CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: : viruses; synthetic organisms; artificial life; life domains; Lithbea
Online: 7 June 2022 (04:42:38 CEST)
As synthetic/artificial life forms become more abundant and sophisticated, an increasing number of bizarre creatures - xenobots, robots, soft A-life entities, genetically engineered organisms, etc. - are invading our society. Therefore, we need to bring order to all this, to establish what is living and what is not. Here, I intend to classify all these non-natural entities and clarify their status with reference to their consideration or not as living beings, leaving the door open to an uncertain future in which perhaps we can see how "the artificial" and "the natural" merge to originate something new. To order all this "new biodiversity" and to also give entry to viruses (which are excluded of the three-domains tree of life), I propose the creation of a new domain, Lithbea (from the name: life-in-the-border entities), in which all these new human-made entities as well as the viruses will be included. Within this domain there would be two kingdoms, Virus and Humade (contraction of human-made), based on their origin, natural or human-made. A brief description of each component of Lithbea is included and the implications for society and biology of this “new biodiversity” is briefly discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0354.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Definition of life; self-replicators; paralife; Utility-Product paralife; abiotic life; mechanical life; complexity
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:06:48 CET)
Here I describe an overlooked form of non-biological paralife (i.e., near-life) that has been evolving on Earth for millions of years, and is currently in the final stages of transitioning into a new form of life. Any consideration of non-biological life or paralife is complicated by the fact that there is no consensus among biologists for the definition of life. This ambiguity has caused disagreement about whether subcellular reproduction systems like viruses are a form of life, despite having genomes, mutations, heritable phenotypes and system-improving evolution. To resolve this problem, I develop a definition of life that is entirely functional and independent of any of the structural idiosyncrasies of biological life on Earth: an order-generating system controlled by internally-encoded information that perpetuates itself by functioning to counteract its entropic decay. Using this definition, subcellular transposons, plasmids, and viruses are paralife because they match the definition of life in all ways except that they induce their order-generating functioning by a living host rather through their own self-sustaining production system. Using this functional definition of life, I show that utility- products (UPs) like fabricated hand tools are part of induced-reproduction systems that have features equivalent to biological genomes, mutations, heritable phenotypes, and a process of system-improving evolution. The perceived benefit of utility-products causes them to induce their reproduction by a biological life-form (humans). For these reasons, human utility products are functionally just as close to being a form of life as subcellular transposons, plasmids, and viruses, i.e., they are Utility-Product paralife (UP-parlife). I also show that some forms of UP-paralife are currently evolving into mechanical life that is capable of both self- sustaining reproduction and system-improving evolution without outside assistance. This transition requires the development of a high level of factory and/or UP automation and artificial intelligence (AI) that is capable of complex reasoning, imagination and creativity. Finally, I consider the influence of UP-life and UP-paralife on the development of the level of structural complexity in the universe, and I briefly speculate about how these non-biological forms of life and paralife will influence the expansion of scientific knowledge about the universe.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1584.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Urban Form; Urban Life; Street Life; Urban Space; Proximity
Online: 24 July 2023 (09:31:58 CEST)
Today’s urban spaces face precipitous challenges and complications, which include the COVID-19 pandemic, urbanization, population growth, and climate change. Proximity plays an essential role in influencing the integrity of public spaces and urban environments, while proxemics studies people’s experience, and the benefits, of urban space, and is based on a behavioral system of activities that includes ‘territoriality’. There is a need to study the behavioural patterns of people in given situations with proxemic dimensions in order to sustain both human beings and the quality of urban space. However, people behave spontaneously within environmental settings and reflect each other’s responses, meaning it is important to distinguish between different cultures, which tend to respond in particular ways to the meaning of proximity. This suggests there is no universal indicator for phenomena such as crowding. The aim of this paper is to highlight the interrelationship between urban form and urban life. This study focuses on two patterns of activity - street life and social life - by adopting a descriptive-analytical approach to documentary and desk research. The findings reveal a vital distinction between social and public patterns of proximity, while other proximities, although critical, are not observed within interactions between people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1390.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: eating; drinking; daily life; real life; sensors; technology; behavior
Online: 20 July 2023 (07:55:54 CEST)
To monitor adherence to diets and to design and evaluate nutritional interventions it is essential to obtain objective knowledge about eating behavior. In most research, measures of eating behavior are based on self-reporting, such as 24-h recalls, food records (food diaries), and food frequency questionnaires. Self-reporting is prone to inaccuracies due to inaccurate and subjective recall and other biases. Recording behavior using non-obtrusive technology in daily life would overcome this. We here provide an up-to-date systematic overview encompassing all (close-to) publicly or commercially available technologies to automatically record eating behavior in real-life settings. 1328 studies were screened and after applying defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 122 studies were included for in-depth evaluation. Technologies in these studies were categorized by what type of eating behavior they measure and which type of sensor technology they use. In general, we found that relatively simple sensors are often used. Depending on the purpose, these are mainly motion sensors, microphones, weight sensors, and photo cameras. While several of these technologies are commercially available, there is still a lack of publicly available algorithms that are needed to process and interpret the resulting data. We argue that future work should focus on developing robust algorithms and validating these technologies in real-life settings. Combining technologies (e.g., prompting individuals for self-reports at sensed, opportune moments) is a promising route toward ecologically valid studies of eating behavior.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0234.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Theory of Life; Definition of Life; Origin of Life; Electron Bifurcation; Hydrothermal Vents; Biophysics; Biological Physics
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:30:35 CEST)
The definition, origin and recreation of life remain elusive. As others have suggested, only once we put life into reductionist physical terms will we be able to solve those questions. To that end, this work proposes the phenomenon of life to be the product of two dissipative mechanisms. From them, one reinterprets extant biological life and deduces a testable scenario for its origin. The proposed theory of life allows its replication, reinterprets ecological evolution, creates new constraints on the search for life and lays the foundations for groundbreaking technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life cycle assessment; circular economy; multiple product life cycles; temporal variability; life cycle inventory; emission intensity
Online: 16 November 2020 (17:24:26 CET)
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used frequently as a decision support tool for evaluating different design choices of products based on their environmental impacts. A life cycle usually comprises several phases of varying timespan. The amount of emissions generated from different life cycle phases of a product could be significantly different from one another. In conventional LCA, the emissions generated from the life cycle phases of a product are aggregated at the inventory analysis stage, which is then used as an input for life cycle impact assessment. However, when the emissions are aggregated, the temporal variability of inventory data is ignored, which may result in inaccurate environmental impact assessment. Besides, the conventional LCA does not consider the environmental impact of circular products with multiple use cycles. It poses difficulties in identifying the hotspots of emission-intensive activities with the potential to mislead conclusions and implications for both practice and policy. To address this issue and to analyse the embedded temporal variations in inventory data in a CE context, the paper proposes to calculate the emission intensity for each life cycle phase. It is argued that calculating and comparing emission intensity, based on the timespan and amount of emissions for individual life cycle phases, at the inventory analysis stage of LCA offers a complementary approach to the traditional aggregate emission-based LCA approach. In a circular scenario, it helps to identify significant issues during different life cycle phases and the relevant environmental performance improvement opportunities through product, business model and supply chain design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: metadata; documentation; data life-cycle; metadata life-cycle; hierarchical data
Online: 4 April 2018 (08:16:15 CEST)
The historic view of metadata as “data about data” is expanding to include data about other items that must be created, used and understood throughout the data and project life cycles. In this context, metadata might better be defined as the structured and standard part of documentation and the metadata life cycle can be described as the metadata content that is required for documentation in each phase of the project and data life cycles. This incremental approach to metadata creation is similar to the spiral model used in software development. Each phase also has distinct users and specific questions they need answers to. In many cases, the metadata life cycle involves hierarchies where latter phases have increased numbers of items. The relationships between metadata in different phases can be captured through structure in the metadata standard or through conventions for identifiers. Metadata creation and management can be streamlined and simplified by re-using metadata across many records. Many of these ideas are being used in metadata for documenting the life cycle of research projects in the Arctic.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: life extension; wind turbines; end-of-life issues; probabilistic modelling; economic optimization; fatigue; risk; remaining useful life
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:02:18 CET)
Reassessment of the fatigue life for wind turbines structural components is typically performed using deterministic methods with the same partial safety factors as used for the original design. However, in relation to life extension, the conditions are generally different from the assumptions used for calibration of partial safety factors; and using a deterministic assessment method with these partial safety factors might not lead to optimal decisions. In this paper, the deterministic assessment method is compared to probabilistic and risk-based approaches, and the economic feasibility is assessed for a case wind farm. Using the models also used for calibration of partial safety factors in IEC61400-1 ed. 4 it is found that the probabilistic assessment generally leads to longer additional fatigue life than the deterministic assessment method. The longer duration of the extended life can make life extension feasible in more situations. The risk-based model is applied to include the risk of failure directly in the economic feasibility assessment and it is found that the reliability can be much lower than the target for new turbines, without compromising the economic feasibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1797.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Sleep; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Quality of Life; Family Quality of Life
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:12:23 CEST)
Study Objectives: To (1) investigate the prevalence of sleep disorder symptoms in caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and (2) the relationships between caregiver sleep problems and their health-related quality of life and family quality of life. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of caregivers (N=62) of children ages 6 to 11 years old diagnosed with ASD receiving care at a regional autism research and resource center. Measurements and Results: Participants completed the Sleep Habits Questionnaire (SHQ), the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-12, and the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale (FQOL). Caregivers with longer sleep duration reported better mental health and better family quality of life. Caregivers who reported insomnia symptoms, non-restorative sleep, and insufficient sleep were more likely to report poorer mental health than caregivers who did not report these sleep disorder symptoms. Caregivers with obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome experienced worse physical quality of life. Conclusions: The physical and mental health of the primary caregiver is essential to the support of the child with ASD and to the functioning of the family. The study findings point to the importance of future research and interventions to enhance sleep health in order to improve quality of life for caregivers of children with ASD.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.3390/sci2030073
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: emergence of life; game of life; inefficiency objection; simpson’s paradox; astrobiology
Online: 18 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
We address the need for a model by considering two competing theories regarding the origin of life: (i) the Metabolism First theory and (ii) the RNA World theory. We discuss two inter-related points. (I) Models are valuable tools in understanding both the processes and intricacies of the origin of life issues. (II) Insights from models also help us to evaluate the core objection to origin of life theories called “the inefficiency objection” commonly raised by proponents of both the Metabolism First theory and the RNA World theory against each other. We use Simpson’s paradox as a tool for challenging this objection. We will use models in various senses ranging from taking them as representations of reality to treating them as theories/accounts that provide heuristics for probing reality. In this paper, we will frequently use models and theories interchangeably. Additionally, we investigate Conway’s Game of Life and contrast it with our Simpson’s Paradox (SP)-based approach to emergence of life issues. Finally, we discuss some of the consequences of our view. A scientific model is testable in three senses: (i) a logical sense, (ii) a nomological sense, and (iii) a current technological sense. The SP-based model is testable in the logical sense. It is also testable nomologically. However, it is not currently feasible to test it.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0661.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: life definition; living being definition; robot definition; living viruses; extraterrestrial life
Online: 30 August 2020 (11:33:48 CEST)
What is life, what is the difference between something that is alive and something that is not, are viruses living beings, or what would life be like elsewhere in the universe, are questions that still do not have clear-cut answers fully accepted by the scientific community. Based on the fundamental attributes of all living things, I define life as a process that takes place in very ordered organic structures and is characterized by being automatic, interactive and evolutionary. I also define a living being as an organic, highly ordered, automatic, interacting and evolutionary system, and a robot as an ordered automatic and interacting system. Based on this definition and what we know about the biology of viruses, I maintain that they should be considered as living entities. Finally, I explain why if there were life elsewhere in the universe, it would be very similar to what we know on our planet.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: allergy; microbiome; early life
Online: 16 May 2022 (08:05:43 CEST)
Allergic diseases are becoming a major healthcare issue in many developed nations, where living environment and lifestyle are most predominantly distinct. Such differences include urbanized, industrialized living environments, overused hygiene products, antibiotics, stationary lifestyle, and fast-food based diets tend to reduce microbial diversity and lead to impared immune protection, which further increase the development of allergic diseases. In the same time, studies also showed that modulating microbiomes can ameliorate allergic symptoms. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to review recent findings on the potential role of the human microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract, surface of skin and respiratory tract for the development of allergic diseases. Furthermore, we addressed a potential therapeutic or even preventive strategy for such allergic diseases by modulating the human microbial composition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0428.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: quality of life; health-related quality of life; psychosocial factors; psycho-oncology
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:36:11 CEST)
