ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0585.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: babble noise; lexical tone; emotional prosody; masking
Online: 8 September 2023 (11:14:25 CEST)
How people recognize linguistic and emotional prosody in different listening conditions is essential for understanding the complex interplay between social context, cognition, and communication. The perception of both lexical tones and emotional prosody depends on prosodic features including pitch, intensity, duration, and voice quality. However, it is unclear which aspect of prosody is perceptually more salient and resistant to noise. This study aimed to investigate the relative perceptual robustness of emotional prosody and lexical tone recognition in quiet and in the presence of multi-talker babble noise. Forty young adults with normal hearing listened to monosyllables either with or without background babble noise and completed two identification tasks, one for emotion recognition and the other for lexical tone recognition. Compared with emotional prosody, lexical tones were more perceptually salient in multi-talker babble noise. Native Mandarin Chinese participants identified lexical tones more accurately and quickly than vocal emotions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Lexical tone perception is also more robust against babble speech noise degradation than emotional prosody perception for native Mandarin Chinese listeners. Acoustic and cognitive dissimilarities between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody may have led to the phenomenon, which calls for further explorations into the underlying psychobiological and neurophysiological mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0839.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: bilingualism; lexical access; masked priming; translation priming
Online: 12 June 2023 (13:24:22 CEST)
This manuscript addresses the phenomenon of masked priming in bilingual individuals. We employed a lexical decision task with masked translation priming, which serves as a valuable tool for elucidating the orthographic and lexical processes involved in the initial stages of reading. Our study builds upon previous research conducted on monolingual masked priming, which consistently demonstrates shifts in the response time (RT) distributions when comparing related and unrelated primes. Within the framework of a diffusion model, we implemented two theoretical positions. First, we posited that translation priming operates at the orthographic level, resulting in enhanced efficiency during the encoding process. Second, we explored the possibility that translation priming operates at the semantic level, influencing the accumulation of evidence during the lexical decision task. Our findings indicate that translation priming elicits outcomes similar to those observed in monolingual priming paradigms. Specifically, we observed that translation priming facilitation is manifested as shifts in the RT distributions. We interpret these findings as suggesting that the benefits derived from the encoding process are not specific to the accessed lexicon following brief stimulus presentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0041.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: older adults; whispered speech; lexical tone; vowel; duration; intensity
Online: 2 November 2022 (03:53:54 CET)
Purpose: This study aimed to examine how aging and modifications of critical acoustic parameters may affect the perception of whispered speech as a degraded signal. Method: Forty Mandarin-speaking adults were included in the study. Part 1 of the study compared the perception of Mandarin lexical tones, vowels, and syllables in older and younger adults in whispered vs. phonated speech conditions. Parts 2 and 3 further examined how modification of duration and intensity cues contributed to the perceptual outcomes. Results: Perception of whispered tones was compromised in older and younger adults. Older adults identified lexical tones less accurately than their younger counterparts, particularly for phonated T2, T3 and whispered T3. Aging also negatively affected the vowel identification of /i, u/ in the whispered condition. Syllable-level accuracy was largely dependent on the accuracy of lexical tones and vowels. Furthermore, reduced duration led to the decreased accuracy of phonated T3 and whispered T2, T3 but increased accuracy of phonated T4. Reduced intensity lowered the recognition accuracy for phonated vowels /i, ɤ, o, y/ in older adults and /i, u/ in younger adults, and it also lowered the accuracy of whispered vowels /a, ɤ/ in older adults. Contrary to our expectation, increased duration and intensity did not improve older adults’ speech perception in either phonated or whispered conditions. Conclusion: The results suggest that aging adversely affected speech perception in both phonated and whispered conditions with more challenges in identifying whispered speech for older adults. While older adults’ diminished performance may be potentially due to problems with processing the degraded temporal and spectral information of the target speech sounds, it cannot be simply compensated for by increasing the duration and intensity of the target sounds beyond the audible level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0270.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: chemical engineering; journal publications; lexical choices; collocations; impact factor; training
