REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0579.v1
Online: 30 December 2022 (09:44:17 CET)
It was estimated the proportion and number of invasive cancer cases and deaths for 26 cancer types in adults aged 30 years and older in the United States in 2014. In this study was found that these cancers were attributable to modifiable risk factors such as cigarette smoking, second-hand smoke, alcohol intake, physical inactivity, excess body weight, red and processed meat consumption, low consumption of vegetables and fruits, dietary calcium, and ultraviolet radiation and six cancer-associated infections. Several databases were reviewed including PUBMED, Google scholar, and Web of Science. The facts suggest that a number of individuals in the US present risk factors for cancer, which development in malignancies would ultimately depend on the interaction of environmental and genetic factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: metabolic syndrome; vegetarian; vegetarianism practices; overweight; lifestyle behaviors
Online: 20 June 2018 (08:49:24 CEST)
The prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown in Malaysian vegetarians. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS among vegetarians in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor and its associated factors. The data on socio-demographic characteristics, vegetarianism practices, lifestyle behaviours, body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood lipid profiles were collected from 273 vegetarians. A majority of the respondents were lacto-ovo vegetarians (44.0%), females (64.8%) and Chinese (54.9%). The prevalence of MetS was 24.2%. High BP (48.7%) and high WC (43.6%) were the most common MetS components. Females had lower WC, SBP, DBP, FBG, TG and higher HDL-c (p < 0.05) as compared to males. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that advancing in age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06), and overweight and obesity (OR = 7.90, 95% CI: 4.13-15.11) were the risk factors of MetS after adjusted for sex. This study found that one in four vegetarians had MetS. The present findings emphasize the need to focus among vegetarians with older age. An intervention program to reduce BMI should be established among vegetarians, especially among those vegetarians who were overweight and obese.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns, food-frequency questionnaire, dietary, lifestyle practices, adolescents
Online: 5 September 2016 (14:46:56 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Malaysia. Methods: A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns. Results: Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were emerged as positive determinants of healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p<0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) and fast food (All, p<0.05) were negative determinants. High weekly breakfast skipping (p<0.001) and EatOut (p<0.01) were positively associated with a western-based pattern, whereas age (p<0.001) and household income (p<0.05) were negative determinants. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p<0.05) was emerged as positive determinant of local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p<0.001), PA levels (p<0.001) and maternal education level (p<0.05) emerged as positive determinants for the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut and fast food intakes (All, p<0.01) were negative determinants. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p<0.01), fast food (p<0.05) and carbonated beverages (p<0.05), and daily snacking practice (p<0.01) were positively associated with higher western-based food pattern, whereas age (p<0.01) was inversely associated. Conclusion: These findings suggest that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle practices could increase the risk of adherence to unhealthy western-based food pattern that is high in fat, sugar and salt contents, and consequently increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic-related disorders during these critical years of growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0140.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: coronary heart disease risk factors; healthy lifestyle behaviors; physical fitness
Online: 11 April 2018 (07:40:50 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors, physical fitness and coronary risk factors in university students. 320 male and female (nm:171; nf:149) students from a university participated in this study voluntarily. For the determination of body composition and Body Mass Indexes (BMI), subjects’ height, body weight, and skinfold thickness were taken and body fat percentage (%Fat) was determined. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were determined using the healthy lifestyle behaviors questionnaire. Indicators of physical fitness included flexibility (sit-up) (F), muscle strength and endurance (isometric knee (KS), back strength (BS) and a total of shuttle (TS), sprint performance, BMI, and body fat percentage (%fat). Coronary heart disease risk factors included mean arterial blood pressure (systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)), fasting blood levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), hematocrit (HT), and hemoglobin (HM). Results indicated subjects have normal body mass index, body fat percentage, SBP, DBP, TG, TCF, BS, KS. The results of the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis, indicated that SBP, DBP, TG, TCF, BS, KS for male and female was significantly correlated with flexibility (sit-up) (F), muscle strength and endurance (isometric knee (KS), back strength (BS) and total of shuttle (TS)), sprint performance. (p<0.01; p<0.05), In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical fitness and healthy lifestyle behaviors play a determinant role in coronary heart disease risk factors for male and female students from a university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Fukushima-gata lagoon; attachment; changes in lifestyle; actual condition of use
Online: 20 February 2019 (12:09:01 CET)
The growing shortage of human resources to manage landscape in the water environment has led to problems concerning preservation of the landscape in Japan. To cultivate people with awareness about preserving the landscape, it is important to understand the process of how a region’s residents develop an attachment toward the water environment in their area. This paper identified factors influencing the attachment of residents toward the Fukushima-gata lagoon, Niigata prefecture, Japan, as a case study while focusing on changes in the lifestyle of the regional residents. The findings are as follows: (1) The target households frequently used Fukushima-gata lagoon for “fishing and for picking edible wild plants” and “gathering reeds to make thatched roofs” before “the reclamation project was carried out by the government in Fukushima-gata lagoon.” They also frequented Fukushima-gata lagoon for “walking and cherry blossom viewing” after “the reclamation project” was implemented. (2) Even the fact that distance from the lagoon to their place of residence increased after the project did not lose their attachment to the lagoon. (3) It was suggested that the project contributed to increase the attachment of regional residents towards Fukushima-gata lagoon because of multiple factors such as “playing in the water,” “livelihood opportunity,” “recreational use,” and so on. (4) Changes in the attachment of regional residents toward Fukushima-gata lagoon before and after the reclamation project was carried out by the government corresponded to “changes in the lifestyle of the local residents” before and after the project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Modifiable lifestyle factors; Metabolic disorders; Prevalence; Relationships; Burkina Faso
Online: 12 October 2021 (21:02:23 CEST)
This study aimed to report the magnitude of modifiable lifestyle factors, their relationships with metabolic disorders in Burkinabè adults by using nationally representative data. This cross-sectional study included 4100 adults selected through multistage cluster sampling performed during the first national survey conducted in 2013 in Burkina Faso. The modifiable factors we considered were tooth cleaning, fruit and/or vegetable (FV) intake, substances’ use, physical activity and overweight/obesity, while metabolic syndrome abnormal components defined metabolic disorders. We performed logistic regressions. 31.1% cleaned the teeth at least twice a day, 14.7% consumed five or more FV, 39.7% used alcohol and/or tobacco, the prevalence of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity was respectively 6.6% and 17.7%. About 41.0% had at least two metabolic disorders and 9.5% had at least three. Lifestyle factors associated with having at least two metabolic disorders were overweight/obesity, more FV intake (when five or more aOR=1.5, p<0.001), physical inactivity (aOR=1.3, p<0.05), tooth cleaning (aOR=0.8, p<0.01). Except for consuming five or more FV (aOR=1.4, p=0.09), the same trend of relationships was observed with having at least three metabolic disorders. Excluding overweight/obesity and physical inactivity, unhealthy modifiable lifestyle factors were common and tooth cleaning was found as a protective practice for metabolic disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0334.v2
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:04:56 CEST)
In this study, we described the most critical risk factors for different malignancies including: breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal carcinoma among others, with an emphasis on modifiable risk factors. We revised the literature review about risk factors involved in the genesis of cancer in various databases, including articles indexed in PUBMED, SCOPUS, PMC, and Google Scholar. Awareness of risk factors enables conscious decisions to be made in an effort to combat malignancies. Knowing risk factors is a mode of fighting malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, practises, and laboratory/clinical interventions were among risk factors of diverse malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, laboratory/clinical interventions all contribute to the genesis and prognosis in a variety of malignancies. We concluded that abstaining from risk factors can prevent the development of many malignancies in a century where this conundrum is raising disproportionately. By informing the public about modifiable risk factors cancer mortality rates can be reduced. It is treated here is to make the public aware of the modifiable risks of cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: lifestyle program; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; parathyroid-hormone; anthropometry; cardiometabolic factors
Online: 8 August 2019 (12:16:44 CEST)
Obesity in children is associated with vitamin D (VD) deficiency and cardiometabolic abnormalities. To analyze the effects of VD supplementation in adolescents with obesity enrolled in a weight-loss program. Adolescents with obesity (n=26) and with normal weight (n=23; controls) were matched for age, sex, and puberty stage. The obesity group followed a 3-month weight-loss program that combined a reduced caloric intake with interval training physical activity and during which they received or not VD supplementation (4000 IU/d) (n=13/group; random assignation). The anthropometric parameters (BMI z-score, fat mass); serum levels of 25(OH)D, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH), cardiometabolic factors (triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol), fasting glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index; diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure, and inflammatory status (C-reactive protein, CRP) were measured at baseline and at the end of the 3-month program. At baseline, 25(OH)D concentration was lower and VD insufficiency (25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L) rate was higher (73% vs 22%) in the obesity than in the normal-weight group. All cardiometabolic factors were altered in the obesity compared with the normal-weight group. After the 3-month weight-loss program, 25(OH)D levels was >50 nmol in all adolescents with obesity, but only in 46% of normal-weight adolescents. Moreover, the weight-loss program improved the cardiometabolic factors, inflammatory status (CRP) and physical performance, but VD supplementation did not have any additional effect. Analysis only of the adolescents with obesity and VD deficiency (25(OH)D <50 nmol/L) at baseline showed a significant correlation between the change in PTH and CRP (p=0.02) in the supplemented obesity group, while the increase in 25(OH)D only tended to be correlated with CRP decrease. Vitamin D supplementation could reduce VD insufficiency in adolescent with obesity, but does not have any additional effect on cardiometabolic factors when combined with a weight-loss program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescents; cardiometabolic risk factors; insulin resistance; abdominal obesity; lifestyle; nutritional habits
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:16:17 CET)