The quality of life (QOL) is an important indicator of human satisfaction and wellbeing. QOL is significantly and persistently affected for patients after a cancer diagnosis. Despite some evidence suggesting that psycho-oncologic interventions can provide lasting benefits, the inclusion of such interventions in cancer therapy is not universal. This article overviews known approaches to the evaluation of QOL in cancer patients and various interventions for improving patients’ outcomes with a focus on the Eastern European regional and specific Romanian context. With a mortality rate above and cancer care performance below the EU average and unequally distributed, Roma-nia urgently needs a national coordination program which is discussed in our review highlighting the main psychological tools needed for the assessment and its challenges towards implementing the program. In the end, we suggest some directions for future development of the psycho-oncologic approach in the context of social, policy and unexpected financial challenges the nation provides
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1594.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Mozambique; Quality of life; Schooling; Meaning in life; Social support
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:28:51 CEST)
Increasing quality of life (QoL) is both an end in itself and a means to optimize the impact of treatment in HIV-infected persons. Possibly due to cultural and social influences, the predictors of QoL vary across studies, which highlights the importance of studying specific populations. In the present study, we wanted to determine the sociodemographic (age, sex, schooling) and psychosocial correlates (meaning in life, social support, positive and negative affect) of QoL in HIV-infected patients living in Mozambique, a country with high prevalence of HIV, but also with well-structured strategies to fight the disease. To that end, we made correlational analyses followed by regression models, and we examined potential mediation processes among predictors. All correlates were relevant except sex. Meaning in life was the strongest predictor, while social support was the weakest. Schooling was both directly and indirectly related with QoL - in the latter case, it was mediated by meaning in life, social support and positive affect. Our findings suggest that investments in education may be highly rewarding to Mozambicans, and that satisfying needs of self-actualization and purpose may be more urgent than improving social connections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0535.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Meaning of Life; Existential Vacuum; Antecedents; Meaning of Life Model; Psychological Wellbeing
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:41:22 CET)
The debate about the meaning of life in the literature has been around for a while and portraits a fundamental human need to find a personal path of existence. The meaning of life phenomenon purpose lies in its impact on the psychological wellbeing. Knowing your purpose in life can make it more structured and in balance, therefore more meaningful and comprehensible. However, in the existing body of the academic literature meaning of life is discussed more from the philosophic perspective rather than a practical area, which is not helping to solve the global issues of increasing mental health problems. When social and emotional wellbeing is being affected, it is urgent to apply a practical approach to effectively overcome these states. Introduction of a new, holistic meaning of life model is an attempt to offer a practical solution for society to maintain their mental health through awareness of their life’s purpose. Previously in the pilot study (Dombrovskis, 2017) in a sample group of 100 citizens of Latvia who self-reported being in a crisis situation at the given moment, using qualitive analysis the first component for the model structure was identified – antecedent. In our research antecedent is defined as something that triggers certain action, so in crisis situation person can regain a structure and stability in life. We found 8 different antecedents that trigger behavior of those affected by crisis: achievements; power; success; development; freedom; uniqueness; interesting life and fleeing. To continue to explore other components for our model in the setting of Latvia, this study aims to investigate the demographic and personality related variables that may serve as antecedents and as such become one of component in our model structure. The study used a sample of residents of Latvia representing the total population of 1,110 respondents (633 women, 57%, and 477 men, 43%) who have completed the self-assessment questionnaire Meaning of life scale (MOLS) (online and frontally) designed by the authors on their satisfaction with different factors regarding the meaning of life. Average age of respondents (M=33.88; SD=8,527) varied from 18 to 67. The exploratory and confirmatory analysis confirms the data regarding existence of totally 16 factors: 8 antecedents identified in the pilot study and 8 new antecedents identified in the present study - family relations; level of income; relations with friends/acquaintances; state of health; organization of free time; career growth (achievements); sexual life quality and quality of education. Findings confirm a model’s structure to be complex phenomenon consisting of various components. However, findings suggest that more research should be done to fill the following gaps: 1) identify actions, which are triggered by 16 antecedents; 2) figure out F1, F2 and F3 factor role in the model structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0410.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: fatigue life; mean square error; statistical modeling; stress – life modeling; Weibull distribution function
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:14:05 CEST)
It has been known for nearly over 150 years that fatigue life data exhibits a considerable amount of variability. Furthermore, statistically modeling fatigue life adequately is challenging. Different empirical approaches have been used, each of which has merit; however, none is appropriate universally. Even when a sufficiently robust database exists, the scatter in the fatigue lives may be extremely large and difficult to characterize. The complications in empirical modeling are exacerbated for long life estimation when experimental observations are rare. The purpose of this work is to review traditional and more modern empirically based methodologies for estimating the cumulative distribution functions for fatigue life, given an applied load. To assess the applicability of the methods confidence bounds will be estimated. The analyses will be performed on an historic set of data for annealed aluminum wire tested in reverse torsion fatigue. These data are available in publications. It is recommended that a time dependent distribution function that is an based on principles of reliability that can be generalized for a variety of modeling applications should be considered for fatigue life estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1890.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: gratitude, enjoyment of life, life satisfaction, social support, aging, older adults, Saudi Arabia
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:19:32 CEST)
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction, and the mediation role of social support and enjoyment of life among older individuals. The Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test, the Enjoyment of Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale were administered to a sample of 260 older individuals aged between 60 and 80. The main findings revealed a positive association between gratitude and life satisfaction, and social support was a partial mediator in this relationship. Although enjoyment of life was not a direct mediator in the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction, the final model indicated a significant serial pathway from gratitude to social support and then through enjoyment of life-to-life satisfaction. In conclusion, enhancing gratitude, promoting enjoyment of life, and social support in older individuals might increase their life satisfaction, which in turn might contribute to their successful aging
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0238.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Quality-of-Life; children; asthma
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:00:52 CEST)
Asthma, like other chronic diseases, affects children prone to transitions of various aspects of their lives. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the level quality of life of children with bronchial asthma and to what extent the disease affects them their everyday life. The literature search was conducted a review of the articles was done in Greek and English, through electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus. The terms and conditions their combinations used for the search were: “kids”, “children”, "pediatric asthma", "quality of life (QOL)", "health", "adolescents". The search was limited to the last five years (2015 – 2020) and finally 12 were selected articles. The most important areas negatively affected by quality of life of children with asthma are physical activity, their emotional state, school performance and sleep quality when it is connected to other factors. Important role in quality of life of these children has asthma management, disease severity and other environmental factors. Medical and nursing staff need to guide them asthmatic children and their families to have a good everyday life. Having the necessary knowledge needed for the quality-of-life health professionals should include in their medical nursing caring methods of achieving and maintaining a lifestyle that is no different than that of healthy children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1893.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: the Model of Human Occupation; experience sampling method; Occupational Questionnaire; life balance; life satisfaction
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:41:34 CEST)
Our lives are comprised of moment-to-moment activity experiences. According to the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), our occupational experiences can be affected by volition, which consists of personal causation, values, and interests. This study investigated how momentary volition affected occupational satisfaction and mind-wandering while performing occupations. This study also examined the relationship between momentary volition and the overall life perspectives of life satisfaction and life balance. Undergraduate students participated in this cross-sectional study. The experience sampling method (ESM) was used to measure students’ momentary states such as activity, volition, occupational satisfaction, and mind-wandering. After conducting the ESM, the participants’ life satisfaction was measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), and their life balance was measured by the Life Balance Inventory (LBI). Forty-two participants and 1,092 sampling data were included in the analysis. Momentary personal causation, values, and interests contributed to occupational satisfaction. Mind-wandering was predicted negatively by interests but positively by personal causation. Momentary interests were positively correlated with SWLS and LBI scores. This study demonstrated that momentary volition was associated with occupational satisfaction and engagement, as well as life satisfaction and balance, in undergraduate students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Brownian motor; Death; Definition of life; Feynman–Smoluchowski ratchet; heat engine; Theory of life
Online: 29 June 2023 (07:24:40 CEST)
The multifarious internal workings of organisms are difficult to reconcile with a single feature defining a state of ‘being alive’. Indeed, definitions of life rely on emergent properties (growth, capacity to evolve, agency) only symptomatic of intrinsic functioning. Empirical studies demonstrate that biomolecules including ratcheting/rotating enzymes, ribozymes and pigment molecules undergo repetitive conformation state changes driven by energy absorption, excitation and relaxation. They exhibit disparate structures, but govern processes relying on directional physical motion (DNA transcription, translation, ATP synthesis, cytoskeleton transport, photosynthetic resonance energy transfer) and share the principle of repetitive uniplanar conformation changes driven by thermodynamic gradients, producing dependable unidirectional motion: ‘heat engines’ exploiting thermodynamic disequilibria to perform work. Recognition that disparate biological molecules share a heat engine principle governing directional motion, working in self-regulating networks, allows a mechanistic definition: life is a self-regulating process whereby matter undergoes cyclic, uniplanar conformation state changes that convert thermodynamic disequilibria into directed motion, performing work that locally reduces entropy. ‘Living things’ are structures including autonomous networks of units operating on the heat engine principle. Death is loss of integrated heat engine function. These principles are independent of any specific chemical environment, and can be applied to other biospheres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0290.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: breast cancer; survivors; Bayesian structural equation modeling; Quality of life; Difficulty in daily life
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:58:05 CEST)
Background The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship structure of quality of life (QOL) in survivors of breast cancer, including difficulty in daily life and negative experience as health-related indicators. Methods Participants were survivors of breast cancer for more than 2 years after primary breast cancer surgery and belonged to self-help groups. The assessment used FACT-B (QOL), HADS (anxiety and depression), SOC (sense of coherence), WHODAS 2.0 (difficulties in daily life), and CAOD (negative experiences). Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) was performed to analyze the hypothesized model. If the causal model was significant, multiplication of the path coefficient from anxiety and depression to QOL, and from SOC to anxiety and depression, was considered a direct effect on QOL, and from SOC to difficulty in daily life, from difficulty in daily life to negative experiences, and from negative experiences to anxiety and depression were considered indirect effects on QOL. Results Goodness of fit of the model in the BSEM was satisfactory. The direct effect was 0.274, and indirect effect was 0.163. Conclusions These direct and indirect approaches to difficulties in daily life are very significant because they can provide a basis for development of support strategies to increase QOL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0015.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: characterization; life cycle assessment; life cycle impact assessment; normalization; particulate matter; respiratory inorganics; water vapor
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:16:42 CEST)
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is being included formally in EcoDesign regulations. Especially product carbon footprint will be mandatory in Europe. However, life cycle impact assessment including global warming potential (GWP) in LCA is hampered by several challenges. One of these is lack of water vapor characterization indexes for GWP. A life cycle inventory profile for air transport fuel including water vapor emissions is evaluated with state-of-the-art practice, i.e. EF Method and ILCD 2011 Midpoint+ and neglecting water vapors high altitude GWP compared to carbon dioxide. Then the characterization factor in GWP100 for water vapor and alternate normalization for particulates are introduced. The results are compared. The main findings are that the EF method and ILCD both generate rather realistic results for Particulate Matter and Respiratory Inorganics mid-point indicators, respectively, but the amount of premature deaths should be better allocated to different specific emissions, and that water vapor may dominate the GWP100 result over the usual carbon dioxide. LCIA mid-points need measurable and understandable bases. The common knowledge of water vapor’s GWP100 should not be neglected in LCIA for air transport and beyond where relevant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0491.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: folk beliefs; ancestor worshiping belief; spiritual life; beliefs and religion life; Vietnamese people; Vietnam today
Online: 22 August 2020 (05:03:32 CEST)
In all forms of folk beliefs, ancestor worship is a universal traditional belief form of the Vietnamese people. As a Vietnamese people, “everyone worships their ancestors, everyone worships their parents and grandparent”. Ancestor worship is a common belief in the whole country. It is a belief that expresses the deeply humanistic spirit of the Vietnamese people and has great values in human life. So, what is the nature of ancestor worship? What is the values of ancestor worship in life? And in the context of globalization, how has this the belief changed? This study focuses on analyzing the above contents, thereby highlighting the value of this belief in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people; to point out the positive and negative changes of this belief in the current period; from that, take the right measures to bring into play the positive and limit the negative side of those changes in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1110.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: traditional medicine; life expectancy; health care
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:17:14 CEST)
The study investigated the impact of traditional medicine on life expectancy in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study adopted a quantitative research approach. Purposive or judgmental sampling was used to elucidate the data set used for the study. Cross-sectional data were gathered with the help of a well-designed questionnaire from a total of three hundred and fifty-seven (357) respondents who were available for the survey. The data set collected was analysed using descriptive and linear regression using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS). From the results, 53%, 87%, and 56% were male, below 50 years old, and in the low-income class, respectively, suggesting that the bulk of the respondents under investigation were male, young, and had rather modest incomes. Also, 53% were married, and all had one form of formal education. 67% of respondents acknowledge using traditional medicine; however, the majority of respondents preferred Orthodox medical care over alternative kinds of care. Traditional medicine (TM) and factors that contribute to the advancement of traditional medicine (FITM) have a negative impact on life expectancy, according to the regression analysis. On the other hand, TM has no statistically significant impact on life expectancy, despite FITM having a statistically significant effect at the 5% level. All available data, however, indicates that TM and FITM have an impact on life expectancy, either directly or indirectly. Based on the results, this study concluded that traditional medicine has the potential to significantly increase life expectancy in Nasarawa State and throughout Nigeria. The study recommends that traditional health professionals, stakeholders, and concerned government agencies should put efforts in place to improve and promote modern traditional medicine among the people, especially its effectiveness and medicinal quality, increase its accessibility to people, and efficiently regulate its prices to increase its affordability for low-income earners