Online: 30 March 2018 (11:25:20 CEST)
The combination of increased pressures for high-volume, high-impact publications in English language with the high rejection rates of submitted manuscripts for publications presents an often unsurpassable obstacle for (early career) researchers. At the same, the register requirements of peer-reviewed journals -that can contribute to whether a paper is accepted for publication- has received little attention. This paper redresses this gap, by investigating the linguistic choices in 60 published manuscripts in four journals, with impact factor (IF) above 2; all 4 journals, publish original research papers in the field of chemical engineering science and specifically focus on wastewater treatment. Our survey shows that chemical engineering research publications tend to comply to a set of unwritten requirements: multidisciplinarity, brevity, co-authorship, focus on the description of practical results (rather than methods), and awareness of non-specialised audiences. It is found that less discipline-specific vocabulary was used in higher IF journals and this is interpreted within the current context of manuscript publication and consumption. Also, a complex relationship between the advertised scope of each journal and the actual published papers exists, indicating that guide for authors and aims and objective published by the journal's editorial office should be critically evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0294.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep Learning; Embedding models; Semantic Relationships; Lexical Syntactic Patterns; Convolucional Neural Networks
Online: 20 October 2022 (03:25:22 CEST)
Embedding representation models characterize each word as a vector of numbers with a fixed length. These models have been used in tasks involving text classification, such as recommen- dation and question-answer systems. Semantic relationships are words with a relationship between them providing a complete idea to a text. Therefore, it is hypothesized that an embedding model involving semantic relationships will provide better performance for tasks that use them. This paper presents three embedding models based on semantic relations extracted fromWikipedia to classify texts. The synonym, hyponym, and hyperonym semantic relationships were the ones considered in this work since previous experiments have shown that they are the ones that provide the most semantic knowledge. Lexical-syntactic patterns present in the literature were implemented and subsequently applied to the Wikipedia corpus to obtain the semantic relationships present in it. Several semantic relationships are used in different models: synonymy, hyponym-hyperonym, and a combination of the first two. A convolutional neural network was trained for text classification to evaluate the performance of each model. The results obtained were evaluated with the metrics of precision, accuracy, recall, and F1-measure. The best values obtained with the second model were accuracy of 0.79 for the 20-Newsgroup corpus. F1-measure and recall of 0.87 respectively for the Reuters corpus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1732.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: high variability phonetic training (HVPT); lexical tone; perception-production link; cochlear implant (CI); perceptual learning
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:00:33 CEST)
Purpose: This study builds upon an established effective training method to investigate the advantages of high variability phonetic identification training for enhancing lexical tone perception and production in Mandarin-speaking pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients, who typically face ongoing challenges in these areas. Method: Thirty two Mandarin-speaking children with CIs were quasi-randomly assigned into the training group (TG) and the control group (CG). The sixteen TG participants received five sessions of high variability phonetic training (HVPT) within a period of three weeks. The CG participants did not receive the training. Perception and production of Mandarin tones were administered before (pretest) and immediately after (posttest) the completion of HVPT via lexical tone recognition task and picture naming task. Both groups participated in the identical pretest and posttest with the same time frame between the two test sessions. Results: TG showed significant improvement from pretest to posttest in identifying Mandarin tones for both trained and untrained speech stimuli. Moreover, perceptual learning of HVPT facilitated trainees’ lexical tone production as rated by a cohort of 10 Mandarin-speaking adults with normal hearing. In contrast, CG did not exhibit significant changes in either perception or production. Conclusion: The results represent initial evidence of HVPT-induced transfer of perceptual learning to lexical tone production in CI users, which supports the application of this speech training protocol to aural rehabilitation practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: high variability phonetic training (HVPT), categorical perception (CP), cochlear implant (CI), lexical tone, Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners, training-induced gains
