacotherapy leads to high death rates for HCC patients. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of HCC aetiology contributes to development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of HCC. UDP-glucose ceramide glycosyltransferase (UGCG), a key enzyme in glycosphingolipid metabolism, generates glucosylceramide (GlcCer), which is the precursor for all glycosphingolipids (GSLs). Since UGCG gene expression is altered in 0.8 % of HCC tumors, GSLs may play a role in cellular processes in liver cancer cells. Here, we discuss current literature about GSLs and their abundance in normal liver cells, Gaucher disease and HCC. Furthermore, we review the involvement of UGCG/GlcCer in multidrug resistance development, globosides as a potential prognostic marker for HCC, gangliosides as a potential liver cancer stem cell marker, and the role of sulfatides in tumor metastasis. Only a limited number of molecular mechanisms executed by GSLs in HCC are known, which we summarize here briefly.