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1923.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: thyme; cinnamon; anthracnose; shelf life; ethylene
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:02:24 CEST)
Anthracnose is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) being the main disease that affects the soursop fruits. The objective was to evaluate the effect of chitosan-based coatings with essential oils on the physiological, antifungal, and shelf-life properties of soursop. Chitosan-based coatings were made with essential oils of cinnamon and thyme and applied to soursop. The parameters evaluated were respiration and ethylene by gas chromatography, shelf life, weight loss, total soluble solids, color, maturity index, and titratable acidity. Chitosan obtained had a molecular weight of 169 kDa and 83% degree of deacetylation, respiration, and ethylene values showed a significant reduction of 47 and 50%, with coatings. Weight loss was reduced by up to 50%, even on inoculated fruits, and shelf life increased by two days. The chitosan-based coatings with essential oils are a good alternative to improve the quality of soursop and decrease the effect of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: hypoadrenocorticism; dogs; owners; quality of life
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:33:28 CEST)
Canine hypoadrenocorticism is a rare chronic disease, which demands intense dog-owner interaction, as its treatment requires to be individualised. The aim of this study was a qualitative analysis of the challenges owners face when dealing with the disease, especially regarding its management and how this affects quality of life. By promoting an online discussion between owners, we transcribed and summarised their experiential knowledge in dealing with the disease. Owners were recruited for the online seminars via social media. After a theoretical introduction, participants were free to share experiences and ask questions. The recorded events were retrospectively analysed. Twenty-four owners of 22 Addisonian dogs took part in four events. Owners felt most “traumatised” when experiencing their dog’s acute adrenal crisis. The initial adjustment phase and distinguishing the non-specific symptoms of hypoadrenocorticism from those of other diseases were also challenging. Overall, owners were well informed on the disease and committed to its long-term adjustment. Adrenal crisis and the initial adjustment phase may be more burdening to owners than expected. Understanding what their clients’ concerns are, can help veterinarians provide better care and reduce the negative impacts of canine hypoadrenocorticism. Promoting peer to peer support, as well as providing a framework for participative communication might also help.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0033.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional-intelligence; life-skills; vulnerable-populations
Online: 5 October 2022 (10:55:00 CEST)
Children living in residential care homes (RCH) often present conditions of abandonment due to separation, abuse and mistreatment; circumstances that are detrimental to proper emotional development, resulting in poor self-confidence, aggressive behaviors, low self-esteem, anxiety, among other developmental problems. Additionally, pandemic lockdown hinders access to mental health services for RCH service providers, and limits children to external mental health support and resources. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a remote-applied Emotional-Intelligence-based intervention program (RA-EIBI) for children living in RCH during pandemic lockdown. A non-parametric pre-test, treatment, post-test comparative design was used to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention program. Seven children living in RCH during pandemic lockdown were initially assessed using Evaluation of Neurological Soft Signs, and Empathy Quotient (EQ-I) to estimate emotional intelligence quotient. A 10 session RA-EIBI program was designed and applied to the children after initial assessment, and a final evaluation was conducted to perform related samples comparisons. Results shown a non-significant mean increase of intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and emotional state, all emotional intelligence-related skills. A RA-EIBI program is an accessible resource for RCH, and children living under this condition. EI skills were maintained along the social isolation period due to COVID-19. Followup of emotional conditions of children demonstrated an improvement in self-perceived well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Mabs; VoC; COVID-19; real-life
Online: 20 September 2022 (07:15:52 CEST)
Abstract Despite the lightning-fast advances in the management of SARS-CoV after 2 years of pandemic, COVID-19 continues to pose a challenge for fragile patients, who could benefit from early administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to reduce the risk of severe disease progression. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate effectiveness of mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 among patients at risk for severe disease progression, namely elderly and those with comorbidities, before the omicron variant surge. Patients were treated with either casirivimab/imdevimab, sotrovimab, and bamlanivimab/etesevimab. The rates and risk factos for clinical worsening, hospitalization, ICU admission and death (unfavourable outcomes) were evaluated. A stratified analysis according to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG was also performed. Among 185 included patients, we showed low rates of unfavorable outcomes (9.2%), which were more frequent in patients with chronic kidney disease (aOR: 10.44, 95CI: 1.73-63.03; p<0.05) and basal D-dimer serum concentrations >600 ng/ml (aOR 21.74, 95CI: 1.18-397.70; p<0.05). Patients with negative SARS-CoV-2 serology at baseline showed higher C-reactive protein values compared with patients with positive serology (p <0.05) and showed a trend toward a higher admission rate to SICU and ICU compared with patients with positive serology. Our results thus showed, in a real-life setting, the efficacy of mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 before Omicron surge when the available mabs become not effective.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0401.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: life history; longevity; senescence; stochastic environments
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:51:22 CEST)
The world’s human population is reaching record longevities. Consequently, our societies are experiencing the impacts of prolonged longevity, such as increased retirement age. A major hypothesised influence on ageing patterns is resource limitation, formalised under calorie restriction theory. This theory predicts extended organismal longevity due to reduced calorie intake without malnutrition. However, several challenges face current calorie restriction (CR) research and, although several attempts have been made to overcome these challenges, there is still a lack of holistic understanding of how CR shapes organismal vitality. Here, we conduct a literature review of 222 CR peer-reviewed publications to summarise the state-of-the-art in the field. We use this summary to highlight challenges of CR research in our understanding of its impacts on longevity. Our review demonstrates that experimental research in this field is biased towards short-lived species (98.2% of studies examine species with <5 years of mean life expectancy) and lacks realism in key areas, such as stochastic environments or interactions with other environmental drivers such as temperature. We argue that only by considering a range of short- and long-lived species and by taking more realistic approaches can the impacts of CR on longevity be examined and validated in natural settings. We conclude by proposing experimental designs and study species that will allow the discipline to gain a much-needed understanding of how restricting caloric intake affects long-lived species in realistic settings. Through incorporating more experimental realism, we anticipate crucial insights that will ultimately shape the myriad of socio-bio-economic impacts of senescence in humans and other species across the Tree of Life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; Blockchain; Supply Chain
Online: 28 October 2021 (14:56:20 CEST)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely recognized tool used to evaluate environmental impacts of a product or process, based on the environmental inventory database and bills of material. Data quality is one of the most significant factors affecting the analysis results. However, currently most datasets in inventory databases are generic i.e., they may represent material and energy flow of a process at market average, instead of a specific process used by a manufacturer. As a result, stockholders are unable to track their supply chain to find out the actual environmental impact from each supplier and to compare the environmental performance of alternative options. In this paper, we developed a new framework i.e., blockchain based LCA (BC-LCA), where block-chain technology is adapted to secure and transmit inventory data from upstream suppliers to downstream manufacturers. With BC-LCA, more specific data can be acquired along the supply chain in a real-time manner. Moreover, the availability, accuracy, privacy, and automatic update of inventory data can be improved. A case study is provided based on an industrial supply chain, to demonstrate the utilization of BC-LCA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0470.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: life quality; women's health; family empowerment
Online: 24 August 2021 (13:59:30 CEST)
Background: The tsunami and earthquake occurred in 1927 and 2018 made life quality of Da’a Tribe women in refugee camps was affected by violence. It affects on women reproductive health in various aspects of life as high maternal mortality rate of 450 per 100 thousand live births and half of women victims of natural disasters have reproductive health problems such as anemia and malnutrition during pregnancy. The study objective is to explore the health quality of women related to the couple violence during the humanitarian crisis at refugees’ camps. Method: The population was 798 cases of violence. The 90 samples were selected by simple random sampling and calculated by Slovin method. Data analysis was done by descriptive qualitative and cross tabulation. The research location was Palu City. Results: The research findings showed that health quality of Da’a Tribe women after the couple violence is influenced by three factors, namely economic by 40%, psychological by 7%, violence during pregnancy 59.3%. Conclusion: Social life and women violence handling can be done by symbolizing the threat of criminal law for male perpetrators in accordance with applicable laws in Indonesia and improving the life quality of population, especially women in education and skills through empowering the family economy and increasing gender equality justice.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: cosmology, life, superfluid quantum space, consciousness.
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:38:05 CEST)
The evolution of life on the planet Earth is happening primarily in the universe and secondary on the Earth. We will examine in this article evolution of life as the cosmic phenomena. In our model multidimensional time-invariant superfluid quantum space that is the fundamental arena of the universe and represents about 95% of the energy in the universe has stable entropy. The increase of entropy happens only by about 5% of the energy in the universe that is in the form of matter. The evolution of life in our model is a process of matter organization into living systems that tends to develop towards the constant entropy of the time-invariant multidimensional quantum space. This process runs in the entire universe. The development of life into intelligent organisms is the universal process running throughout the entire universe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mitochondria; proteolysis; protein half-life; ubiquitin
Online: 27 November 2017 (09:18:27 CET)
The mitochondrial network is a dynamic organization within eukaryotic cells that participates in a variety of essential cellular processes, such as ATP synthesis, central metabolism, apoptosis and inflammation. The mitochondrial network is balanced between rates of fusion and fission that respond to pathophysiologic signals to coordinate appropriate mitochondrial processes. Mitochondrial fusion and fission are regulated by proteins that either reside or translocate to the inner or outer mitochondrial membranes or are soluble in the inter-membrane space. Mitochondrial fission and fusion are performed by GTPases on the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes with the assistance of other mitochondrial proteins. Due to the essential nature of mitochondrial function for cellular homeostasis regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is under strict control. Some of the mechanisms used to regulate the function of these proteins are post-translational proteolysis and/or turnover and this review will discuss these mechanisms required for correct mitochondrial network organization.
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:43:44 CET)
This paper presents a hypothesis about the origins of life in a clay mineral, starting with the earliest molecules, continuing through the increasing complexity of the development, in neighboring clay niches, of “Metabolism First,” “RNA World,” and other necessary components of life, to the encapsulation by membranes of the components in the niches, to the interaction and fusion of these membrane-bound protocells, resulting finally in a living cell, capable of reproduction and evolution. Biotite (black mica) in micaceous clay is the proposed site for this origin of life. Mechanical energy of moving biotite sheets provides one endless source of energy. Potassium ions between biotite sheets would be the source of the high intracellular potassium ion concentrations in all living cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0024.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: contextual risk factors; gender; individual risk factors; life-work interference; self-employed; wellbeing; work-life interference
Online: 3 July 2018 (05:56:36 CEST)
This study explores individual and contextual risk factors for the onset of work interfering with private life (WIL) and private life interfering with work (LIW) among self-employed men and women across European countries. It also studies the relationship between interference (LIW and WIL) and wellbeing among self-employed men and women and the effect of macro level risk factors. Data from the fifth round of European Working Conditions Survey was utilized and a sample of self-employed men and women with active businesses was extracted. Applying multilevel regressions, results show that though business characteristics are important for level of WIL, time demand is the most evident risk factor for WIL and LIW. There is a relationship between wellbeing and WIL and LIW respectively, and time demands is the most important factor in this relationship. Gender equality on the labor market did not relate to level of interference, nor did it mediate the relationship between interference and wellbeing. However, the main and most important risk factor for experiencing WIL and LIW and for how interference relate to wellbeing is gender relation processes in work and life, both on individual and contextual level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0540.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: work-life balance; work-life enrichment; outside-of-work activity; sustainable human capital development; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:04:46 CET)
Nowadays, the development of civilization requires a vision of balancing the interests of employees and employers in the sphere of work as never before. Work-life balance is directly linked to social sustainability. The aim of this article is to analyse various dimensions of mutual enrichment of the professional and private life of an individual and to describe how positive experiences in professional and non-professional life influence the improvement of satisfaction, health and achievements, thus enabling the sustainable development of the individual. The conducted research was of a qualitative nature. Thematic exploration was used to analyse the findings of 34 in-depth interviews with experienced HR managers and employees at various levels of enterprises in Poland. The research shows that the work and personal life of the respondents interact, complement, and enrich in different ways, depending on the stage of the employee’s life. Habits developed by practicing a specific sport discipline or other type of hobby are helpful in the effective implementation of professional tasks. Also, non-professional interests, including communing with culture and art have a positive impact on professional activities. On the other hand, the respondents emphasized that thanks to their professional activities, specific to the type of work they perform, they are sometimes more extroverted, meticulous, organized and consistent when performing activities outside of work and in other aspects of private life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1786.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: biomaterials; hemp-based materials; life cycle assessment
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:34:28 CEST)
The global construction sector contributes a significant share of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Australia, infrastructure activity alone generates 18% of the GHG emissions budget. The use of low-embodied carbon building materials is crucial to achieving sustainability in the construction sector and to fulfill national and international climate goals. Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is considered a promising feedstock for sustainable construction materials because of its biogenic carbon content, fast-growing cycles with low agricultural input requirements, and technical functionality which is comparable to traditional materials. This study has applied the life cycle assessment (LCA) guideline of ISO 14040:2006 to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) expressed in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) emissions of hemp-based building materials in Western Australia. The functional unit is 1 m2 of hemp-based board, and the system boundary includes cradle-to-gate stages, i.e., pre-farm, on-farm, and post-farm activities. The production of 1 m2 of hemp-based board is estimated to be - 2.302 kgCO2eq. Electricity from the public grid for lignin extraction during the post-farm stage is the main contributor to total CO2eq emissions (26%), followed by urea production (14%) during the pre-farm stage. Overall, the use of electricity from the SWIS during the post-farm stage accounts for 45% of total emissions. Sensitivity analysis shows that the CF of hemp-based boards is highly sensitive to the source of energy, i.e., total replacement of the SWIS by solar power decreases the CF from - 2.30 to -6.07 kgCO2eq (164%). The results suggest that hemp-based boards exhibit lower embodied GHG emissions compared to traditional materials, such as gypsum plasterboards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1556.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: patient’s preferences; quality of life; lifespan; gender