The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors has increased in Slovakian adolescents as a result of serious lifestyle changes. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and the associations with cardiometabolic and selected lifestyle risk factors in a sample of Slovak adolescents. In total, 2,629 adolescents (45.8% males) aged between 14 and 18 years were examined in the study. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and resting heart rate were measured, fasting venous blood samples were analysed, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The mean HOMA-IR was 2.45±1.91 without a significant intersexual difference. IR (cut-off point for HOMA-IR=3.16) was detected in 18.6% of adolescents (19.8% males, 17.6% females). IR was strongly associated with overweight/obesity (especially central) and with almost all monitored cardiometabolic factors, except for TC and systolic BP in females. The multivariate model selected variables such as low level of physical fitness, insufficient physical activity, breakfast skipping, a small number of daily meals, frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, and low educational level of fathers as the significant risk factors of IR in adolescents. Recognizing the main lifestyle risk factors and early IR identification is important in terms of the performance of preventive strategies. Weight reduction, regular physical activity, and healthy eating habits can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and CVD in adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0275.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: blood pressure; cardiorespiratory fitness; waist circumference; lifestyle intervention; primary care; adverse responders; metabolic syndrome
Online: 20 July 2022 (05:59:58 CEST)
Systemic hypertension has been recognized as a modifiable traditional cardiovascular risk factor and influenced by many factors such as eating habits, physical activity, diabetes and obesity. The objective of this study was to identify cardiometabolic factors that predict changes in blood pressure induced by a one-year lifestyle intervention in primary care settings involving a collaboration between family physicians, dietitians, and exercise specialists. Patients with metabolic syndrome diagnosis were recruited by family physicians participating in primary care lifestyle intervention among several family care clinics across Canada. Participants for whom all cardiometabolic data at the beginning (T0) and the end (T12) of the intervention were available were included in the present analysis (n=101). Patients visited the dietitian and the exercise specialist weekly for the first three months and monthly for the last nine months. Diet quality, exercise capacity, anthropometric indicators, and cardiometabolic variables were evaluated at T0 and at T12. The intervention induced a significant decrease in waist circumference (WC), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, and plasma triglycerides and an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max). Body weight (p<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), and plasma glucose (p=0.006) reduction and VO2max increase (p=0.048) were all related to changes in SBP. WC was the only variable for which changes were significantly correlated with those in both SBP (p<0.0001) and DBP (p=0.0004). Variations in DBP were not associated with changes in other cardiometabolic variables to a statistically significant extent. Twelve participants were identified as adverse responders in both SBP and DBP and displayed less favorable changes in WC. The beneficial effects of a lifestyle intervention on blood pressure were significantly associated with cardiometabolic variables, especially WC. These findings suggest that a structured lifestyle intervention in primary care can help improve cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; COVID-19; modulating factors; Adverse Outcome Pathway; sex; age; co-morbidities; lifestyle; environment; pre-existing conditions
Online: 8 June 2022 (09:47:23 CEST)
Addressing factors modulating COVID-19 is crucial since abundant clinical evidence shows that outcomes are markedly heterogeneous between patients. This requires identifying the factors and understanding how they mechanistically influence COVID-19. Here, we describe how eleven selected factors influence COVID-19 by applying the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework well-established in regulatory toxicology. This framework aims to model the sequence of events starting from an initial interaction of a stressor with the organism and the progress through key biological events leading to an adverse health outcome. Several linear AOPs depicting pathways from the binding of the virus to ACE2 up to clinical outcomes observed in COVID-19 patients have been developed and integrated into a network offering a unique overview of the mechanisms underlying the disease. As SARS-CoV-2 infectibility and ACE2 activity are the major starting points and inflammatory response is central in the development of COVID-19, we evaluated how eleven intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulate those processes impacting clinical outcomes. Applying this AOP-aligned approach enables the identification of current knowledge gaps orientating for further research and allows to propose biomarkers to identify of high-risk patients. This approach also facilitates expertise synergy from different disciplines to address public health issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Blood Pressure; Rope Exercise; physical activity; Lifestyle Modification; Adolescents; BMI; Hypertension; Cardiovascular risk factors; Academic Performance
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:21:34 CEST)
There are evidences of shared biological mechanisms between obesity and hypertension during childhood in the adulthood, and loads of research literatures have proven that, it will cost the economies and health of nations profoundly if neglected. The Prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and hypertension is an essential strategy for control, effective treatment and prevention of its’ complications. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of school based Exercise and Life style Motivation Intervention (SEAL-MI) on adolescent's cardiovascular risk factors and academic performance. An experimental study was conducted among 1005 adolescents - 520 and 485 adolescents were randomly selected for control and study group, respectively. Demographic details and the data related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep quality were collected by a structured interview questionnaire. The study group adolescents were given the SEAL-MI for six months which includes a school based rope exercise for 45 minutes per day for 5 days a week and a motivation intervention related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep. Post-test 1 and 2 were done after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents was 28.73% and prehypertension was 9.26%. Among overweight adolescents, the prevalence of prehypertension was found to be very high (32.25%). In post intervention, there was a significant reduction in weight, BP (p=0.000) and improvement in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep (p=0.000) and academic performance. A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and SBP (p=0.000) and BMI and academic performance (p=0.003). The linear regression analyses revealed that the gender (ß: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81), age (ß: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.46), family income (ß: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.5), residence (ß: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.27) and type of family (ß: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.02) had the strongest correlate with the BMI of the adolescents. Also, Mother’s education Mother’s education (ß: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.59) had the strongest correlate with the SBP of the adolescents. In contrast, the DBP was negatively persuaded by age (ß: -0.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 0.29) and gender (ß: -0.26, 95% CI: 1.34, 0.12) of the adolescents. Regular practice of rope exercise and lifestyle modification such as diet, physical activity and sleep quality among adolescents prevent and control childhood CVD risk factors like overweight, hypertension. The SEAL-MI may lead to age appropriate development of adolescents and improves their academic performance and quality of life. Giving importance to the adolescents from urban habitat, from affluent nuclear family and catching them young will bring significant change in the disease burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0263.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Pregnancy; Diabetes; Screening, Lifestyle
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:24:01 CET)
Basildon and Thurrock University Hospital in the East of England region of the United Kingdom (U.K), witnessed rapidly increasing numbers of pregnant women with diabetes, causing overburdened specialist clinics, poorer patient experience and worsening clinical outcomes. This prompted the multidisciplinary team’s remodelling of care pathways, launching the General ownership of Diabetes (GooD) Pregnancy Network in 2014. Contrary to conventional limitation of care to specialist diabetes antenatal clinics, this novel initiative highlights contemporary necessity to equip and empower all maternity stakeholders to deliver basic care of gestational diabetes (GDM). It strategically connects a Midwife Tele-Clinic “hub” to Educating Gestational diabetics Group Sessions (EGGS) and standard antenatal clinics. Patients were key partners, regularly participating in feedback surveys and promoting public awareness by co-producing local newspaper articles that served up their stories as case studies. Furthermore, the EGGS “faculty” includes a former GDM patient whose video testimony has inspired almost 2000 patients and their families; aiming to foster long term healthy lifestyle changes. Final summative evaluation in November 2019 showed the new culture of wider consciousness has shortened ‘diagnosis to first consultation’ intervals and eliminated overbooked specialist clinics (none since January 2016), without further worsening of clinical outcomes. It also boosted research recruitment and avoided additional running costs to the tune of £66,384 a year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0154.v1
Online: 12 June 2020 (12:39:49 CEST)
Aim: This study was designed to understand the changes in dietary and lifestyle behaviours that are major determinants of health during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire using a convenience sample of 415 adults living in Kuwait (age range 18-73 years). Results: The overall prevalence of being overweight and obesity among participants was 37.2% and 33.1% respectively. The study identified significant changes in the dietary habits and lifestyle behaviours of participants during COVID-19. In general, there was an increase in the percentage of participants that consumed four or more meals a day, skipped breakfast, and engaged in frequent late night snacking. Moreover, there was a drastic decrease in the frequency of fast food consumption and an increase in the percentage of participants who had their main meal freshly made. Furthermore, there was a great reduction in physical activity and an increase in the amount of screen time and sedentary behaviours. A notable increase was detected in day-time sleep and a decrease in night-time sleep among participants. Conclusion: This study indicates that due to the increased prevalence of habits conducive to increased rates of being overweight and obesity during the COVID-19 outbreak, there is a high likelihood that the pandemic will further exacerbate the already widespread problem of obesity and being overweight in Kuwait.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: lifestyle; esophageal cancer; cancer prevention; esophageal adenocarcinoma
Online: 9 August 2021 (18:05:44 CEST)
One of the most notable changes in the Esophageal Cancer (EC) epidemiology is the rising incidence and prevalence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in developed countries, likely due to lifestyle and/or environmental factors that may play an important role in EAC onset. The aim of this systematic review was to collect and summarize all the available evidence regarding lifestyle, diet and EAC risk. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases in January 2021 for studies providing information about lifestyle, diet, WCRF/AICR recommendations and EAC risk. A total of 106 publications met the inclusion criteria. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased EAC risk. Physical activity does not appear to have a significant direct role in EAC risk. A diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains appeared to be more protective than a diet rich in animal fat, red meat, and processed meat. Alcohol does not seem to be related to EAC whereas smokers, particularly heavy smokers, have an increased risk of EAC. Primary prevention remains the best option to avert EAC. BMI and WC, along with low consumption of red and processed meat, high consumption of plant food, and the avoidance of smoking are pivotal for EAC prevention.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; dropout; mobile technology; attrition; pediatric; lifestyle
Online: 7 December 2020 (08:26:08 CET)
Pediatric obesity management strategies suffer from a high rate of dropout and persistence of weight excess, despite the use of new tools, such as the automated mobile technology (MT). We aimed to compare the efficacy of two personalized MT protocols with/without monthly in-presence recalls in terms of better adherence to follow-up, and improved anthropometric and lifestyle parameters. MT contacts consisted in three not automated messages per week, inserted between three-monthly in-presence regular visits with (PediaFit 1.2) or without (PediaFit 1.1) monthly in-presence recalls. The sample included 103 children (mean age 10 years, range 6-14) recruited in the Pediatric Obesity Clinic between January 2017 and February 2019, randomized in Intervention group (IG) (n=24 PediaFit 1.1; n=30 PediaFit 1.2) and Control group (CG) (total n=49). Both IGs achieved significantly better results than the CGs for all considered parameters. Comparison of the two IGs at the 6th month showed that IG 1.2 had a statistically significant lower drop-out rate (10% vs. 62%), along with improved body mass index z-score, systolic blood pressure, sleep duration and physical activity. The study suggests that the hybrid association of messaging through personalized/not automated MT plus monthly in-presence recalls may be considered for a favorable outcome of pediatric obesity programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0598.v1