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:41:59 CET)
Objectives: Although pitch reception poses a great challenge for individuals with cochlear implants (CIs), formal auditory training (e.g., high variability phonetic training, HVPT) has been shown to provide direct benefits in pitch-related perceptual performances such as lexical tone recognition for CI users. As lexical tones in spoken language are expressed with a multitude of distinct spectral, temporal, and intensity cues, it is important to determine the sources of training benefits for CI users. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a rigorous fine-scale evaluation with the categorical perception (CP) paradigm to control the acoustic parameters and test the efficacy and sustainability of HVPT for Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI recipients. The main hypothesis was that HVPT-induced perceptual learning would greatly enhance CI users’ ability to extract the primary pitch contours from spoken words for lexical tone identification and discrimination. Furthermore, individual differences in immediate and long-term gains from training would likely be attributable to baseline performance and duration of CI use. Design: Twenty-eight prelingually deaf Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners with CIs were tested. Half of them received five sessions of HVPT within a period of three weeks. The other half served as control who did not receive the formal training. Two classical CP tasks on a tonal continuum from Mandarin Tone 1 (high-flat in pitch) to Tone 2 (mid-rising in pitch) with fixed acoustic features of duration and intensity were administered before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 10 weeks post training termination (follow-up test). Participants were instructed to either label a speech stimulus along the continuum (i.e., identification task) or determine whether a pair of stimuli separated by zero or two steps from the continuum was the same or different (i.e., discrimination task). Identification function measures (i.e., boundary position and boundary width) and discrimination function scores (i.e., between-category score, within-category score, and peakedness score) were assessed for each child participant across the three test sessions.Results: Linear mixed-effects (LME) models showed significant training-induced enhancement in lexical tone categorization with significantly narrower boundary width and better between-category discrimination in the immediate posttest over pretest for the trainees. Furthermore, training-induced gains were reliably retained in the follow-up test 10 weeks after training. By contrast, no significant changes were found in the control group across sessions. Regression analysis confirmed that baseline performance (i.e., boundary width in the pretest session) and duration of CI use were significant predictors for the magnitude of training-induced benefits. Conclusions: The stringent CP tests with synthesized stimuli that excluded acoustic cues other than the pitch contour and were never used in training showed strong evidence for the efficacy of HVPT in yielding immediate and sustained improvement in lexical tone categorization for Mandarin-speaking children with CIs. The training results and individual differences have remarkable implications for developing personalized computer-based short-term HVPT protocols that may have sustainable long-term benefits for aural rehabilitation in this clinical population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1233.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: SPARSAR = Specialized NLP system for English Poetry organized into ten feeding modules and over twenty dictionaries; Automatic Analysis of English Poems; Visualization of Linguistic and Poetic Content; Creating Clusters of Boxes of Different Dimension one for each poem according to linguistic content and positioning each box in a space; Computing Sound-Sense Harmony; Comparing Phonetic and Phonological Features with Meaning; Automatic Lexical and Semantic Sentiment Analysis of Poetry; Appraisal Theory Framework.
Online: 18 July 2023 (12:24:24 CEST)
We assume that poetic devices have an implicit goal: producing an overall sound scheme that will induce the reader to associate intended and expressed meaning to the sound of the poem. Sounds may be organized into categories and assigned presumed meaning as suggested by traditional literary studies. In my work, I have extracted automatically the sound grids of all the sonnets by William Shakespeare and have combined them with the themes expressed by their contents. In a first experiment I have computed lexically and semantically based sentiment analysis obtaining an 80% of agreement. In a second experiment sentiment analysis has been substituted by Appraisal Theory thus obtaining a more fine-grained interpretation which in some cases contradicts the first one. The computation for the second poet - regarded by many critics the best of last century - includes both vowels and consonants. In addition, it combines automatic semantically and lexically based sentiment analysis with sound grids. The results produce visual maps that clearly separate poems into three clusters: negative harmony, positive harmony and disharmony where the latter instantiates the need by the poet to encompass the opposites in a desperate attempt to reconcile them.