Online: 22 August 2023 (10:22:49 CEST)
In view of the increasing age of cardiac surgery patients, questions arise about the expected postoperative quality of life and the hoped-for prolonged life expectancy. Little is known so far about this weighting by the patients concerned. This study aims to obtain information on the patient’s preferences. Between 2015 and 2017, data from 1349 consecutive patients from seven heart centers in Germany undergoing cardiac surgery were analyzed. Baseline data regarding the patient’s situation as well as a questionnaire regrading quality of life versus lifespan were taken preoperatively. Patients were divided by age into 4 groups: below 60, 60-70, 70-80, and above 80 years. As a result, if one had to decide between quality of life and length of life, about 60% of the male patients decided for quality of life, independent of their age. On the other hand, female patient’s decision for quality of life increased significantly with age, from 51% in the group below sixty to 76% in the group above eighty years. This finding suggests that the female patients adapt their preferences with age whereas male patients do not. This should impact further treatment decisions of elderly patients in cardiac surgery within a shared decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0572.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: pesticides; photodegradation; half-life; leaching; vertical migration
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:50:11 CEST)
Abstract: The migration and transformation of pesticides in the environment will have an impact on the ecosystem. This study collected greenhouse soil from Shouguang, Shandong Province, and studied the photodegradation and leaching of 17 common pesticides in the soil. The results of photodegradation experiments showed that the degradation rate of certain pesticides was increased in the light environment, compared with that in the dark controls. The light half-lives of emamectin benzoate, pyraclostrobin, and metalaxyl were all shorter than their respective dark half-lives, indicating that their residues in soil were greatly affected by light. The leaching experiment showed that the leaching potential of the leachable pesticides was: nitenpyram ≫ metalaxyl > acetamiprid > carbendazim > diethofencarb ≈ chlorantraniliprole > isoprothiolane > oxadixyl > boscalid ≈ tebuconazole > hexaconazole. Pesticides that are easy to leach but not easy to degrade, such as chlorantraniliprole and metalaxyl, have a high potential risk of groundwater pollution, and more degradation technologies should be used to reduce their pollution risk. The study on photodegradation and vertical migration behavior of various pesticides in this study was conducive to providing references for the agricultural use and pollution control of pesticides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1916.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Frequency; Restoration; Interaction; Daily life; Human geography
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:27:14 CEST)
This study explores the relationship between mental and physical therapeutic through three dimensions: man-environment relationships; a sense of place and symbolic landscapes. The study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Local residents living in the coastal area of Xinglin Bay are the research objects. Quantitative data analysis revealed that the frequency of residents' visits was an important variable affecting their physical and treatment perceptions. In addition, the significance is higher for females than for males. The text analysis shows that the environment, especially the ecological restoration of water quality and migratory birds, is of great significance to the identity of local residents. Daily activities contribute to a sense of place and are what make the coast a place of therapeutic landscape function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: emotional intelligence; mountain sports; life satisfaction; resilience
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:42:54 CET)
High-level performance in mountain sports would be unlikely unless different emotional factors are taken into account through the analysis of psychological characteristics such as mood, resilience or motivation, among many others. In this study, 788 people with a sports degree from the Spanish Federation of Mountain Sports and Climbing (FEDME) participated, 75.3% are men and 24.5% are women. The mean age of the participants was 49.8 years (±12.8), ranging from 18 to 76 years. The Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS-S), the RS-14 Resilience Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) instrument were used. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between the dimensions of emotional intelligence, resilience and life satisfaction. The results showed a relationship between several of the dimensions from the instruments used (p<.01). In terms of gender, higher scores were found for women than for men. The regression model shows that both the dimensions of emotional intelligence [Appraisal of own emotions (β=.104; p<.001); Use of emotions (β=.30; p<.001); Emotional Regulation (β=.103; p<.001)] and resilience [Personal competence (β=.402; p<.001)], are predictors of greater life satisfaction, with 44.1% positively explained by the regression model. Further proposals should extend the results obtained with the analysis of more sports modalities and provide evidence that would complement those extracted in this research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: LIFE; Origin; Exobiology; Evolution; Ecology; Astrobiology; Space
Online: 16 January 2023 (03:44:50 CET)
Viruses are the most numerically abundant biological entities on Earth. As ubiquitous replicators of information molecules and agents of community change, viruses have potent effects on life on Earth and may play a critical role in human spaceflight missions, life detection missions to other planetary bodies, and in planetary protection. However, major knowledge gaps constrain our understanding of the Earth’s virosphere: 1) the role viruses play in biogeochemical cycles, 2) the origin(s) of viruses, and 3) the involvement of viruses in the evolution, distribution, and persistence of life. As viruses are the only replicators that span all known types of nucleic acids, an expanded experimental and theoretical toolbox built for Earth’s viruses will be pivotal for detecting and understanding life on Earth and beyond. Only by filling in these knowledge and technical gaps will we obtain an inclusive assessment of how to distinguish and detect life on other planetary surfaces. Meanwhile, space exploration requires life-support systems for the needs of humans, plants, and their microbial inhabitants. Viral effects on microbes and plants are essential for Earth’s biosphere and human health, but virus-host interactions in spaceflight are poorly understood. Viral relationships with their hosts respond to environmental changes in complex ways which are difficult to predict by extrapolating from Earth-based proxies. These relationships must therefore be studied in space to fully understand how spaceflight will modulate viral impacts on human health and life-support systems, including microbiomes. This review addresses key questions that must be examined to incorporate viruses into Earth system models, life-support systems, and life detection. Further, the results of tackling these questions will help in our efforts to develop planetary protection protocols and further our understanding of viruses in astrobiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: glucose; cortisol; corticosterone; stress; early life adversity
Online: 21 July 2022 (07:53:13 CEST)
External stressors strongly increase cardiovascular activity and induce metabolic changes that ensure the availability of glucose and oxygen as part of a co-ordinated stress response. Exposure to stress during early life appears to have an exaggerated long-term effect on this response, leading to an increased risk or cardiometabolic disorders. Here we demonstrate that acute stress induced glucose release is impacted by the early life environment in rodent maternal deprivation and early-life infection models and this was validated in our EpiPath human early-life adversity cohort. In all three models differences in baseline blood glucose levels after ELA exposure were sex dependent. The human ELA model showed higher levels of basal glucose in females, similar to the mouse infection and rat maternal deprivation models. We anticipated that the stress induced glucose rise would be a GC dependent process. However, the kinetics of stress-induced glucose release, peaking 15-28 minutes before cortisol suggest that it is a GC-independent process. We confirmed this by administering an escalating dose of cortisol to a health human cohort, and the inability of an intravenous GC bolus induce a glucose rise in man confirms that it is a rapid, GC independent, process.In conclusion, we provide a novel perspective on the mechanisms behind stress related metabolic changes and highlights the importance of collecting early life data as a measure to understand an individual’s metabolic status in a better light.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: life histories; ageing; fecundity; nutrient balance; evolution
Online: 2 February 2022 (12:55:42 CET)
Reducing overall food intake or lowering the proportion of protein relative to other macronutrients, can extend lifespan in diverse organisms. A number of mechanistic theories have been developed to explain this phenomenon, mostly assuming that the molecules connecting diet to lifespan are evolutionarily conserved. A recent study using Drosophila melanogaster females has pinpointed a single essential micronutrient that can explain how lifespan is changed by dietary restriction. Here, we propose a likely mechanism for this observation, which involves a trade-off between lifespan and reproduction, but in a manner that is conditional on the dietary supply of an essential micronutrient – a sterol. Importantly, these observations argue against previous evolutionary theories that rely on constitutive resource reallocation or damage directly inflicted by reproduction. Instead, they are compatible with a model in which the inverse relationship between lifespan and food level is caused by the consumer suffering from varying degrees of malnutrition when maintained on lab food. The data also indicate that animals on different lab foods may suffer from different nutritional imbalances and that the mechanisms by which dietary restriction benefits the lifespan of different species may vary. This means that translating the mechanistic findings from lab animals to humans will not be simple and should be interpreted in light of the range of challenges that have shaped each organism’s lifespan in the wild and the composition of the natural diets they would feed on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:40:53 CET)
The article presents an original method to assess the sustainability of concrete. The method uses three parameters, namely: performance, lifetime and environmental impact, to calculate a sustainability index. The originality and the simplicity of the proposed method presented in the article consists in the fact that by applying the relation to determine the sustainability index, the first two factors service life and performance are constant. This approach is possible in the context of the new proposals to specify the durability of structural concrete in EN 1992 and EN 206. That allows classification of concrete according to its performance, through Environmental action Resistance Classes (ERC). For this purpose, specific experimental methods were used in order to determine the performance of concrete exposed to carbonation. The concretes were prepared with two cement types with additions (CEM II / A-S and CEM II / A-M (S-LL)). Based on the carbonation resistance classes (the first constant - the performance) and exposure classes, the thickness of the concrete cover layer was determined to ensure a certain service lifetime (second constant - the service lifetime). Finally, the global warming potential was calculated for each composition, consequently allowing the users of the method, to select the compositions with the lowest impact on the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 12 November 2021 (15:12:23 CET)
This article presents a method to assess the sustainability of concrete based on three elements: service life, performance and environmental impact. The method proposes - to achieve similar performance and service life times, regardless of the component materials used, so that the sustainability assessment ultimately depends on the environmental impact criterion. To this end, specific experimental methods are used to determine the performance of concrete in terms of compressive strength and carbonation resistance for concrete cast with two blended cement types. The procedure needed to classify the concrete through carbonation resistance is detailed, in relationship with the performance obtained for compressive strength. The obtained results highlight the concrete formulations to be used to ensure similar performances regardless of the cement type used. In conclusion, the simplicity in the application of the method, which is closely related to the performance approach on concrete durability in the revision proposals of the European standards, is highlighted. The method is also a useful tool to encourage the widespread use in concrete formulation of blended cements with low environmental impact, without reducing the performance or service life time of the constructions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0591.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Adsorption; Desorption; Dissipation; Herbicide half-life; Leaching.
Online: 23 June 2021 (16:02:59 CEST)
Chemical weed control using herbicide glyphosate to manage emerged weeds is an important production practice in Florida citrus. Despite the extensive use of glyphosate in citrus orchards, very limited information is available on its environmental fate and behavior in Florida soils that are predominantly sandy in nature. Hence, the study's objective was to understand the adsorption-desorption, dissipation dynamics, and vertical movement or leaching of glyphosate in sandy soils in citrus orchards. Laboratory, field, and greenhouse experiments were conducted at Southwest Florida Research and Education Center in Immokalee, Florida. The adsorption-desorption behavior of glyphosate in the soils from three major citrus production areas in Florida was studied utilizing a batch equilibrium method. The dissipation of glyphosate was tracked in the field following its application at the rate of 4.20 kg ae ha-1. Soil leaching columns in greenhouse conditions were used to study the vertical movement of glyphosate. The results suggest that glyphosate has a relatively lower range of adsorption or binding (Kads = 14.28 to 30.88) in the tested soil types. The field dissipation half-life (DT50) of glyphosate from surface soil was found to be 26 days. Glyphosate moved vertically or leached into the soil profile, up to 40 cm in the soil column, when analyzed 40 days after herbicide application. The primary degradation product of glyphosate, i.e., aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), was also detected up to the depth of 30 cm below the soil surface, indicating the presence of microbial metabolism of glyphosate in the soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: multimedia; self-care; quality of life; enterostomy
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:08:14 CEST)
(1)Background: This report was an effective evaluation of using multimedia educational program for self-care and quality of life in patients with a stoma at postoperative and established a simple threshold for enterostomy self-care skills.(2)Methods:108 patients with enterostomy were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention multimedia education program (including information about preparation for enterostomy care, cleaning method, manual bag replacement steps and precautions). The primary outcome was self-care ability and quality of life (defined as overall enterostomy self-care ability and overall quality of life), which was assessed at 2 weeks after intervention via an interview.(3)Results: Compared with those who in the conventional stoma education program, patients received the multimedia education program significantly improved their overall self-care ability and quality of life in statistically. The threshold of the enterostomy self-care skill scale was 20 points, and its corresponding sensitivity was 77.8%, and the specificity was 75.7%.(4)Conclusions: According to our study, the multimedia education program could enhance self-care ability of home care and quality of life in patients with enterostomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: disability; quality of life; cerebral palsy; surveillance
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:51:51 CET)
Secondary and tertiary prevention strategies targeting people with disabilities to improve their health and wellbeing is important. In Sweden, >95% of all children with cerebral palsy (CP) participate in a follow-up program, where one of the goals is the prevention of hip dislocations. We reviewed the incidence of hip dislocations from 2010 to 2019 and the number of children who underwent different types of hip surgeries. The number of hip dislocations was reduced from 8.8% before introduction of the program to 0.3-0.4% up to 2015, followed by a gradual increase to 0.8% in 2019. The proportion of children who underwent adductor-psoas lengthening as their primary preventive surgery decreased from 50% in 2017 to 37% in 2019 with a corresponding increase of children undergoing femoral osteotomy, indicating more children underwent surgery at a later stage. Reasons for the increased number of children with hip dislocation may be that more children have moved to Sweden in recent years without corresponding compensation in health care resources and increased waiting times for surgery due to, among other things, a shortage of nurses. The results highlight the importance of constantly monitoring follow-up programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0412.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Process; ontological category; life concept; essential feature