Online: 23 November 2020 (20:15:40 CET)
Objectives: To determine the effects of caffeine consumption on the sleep habits and lifestyle of medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jinnah Sindh Medical University (JSMU) and Hamdard College of Medicine. On 422 undergraduate students aged 18-25 years, through random sampling. The duration of the study was from January 2019 to June 2019. The data was collected through self-administered questionnaire which included data regarding sleep habits and lifestyle of medical students. Results: Majority (81.6%) of the students consumed caffeine while only (18.4%) did not. One third of the participants (31.8%) reported caffeine consumption increased their academic performance and (57.3%) reported that it does not. More than half of the participants (63.3%) who consumed caffeine slept during class, whereas (47.2%) never had difficulty in falling asleep during the night. Conclusion: This research concluded that caffeine does have some role on sleep habits of medical students as they tend to have less sleep hours, experience day time dysfunction, average quality of sleep, and falling asleep during class. It has been concluded that caffeine has no effect on eating habits of medical students however, it does increase the screening time, keeping them active.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0105.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: energy drinks; adolescent lifestyle; alcohol; caffeine; sports
Online: 12 January 2018 (05:12:03 CET)
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has identified some risk factors for the occurrence of side effects linked to energy drinks (EDs) consumption by young people. Tachycardia, sleeplessness, caffeine addiction may be caused by excessive consumption of EDs during parties, sport matches, ect. EDs consumption has been evaluated in a sample of students in Italy together with some aspects of their lifestyle. The survey was performed in two high schools from September 2014 to June 2015. 583 students between 14 to 18 years were recruited and a standard questionnaire (EFSA checklist) was used to collect information on responders characteristics, beverages consumption, EDs with alcohol, and EDs and sports. 350 out of 583 responders (60%) consumed EDs and 146 out of 583 responders (25%) reported an occasional alcohol consumption. Despite 82 out of 146 alcoholic drinkers (56%) were EDs-alcohol consumers, only 70 out of 583 adolescents (12%) reported habitual EDs consumption. Moreover, 38 out of 379 (10%) of all physically active adolescents reported frequent EDs consumption before sportive trainings. Study results highlight the need for primary prevention measures in communication campaigns and training delivered by school to limit potential health threats related to excess of EDs consumption.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: meta-analysis; chitosan; lifestyle-related disease; cholesterol lowering
Online: 18 November 2020 (10:59:37 CET)
This study presents a meta-analysis of studies that investigate the effectiveness of chitosan administration on lifestyle-related disease in murine models. A total of 34 published studies were used to evaluate the effect of chitosan supplementation. The effect sizes for various items after chitosan administration were evaluated using the standardized mean difference. Using Cochran’s Q test, the heterogeneity of effect sizes was assessed, after which a meta-ANOVA and –regression test was conducted to explain the heterogeneity of effect sizes using the mixed-effect model. Publication bias was performed using Egger’s linear regression test. Among the items evaluated, blood triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol showed the highest Q statistics and I2 values, respectively. Other than blood HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in feces, most items evaluated showed a negative effect size with high significance in the fixed- and random-effect model (p<0.0001). In the meta-ANOVA and -regression test, administering chitosan and resistant starch was revealed to be most effective in lowering body weight. In addition, chitosan supplementation proved to be an effective solution for TNF-α inhibition. In conclusion, chitosan has been shown to be somewhat useful in improving symptoms of lifestyle-related disease. Although there are some limitations in the results of this meta-analysis due to the limited number of animal experiments conducted, chitosan administration nevertheless shows promise in enhancing the quality of human life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: vocational students; healthy lifestyle intervention; physical activity; healthy diet
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:45:57 CET)
This study examines the effectiveness of the peer-delivered, school-based intervention Healthy by Design (HbD). Data were collected in two cross-sectional surveys before and after invention implementation. In total 1,177 vocational students (before: 557, after: 620) participated in an online health behaviour survey. Multilevel logistic and multilevel linear models explored the effect of the intervention over time and the effect of the intervention dose received on (determinants of) dietary of physical activity behaviours. A significant positive effect over time was found for moderate intensity physical activity. A high intervention dose was positively associated with increased water, breakfast and fruit consumption and higher levels of moderate and vigorous physical activity compared to no intervention dose received. A moderate and high intervention dose was negatively associated with high calorie snacks consumption compared to no intervention dose received. Effects of HbD on the investigated dietary and physical activity behaviours over time are limited, but these effects may be hard to demonstrate and link to the intervention due to the nature of the intervention design and the natural school-setting of this quasi-experimental study. However, a higher intervention dose showed a strong relation with healthier dietary and physical activity behaviours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0129.v1
Online: 10 June 2020 (09:22:11 CEST)
The emergence of COVID -19 pandemic has severely impacted individuals from all walks of life. The rapid spread of the disease to nearly all parts of the country has posed enormous health, economic, environmental and social challenges to the entire human population. In the absence of any effective drugs and vaccines for treatment, social distancing and other preventive measures are the only alternatives. Lockdown is among one of the options suggested by WHO to reduce spread of the virus. India was quick to close its international borders and enforce the world’s largest COVID lockdown on March 22, 2020. The present study attempts to highlight the impact of imposed nationwide lockdown on society and environment alike along with analysis of lifestyle changes. The study was based on an online survey using a structured questionnaire with over 1000 responders across the country. The pandemic situation demands a certain way of shaping the society to reduce virus spread and safeguard oneself. In this study, we analysed the changes that the society has undergone during lockdown to mitigate the spreading of the infection. We also addressed the changes that have become part of our lives during lockdown – hygiene and health consciousness, work from home (WFM), online teaching, digital shopping, changing internet habits and societal changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: type 2 diabetes; lifestyle behaviors; healthcare provider advice; provider-patient interactions; health care setting; brief lifestyle intervention exposure; diabetes prevention; diabetes management
Online: 15 February 2022 (09:20:36 CET)
Growing evidence suggests that healthcare provider advice may increase tobacco cessation, reduce alcohol use, and improve the adoption of desirable lifestyle behaviors among patients. However, how brief interventions and other provider-patient interactions can shape cumulative adoption of multiple modifiable behaviors is less well studied for diabetes prevention and control. Using weighted internet panel survey data from a large socio-demographically diverse urban population in the United States (n=1,003), the present study describes differences in group characteristics among those who had been “ever diagnosed” with prediabetes/diabetes versus those who had not. It also examines the associations between the cumulative adoption of lifestyle behaviors and each of the following: a) lifetime prediabetes/diabetes diagnosis; b) brief lifestyle intervention exposure (i.e., received provider advice/encouragement); and c) recent provider-patient communication about diabetes. There were several group differences in “ever diagnosed” prediabetes/diabetes status by age, employment status, health status, nutrition knowledge, blood pressure/hypertension diagnosis, and diabetes-related health behaviors (p<0.05). Each of the three provider-patient interactions of interest were positively associated with a higher cumulative sum of adopted modifiable lifestyle behaviors for diabetes prevention and management. Results suggest that provider advice/provider-patient interactions of any type can have a salutary impact on whether individuals with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes will engage in recommended lifestyle behavior modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0360.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Breast cancer; Oxidative stress; Healthy lifestyle; Catalase; Gene–environment interaction
Online: 23 September 2022 (07:11:45 CEST)
Lifestyle has been associated with breast cancer risk through different pathways, including oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzymes are endogenous defense mechanisms against oxidative stress damage, and this response might be modulated by the genetic variation in these enzyme-codifying genes. This study aimed to analyze the synergistic effect of an antioxidant Healthy Lifestyle Index (HeLiX) composed of principal components of Western dietary pattern, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity, and genetic polymorphisms in the first-line antioxidant response family genes SOD, GPX, and CAT on breast cancer risk. We included 176 SNPs, and only CAT rs554576 remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Breast cancer odds were reduced at the highest (T3) and medium (T2) tertiles of the HeLiX. When stratified by HeLiX, we observed a reduced risk of breast cancer with at least one T-allele, and the effect increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the reference category (HeLiX T1 and AA genotype), women at the HeLiX T3 with AT and TT genotypes in postmenopausal women showed an OR = 0.15 (95% CI 0.07–0.32). For HeLiX T2 and AT genotype OR = 0.26 (95% CI 0.13–0.54); for TT genotype OR = 0.24 (95% CI 0.12–0.45). For premenopausal women, at the HeLiX T3 and AT genotype OR = 0.29 (95% CI 0.13–0.62); for the TT genotype OR = 0.21 (95% CI 0.08–0.51). We also observed an inverse association for HeLiX T2 and TT genotype (OR 0.39 95% CI 0.17–0.87). Our study shows a significant synergistic gene-environment interaction on an additive scale, contributing to understanding pathways involved in breast cancer etiology and prevention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: lifestyle diseases; food processing; ultra-processed food; NOVA classification; nutrition
Online: 6 April 2022 (13:44:53 CEST)
The modern diet, which consists of food produced with high level of industrial processing, is associated with an increased risk of the development of lifestyle diseases. Current nutritional science is, however, focused on chemical composition of food, and not on the type and degree of processing used during the food production. Here, we take a fresh perspective on the relationship between the extent and type of food processing, and evaluate its impact on consumer health. We argue that the preference for consumption of minimally processed foods, and restriction of ultra-processed foods should be an essential part of a healthy lifestyle, disease prevention, and even treatment. We also present a simple, user-friendly consumer guide, which is intended to be used as a practical, ready-to-go identifier of ultra-processed foods.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: hypertension; blood pressure; lifestyle; digital health; ehealth; prevention; behavioral change
Online: 7 March 2022 (10:55:20 CET)
Worldwide, it is estimated that at least 1 in 4 adults suffers from hypertension, and this number is expected to increase as populations grow and age. Blood pressure (BP) possesses substantial heritability, but is also heavily modulated by lifestyle factors. As such, digital, lifestyle-based in-terventions are a promising alternative to standard care for hypertension prevention and man-agement. In this study we assessed the prevalence of elevated and high BP in a Dutch general pop-ulation cohort undergoing a health screening, and observed the effects of a subsequent self-initiated, digitally-enabled lifestyle program on BP regulation. Baseline data were available for 348 participants, of which 56 had partaken in a BP-focused lifestyle program and got re-measured 10 months after the intervention. Participants with elevated SBP and DBP at baseline showed a mean decrease of 7.2 mmHg and 5.4 mmHg, respectively. Additionally, 70% and 72.5% of participants showed an improvement in systolic and diastolic BP at remeasurement. These improvements in BP are superior to those seen in other recent studies. The long-term sustainability and the efficacy of this and similar digital lifestyle interventions will need to be estab-lished in additional, larger studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0243.v1
Subject: Keywords: Early Psychosis; Cardiovascular Disease Risk; Quality of Life; Lifestyle Behaviours.
Online: 11 August 2021 (08:55:02 CEST)
Introduction: People with schizophrenia have poor cardiometabolic health, with elevated 10-year cardiovascular disease risk (CVD-R) scores and poor quality of life (QOL). There is lack of understanding of these issues in early psychosis. Aims: To quantify CVD-R in people with early psychosis and profile their obesity prevalence, lifestyle behaviours and QOL. Secondary aim was to explore associations between lifestyle behaviours/treatment characteristics and CVD-R/QOL. Method:Baseline data from 81 RCT participants were used to profile cardiometabolic health risks (QRISK®3, BMI and waist circumference). Participants self-reported lifestyle behaviours and QOL. Relationships between modifiable treatment/lifestyle factors and QOL/CVD-R were explored using bivariate analyses. Results: Participants’ relative risk for CVD over 10 years was 1.93 times higher than healthy counterparts; 39% also had an obese BMI and physical QOL was poor. No significant associations were observed between CVD-R or QOL with treatment characteristics and lifestyle factors. Discussion: Despite positive lifestyle behaviours, participants had elevated CVD-R scores and poor physical health related QOL. Quantifying CVD-R with QRISK®3 may highlight the need for health promotion interventions. Implications for practice: Mental health professionals should be alert to elevated cardiometabolic health risks in early psychosis, particularly as these can occur in the context of relatively healthy lifestyle behaviours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0177.v1
Subject: Keywords: Overweight, obesity, deep learning, Convolutional layer, GRU, COVID-19, lifestyle.
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:22:56 CEST)
Obesity and overweight is a foremost concern around the globe for each group of age. This can be accelerated by the current imposed lockdown. However, excessive weight gain may result in other chronic diseases. This study has been considering the age group of 25 to 55 years as the sample populations and monitoring them from July, 2020 to November, 2020. The lifestyle of this population, food habit, mental health conditions are explored using deep learning based framework. All these parameters need to be monitored as these have close relation with currently imposed constraints due to COVID-19. A predictive model is constructed using deep learning techniques to predict the risk of gaining weight. The predictive model hybridizes the convolutional layer and gated recurrent neural networks as a unified entity for achieving the objective of early weight gain prediction. The result obtained by this model exhibits an encouraging predictive efficiency of 93.7%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dietary pattern; Mediterranean diet; healthy diet; pregnancy; lifestyle; sociodemographic factors.
Online: 18 March 2021 (12:34:28 CET)
The Mediterranean diet represents one of the most studied dietary patterns, however, there is no single tool for measuring the grade of adherence and no single criteria to adapting these indices to pregnant women. We characterized the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MDA) of pregnant women participating in the NELA cohort and identified the sociodemographic determinants and lifestyle habits associated with a higher risk of a low MDA. Maternal diet during gestation was assessed by a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) (n=665). We estimated Relative Mediterranean Diet score (rMED), Alternative Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and Alternate Healthy Index-2010 (AHEI-2010). Multivariate regression models were performed to identify the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated to each index. Mothers with lower age and more previous deliveries had a greater probability of low MDA (P <0.05). Only, for aMED index, mothers with university education and / or who practiced 2 or more hours per week sport activities had a lower probability of a low MDA (P <0.01). These results may be useful in order to design intervention strategies and dietary recommendation for pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: COVID-19; Food intake; Lifestyle; Emotional eating; Home confinement; Lockdown.
Online: 15 October 2020 (14:07:18 CEST)
As consequence of COVID-19, millions of households suffered mobility restrictions and changes in their lifestyle during several months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 home confinement in food habits, lifestyle and emotional balance of the Spanish population. This cross-sectional study used data collected via an anonymous online questionnaire during the last month before lockdown finished in Spain in a total of 675 participants. 38.8% of the respondents experienced weight gain while 31.1% lost weight during confinement. The increase in body weight was positively correlated with the age (Rs = 0.14, p <0.05) and BMI (Rs = 0.20, p <0.05). We also identified that 39.7% reported poorer quality sleep, it was positively correlated with BMI (Rs = -0.18, p <0.05) and with age (Rs = -0.21, p <0.05). 44.7% of the participants had not performed physical exercise during confinement with differences by sex (p <0.05), by age (p <0.05), by BMI (p <0.05) and sleep quality (p <0.05). According to emotional-eater questionnaire, 21.8% and 11% were classified as emotional eater and very emotional eater, respectively. We emphasize the importance of adopting a healthy lifestyle, as the COVID-19 pandemic nowadays is ongoing.
Subject: Keywords: Physical Activity; COVID-19; healthy lifestyle; metabolic disorders; immune system
Online: 7 June 2020 (11:31:17 CEST)
Purpose: At a time of a pandemic SARS-CoV2 infection, and in the context of the multiorgan crosstalk widely accepted as a mechanism participating in the pathophysiology of all organs and systems, a correlation between adipose tissue, muscle and the immune system has been investigated. Physical Activity (PA) represents the first line of defence against metabolic diseases and infections, like SARS-CoV2, modulating several crucial functions such as inflammation and immune response. Conversely, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders – all correlated with PA - negatively impact on general health status, including susceptibility to infections. Here we review the complex interplay between type 2 diabetes, obesity, immune response, inflammation and viral infections, such as the current SARS-CoV2, focusing on the molecular mechanisms modulated by exercise. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was completed to identify joint biomarkers previously used to investigate acute and chronic exercise training. Results: we show that PA may counteract/mitigate viral adverse effects. We also describe data suggesting that vitamin D supplementation, frequently observed in practitioners of sport and regular exercise, could represent an additional positive factor in supporting COVID-19 with fighting against the virus. Conclusion: Altogether this evidence confirms that an active lifestyle and PA not only counteract dysmetabolic diseases but could also be effective for counteracting SARS-CoV2 infection. It is therefore essential to persuade people to keep active.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0272.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: construction industry; heart health; lifestyle behaviors; healthy eating; physical activity
Online: 20 April 2018 (14:59:45 CEST)
Objectives: 1) To describe the cardiovascular health of the construction workers in Hong Kong, 2) to examine the demographic differences in cardiovascular health, and 3) to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular conditions. Methods: 626 registered construction workers were included in the analysis. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, weight and height were measured. Face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted. T-tests and One-way ANOVAs were used to compare the cardiovascular health score, cardiovascular outcomes, and lifestyle behaviors by demographic characteristics. Logistic regressions were performed to assess the cardiovascular outcomes by lifestyle behaviors. Results: Two-thirds of the construction workers failed to achieve three out of the seven “ideal” cardiovascular health indicators. The younger, more educated, and female subjects had better cardiovascular health scores than their counterparts. The ideal fish and seafood consumption was associated with 1) ideal weight status and 2) ideal cholesterol level, whereas less soft drink consumption was associated with ideal cholesterol level. Conclusions: The findings highlighted the importance of promoting cardiovascular health in the construction industry. This study provided insights for future interventions, which should include increasing fish and seafood intake, decreasing soft drink consumption, and enhancing the health literacy amongst older, less educated, and male construction workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; primary care; lifestyle; health resources.; alcohol abuse desorder
Online: 15 December 2021 (14:47:13 CET)
The disruption in healthcare attention to people with alcohol dependence, along with psychological decompensation consequence of lockdown derived from COVID-19 pandemic, could have a negative impact on people who suffers from alcohol abuse disorder. Retrospective observational study of 9,966 men aged ˃16 years registered as having diagnosis of alcohol abuse disorder in the electronic medical records (EMR) of the Aragon Regional Health Service (Spain). Of those who were not infected during the study period (9,576), clinical (Glutamate-oxaloacetate -GOT-, Glutamate pyruvate -GPT-, creatinine, glomerular filtration, systolic blood pressure -SBP-, diastolic blood pressure -DBP-, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and body mass index -BMI-), pharmacological (dose per inhabitant per day -DHD- of drugs used in addictive disorders, benzodiazepines and antidepressants) and health resource use variables (primary and specialized care) were considered. Student´s T-test for matched samples was performed. After carrying out the Levene´s test, the Student´s T-test was used to analyze the changes in clinical variables between alcohol abuse disorder patients with and without COVID-19. Only creatinine and LDL show a significant but clinically irrelevant changes just after and 6 months after the end of strict lockdown. The total number of DHDs for all drugs included in the study (except for Benzodiazepines), decreased. In the same way, the use of health services by these patients also decreased. The impact of COVID-19 among this group of patients has been moderate. The reorganization of health and social services after the declaration of the state of alarm in our country, made possible the maintenance of care for this vulnerable patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0281.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: selective pressures; mitochondrial protein-coding genes; subterranean voles; adaptations; subterranean lifestyle.