Online: 16 November 2020 (10:49:11 CET)
Although increasing knowledge about biological systems has advanced exponentially in recent decades, it is surprising to realize that the very definition of Life keeps presenting theoretical challenges. Even if several lines of reasoning seek to identify the essence of life phenomenon, most of these thoughts contain fundamental problem in their basic conceptual structure. Most concepts fail to identify necessary and sufficient features to define life. Here, we analyzed the main conceptual framework regarding theoretical aspects supporting life concepts, such as (i) the physical, (ii) the cellular and (iii) the molecular approaches. Based on ontological analysis, we propose that Life should not be positioned under the ontological category of Matter. Yet, life should be better understood under the top-level ontology of “Process”. Exercising an epistemological approach, we propose that the essential characteristic pervading each and every living being is the presence of organic codes. Therefore, we explore theories in biosemiotics in order to propose a clear concept of life as a macrocode composed by multiple inter-related coding layers. Therefore, we suggest a clear distinction between the concept of life and living beings, a distinction that is not evident in theoretical terms. From the proposed concept, we suggest that the evolutionary process is a fundamental characteristic for life’s maintenance but not to its definition. The current proposition opens a fertile field of debate in astrobiology, biosemiotics and robotics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: life support for space; plant molecular pharming
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:31:34 CEST)
Space missions have always assumed that the risk of spacecraft malfunction far outweighs the risk of human system failure. This assumption breaks down for longer duration exploration missions and exposes vulnerabilities in space medical system. Space agencies can no longer buy down the majority of human system risk through the crew member selection process and emergency re-supply or evacuation. No mature medical solutions exist to close the risk gap. With recent advances in biotechnology, there is promise in augmenting a space pharmacy with a biologically-based space foundry for on-demand manufacturing of high-value medical products. Here we review the challenges and opportunities of molecular pharming, the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, as the basis of a space medical foundry to close the risk gap in current space medical systems. Plants have long been considered an important life support object in space and can now also be viewed as programmable factories in space. Advances in molecular pharming-based space foundries will have widespread application in promoting simple and accessible pharmaceutical manufacturing on Earth.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: definition of life; evolution; entropy production; MEPP
Online: 2 May 2020 (15:54:19 CEST)
Maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) has been formulated in the mid-twentieth century, and today it has acquired the status of an important principle of science, which is extremely effective in considering various non-equilibrium problems. In this study, for the first time, definition of life is based on an easily measurable physical quantity that is entropy production. Life and evolution are discussed from the point of view of MEPP and the Universe, but not a human
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0201.v1
Online: 17 November 2019 (10:53:30 CET)
In order to synchronize foreign policies of governments, firm actions in the form of economic sanctions have long been employed by western countries. Those countries that tend to have independent views and policies are made to undergo economic adversity to fall in line. But the hardest hit by these coercive actions are the ordinary citizens who have to endure immense difficulty with social and economic issues not to mention the human rights violations. This paper provides a review regarding the effect of economic sanctions on mental health and quality of life of Iranian citizens based on data available from Iran post-sanctions. From 2012 stronger sanctions have been implemented on Iran as its nuclear program failed to draw faith in terms of its peaceful execution. Evidence have pointed out that economic sanctions imposed by western countries have a detrimental and destructive effect on the health of individual Iranians and they violated some basic human rights.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: quality of life; celiac disease; parents; caregivers
Online: 20 September 2019 (19:04:08 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten and affects approximately 1% of the global population. Currently, the only treatment available is lifelong strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Chronic diseases such as CD affect patients and their family members’ quality of life (QoL); particularly parents and caregivers who play an essential role in the child’s care and treatment. A higher level of psychological distress has been found in the parents of children with chronic ailments due to limited control over the child’s daily activities and the child’s illness. In this context, the validation of a specific questionnaire of QoL is a valuable tool to evaluate the difficulties faced by parents or caregivers of children with this chronic illness. A specific questionnaire for this population can elucidate the reasons for stress in their daily lives as well as the physical, mental, emotional, and social impact caused by CD. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a specific questionnaire to evaluate the QoL of parents and caregivers of children and adolescents with CD. The study was developed in six steps: (i) development of the CD parent/caregiver QoL questionnaire (CDPC-QoL); (ii) subjective evaluation; (iii) validation of the questionnaire by the Delphi method; (iv) evaluation of the internal consistency and reproducibility of the CDPC-QoL; (v) application of the questionnaire to Brazilian CD parents or caregivers; and (vi) statistical analysis. Overall results showed that a higher family income resulted in a higher score of the worries domain. In addition, having another illness besides CD decreased the QoL (except in the worries domain). The other variables studied did not present a statistically significant impact on the QoL, which was shown to be low in all aspects. Knowledge of the QoL is important to help implement effective strategies to improve celiac patients’ quality of life and reduce their physical, emotional, and social burden.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0564.v2
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:32:02 CET)
Current cellular facts allow us to follow the link from chemical to biochemical metabolites, from the ancient to the modern world. In this context, the "RNA world" hypothesis proposes that early in the evolution of life, the ribozyme was responsible for the storage and transfer of genetic information and for the catalysis of biochemical reactions. Accordingly, the hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) and the hairpin ribozyme, belong to a family of endonucleolytic RNAs performing self-cleavage that might occur during replication. Furthermore, regarding the ultraconserved occurrence of HHR in several genomes of modern organisms (from mammals to small parasites and elsewhere), these small ribozymes have been regarded as living fossils of a primitive RNA world. They fold into 3D structures that generally require long-range intramolecular interactions to adopt the catalytically active conformation under specific physicochemical conditions. By studying viroids as plausible remains of ancient RNA, we recently demonstrated that they replicate in non-specific hosts, emphasizing their adaptability to different environments, which enhanced their survival probability over the ages. All these results exemplify ubiquitously features of life. Those are the versatility and efficiency of small RNAs, viroids and ribozymes, as well as their diversity and adaptability to various extreme conditions. All these traits must have originated in early life to generate novel RNA populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: cyprinidae; life history; freshwater ecology; oocyte; ovary
Online: 28 May 2018 (08:48:11 CEST)
Understanding the reproductive patterns and strategies of a species is an important step in establishing the species’ life history. Campostoma oligolepis, the Largescale Stoneroller, is a species that has received little attention in the 90 years since it was first identified, and the work that has been done has been localized in the American Midwest. Collections of C. oligolepis were made monthly from the Flint River in Madison County in northern Alabama, USA, from March, 2014, to September, 2015. A total of 768 fish were collected over the collection period including 492 adults, 268 females and 224 males. We found strong evidence that the peak spawning time for C. oligolepis in the Flint River is March and April. Ovarian maturation, gonadosomatic index for both sexes, and monthly clutch size all support this conclusion. Two unexpected features were found. The first is how few females of mature size were found to carry either oocytes or a clutch except in the peak observed reproductive month of April, 2014. The second unusual feature is the prevalence of asymmetric ovaries, with the left the larger if a difference exists. Campostoma oligolepis may have unusually strong inter-annual responses to abiotic factors such as water temperature and river discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Nietzsche; ethics; herd morality; mediocrity; public life
Online: 14 March 2018 (07:50:44 CET)
Nietzsche is almost always regarded as one of the thinkers who advocate extreme individualism, totally indifferent to or exclusively polemical towards the public human dimension. While this is very difficult to contradict, if we read his texts carefully we can see how his constant celebration of the individual runs parallel to an acute awareness of living in a new era, which he defined as ‘the century of the multitude and the masses’. The herd, conformism, mediocrity, public opinion: a civilisation in which community attempts suffocate all individual inspiration, and which therefore seems to row in the opposite direction. Although Nietzsche often uses collective life merely as a negative pole for more effectively emphasising the individual, his provocative words—pushed to the limits of the inexorable victory of the herd and of the paradoxical impossibility of all that is ‘public’—offer us a direct testimony of the tragic way of life of the man of his time. This provides us with an extremely clear and interesting phenomenological cross-section of the social sphere, as well as a very finely tuned and valuable seismograph for the continual monitoring of our everyday coexistence with and perception of the constantly incumbent dangers of its degeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: oral health; quality of life; postmenopausal women
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:14:09 CEST)
Interrelationships between traditional dental variables are becoming more evident in far reaching aspects of life such as psychosocial interaction, self-esteem, overall health and even occupational performance. This study compares quality of life (QoL) in postmenopausal women (PMW) with poor oral health (POH) with QoL in PMW with good oral health. 200 randomly recruited PMW received a dental evaluation and completed Utian Quality of Life Survey. The participants were divided into POH and healthy groups based on dental exam. Mean scores were calculated for each QoL item, domain and the overall summary score. For each of the four parameters for periodontitis diagnosis, periodontitis patients’ QoL outcomes were compared to those of healthy patients using T-test with threshold of significance at p<0.05. QoL in all fields measured were significantly poorer in the POH compared to the healthy patients, occupational (19.95±5.35vs. 27.56±6.13), health (18.02±8.23 vs. 26.59 ±6.45), emotional (15.68±10.22vs. 21.15±9.15), sexual (6.2±5.98vs. 10.02±5.35), and total score (60.21±25.85 vs. 84.26±22.35). This study finds that PMW with POH, report significantly poorer quality of life. Clinicians caring for PMW should be aware of that oral health impacts QoL and make appropriate referral decisions for patients’ dental care. Keywords: Quality of Life, Oral Health, Post-menopause, Women
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Bioregenerative life support; closed ecological life support; in-situ resource utilization; lunar industrial ecology; 3D bioprinting; gene editing
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:23:39 CEST)
In this review, we explore a broad-based view of technologies for supporting human activities on the Moon. Primarily, we assess the state of life support systems technology beginning with physicochemical processes, waste processing, bioregenerative methods, food production systems and the robotics and advanced biological technologies that support the latter. We observe that the Moon possesses in-situ resources but that these resources are of limited value in CELSS – indeed, CELSS technology is most mature in recycling water and oxygen, the two resources that are abundant on the Moon. This places a premium on developing CELSS that recycles other elements that are rarified on the Moon including C and N in particular but also other elements such as P, S and K which might be challenging to extract from local resources. Although we focus on closed loop ecological life support systems, we also consider related technologies that involve the application of biological organisms to bioregenerative medical technologies and bioregenerative approaches to industrial activity on the Moon as potential future developments.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 29 April 2019 (07:51:38 CEST)
Forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various other forms of energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ESSAY | doi:10.3390/sci2020019
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; mechanochemistry; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 25 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Mechanical forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because mechanical forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various forms of chemical energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1420.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: PV system; End of life; Recycling; Re-use
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:55:33 CEST)
Abstract: Like other plants, every PV power plant will one day reach the end of its service life. Calculations show that 20,400 tons of PV waste will be generated worldwide by 2030 and 60.2 million tons by 2050, not including the mass of the support structure. Such large amounts of waste pose a potential threat to the environment and people if not properly managed. The paper analysed the options for dealing with PV waste, namely reuse, recycling and landfilling. For recycling as the best option in terms of environmental protection and circular economy, an overview of recycling technologies and the percentage of achievable recycling for the materials contained in each PV system component is given. In addition, the current situation of legislation and recycling of PV modules in Europe was examined with special reference to the Balkan countries. There are a small number of factories for recycling PV modules in Europe, but none in the Balkan countries. The main reason for this is the small amount of PV waste in these countries and consequently the economic unprofitability. For this reason, PV modules (after dismantling the aluminum frame and cables) are mostly disposed of as non-hazardous waste in landfills in these countries. Finally, the main barriers to faster implementation of PV module reuse and recycling are listed, along with guidelines for their removal. The cost of recycling Si modules is about ten times higher than the cost of disposal. To change this ratio in favor of recycling, cheaper recycling methods need to be developed and taxes on landfill disposal need to be increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1081.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Reminisce; Older Adults; Qualitative; Narrative; Life review; Oman
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:03:19 CEST)
Background: Reminiscence studies and life reviews have a number of proven advantages. Future generations gain by learning from elders' life experiences, as do older adults themselves who share their memories. Despite Oman's sizable geriatric population, research on older individuals' life experiences is scarce. Therefore, this study aims to explore the life experiences of older Omani individuals across their many life stages, from childhood to the present. Methods: This was a qualitative study design. A total of 13 Omani older adults (9 females and 4 males) with an average age of 68 years were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic and life review information was gathered according to a set of semi-structured guiding questions. The responses were then captured on audio recordings, which underwent transcription and translation. Thematic analysis techniques were applied to the extracted data. Results: Three main themes were evident in the study’s findings: Childhood memories, Friendships, and Relationships, as well as the elders’ past. Additionally, older adults passed on a number of gems of wisdom to be shared with the younger generations. Conclusion: This study aided in revealing the resiliency, social connections, and life reflections of Omani older adults. Based on these findings, future studies might explore particular aspects of older experiences and pinpoint solutions to improve their quality of life and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0786.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: burnout; security employees; private sector; quality of life
Online: 10 August 2023 (02:30:36 CEST)