Online: 19 October 2021 (15:01:42 CEST)
The current study evaluates the selection signals in the evolution of mitochondrial DNA of voles, subfamily Arvicolinae, during the colonization of subterranean environments. The comparative sequence analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes of eight subterranean vole species (Prometheomys schaposchnikowi, three species of the genus Ellobius: E. talpinus, E. fuscocapillus and E. lutescens, two species of the genus Terricola: T. subterraneus and T. daghestanicus, Lasiopodomys mandarinus and Hyperacrius fertilis) and their closest aboveground relatives using codon-substitution models was applied. The highest number of selection signatures was detected in genes ATP8 and CYTB. The relaxation of selection was observed in most mtDNA protein-coding genes. In mole voles (genus Ellobius) the signatures of adaptive evolution of mitochondrial genes related to subterranean niche were most pronounced. The number of selection signatures was found to be independent of the evolutionary age of the lineage but fits the degree of specialization to the subterranean niche. The common trends of selective pressures were observed among the evolutionary ancient and highly specialized subterranean rodent families and phylogenetically young lineages of voles. It suggests that the signatures of adaptations in individual mitochondrial protein-coding genes associated with the colonization of the subterranean niche may appear within a rather short evolutionary timespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0106.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus; pandemic; exercise; depression; anxiety; wellness; physical distancing; lifestyle behavior change
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:27:25 CEST)
Strategies implemented worldwide to contain COVID-19 outbreaks varied in severity across different countries, and established a new normal for work and school life (i.e. from home) for many people, reducing opportunities for physical activity. Positive relationships of physical activity with both mental and physical health are well recognised, therefore the aim was to ascertain how New Zealand’s lockdown restrictions impacted physical activity and mental health and wellbeing. Participants (n=4007; mean±SD: age 46.5±14.7y, 72% female, 80.7% New Zealand European) completed (10–26 April 2020) an online amalgamated survey (Qualtrics): International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Short Form; Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-9; World Health Organization-Five Well-being Index; Stages of Change Scale. Positive dose response relationships between physical activity levels and wellbeing scores were demonstrated for estimates that were unadjusted (moderate activity OR 3.79, CI 2.88-4.92; high activity OR 8.04, CI 6.07-10.7) and adjusted (confounding variables: age, gender, socioeconomic status, time sitting, co-morbidities) (moderate activity 1.57, CI 1.11-2.52; high activity 2.85, CI 1.97-4.14). The study results support previous research demonstrating beneficial effects of regular physical activity on mental health and wellbeing. Governments may use such results to promote meeting physical activity guidelines in order to protect mental health and wellbeing during the ongoing COVID-19 and future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0071.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; Mediterranean diet; personality traits; physical activity; lifestyle habits
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:21:13 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) resulted in lockdowns and social distancing measures enforced by governments. Using a cross-sectional design, this study aimed to identify changes in adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and physical activity (PA) and associations with personality, during lockdown in Qatar. A sample of 543 participants was recruited online between April and May 2020. Results showed a reduction in Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during lockdown (5.9 ± 0.08) compared to before lockdown (6.1 ± 0.08) (p ˂ 0.001). Although there was an increase in the percentage of participants who consumed ≥4 tablespoons olive oil per day (9% vs 12%; p ˂ 0.001), vegetables (54.3% vs 58.7%; p = 0.005), legumes (11.8% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007) and sofrito (70.9% vs 77.3%; p ˂ 0.001), there was also a significant decrease in the percentage of participants who consumed fresh fruit (39.4% vs 15.8%; p ˂ 0.001) and fish/seafood (5.9% vs 3.9%; p = 0.035) and an increase in saturated fat consumption (45.9% vs 53.8%; p ˂ 0.001), during lockdown compared to before lockdown. Participants who scored high in the extraversion personality dimension had a higher MD adherence (B = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.04, 1.64; p = 0.039) before lockdown compared to participants who scored high in the agreeableness personality dimension, although this difference did not reach statistical significance during lockdown. Those who scored high in openness had the lowest change in MD adherence score (B = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.58, -0.04; p = 0.026). Total PA (B = -506.26; 95% CI = -678.60, -333.92; p ˂ 0.001), vigorous activity (B = -155.95; 95% CI = -274.64, - 38.21; p = 0.010), moderate activity (B = -93.04; 95% CI = -148.07, -38.01; p = 0.010) and walking (B = -257.27; 95% CI = -337.87, -176.67; p ˂ 0.001) were decreased during lockdown, while sitting was increased compared to before lockdown (B = 940.91, 95% CI = 831.9, 1049.90; p ˂ 0.001). Openness was positively associated with all PA (B = 562.2; 95% CI = 62.7, 106.7; p = 0.027), including walking (B = 241.7; 95 % CI = 29.4, 454.0; p = 0.026) and negatively associated with sitting (B= -303.4; 95% CI = -590.0; -16.8; p = 0.038) when compared to those with high agreeableness scores, before lockdown. During lockdown, the time spent sitting was lower in those with high scores on neuroticism when compared to those with high agreeableness scores (B= -619.5; 95 % CI = -1215,-23.9; p = 0.042). Differential changes in lifestyle habits by personality dimensions during lockdown, suggest the need to tailor lifestyle interventions based on people’s personality types, for more effective lifestyle change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: cultural capital; lifestyle; management of the body; public sport; social capital
Online: 5 January 2021 (12:47:31 CET)
The present study has been done using the Survey Research. The research sample scale equals 400 people, besides its statistical population is included the 15-year population and most of the city of Kerman in 2020. The method of multistage-cluster-stratified sampling was used in five districts of the city of Kerman, moreover the results have been analyzed by SPSS and AMOSS16 software, and only is one model fitted with reality among five models of designed path. The results of analysis of path diagram indicate that other coefficients of the path all of them are significant except the direct impact of one's image of the body on sport-based cultural capital and social class on the tendency toward the public sport. Other results of the study suggest that sport-based socio-economic capital leaves an indirect effect on sport-based cultural capital by which the tendency of citizens toward the sport grows up. At that showing athletic advertisements in the media are effective on the tendency of citizens to public sport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0322.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: obesity; Body Mass Index; physical activity; education; pupils; health; lifestyle; sport
Online: 10 November 2020 (15:27:45 CET)
Obesity is a serious problem of our society. A long-term positive trend in body weight gain continues to persist. Paediatric obesity arises from a changed lifestyle of children, characterised by an important restriction of their spontaneous physical activity. A lack of physical activity is one of the most important causes of paediatric obesity associated with a number of serious disorders. The paper evaluates the effect of physical activity on obesity in second stage pupils of elementary schools in the region of Ústí nad Labem. In their research survey, the authors determine the incidence of obesity and overweight as well as the relationship between physical activity and obesity in second stage pupils of elementary schools in the region of Ústí nad Labem. The data collection was based on questions of the CAV 2001 questionnaire and BMI-for-age. As revealed by the research survey, problems with obesity and overweight are present particularly in boys. Only a third of boys and girls engage in sufficient physical activity. At the same time, differences were shown in the study group where groups with higher BMI values had lower values of physical activity. Subsequently, a relationship was shown between those who use their bicycle as a means of transport and spend their leisure time bicycling at the same time. More than two thirds of the study subjects reported using a bicycle as a means of transport and using their bicycle in their leisure time as a means of being active; 93% of these subjects had normal body weight. Our results confirm the continued pandemic prevalence of obesity and indicate that appropriate physical activity should be included in the everyday life of children both at school and outside of school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0105.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ICT; sensors; well-being; family-centred design; healthy lifestyle; family time
Online: 5 July 2018 (16:34:20 CEST)
Within the Active Living and Well-Being Project (RRP3), funded by the Republic of Slovenia and the European Regional Development Fund Investing in Your Future programme, we aim to develop different approaches and prototypes to provide ICT solutions for the family in order to connect its members, communicate, promote quality family time, active life, a health-friendly lifestyle and well-being, and integrate various sensor and user-based data sources into a smart city ecosystem platform. A mixed methodology, combined qualitative and quantitative approaches, was selected to conduct a study. An online survey with a structured questionnaire as well as semi-structured interviews were performed. Through the analysis of the results we tried to establish a family-centred design approach that would be inclusive as much as possible, creating benefits for all generations in order to develop interactive prototypes that would allow us to further test and verify different use-case scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: MOSH syndrome; lifestyle change; food addiction; aromatase activity; testosterone/estradiol ratio
Online: 30 March 2018 (06:19:03 CEST)
Male obesity secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) impairs fertility, sexual function, bone mineralization, fat metabolism, cognitive function, deteriorates muscle mass and alters body composition. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention and physical activity on the MOSH patient’s hormonal profile after a 10% weight loss compared to baseline. Fourteen male patients were enrolled. Hormonal, lipid, glycemic profiles and body composition were determined at baseline and after a 10% weight loss. Aging Male Symptoms Scale (AMS) and Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) were administered to patients in order to investigate hypogonadal symptoms and food addiction. Compared to baseline, a significant increase of Total Testosterone (TT) (300.2 ± 79.5 ng/dl vs 408.3 ± 125.9, p = 0.002, 95% CI 26.8; 167.7) and a reduction of 17-Beta Estradiol level (48.3 ± 14.9 pg/mL vs 39.2 ± 15.2, p = 0.049, 95% CI 3.1; 0.0) were observed. Total Fat Mass (FM) percentage, android and gynoid fat mass percentage (39.2 ± 6.4% vs 36.2 ± 5.8%, p = 0.0001, 95% CI 22.5; 62.3; 51.5 ± 6.8% vs 47.6 ± 6.8%, p = 0.001, 95% CI 0.6; 1.8, vs 39.2 ± 6.2% vs 36.5 ± 6.3% p= 0.0001, 95% CI 0.9; 2.0 respectively) were significantly decreased after nutritional intervention. In addition, total Fat Free Mass (FFM) in kg was significantly reduced after 10% weight loss (62.3± 2.8 kg vs 60.3± 7.7 kg, p = 0.002, 95% CI 45.0; 93.0). Lifestyle changes, specifically dietotherapy and physical activity, induce positive effects on hypogonadism due to obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: thyroid nodules; ultrasound; lifestyle; dietary; betel quid; red meat; nut; centenarians
Online: 16 January 2018 (10:04:38 CET)
Thyroid nodules (TNs) are common thyroid lesions in older population. Few studies focused on the prevalence of TNs and its relationship to lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits in centenarians. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of TNs in Chinese centenarians using high-resolution ultrasound equipment and investigate its relationship to lifestyles and dietary habits. The current study was part of China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study (CHCCS) which conducted in Hainan, an iodine sufficient region in China. A total of 874 permanent residents aged 100 years or older (mean age, 102.8 ± 2.8 years) without any missing data were included in the analysis. Among the participants, 649 of them were detected at least one thyroid nodule under the ultrasound examinations. The overall prevalence rate of TNs was 74.3%. The prevalence of TNs was higher in participants who were females, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight than their counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being female, hypertension, diabetes, betel quid consumption, red meat consumption were independent risk factors, while being underweight, and nut consumption were independent protective factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that the presence of thyroid nodules was highly prevalent in Chinese centenarians, particularly in females. In addition to gender, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight, the presence of TNs was independently associated with betel quid, red meat, and nut consumptions. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify these associations in population from different age strata, races, cultures, and iodine backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0123.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: work context; work conditions; work stress; job satisfaction; lifestyle; sonographers; ergonomics
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:53:13 CET)
Work context is essential to understand in relation to handle the stress at work that ultimately creates a feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction among health professionals. The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship of work context and work stress among sonographers (n=153) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Additionally, the study provided a gender-based comparison of both variables among sonographers. Work context was measured by administering subscale of work context derived from Work Design Questionnaire. Whereas, work stress was measured by Job Stress Scale. In addition, relationship of lifestyle was explored with work context and work stress. Data was collected through survey research forms. Results revealed the significant relationship of work context and work stress (r=.251, p=.002). Among lifestyle variables, perceived good health (r= .214, p=.008) and sleep (r=.242. p=.003) were found positively related with satisfaction toward work. Whereas, the strong positive correlation was found between work context and frequency of physical activity (r=.255, p=.005). No significant difference was found among male and female sonographers. The findings of this study contributed to evaluating the working condition of sonographers in relation to work stress. Effective strategies for better working settings as well as strategies for achieving satisfaction in work will be discussed to enhance the performance of sonographers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamins; micronutrients; deficiencies; screening; general population; lifestyle; prevention; vitamin d; vitamin b12
Online: 10 March 2022 (14:11:38 CET)
Maintaining an adequate micronutrient status can be achieved by following a complete, diverse diet. Yet, food trends in Western countries show suboptimal consumption of healthy nutrients. In this study we explored the prevalence of vitamin and mineral imbalances in a general population cohort of Dutch adults, and evaluated the effect of a digital lifestyle program on the nutritional status and nutrition health behaviors of these individuals. A micronutrient panel was measured in 348 participants, alongside a dietary assessment. One-hundred users subsequently underwent a remeasurement. We identified at least one nutritional imbalance in 301 individuals (86.5%). 80% improved and normalized B6, 67% improved folate, 70% improved B12, and 86% improved vitamin D. Iron abnormalities were corrected in 75% of participants. In conclusion, this study found micronutrient deficiencies of easily obtainable vitamins through diet or supplementation such as B vitamins and vitamin D were more prevalent than expected in a Dutch population. This can partly be explained by an insufficient consumption of food groups rich in B vita-mins. Our preliminary results in those remeasured after a digitally-enabled lifestyle intervention show these imbalances can be corrected with adequate behavioral support in a “food as medicine” approach complemented with supplementation where needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0553.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: physical activity; Body Mass Index; COVID-19; pupils; health; lifestyle; sport; obesity
Online: 30 November 2021 (08:46:52 CET)
Regular physical activity is a very important factor in the healthy development of an individual and an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. However, today's population still suffers from insufficient amount of exercise caused mainly by technical progress and often inappropriate conditions for practicing sports. In relation to this, we are grappling with a steady increase in obesity. During the COVID-19 pandemic, conditions for regular physical activity became even more unfavourable, with the declaration of a state of emergency and anti-pandemic measures leading to the closure of sports grounds and sporting competitions. In our research survey, we attempted to determine whether there would be changes in physical activity and BMI before and after the situation caused by the COVID-19 disease in upper primary school pupils in the Czech Republic. Using a questionnaire survey of a sample of children (n =1456), we found that already before the pandemic, 69% of the observed sample had not met the recommended amount of physical activity and only 67% of the sample was of normal weight. After the end of the anti-pandemic measures, the observed values deteriorated even more. There was a significant decrease in children with normal weight (by 7.5%) and an increase in children with Class 1 obesity. At the same time, we saw a significant decrease in children doing sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Environmental impact; atmospheric pollution; lifestyle changes; health effects; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:16:12 CEST)
This article analyses the environmental impact of the measures imposed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We compare the evolution of atmospheric pollution levels in recent years and during lockdown, and assess the effects of the decrease in mobility and changes in patterns and lifestyles during the latter period. Thus, the reduction in the risk to human health brought about by the improvement of air quality during the months of confinement through the use of dose-response functions is estimated. The focus of the case study is the island of Tenerife. The island of Tenerife has been selected because it can serve as an example for other sites in Europe. We distinguish between the three areas with the highest population concentrations: the Metropolitan, Southern, and Northern areas. The impacts of air pollution and its relationship with changes in consumption and activity patterns are clearly distinguishable. Therefore, the lessons learned can be easily extrapolated to other areas, in both island and mainland contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nutrition; plant-based diet; vegan diet; lifestyle; obesity; body composition; weight-loss
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:30:39 CEST)
Failure of various weight-loss programs and long-term maintenance of favorable body composition in all kinds of people is high, since the majority go back to old dietary patterns. Many studies have documented the efficacy of a plant-based diet (PBD) for body mass management, but there are opinions that maintaining a PBD is difficult. We aimed to evaluate the long-term success of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) lifestyle program. We investigated the differences in the obesity indices and lifestyle of 151 adults (39.6 ± SD 12.5 years), who were on our program for short (0.5–<2 years), medium (2–<5 years), or long term (5–10 years). Body-composition changes were favourable for all three groups, both genders and all participants. There were no differences in relative body-composition changes (BMI, body fat percentage and muscle mass index (MMI)) between the three groups. All participants improved their BMI (baseline mean pre-obesity BMI range (kg/m2): 26.4 ± 5.6 to normal 23.9 ± 3.8, p < 0.001), decreased body mass (–7.1 ± 8.3 kg, p < 0.001) and body fat percentage (–6.4 ± 5.6 % points, p < 0.001). Those with the highest BMI at baseline lost the most of: a) BMI units, b) total body mass and c) body fat (a) (kg/m2) (–5.6 ± SD 2.9, –2.4 ± 1.8 and –0.9 ± 1.5), b) (kg) (–16.1 ± SD 8.8, –7.1 ± 5.4 and –2.5 ± 4.5) and c) (% points) (–9.5 ± SD 5.7, –6.6 ± 4.6 and –4.7 ± 5.3) for participants who had baseline BMI in obese, overweight and normal range, respectively; pbaseline vs. current < 0.001 for all). 85.6% (101 out of 118) of parents of underage children (< 18 years), introduced WFPB lifestyle to their children. WFPB lifestyle program provides long-term lifestyle changes for reversal of obesity and is effective transferred to the next generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: education level; eating behavior; healthy lifestyle habits; non-communicable chronic diseases; machine learning
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:52:29 CET)
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological profile and its relationship with the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases in riverside populations in the Xingu region, Pará, Brazil. Methods: Characteristics related to health indicators and which risk factors are considered most important were also analyzed. This is a cross-sectional, exploratory, and descriptive study. The sample consisted of riverside people over 18 years of both sexes. The sample size (n.86) was calculated with a confidence level of 95% and a sample error of 5%. To divide the groups, the K-means clustering algorithm was adopted through an unsupervised method and the values were expressed as median. For continuous and categorical data, the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were used, respectively, and the significance level was set at p<5%. To classify the degree of importance of each variable, the multi-layer perceptron algorithm was applied. Results: Based on this information, the sample was divided into two groups: the group with low or no education, with bad habits and worse health conditions, and the group with opposite characteristics. The risk factors considered for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in the groups were low education (p < 0.001), sedentary lifestyle (p < 0.01), smoking, alcoholism, body mass index (p < 0.05) and the waist-hip ratio, with values above the expected, in both groups. Conclusions: The factors considered important to have a good health condition or not were the educational and social conditions of these communities and a part of the riverside population was considered healthier than the other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Mediterranean Diet; weight loss; determinants of health; healthy lifestyle; clinically significant weight loss
Online: 29 July 2022 (09:52:36 CEST)
Evidence indicates that unhealthy eating habits constitute multilevel obstacles threatening our health and well-being—studies suggesting that consumer choices turn irremovably towards Western diets. Mediterranean diets (MD) have been identified as one of the most effective in preventing and treating overweight and obesity. Considering this scientific substantiation in prevention and treatment activity, the purpose of this investigation is to verify this evidence. In our prospective interventional study, we examined the effect of MD on body weight in a female cohort sample. The analyzed group consisted of (n=181) females divided into three distinct groups based on their age (tricenarian, quadragenarian, and quinquagenarian). Anthropometric (weight, BMI, FATP, VFATL, FFM, TBW, and BMR), biochemical examinations (urea, creatinine, uric acid, ALT, AST, GGT, CHOL, HDL-CH, non-HDL, LDL-CH, TAG, GLU, and CRP) and comprehensive, personalized three months MD program was completed on the examined subjects. We didn’t establish convincing evidence of MD on weight reduction and its magnitude of correlation with a positive correspondence on selected determinants in all groups combined. There is a challenge to construct more robust prospective cohort studies that will incorporate add-on critical integrands that will be appropriate to monitor, evaluate and predict weight management in experimenting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Multimorbidity; Non-communicable diseases; Lifestyle prevention; Public health; Low and Middle Income Countries