Abstract Introduction. Burnout syndrome develops as a consequence of chronic stress among employees. The study objectives were to examine burnout syndrome and to evaluate the quality of life among security employees of the professional private security sector in Central Serbia. Methods. A multicenter cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed. The questionnaire for staff employed at institutions who are in direct contact with people (Human Services Survey, MBI-HSS) and Short Form 36 Health Survey-(SF-36). Results. A total of 353 respondents participated in the study. The response rate was 80%. Approximately one-third (32.6%) had symptoms of total burnout, and a much higher number of responders had a moderate or high level of burnout on individual subscales:- depersonalization (high 82.4%, moderate 16.2%) and emotional exhaustion (high 66.3%, moderate 19.8%) and, slightly more than one-third (34.5%) had low personal achievement, while about one-third (32.9%) had moderate personal achievement. Female sex and older age were associated with a higher risk of total burnout and the development of emotional exhaustion. Male sex, higher education, and managerial position were associated with higher personal achievement and lower risk of total burnout. Male sex, marital union, two or more children, and direct contact with clients were significantly associated with a lower quality of life of employees. Conclusion. Female sex and older age were associated with a higher risk of total burnout and the development of emotional exhaustion. Male sex, university education and managerial position were associated with greater personal achievement and were protective factors in relation to the development of burnout. Male sex, marital union, two or more children, and direct contact with clients were significantly associated with lower quality of life of employees. Keywords: burnout syndrome; security employees; professional private sector; quality of life
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1237.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: prostate cancer; Quality of Life; brachytherapy; sexual function
Online: 19 July 2023 (02:46:25 CEST)
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Poland. A significant proportion of prostate cancers can be cured, providing longer survival. Patients have the opportunity to undergo minimally invasive treatment methods like brachytherapy, while maintaining their previous quality of life. The disease itself, as well as treatment complications, primarily affect the functioning of the urinary and digestive systems and impact the sexual sphere. Aim: This study aims to assess the quality of life of patients after prostate brachytherapy. Methods: The research was conducted at the Lower Silesian Oncology Centre in Wroclaw. The study included fifty men aged between 51 and 85 years. The following questionnaires were used: EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-PR25. Scales: Katz, Mini-MAC, PSS-10. Moreover, the study used a self-designed survey covering socio-demographical factors. Results: Prostate brachytherapy has a significant impact on the degree of sexual dysfunction. Compared to sexually inactive individuals, sexually active individuals exhibit fewer negative psychological symptoms. Choosing a destructive coping strategy intensifies the occurrence of symptoms, lowers patients' level of independence, and negatively affects their quality of life. Conclusions: Brachytherapy contributes to worsening sexual function and temporarily affects urinary system function, which may lower the overall quality of life in patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1121.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: children; cancer; oncology; music therapy; quality of life
Online: 17 July 2023 (15:12:48 CEST)
Background: Music therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological treatment increasingly used to reduce stress and anxiety in hospitalized children affected by cancers. The aim of this study was to eval-uate the impact of MT on quality of life of children with cancer. Methods: We have conducted a quasi-experimental study between April 1 and August 31, 2021 at Bechir Hamza children's Hos-pital in Tunis, including children treated for cancer. The child or the parent completed PedsQL Module Cancer french version 3.0 questionnaires before and after four weekly music therapy ses-sions. Child's respiratory and heart rate were measured before and after each session. Results: We included 20 children whose mean age was 7 ± 4.5 years [2-14]. The median value of the total questionnaire score increased from 57 [46; 70] to 72 [67; 85] (p < 10-3) with a significant reduction in pain (p = 0.02), nausea (p = 0.009), anxiety related to medical procedures (p = 0.009) and worry about the future (p = 0.005). We highlighted a significant decrease in respiratory and heart rate after MT (p<0,05). Conclusions: MT has positive impact of on quality of life of children with cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0512.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: children's health; mobile apps; balanced life; digital world
Online: 10 July 2023 (03:38:47 CEST)
Concerns have been made about how children's health and psychology could be hurt by the growing number of mobile apps they use. This abstract looks at intervention methods and best practices for getting kids to use mobile apps in a healthy way, find a balance with technology, and build up their resilience. Key points include promoting digital literacy and critical thinking, setting clear boundaries and rules, encouraging digital balance, modeling healthy tech habits, building resilience and coping skills, encouraging face-to-face communication, setting up tech-free times and spaces, monitoring app usage and content, promoting mindfulness and self-reflection, and getting professional help when needed. By using these tactics, parents, teachers, and other caretakers can help kids build a healthy relationship with technology, live a balanced life, and build the resilience they need to handle the challenges of the digital world. The goal of these interventions is to make sure that kids' app use is good for their general health, helps them learn and get along with others, and sets them up for long-term success in the digital age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1980.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: cryophilic; ecophysiology; growth temperature, life history; local climate
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:37:19 CEST)
Typhulaceae Jülich is one of the cold-adapted fungal families in basidiomycetes. Typhula (Pers.) Fr. and Pistillaria Fr. representing the family are distinguished from the morphology of a stipe to a hymenium (Fries 1821). The hymenium of Typhula is distinguishable from the stipe, but indistinguishable and consecutive in the genus Pistillaria. This taxonomic criterion is ambiguous, and consequently the opinion of Karsten (1882) has been widely accepted; I the genus Typhula, basidiomata develop from sclerotia, while basidiomata develop directly from substrata in the genus Pistillaris. But, Corner (1970) observed basidiomata of Pistillaria petasitis S. Imai in Hokkaido, Japan, from sclerotia. We collected irregular sclerotia of Typhula hyperborea H. Ekstr. from Upernavik, West Greenland. This specimen had a stipe-like structure on a Poaceae plant, and sclerotia developed on its tip. In August, P. petasitis in Hokkaido, Japan, formed basidiomata directly from substrates on the ground. Similar phenomena were found from other Typhula spp. in Japan. All of these fungi had the potential to produce sclerotia in culture, and as well as the capacity of mycelial growth at ambient air temperatures in each locality when samples were collected. These findings suggest that Typhula spp. developed basidiomata not only from the sclerotia dispersed by the basidiospores but also mycelia generated by the spore germination formed basidiomata multiple times depending on their growth environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: endovenous cyanoacrylate ablation; venous insufficiency; quality of life
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:34:16 CEST)
Endovenous thermal methods are superseding surgical stripping for treating chronic superficial venous disease but require tumescent anesthesia and can cause heat-related nerve injuries. Endovenous cyanoacrylate ablation is a more recent technique that does not share these drawbacks. Retrospective observational study of consecutive adults managed with endovenous cyanoacrylate in 2018–2021 at a single university center. Follow-up was 18 months. We identified factors associated with target vein closure at 18 months and measured changes in quality of life using the generic 36-item Short-Form tool (SF-36) and the venous disease-specific VEINES-QOL/Sym questionnaire. Adverse events were collected. In the 55 study patients with 67 treated veins, the closure rate at 18 months was 94% (95%CI, 85%–98%). Target vein diameter ≥9.5 mm had 81% sensitivity and 75% specificity for predicting recanalization. Both quality-of-life scores improved significantly (P<0.001 for both). The only adverse event was a type IV allergic reaction to cyanoacrylate that resolved with corticosteroid and histamine-antagonist therapy. Endovenous cyanoacrylate ablation was highly effective and safe in experienced hands. Studies are warranted to determine whether changes in the protocol increase the closure rate in patients with target veins ≥9.5 mm in diameter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0929.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: chemotherapy; anthracyclines; cyclophosphamide; muscle strength; quality of life
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:56:52 CEST)
Background: Evidences on the effects of chemotherapy treatment cycles on measures of muscle, mental state, social and cognitive performance are scarce. Objective: To analyze the effects of chemotherapy cycles on muscle strength and activation, functional capacity, quality of life, fatigue and anxiety of women with breast cancer. Methods: Twenty-two women divided into a treatment group (n = 10; 46.6 ± 9.6 years) and control group (n = 12; 51.6 ± 7.0 years) participated in the study. Analysis of muscle performance, quality of life, fatigue and anxiety after the 2nd and 4th cycle of chemotherapy with anthracyclines and cyclophosphamide were performed in women with breast cancer (TRA) and compared to healthy women (CTR). Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the variance of the means and the significance level was set as p≤0.05. Results: Differences were found in the muscular activation of the vastus medialis between the groups at post time (p = 0.038), as well as in the sit and stand test in the baseline (p<0.001) and post moment (p<0.001). Functional capacity performance was different between baseline (p<0.001) and post-time (p<0.001) groups. Additionally, the TRA group worsened the quality of life in the domains of functional capacity (p<0.001) and limitation of physical aspects (p=0.002), besides presenting negative changes in fatigue. Conclusion: Anthracycline and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy cycles reduce muscular performance and affect biopsychosocial variables in women with breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0805.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Public Health; Quality of Life; Adolescents; Physical Activity
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:29:56 CEST)
Health related quality of life’s (HRQoL) different domains of functioning can serve as a good prognosticator of later life’s outcomes for children and adolescents. Understanding associated factors is crucial for promoting better health and life satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate the impact of socio-economic status (SES), physical activity (PA) and cardio-fitness on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in 224 Italian early adolescents attending secondary school in the Emilia-Romagna region located in northern Italy. The present cross-sectional study included measures of SES, demographic factors, cardio-fitness measures and self-reported PA levels. In a multivariate model, younger students and females reported higher HRQoL (β=-0.139, P<.05, 95% CI: -0.254 – -0.023 and β=0.142, P<.05, 95% CI: 0.011 – 0.273 respectively). Having both parents employed and having higher familiar educational status resulted in higher HRQoL. Greater engagement in routine PA was positively associated with HRQoL (β=0.429, P<.001, 95% CI: 0.304 – 0.554). Endurance (speed) was positively associated with HRQoL (β=0.221, P<.01, 95% CI: 0.087 – 0.355) and students with longer times on the shuttle run reported less HRQoL (β=-0.207, P<.01, 95% CI: -0.337 – -0.077). Findings reinforced the importance of promoting regular PA among students and addressing SES disparities to improve HRQoL. The study suggests a focus on expanding research measures and evaluating targeted PA interventions for a more comprehensive understanding of children’s well-being. These findings highlight the crucial roles of demographic, PA and cardio-fitness measures in child’s HRQoL, thus providing relevant information for stakeholders who work in the education, public health, and health policy sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: covid 19; urban life; behaviour; change; impact; pandemic
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:26:39 CEST)
During the Covid 19 pandemic, we saw a huge impact on the lives of individuals in cities. The way people responded was controlled and limited. The lockdown restricted a lot of movements in the cities as well as contained the citizens in their houses. Through a semi-structured interview, the research aims to understand the change in behaviour and response of individuals across various cities. The paper aims to understand how people change their day-to-day life in cities during the pandemic and while the restrictions getting released post the first wave. The paper also understands how the pandemic impacted urban spaces and what value they hold for people. By interviewing individuals from different cities, the data were transcribed and analysed to understand this behavioural change and the attitude of people. The outcome of the research was derived as a concept map through the codes generated during the research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1214.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: aging, elderly, lifestyle-related diseases, quality of life
Online: 29 April 2023 (05:24:51 CEST)
As the world's population ages and the resulting health problems become more serious, medical and health policies in developed countries are focused on how to prevent and treat the diseases of the aging population and how to maintain their quality of life. Typical age-related diseases include deafness, cataracts, osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and dementia. Although the mechanisms by which these diseases develop differ, they are all caused by the accumulation of molecular and cellular damage over time. In addition, age-related diseases can cause a decline in physical and mental functions and the ability to perform activities of daily living, as well as the loss of roles in society and a sense of fulfillment in life. Therefore, there is a need for treatment and measures to accurately grasp and maintain their quality of life.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0279.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: SDG; Dayalbagh Way of life; Agroecology; Sustainable Agriculture
Online: 15 December 2022 (09:04:03 CET)
The multiple crises that the world is facing – climate change, COVID-19 and war have halted or reversed the progress of the world towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals. Using a case study of Dayalbagh, a locality in metropolitan Agra, India, and headquarters of the Radhasoami faith, we examine the potential benefits of employing agroecology to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The active, disciplined and cooperative community-based lifestyle followed in Dayalbagh with a strong focus on agriculture and service demonstrates how most of the SDGs can be achieved. It offers lessons for policy makers in terms of focus areas for policy support and reaching the last, lowest, least and the lost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0024.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: multi scale; quality of life; wavelets; mathematical models
Online: 1 March 2022 (13:32:59 CET)
The present paper is concerned with the study of the quality of life index. Such an index has become an important index for measuring the well-being of individuals. However, the quality of life index is always a subjective, intangible, and often hard to quantify with precision due to the lack of quantitative models dealing with. The main goal of the present paper is thus to propose a mathematical, quantitative model for the measurement of a quality of life index. The main novelty is firstly the construction of a wavelet dynamic multiscale model to quantify and investigate the effect of time scale on the quality of life index measuring. The proposed procedure is acted empirically on a sample corresponding to Saudi Arabia as a case of study during the period from 2003 to 2020 as part of the 2030-vision plan. Saudi Arabia has implemented the so-called 2030-vision plan where the quality of life improvement is one of the main goals to be attempted. The findings show that wavelets are capable to localize the time-wise behavior of the index contrarily to classical studies which estimate a global view of the index. Moreover, the study shows the link between the quality of life behavior and many other indices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0205.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: taste; smell; quality of life; sensitivity; threshold; QUEST
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:00:37 CET)
Taste and smell function decline with age, with robust impairment in the very old. Much less is known about taste and smell function in young and middle old. We investigated taste and smell sensitivity via thresholds in a sub-sample of the NutriAct Family Study (NFS), the NFS Examinations cohort (NFSE; N=251, age M=62.5 years). We examined different aspects relating to taste and smell function: the degree to which taste and smell sensitivity relate to another and to taste and smell preferences, the role of gender and age, as well as effects on Quality of Life (QOL). Taste thresholds were highly correlated but no correlation was observed between taste and smell thresholds and between thresholds and preference. Women were more sensitive for both taste and smell than men. We found no effect of age on sensitivity and no effect of sensitivity on QoL. All null-findings were corroborated with Bayesian statistics providing evidence for the null hypotheses. Together our results indicate the independence of taste and smell despite their overlap during sensorial experiences. We found no evidence for age-related sensory decline, which could be due to our sample´s characteristics of non-clinical volunteers with good dental health and 93% non-smokers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: concrete; remote sensing; remaining life assessment; condition assessment
Online: 13 December 2021 (17:45:55 CET)