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:04:04 CEST)
Objectives: Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are experiencing a fast-paced epidemiological rise in clusters of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, forming an imminent rise in multimorbidity (MMD). However, preventing MMD has received little attention in LMICs, especially in Sub-Saharan African Countries. Design: Narrative review which scoped the most recent evidence in LMICs about MMD determinants and appropriated them for potential MMD prevention strategies. Methods: MMD in LMICs is affected by several determinants including increased age, female gender, environment, lower socio-economic status, obesity, and lifestyle behavious, especially poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Results: MMD public health interventions in LMICs, especially Sub-Saharan are currently impeded by local and regional economic disparity, underdeveloped healthcare systems, and concurrent prevalence of communicable diseases. However, lifestyle interventions that are targeted towards preventing highly prevalent MMD clusters, especially hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, can provide an early prevention of MMD, especially within Sub-Saharan African countries with emerging economies and socio-economic disparity. Conclusion: Future public health initiatives should consider targeted lifestyle interventions and appropriate policies and guidelines in preventing MMD in LMICs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0175.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gut microbiome; Western and indigenous/traditional cultures; gut health; disease; lifestyle; novel microbials
Online: 6 April 2021 (12:40:04 CEST)
The mammalian gut ecosystem plays critical roles in multiple functions related to health and homeostasis. In many cases, disturbances in the gut ecosystem are associated with a large number of metabolic and chronic diseases and disorders such as diabetes, cancer, and obesity. A diverse community of microorganisms ranging from viruses to bacteria comprise the gut microbiota, which is often considered as an organ in itself. Recent studies have profiled the influence of lifestyles and dietary behavior by comparing the gut microbiome of populations with different cultural underpinnings. In this review, we provide an overview of the studies which report the influence on the gut microbial composition of dietary and lifestyle patterns in different contexts such as western industrialized countries and indigenous cultures (corresponding to different lifestyle gradients such as hunter-gatherers and pastoralists) and how this association may influence health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0668.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Intestinal microbiome; infant microbiota; diet; westernized; non-westernized; lifestyle; microbial diversity; human health
Online: 28 July 2020 (08:37:38 CEST)
The Human Gut Microbiome is an important host’s component defining its health. These microorganisms are mutualistic symbionts dependent on factors such as host’s age, subsistence models and sociocultural practices, among others. The conjunction of these factors define the microbial ecosystem dynamics. Using a fecal microbiome approach in children, a comparison of two Mexican communities with contrasting lifestyles: “westernized” (Mexico City) and “non-westernized” (Me’phaa indigenous group) was evaluated. The main differences between these two communities are in bacteria associated with different types of diets (high animal protein and refined sugars vs high fiber food, respectively). In addition, the gut microbiome of Me’phaa children showed higher total diversity and the presence of exclusive phyla, such as Deinococcus-Thermus, Chloroflexi, Elusimicrobia, Acidobacteria and Fibrobacteres. In contrast, Mexico City children had less diversity and the exclusive presence of Saccharibacteria phylum which is associated with the degradation of sugar compounds. This comparison allows further exploration of the selective pressures affecting microbial ecosystemic composition over the course of human evolution and the potential consequences of pathophysiological states correlated with westernization lifestyles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; healthcare workers; United Kingdom; mental health; burnout; resilience; insomnia; depression; anxiety; lifestyle
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:24:40 CEST)
The burden of COVID-19 pandemic on health systems and the physical and mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs) has been substantial. This cross-sectional study aims to assess the effects of Covid-19 on the psychological wellbeing of mental health workers who provide care to a vulnerable patient population that have been particularly affected during this crisis. A total of 387 HCWs from across a large urban mental health service completed a self-administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic, lifestyle and work-based information and validated psychometric scales. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) respectively, sleep problems with the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), burnout with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and resilience with the Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine potential mediating factors. Prevalence of burnout was notable, with 52% recording moderate/severe in Emotional Exhaustion, 19.5% moderate/severe in Depersonalisation and 55.5% low/moderate Personal Accomplishment. Over half of all respondents (52%) experienced sleep problems; the presence of depressive symptoms was a significant predictor of insomnia. An increase in potentially harmful lifestyle changes, such as smoking, alcohol consumption and over-eating was also observed. However, high Resilience was reported by 70% of the sample and the importance of this is highlighted. Female gender was associated with increased levels of depression and emotional exhaustion while those with a history of mental health conditions were most at risk of affective symptoms, insomnia and burnout. Overall, our study revealed considerable levels of psychological distress and maladaptive coping strategies but also resilience and satisfaction with organizational support provided. Findings can inform tailored interventions in order to mitigate vulnerability and prevent long-term psychological sequelae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: pregnant and non-pregnant women; health behaviours; preconceptional lifestyle; personal values; symbols of happiness
Online: 28 December 2017 (03:34:01 CET)
Preconception lifestyle modification and reducing several known risk factors may have an influence on the future pregnancy outcome. The aim of the study was to analyse health behaviour and personal values, as well as to assess the relationship of these factors in women without children, in pregnant ones and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI), Personal Value List (PVL) and the sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into 3 groups: women who recently delivered (n = 235), pregnant women (n = 121) and childless women (n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviours and also they rated higher subscales values "positive mental attitude" and "health practices" in comparison to women who recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups the highest rated personal value was "a successful family life", while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was "love and friendship". Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women's health behaviours. Positioning “health” in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate introduction of healthy behaviours. This in turn could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlights areas where new research is needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome; evolution; insulin resistance; infertility; environment; toxins; endocrine disrupting chemicals; dysbiosis; lifestyle; diet
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:34:25 CET)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is increasingly recognized as a complex metabolic disorder that manifests in genetically susceptible women following a range of negative exposures to nutritional and environmental factors related to contemporary lifestyle. The hypothesis that PCOS phenotypes are derived from a mismatch between ancient genetic survival mechanisms and modern lifestyle practices is supported by a diversity of research findings. The proposed evolutionary model of the pathogenesis of PCOS incorporates evidence related to evolutionary theory, genetic studies, in-utero developmental epigenetic programming, transgenerational inheritance, metabolic features including insulin resistance, obesity and the apparent paradox of lean phenotypes, reproductive effects and subfertility, the impact of the microbiome and dysbiosis, endocrine disrupting chemical exposure, and the influence of lifestyle factors such as poor quality diet and physical inactivity. Based on these premises, the diverse lines of research are synthesized into a composite evolutionary model of the pathogenesis of PCOS. It is hoped that this model will assist clinicians and patients to understand the importance of lifestyle interventions in the prevention and management of PCOS and provide a conceptual framework for future research. It is appreciated that this theory represents a synthesis of the current evidence and that it is expected to evolve and change over time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0532.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Lifestyle; Diet; Physical activity; Stress; Smoking; Substance; Alcohol; Emotional well-being; Social connectedness
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:39:05 CET)
Background: The primary objective worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic has been controlling disease transmission. However, lockdown measures used to mitigate transmission have affected human behavior and altered lifestyles, with a likely impact on chronic non-communicable diseases. More than a year into the pandemic, substantial peer-reviewed literature has emerged on altered lifestyles following the varying lockdown measures imposed globally to control the virus spread. Objective: To explore the impact of lockdown measures on the six lifestyle factors, namely diet, physical activity, sleep, stress, social connectedness, and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or other harmful substances.Methods: We comprehensively searched PubMed and the World Health Organization’s global literature database on COVID-19 and retrieved 649 relevant articles for the narrative review. A critical interpretative synthesis of the articles was performed.Results: Most of the articles included in the review identified the negative effect of lockdown measures on each of the lifestyle factors in many parts of the world. Interestingly, encouraging lifestyle trends were also highlighted in a few articles. Such trends can positively influence the outcome of lifestyle-related chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes.Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic provides an opportunity to better understand the negative impact of strict lockdown measures on lifestyles. At the same time, it helps us identify and initiate positive behavioral changes, which, if consolidated, could improve chronic disease outcomes. It is up to governments, communities, and healthcare/academic entities to derive benefit from lessons learned from the pandemic, with the ultimate objective of better educating and promoting healthy lifestyles among communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Frequency of hepatitis; Lifestyle determinants of hepatitis; Risk factors of hepatitis; Socio-demographic determinants of hepatitis
Online: 15 July 2022 (16:00:00 CEST)
Hepatitis is the eighth highest cause of mortality globally and second-highest in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to determine frequency of Hepatitis B and C and related lifestyle and socio-demographic risk factors among adults. The data were collected though questionnaire from Hepatitis B and C patients from Mayo and Jinnah hospital Lahore. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. There were 5095 patients with Hepatitis B and C out of which 146 patients (67 males and 79 females) filled questionnaire. The frequency of hepatitis C was higher than hepatitis B. The significant risk factors associated with hepatitis B and C were education, marital status, family history, household income, and type of food consumed. Therefore, socio-demographic and lifestyle risk factors related interventions are needed to reduce frequency of Hepatitis B and C.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: coronavirus COVID-19; SARS; MERS; viral reproduction; immune response; lung infection influenza; deep breathing; diet; emotional stress; lifestyle