Concrete condition assessing penetrometers need to be able to distinguish between making contact with a hard (concrete) surface as opposed to a semi-solid (corroded concrete) surface. If a hard surface is mistaken for a soft surface, concrete corrosion may be over-estimated, with the potential for triggering unnecessary remediation works. Unfortunately, the variably-angled surface of a concrete pipe can cause the tip of a force-sensing tactile penetrometer to slip and thus to make this mistake. We investigated whether different shaped tips of a cylindrical penetrometer were better than others at maintaining contact with concrete and not slipping. We designed a range of simple symmetric tip shapes, controlled by a single superellipse parameter. We performed a finite element analysis of these parametric models in SolidWorks before machining in stainless steel. We tested our penetrometer tips on a concrete paver cut to four angles at 20∘ increments. The results indicate that penetrometers with a squircle-shaped steel tip (a=b=1,n=4) have the least slip, in the context of concrete condition assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Hypertension management; Complications of cardiovascular; Quality of Life
Online: 23 September 2021 (09:03:57 CEST)
The aim of this study as to determine the relationship between the factors of demography, comor-bidity, medication, lifestyle, and access to health services related to the QoL of people with hy-pertension and its complications in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta. The study was conducted in a cross-sectional manner using data from Sleman HDSS (Health and Demographic Surveillance System) from 2015 to 2018 in cycles 3 and 2 with the inclusion criteria of hypertensive patients and their complications aged 25 years or older obtained by using a total sampling of 532 people. Measurement of QoL using Short Form 12v2 2a and 2b questionnaires presented in the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS). Data analysis using Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal Wallis test. The results showed factors related to the QoL in PCS were variables of gender, age, diagnosis of hypertension and its complications, the presence of comorbidities, fatty foods, drug consumption in the last two weeks, while factors related to the mental component (MCS) were education and occupation seen from the p-value <0.05. QoL with hypertension and its complications influence and decrease the physical than the patient's mental condition.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Pyrolysis; Life cycle assessment; Techno-economic assessment; sludge
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:06:50 CEST)
The increasing amount of municipal sludge in China requires safe and effective management to protect human health and ensure environmental sustainability. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process that that decompose organic matter at elevated temperature and under anaerobic conditions, and it has attracted an increasing attention in sludge treatment in the recent years. However, comprehensive environmental and economic assessment of sludge pyrolysis in China's context is rare, due to the small quantities of full-scale sludge pyrolysis plant. In this paper, we applied our design and operation parameters of full-scale sludge pyrolysis plants to generate the material and energy consumptions of the pyrolysis system under various of conditions, including sludge organic content and moisture content, system size, system energy distribution, and whether or not heat substitution is applied. Life cycle assessment and techno-economic assessment were then applied to investigate the environmental and economic performance of the system Our results demonstrate the significant environmental and economic impacts associated with sludge properties and system size. Generally, sludge with higher organic content and lower moisture content requires less natural gas consumption, which leads to a simultaneous improvement of the system environmental and economic performance. The system economic performance is more sensitive to the system size, and centralized sludge handling using a larger pyrolysis is more economic favorable. In the most ideal case, the average global warming potential and minimum sludge handling price of sludge pyrolysis could be as low as -32.5 kg CO2-Eq/t DS and 188.8 $/t DS, respectively. Based on these results, we discussed the pathways that could be taken to further optimize the environmental and economic performances of the pyrolysis system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0554.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: philosophy of science; information; artificial life; scales; causality
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:59:04 CEST)
When we attempt to define life, we tend to refer to individuals, those that are alive. But these individuals might be cells, organisms, colonies... ecosystems? We can describe living systems at different scales. Which ones might be the best ones to describe different selves? I explore this question using concepts from information theory, ALife, and Buddhist philosophy. After brief introductions, I review the implications of changing the scale of observation, and how this affects our understanding of selves at different structural, temporal, and informational scales. The conclusion is that there is no single ``best'' scale for a self, as this will depend on the scale at which decisions must be made. Different decisions, different scales.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0743.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: origin of life; virus; evolution; symbiosis; progenotes; fuca;
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:28:30 CEST)
Viruses were classically named after the very same Latin word virus, originally meaning poison or venom. Public understanding of viruses reinforces their “malign” aspects, especially nowadays under the COVID-19 global pandemic. It is our aim here to propose a new way to view viruses and understand their origins and evolution. First, viruses are the most abundant biological systems found on Earth. They can be found almost everywhere and form a subtle biological layer named virosphere. Second, viruses are probably the most important drivers of molecular evolution and they are active agents of ecosystems maintenance and homeostasis, allowing and driving their dynamic modification. A significant number of eukaryotic genomes are composed by genome elements similar to viruses and these endogenous viruses are continuously acting for our equilibrium and fitness. They are responsible for the origin of species-specific orphan genes that allow adaptation through the development of specific traits in separate lineages of eukaryotes. Accumulated evidence indicate that a viral infection was responsible to create the eukaryotic nucleus and, also, it is a syncytium structure caused by viral replication that allows the formation of the placenta. Therefore, viruses were fundamental for the evolutionary fate of eukaryotes and mammals. The presence of virus-specific genes that are absent in cellular organisms indicates that viruses existed before cells. Besides, such as progenotes, viruses are simply ribonucleoproteic entities and their capsids are orders of magnitude simpler than proteolipidic membranes. Here, we (i) propose a complete scenario to describe the major transitions in prebiotic evolution, (ii) present the possibility that viruses emerged before LUCA, and (iii) suggest that viruses originated at the age of progenotes. However, viruses do not form a monophyletic clade. They should be seen as an evolutionary stable strategy recurrently achieved by biological systems to survive. We propose that the word “VIRUS”, known as venom, is historically mistaken and introduce a new interpretation for their name as an acronym for “Very Important Replicator Unit and Symbiont”. But more than being “very important”, viruses are of “Utmost” relevance for the maintenance of life in biosphere, by which reason we suggest referring to them as “UIRUS” to reinforce their incredible role in symbiosis and their beneficial characteristics over the infectious ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cassava; storage; PPD; starch; shelf-life; postharvest losses.
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:04:22 CET)
Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of fresh cassava roots limits its shelf-life to about 48 hours. There is a demand for simple, cheap, and logistically feasible solutions for extending the shelf life of fresh cassava roots at industrial processes. In this study, three different types of bag materials were tested (woven polypropylene, tarpaulin, and jute as a potential storage solution for cassava roots with different levels of mechanical damages. Microclimate (temperature, humidity, CO2) was monitored to understand the storage conditions for up to 12 days. The results showed that fresh cassava roots could be stored for 8 days, with minimal PPD and starch loss (2.4 %). How-ever, roots with significant mechanical damage (cuts, breakages) had a considerably shorter shelf life in the storage bag, compare to whole roots and roots with retained peduncle (stalk where roots are connected to the main plant). Wetting the roots and type of bag material were not significant factors in determining the shelf life and starch loss. Carbon dioxide concentration in the stores significantly correlated with the starch loss in fresh cassava roots and is proposed as a possible method for continuously and remotely monitoring starch loss in large scale commercial operations and reduce postharvest losses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0386.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: RTE salads; Microbiological quality; shelf-life; MBS method
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:03:50 CEST)
The market of ready-to-eat salads is experiencing a noticeable growth in Europe. Since they are intended to be consumed without additional treatments, these ready-to-eat products are associated with a high microbiological risk. The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of ready-to-eat salads sold in widespread supermarket chains in Lazio, Italy, at the packaging date, during shelf-life and during home-refrigeration. The study also aimed to determine the differences between low, medium, and high cost products. Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes were chosen as safety indicators as specified by European regulations while total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli were chosen as quality indicators as suggested by national guidelines. Analyses were performed following the ISO standards and in parallel, for the evaluation of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, with an alternative colorimetric system, the Micro Biological Survey method, in order to propose a simple, affordable and accurate alternative for testing the microbiological quality of products, especially suitable for small and medium enterprises and on-site analyses. The study revealed high, unsatisfactory, total bacterial loads in all analyzed samples at the packaging date and expiring date and a very high prevalence of Salmonella spp. (67%) regardless of the selected varieties and cost-categories; L. monocytogenes was instead not recovered aligning with the results obtained in other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0512.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: RTE salads; Microbiological quality; shelf-life; MBS method
Online: 22 July 2020 (10:09:19 CEST)
The market of ready-to-eat salads is experiencing a noticeable growth in Europe. The commercial success of these products is linked to the growing demand for fresh, healthy and nutritionally valuable products that can be consumed without preparation time and are perceived as safe and very high-quality products. Since they are intended to be consumed without additional treatments, these ready-to-eat products are associated with a high microbiological risk. The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of ready-to-eat salads sold in widespread supermarket chains in Lazio, Italy, at the packaging date, during shelf-life and during home-refrigeration. The study also aimed to determine the differences between low, medium and high cost products. Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes were chosen as safety indicators as specified by European regulations while total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli were chosen as quality indicators as suggested by national guidelines. Analyses were performed following the ISO standards and in parallel, for the evaluation of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, with an alternative colorimetric system, the MBS method, in order to propose a simple, affordable and accurate alternative for testing the microbiological quality of products, especially suitable for small and medium enterprises and on-site analyses.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: life rules; vital determinism; evolution; cooperativity; central dogma
Online: 3 July 2020 (05:46:25 CEST)
We know that living matter must behave in accordance with the universal laws of physics and chemistry. However, these laws are insufficient to explain the specific characteristics of the vital phenomenon and, therefore, we need new principles, intrinsic to biology, which are the basis for developing a theoretical framework for understanding life. Here I propose what I call the seven commandments of life (the Vital Order, the Principle of Inexorability, the Central Dogma, the Tyranny of Time, the Evolutionary Imperative, the Conservative Rule, the Cooperating Thrust) as a set of principles that help us explain the vital phenomenon from an evolutionary perspective. In a metaphorical way, we can consider life like an endless race in which living beings are the runners, who are changing as the race goes on (the evolutionary process), and the commandments the rules.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Carbon Footprint (CFP); Tourism
Online: 19 February 2020 (10:28:55 CET)
The importance of the contribution from tourism to climate change was pointed out by the International Tourism Organization (UNWTO). By combining process-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Input-output analysis, several researches have tried to evaluate the impacts of the tourism industry as well as its products and services. Indeed, the tourism sector has a wide range of industries including travel and tour, transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, amusement, souvenirs etc. However, the existing cases did not show a breakdown of the impact on climate change. In this paper, the carbon footprint (CFP) of the Japanese tourism industry was calculated based on tourist consumption, using the Japanese Input-output table and the Japanese tourism industry. It was shown that the total emissions were approximately 136 million t-CO2 per year. The contribution ratio of each stage is as follows: Transport 56.3%, Souvenirs 23.2%, Petrol (direct emissions) 16.9%, Accommodation 9.8%, Food and Beverage 7.5%, Activities 3.0%. Then, in the breakdown, the impact is high in the following order Air transport 24.7%, Petrol (direct emissions) 16.9%,Accommodation 9.8%, Food and Beverage 7.5%, Petrol 6.1%, Textile products 5.3%, Food items 4.9%, Confectionery 4.8%, Rail transport 3.9%, Cosmetics 1.9%, Footwear 1.8%, etc. In addition to transportation, this research also highlighted especially the contribution from souvenirs, accommodation, food and beverages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: phylogenomics; phylogenetics; codon usage bias; Tree of Life
Online: 8 October 2019 (10:43:24 CEST)
Phylogenies depict shared evolutionary patterns and structures on a tree topology, enabling the identification of hierarchical and historical relationships. Recent analyses indicate that phylogenetic signals extend beyond the primary structure of protein or DNA, and various aspects of codon usage biases are phylogenetically conserved. Several functional biases exist within genes, including the number of codons that are used, the position of the codons, and the overall nucleotide composition of the genome. Codon usage biases can significantly affect transcription and translational efficiencies, leading to differential gene expression. Although systematic codon usage biases originate from the overall GC content of a species, ramp sequences, codon aversion, codon pairing, and tRNA competition also significantly affect gene expression and are phylogenetically conserved. We review recent advances in analyzing codon usage biases and their implications in phylogenomics. We first outline common phylogenomic techniques. Next, we identify several codon usage biases and their effects on secondary structure, gene expression, and implications in phylogenetics. Finally, we suggest how codon usage biases can be included in phylogenomics. By incorporating various codon usage biases in common phylogenomic algorithms, we propose that we can significantly improve tree inference. Since codon usage biases have significant biological implications, they should be considered in conjunction with other phylogenetic algorithms.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Teacher Competence; Classroom Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; PE Students
Online: 28 March 2019 (11:27:41 CET)
The aim of this article was to assess how the professional competence of PETs (Physical Education Teachers) can predict student satisfaction in high school and student satisfaction with life itself. In line with these aims, this study was completed as a cross-sectional study, which was carried out in a total 890 Physical Education (PE) students. Of the research group, 50.3% were female and 49.7% were male. Age average was 15.49 years old for females (SD 1.79) and 15.00 years old for males (SD 2.00). The data collection instrument was the Intrinsic Satisfaction Classroom Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The results are presented as descriptive statistics, correlations and structural equation modelling analysis, and they show that the competences of the PE teacher determine in great measure student’s satisfaction with school and with their own personal lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: corporate life-cycle; bankruptcy risk; financial sustainability; Pakistan
Online: 21 January 2019 (09:10:39 CET)
In this paper we analyze the relationship between bankruptcy risk and the corporate life cycle in Pakistan from 2005 to 2014. For this purpose, we run a Hierarchical Linear Mixed Model (HLM) for a sample of 301 non-financial listed firms in 12 different sectors. The empirical outcomes reveal that firms during introduction, growth and, decline stages (mature stage) of life-cycle experience higher (lower) bankruptcy risk. Moreover, in juxtaposition with growth stage, bankruptcy risk is higher at the introduction stage of life-cycle. These findings suggest that financial managers should be cautious about the financial fragility of the firm at each stage of corporate life-cycle. The results also entail that Pakistani firms do not follow a sequential pattern in their life-cycle rather they have the tendency to revert to a previous stage or jump to the next stage of life-cycle. This is the first study that empirically examines the association between firm life-cycle stage and corresponding bankruptcy risk and asserts that managers must incorporate the life-cycle effects into their financial planning and decision making for sustainable working of an enterprise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0623.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: precarity; decent works; life satisfaction; SMEs; PLS-SEM
Online: 26 October 2018 (09:36:59 CEST)
This study measures key indicators of perceived precarity and decent working conditions and their relative effects on life satisfaction of workers in small and medium-sized enterprises. Using a random sample survey, we interviewed 103 workers in four districts of Sylhet division in Bangladesh. Utilizing Smart PLS application for structural equation modeling, we iterated the samples 1000 times which resulted in a new sample size standing at 499. We used a Likert-type five-point scaling technique, with appropriate items related to the latent constructs of the model, for path analysis. We found perceived precariousness has the highest causal relations with a path coefficient of 0.706 with social dialogue (an indicator of decent working conditions) followed by 0.539 with working hour issue, 0.345 with life satisfaction and 0.301 with the unacceptable work issue. The importance-performance map analysis confirms that perceived precarity is the most critical construct for worker’s life satisfaction. Thus, in a ceteris paribus situation, an increase of one point in the performance on the perceived precarity is expected to increase in the performance on the life satisfaction by a total effect level of 0.428. Therefore, we recommend further attention should be paid by the policymakers to the issue of consciousness of the precarity at the workplace for a better life satisfaction of workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cement; Multicriteria analysis; Life Cycle Analysis; Construction industry
Online: 12 May 2017 (17:45:58 CEST)
The attention to sustainable-related issues has grown fast in recent decades. The experience gained with these themes reveals the importance of considering this topic in the construction industry, which represents an important sector in the world. This work consists on conducting a multicriteria analysis of four cement powders, with the objective of calculating and analysing the environmental, human health and socio-economic effects of their production processes. The economic, technical, environmental and safety performances of the examined powders result from official, both internal and public, documents prepared by the producers. The Analytic Hierarchy Process permitted to consider several indicators (i.e. environmental, human health related and socio-economic parameters) and to conduct comprehensive and unbiased analyses which gave the best, most sustainable cement powder. As assumed in this study, the contribution of each considered parameter to the overall sustainability has a different incidence, therefore the procedure could be used to support on-going sustainability efforts under different conditions. The results also prove that it is incorrect to consider only one parameter to select the ‘best’ cement powder, but several impact categories should be considered and analysed if there is an interest for pursuing different, often conflicting interests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0187.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: medium-carbon steel; fatigue life estimation; surface roughness
Online: 24 March 2017 (10:50:11 CET)
Medium-carbon steel is commonly used for the rail, wire ropes, tire cord, cold heading, forging steels, cold finished steel bars, machinable steel and so on. Its fatigue behavior analysis and fatigue life estimation play an important role in the machinery industry. In this paper, the estimation of fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness using established S-N and P-S-N curves is presented. To estimate the fatigue life, the effect of the average surface roughness on the fatigue life of medium-carbon steel has been investigated using 75 fatigue tests in three groups with average surface roughness (Ra): 0.4μm, 0.8μm, and 1.6μm respectively. S-N curves and P-S-N curves have been established based on the fatigue tests. The fatigue life of medium-carbon steel is then estimated based on Tanaka-Mura crack initiation life model, the crack propagation life model using Paris law, and material constants of the S-N curves. 6 more fatigue tests have been conducted to validate the presented fatigue life estimation formulation. The experimental results have shown that the presented model could estimate well the mean fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: life; paralife; utility-products; UP-paralife; utility-selection; UP-evolvability; coevolution; intelligence; stone tools; language-catalysis; creativity; exoplanet; intelligent life
Online: 17 November 2022 (03:06:22 CET)
When animals evolve sufficient intelligence and dexterity to be able to learn to fabricate utility products (UPs) like tools, the UP's they produce become part of an induced-reproduction system that intrinsically shares many life-like traits with biological organisms, including genome-like fabrication and operation information that is physically-encoded in the animal fabricator’s neural networks. When this set of life- like traits includes a sufficient capacity for system-improving cultural evolution (UP-evolvability), the UPs become ‘para-alive’, i.e., nearly alive, or a form of non-biological UP-paralife that is equivalent to the life- status of biological viruses, plasmids, and transposons. In the companion paper I focus on the evolution of UP-paralife in the context of modern, language-capable humans and its predicted evolution going forward in time (Rice 2022). Here I look backward in time and focus on the origin of UP-paralife and its subsequent coevolution with human intelligence. I begin by determining the pathways leading to the evolution of large brains in the rare lineages of biological life that have sufficient intelligence to learn to fabricate tools –a critical first step in the evolution of UP-paralife. The simplest forms of these learning- based UPs, made by species like chimpanzees and New Caledonian crows, represent only proto-UP- paralife because they lack sufficient UP-evolvability. Expanded UP-evolvability required a combination of three attributes that enabled continuous niche-expansion of the animal fabricator via a new and advanced form of UP-mediated teamwork (TW): i) self-domestication that facilitated TW among low-related individuals, ii) learned volitional words (protolanguage) that represent ephemeral UPs that coordinate TW, and iii) learned fabrication of simple flaked-stone tools with cutting and chopping capabilities (a UP to make other structural UPs) that expanded teammate phenotypes and TW capabilities. This specific triad of attributes is synergistic because each one acts as a TW-enhancer that can gradually erode different components of the three major constraints on TW operation and expansion: too much selfishness, insufficient coordination signals, and insufficient physical traits of teammates. The increase in UP- evolvability was transformative and marked the origin of UP-paralife and the initiation of coevolution between UP-paralife (cultural evolution) and the intelligence of its hominin/human symbiont (genetic evolution) that fostered 2.5 million years of: i) continuous brain size increase and niche-expansion within the genus Homo, and ii) parallel advances in the diversity, complexity and uses of UP-paralife. This coevolution also fostered evolutionary expansion of word-based communication, and eventually language, that acted in a catalyst-like manner to facilitate the evolution of increasingly complex forms of imagination, reasoning, mentalizing, and UP-generating technology. I next focus on the evolution of creativity in the human lineage –in the form of divergent thinking and creative imagination. I conclude that the evolution of this advanced cognitive feature required a preadaptation of sufficient intelligence and is the component of human cognition that was the major causal factor generating the greatly expanded diversity and complexity of UP-paralife currently associated with modern humans. Lastly, I apply my findings to the issue of the prevalence of extraterrestrial intelligent life. I conclude that any exoplanets with detected chemical life will very rarely (e.g., probability ~10-5 for a planet closely matching Earth’s characteristics) have evolved intelligence equalling or exceeding that of humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Nocturia; aging male symptoms; Quality of life; Health-related Quality of life; Male adults; NQoL; Urinary frequency; Bedtime urination; sleep
Online: 29 July 2022 (13:13:15 CEST)
Background: The link between nocturia and aging male symptoms (AMS) has not been scientifically established. This study aimed to measure the degree of severity of AMS that impact on the health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in adult males living with nocturia, and to determine the predictive values of nocturnal factors on AMS. Methods: It is an extended analysis of new data collected by using the Hong Kong Traditional AMS (HK-AMS) scale and Cantonese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a recently published cross-sectional population-based survey. Results: Of the 781 respondents that have completed the set of questionnaires, 68% and 61% of men living with nocturia reported clinically significant (at moderate-to-severe levels) somato-vegetative and sexual AMS, whereas the prevalence and severity were increased with advancing nighttime voiding frequency. The nocturia-specific QoL (NQoL) score and nocturnal frequency were found to be significant predictive factors for composite, somato-vegetative and sexual AMS, in addition to age, global OSQI score, and certain metabolic diseases. Conclusions: Current findings suggested the inclusion of nocturia when measuring the male-specific HRQoL related to aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: palliative care team; seriously ill patients; end-of-life; quality of life; symptom relief; acute palliative care unit; cost savings
Online: 25 December 2017 (08:50:18 CET)
Traditionally, palliative care (PC) systems focused on the needs of advanced cancer patients. But, most patients needing PC have end-stage organ diseases. Similarly, PC models focused on the needs of patients in hospice or at home; however, in most cases PC is provided in acute hospitals. Indeed, the symptom burden that these patients experience in the last year of life frequently forces them to seek care in Emergency Department. The majority of them are admitted to the hospital and many die. This issue poses important concerns. Despite the efforts of attending healthcare professionals, inhospital patients do not receive optimal care near the end-of-life. Also, evidence is emerging that delay in identifying patients needing PC have a detrimental impact on their quality of life (QoL). Therefore, there is an urgent need to early and properly identify these patients among those hospitalized. Several trials reported the efficacy of PC in improving the QoL in these patients. Each hospital should ensure that a multidisciplinary PC team is available to support attending physicians to achieve the best QoL for both PC patients and their families. This review discusses the role and the impact of inhospital PC in patients with end-stage disease or advanced cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0370.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: GADV hypothesis; origin of life; protein 0th-order structure; origin of protein; [GADV]-microsphere; origin of gene: the core life system
Online: 28 June 2022 (03:41:15 CEST)
One of the problems, which make it difficult to solve the mystery of the origin of life, would be how life emerged in chemically complex messy environments on the primitive Earth. It is considered that three main points contributed to open the way to the emergence of life. (1) A characteristic inherent in [GADV]-amino acids, which are easily produced with prebiotic means. (2) Protein 0th-order structure or [GADV]-amino acid composition generating water-soluble globular protein with some flexibility, which can be produced even by random joining of [GADV]-amino acids. (3) Formation of versatile [GADV]-microspheres, which can grow, divide, proliferate even without genetic system, was the emergence of proto-life. (4) [GADV]-microspheres with a higher proliferation ability than others could be selected. The proto-Dawin evolution made it possible to proceed forward to creation of the core life system composed of (GNC)n gene, anticodon stem-loop tRNA or AntiC-SL tRNA (GNC genetic code) and [GADV]-protein. (5) Eventually, the first genuine life with the core life system emerged. Thus, the formation processes of [GADV]-protein and (GNC)n gene in chemically complex messy environments were the steps to the emergence of genuine life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Wastewater; Circular Economy; Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment; Decision Making
Online: 18 September 2023 (10:25:55 CEST)
The wastewater circular economy (WW-CE) promises a solution to improve water and sanitation management worldwide. However, the transition from conventional to circular wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) requires facilitation to aid in decision makers understanding of integral sustainability impacts of alternative WW-CE configurations. This research implemented Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), combining Life Cycle Assessment, Social Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing with a Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) model to quantify environmental, socio-cultural, and economic impacts of conventional WWTPs with the WW-CE. Two real WWTPs in Chile have embraced the WW-CEs and adopting the title of Biofactories. These were considered as case studies, compared under three scenarios to demonstrate the sustainability trade-offs of the transition from no sanitation to conventional WWTPs and Biofactory WW-CE configurations. Results demonstrated that the transition to WW-CEs improved integral sustainability according to the LCSA model implemented in both WWPTs. This study highlights the urgent need to adopt sustainable decision-making models to not only improve sanitation coverage, but also improve sustainability performance of the sanitation industry across the globe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0074.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: escamoles; life cycle; social insects; chemical communication; electronic nose
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:08:40 CEST)
Ants have a very sophisticated olfactory system; their communication is based on the interpretation of chemical trails known as semiochemicals. The escamolera ant (Liometopum apiculatum), has behaviors and physiological responses is induced by semiochemicals, without however, these have not been studied. Using an electronic nose analysis (e-nose) and chromatographic techniques, semiochemicals of L. apiculatum in nests, foraging trails and dissected the gasters were evaluated. Data were analyzed with multivariate statistics and a logistic regression model based on predictors (ant counts) and the semiochemicals identified in pre-season (PRE), season (TEM) and post-season (POS) of larval collecting. From the general pattern of volatiles with a natural separation in POS and a partial distribution between PRE and TEM 32 semiochemicals were identified inside the nests, those who can induce the behavioral responses of trail-following, alarm, aggression, and nestmate recognition. Trail counts indicated that ant traffic was higher in POS and that the presence of certain semiochemicals (response variable) have good fit in the model regression. These findings are intended to provide useful information and support decision-making for the conservation and sustainable use of L. apiculatum in central Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1773.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthy life style; physical activity; physical and mental health
Online: 26 July 2023 (07:08:14 CEST)
The purpose of this article was to check the relashionship of different types of physical activities, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption (with control for age, sex and level of education) on health (physical and mental). The study was based on Belgium epidemiological data (10661 participants from 19 to 81 years old for whom we have health indicators over a period of 11 years) together with questionnaires about alcohol, tobacco consumption and the frequency of different types of physical activities. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis of epidemiological data was performed with use of STATA v.14. Our results indicate that the different categories of physical activities (PA) had some differences on health indicators impacts. Our findings confirm that leading a healthy life style (all types of physical activities and weight maintenance) is an important issue since it has a significant relationship with physical and mental health indicators, but outdoor physical activities and practicing leisure sport in group have shown slightly higher magnitude in association on general health. Magnitude of association of PA with physical and mental health indicators was similar to those observed with smoking and alcohol consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1886.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital Economy; Platform Governance; Life Cycle; Tripartite Evolutionary Game
Online: 27 June 2023 (11:01:50 CEST)
Today, the digital economy has pursued the required social and economic development, and enterprises can achieve long-term sustainability by relying on the digital platform ecosystem. However, the development of the digital economy and the rapid growth of platform ecosystems have also generated some problems. To study effective digital platform ecosystem governance, this study used the tripartite evolutionary game method and analyzed the changes and effects of platform regulation under different development stages from the perspectives of government, platforms, and enterprises. The results indicate that in the early stages, digital platforms primarily relied on the government’s obligation to regulate. With the digital platform ecosystem’s evolution, the platform organization and settled enterprises’ governance effects gradually appeared, establishing the three common constraints of governance mode. Finally, when the digital platform ecosystem is in its self-renewal period, the government effect is reduced, with the platform itself and settled enterprises taking primary supervisory roles. This study provides reasonable methods for effective platform governance at different stages and enriches the theoretical basis and management practices of platform ecosystems.