Online: 23 March 2020 (06:34:44 CET)
We conducted many model simulations to understand the causes of the damages of coronavirus (COVID-19) to lung tissue and constructed a diagram showing apparent viral reproduction, immune response and damage accumulation curves. We found that lung damages include virus-caused damage, tissue damage caused by immune responses and tissue damage caused by accumulated wastes. The virus-caused damage is proportional to the phase lag between the viral reproduction curve and the delayed adaptive immune response curve, while waste-induced damage is attributed to imbalance in removing viral, cellular and metabolic by-products. We found that treatment strategies should slow down viral reproduction and speed up immune response, and improve blood micro-circulation in the lungs. Consistent with the strategies, measures are taken to void direct lung infection, strengthen innate responses, promote immune responses, dilute viral concentration in lung tissue, maintain waste removal balance, protect heart and kidneys, control other infections, avoid allergic reactions and other inflammation, etc. We show that medical, dietary, emotional, lifestyle, environmental, mechanical factors, etc. may be simultaneously used to mitigate lung damages and prove that multiple factor health optimization method is magnitudes more powerful than a single factor treatment. Such a method does not depend on molecular specificity and can be used in parallel to antiviral drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Patients involvement; research interests; ART treatments; treatment personalization; psychological effects; healthy habits; fertility protection; infertility prevention; lifestyle; diet
Online: 8 April 2019 (12:46:17 CEST)
STUDY QUESTION: Which are the main research interests among patients of assisted reproductive technologies (ART)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Patients identified as research priorities that deserve further investigation: success rates and risks of ART, side-effects of treatments, resources to cope with infertility, effectiveness of alternative therapies, lifestyle habits to protect fertility, oocyte quality and ovarian reserve, and causes of genetic or hereditary infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The involvement of patients and caregivers in setting research agendas in medicine has gathered significant momentum in the last decade. Patients’ involvement in setting research priorities offers several benefits: improved patient knowledge and awareness of their condition; greater understanding of the medical professionals of the impact of the condition on patients’ quality of life; reduced costs associated with redundant research activities. This is may be also applicable to research in infertility and ART, where patients’ interests have never been explored before. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a cross-sectional study that consists of an anonymous online survey, which was sent up to three times to 2112 patients from 11 fertility centers in 5 countries between January-December 2018. The study design was based on the James Lind Alliance priority setting partnership model, which comprises the identification of patients groups, the exploration of the research agenda, the analysis of collected data and identification of priorities. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Overall, 2112 patients were contacted, and 945 surveys were answered (RR: 44.7%). Patients were asked to identify research questions relevant to them in the areas of infertility causes and prevention, fertility treatments (medication and ART), and the emotional aspects of infertility. Answers were categorized in topics and ranked by frequency. A long list of the top-30 research topics was extracted from the aggregate results, from which, a short list of the top-10 research topics was created. At the end, 10 research questions related to each of the 10 research topics were constructed, based on the answers given by patients. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Female (845, 89.4%) and male (100, 10.6%) patients were included. The mean age of patients was 37.8 (SD 1.74). Most of the patients did not have children at the time of the survey (523, 59%), while 51 (5.7%) were pregnant. Sixty (6.3%) patients did not start treatment, 579 (61.3%) were performing a treatment with their own gametes and 304 (32.2%) were treated through gamete donation. Patients were mainly interested in the effectiveness of ART -especially per clinical profile-, side effects of drugs, protection of fertility and prevention of infertility –especially through diet and exercise-, and psychological aspects of the infertility journey. The top-10 research questions (and weight) obtained were: 1) What are the side-effects of ART treatments? (41.6%); 2) What are the most effective methods to cope with infertility from the psychological point of view? (37.2%); 3) What effects could diet have on fertility? (25.9%); 4) What are ART success rates per clinical profile? (25.9%); 5) Are there habits and lifestyle factors that could prevent infertility? (20.0%); 6) What are the long-term risks associated to ART? (18.5%); 7) Are alternative therapies such as acupuncture, yoga, and meditation effective to treat/prevent infertility? (18.5%); 8) What is the impact of exercise on fertility? (15.4%); 9) How does oocytes quantity and quality affect fertility? (9.5%); 10) What are the genetic patterns or hereditary conditions causing/related to infertility? (9.5%). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Although all respondents had attended a fertility center, not all of them were diagnosed as infertile (i.e. single women) and had started treatment at the time of response, while a few were pregnant; their priorities for research might have been influenced by their infertility journey. Also, all participants attended private fertility centers: areas of interest may be different in public settings. WIDER IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FINDINGS: Researchers and clinicians should keep in mind that, in addition to improvement of treatments’ success rates and side-effects, patients greatly value research on causes, prevention and emotional aspects of infertility. As their views might differ from those of medical professionals, patients’ voices should be incorporated in setting infertility research priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Self-management, type 2 diabetes, immigrants, health systems, chronic diseases, qualitative study, lifestyle change, thematic analysis, socioeconomically disadvantaged, Stockholm
Online: 19 July 2018 (00:44:34 CEST)
Studies comparing provider and patient views and experiences of self-management within primary healthcare are particularly scarce in disadvantaged settings. In this qualitative study, patient and provider perceptions of self-management were investigated in five socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Stockholm. Twelve individual interviews and three group interviews were conducted. Semi-structured interview guides included questions on perceptions of diabetes diagnosis, diabetes care services available at primary health care centers, patient and provider interactions, and self-management support. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Two overarching themes were identified. These were characterized by inherent dilemmas representing confusions and conflicts that patients and providers experienced in their daily life or practice respectively: adopting and maintaining new routines through practical and appropriate lifestyle choices (patients); and balancing expectations and pre-conceptions of self-management (providers). Patients found it difficult to tailor information and lifestyle advice to fit their daily life. Healthcare providers recognized that patients were in need of support to change behavior, but saw themselves as inadequately equipped to deal with the different cultural and social aspects of self-management. This study highlights patient and provider dilemmas that influence the interaction and collaboration between patients and providers with respect to communication and uptake of self-management advice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0041.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: conceptual model; Evolutionary Determinants of Health; greened city; human evolution; Palaeolithic genome; urban greenspace; urban wellbeing; Western Lifestyle Diseases
Online: 7 December 2017 (07:15:37 CET)
To cope with a projected global population increase from 7.2 bn to 9.6 bn by 2050, many more cities must be built. Although there are great benefits to modern urban living, there also great costs, such as the seemingly unstoppable rise in Type 2 diabetes, obesity, coronary issues and various cancers. The new towns should be designed to contain or constrain the epidemic of those ‘Western Lifestyle Diseases’ that currently plagues today’s cities. But how might this be achieved? It is suggested here that a greater understanding of human evolution combined with the potency of the ‘Palaeolithic genome’ holds the key to our future urban wellbeing. Consequently, a new paradigm is suggested that underpins positive forward thinking on townplanning and city lifestyles to create healthier urban environments. This builds directly on the ‘Evolutionary Determinants of Health’ programme initiated at University College London (UCL). A four-stage model is proposed that integrates and develops both evolutionary-concordant personal and institutional health behaviours with appropriately reconfigured town-planning and building regulations. When integrated, these strands could deliver a healthier urban culture within greened, active townscapes by proactively constraining or eliminating some of the key underlying causes of the so-called ‘Western Lifestyle Diseases’.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; viral reproduction; immune response; low temperature injury; lung damages; cold flu influenza; deep breathing exercises; diet; emotion stress; lifestyle
Online: 4 March 2020 (05:30:58 CET)
To understand great disparities in disease outcomes between CIVID-19 patients, we explore infection and host responses in kinetics. From existing data, we deduced a model that the lungs are damaged by rapidly rising flow resistance as a result of retaining white blood cells in lung tissues. The retention of white blood cells is initially triggered by viral infection but aggravated by injuries caused by low temperature. Lungs are initially damaged by fluid leakage, rapidly followed by extruding blood into alveolar spaces. The step of blood extruding is predicted to take place in a very short time. Our simulations show that as little as 0.1% retention of white blood cells in the lungs can lead to their failure in 5 to 10 days. The small degrees of imbalance implies that this imbalance could be corrected by a large number of factors that are known to reduce flow resistance. The model implies that the top priority is maintaining blood micro-circulation and preserving organ functions in the entire disease course, especially after the virus has spread the whole lungs. From exploring a large number of hypothetical infection modes, we propose preventive, mitigating and treatment strategies for ultimately ending the pandemic. The first strategy is avoiding exposures that could result in widespread damages to lungs and taking post exposure mitigating measures that would reduce disease severity. The second strategy is reducing death rate and disability rate from the current levels to one tenth for infected patients by using multiple factors health optimization method. The double reduction strategies are expected to generate a series of chain reactions that favor mitigating or ending the pandemic. Some reactions include a big reduction of the amount of viral discharges from infected patients into the air, the avoidance of panic, chronic stress and emotional distress, and cross-infections which are expected in quarantines. The double reductions would have a final effect of ending the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: lifestyle factors; chronic inflammatory diseases; treatment result; treatment response; diet; meat intake; dietary pattern; food; mucosa associated bacteria; epithelium-associated bacteria; microbiome; fibre intake; personalized medicine; mucus; sulphate-reducing bacteria; mucin-degrading bacteria; Western style diet; anti-TNF
Online: 15 March 2017 (07:29:13 CET)
We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted.