ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0085.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Legal research; Disruption; Legal AI tools
Online: 5 October 2021 (13:04:06 CEST)
Legal research is an indispensable skill for lawyers. Therefore, it is always necessary for lawyers to engage in legal research in due course of trying to alleviate various legal problems. Although the purpose and methodology of the research may vary from lawyer to lawyer, doing research is a common activity. As a result, the quest to assess the impacts of artificial intelligence (hereinafter ‘AI’) on legal research allows one to measure the influence of AI on the legal profession in general. Moreover, with the advent of Legal AI, it is now evident that the legal profession is not immune from disruption. According to the above, this article discusses the impacts of AI on research in the legal profession in general in accomplishing various lawyerly tasks by different legal professionals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0369.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: forensic accounting; Jordan; legal background
Online: 21 November 2022 (04:23:16 CET)
This review provides an understanding of the teaching and practising of forensic accounting across the globe. It includes a review of published forensic accounting studies that conclude that forensic accounting is of benefit to both students and professionals. Despite this, there are areas of concern; namely, the insufficiency of an appropriate structure of regulation and a lack of control over the academic qualifications to enter the profession. This review of both the teaching and practising of forensic accounting provides an overview of the vital issues and concerns that must be understood in order to advance the essential application of forensic accounting. It is expected that this review will influence future policy that will advance business and limit episodes of fraud. The amount of published literature on the subject of forensic accounting is widespread and diverse. However, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding regarding the strengths and weaknesses of forensic accounting; this review will address this and provide policymakers with a thorough explanation of the subject.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0116.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: diversity; algorithms; legal information retrieval
Online: 23 November 2016 (09:50:24 CET)
"Public legal information from all countries and international institutions is part of the common heritage of humanity. Maximizing access to this information promotes justice and the rule of law". In accordance with the aforementioned declaration on Free Access to Law by Legal information institutes of the world, a plethora of legal information is available through the Internet, while the provision of legal information has never before been easier. Given that law is accessed by a much wider group of people, the majority of whom are not legally trained or qualified, diversification techniques, should be employed in the context of legal information retrieval, as to increase user satisfaction. We address diversification of results in legal search by adopting several state of the art methods from the web search, network analysis and text summarization domains. We provide an exhaustive evaluation of the methods, using a standard data set from the Common Law domain that we subjectively annotated with relevance judgments for this purpose. Our results i) reveal that users receive broader insights across the results they get from a legal information retrieval system, ii) demonstrate that web search diversification techniques outperform other approaches (e.g., summarization-based, graph-based methods) in the context of legal diversification and iii) offer balance boundaries between reinforcing relevant documents or sampling the information space around the legal query.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1231.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Boycott; institutional sustainability; institutional trust; legal system; science
Online: 18 July 2023 (12:41:36 CEST)
Institutional sustainability is a dynamic and multifaceted concept that relies on the contributions of various institutions, including the legal and the scientific system. On the other side, consumers boycotts are an expression of political consumerism by which consumers can use their market power to attain sustainability objectives. This article explores institutional trust on the legal system and trust on scientists as potential drivers for consumers’ boycotts. Using data retrieved from the European Social Survey covering twenty-five countries, the study employs binary logistic regression to assess the importance of institutional trust and other potential drivers of product boycotts in Europe. Results confirm that boycotting behaviour is affected by institutional trust, as well as other individual variables including gender, age and life-cycle effects, education, interest in politics and level of satisfaction with the political system, generalized trust, personal well-being, and consumers’ use and perceptions of information and communication technologies. The results of this study enrich the literature on consumer boycotts and have implications for policymakers involved in sustainability initiatives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0457.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ethical; legal; artificial intelligence; health; equity; public health
Online: 24 November 2022 (09:59:55 CET)
Background: The potential of Artificial intelligent (AI) models to process and interpret large health datasets at scale could revolutionize public health and epidemiology, providing a foundation for public health. Ethics has been recognized as a priority concern in the development and deployment of AI. Because AI technology can jeopardize patient safety, privacy, and posing a new set of ethical problems that must be addressed. Objectives: We aim to provide a holistic view on what are the different ethical and legal principles that was addressed in the included studies regarding the use of AI in public health and what are the ethical challenges that can arise.Methods: Following PRISMA guideline, five bibliographic databases were used in our search: PubMed, Scopus, JSTOR, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar from 2015 to February 2022. Four reviewers carried out study selection and data extraction, and the data extracted was synthesized by a narrative approach. Results: This review included 23 unique publications out of a total of 1123 items that were initially identified. Different ethical principles regarding the uses of AI in public health and community health were identified and discussed distinctly in the current review. The common ethical and legal themes that this review focused on are equity, bias, privacy and security, safety, transparency, confidentiality, accountability, social justice, and autonomy. In addition, five ethical challenges were mentioned. Conclusion: Research regarding ethical and legal principles and challenges about using AI in public health specifically consider a new filed, because all previous themes are concerning the physical and patients’ area where it focuses only on the clinical settings.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0764.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: creative legal study; creativity; medical curriculum; medical student
Online: 31 March 2021 (12:15:46 CEST)
In Thailand, the topic of medical ethics and laws related to medical professions has been one part of the national competency assessment criteria. The objective of this article was to design legal issues into the medical curriculum and to share experiences of creative legal study. Legal contents were inserted into 10 subjects and taught for year 1 to year 6 medical students. Students were divided into multi-groups or received individual tasks and then, shared their knowledge and idea for solving legal problems. The results showed they could interpret and create novel ideas for legal and ethical reconstruction, including the topic of the principle of laws, criminal laws, civil and commercial laws, public health laws, organ donation/transplantation, end of life decisions, and legal liability for the medical profession. Finally, the creative legal study can be used as a novel approach to support creativity among medical students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0641.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; autopsy; medico-legal procedures
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:14:21 CET)
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in post-mortem swabs of subjects who died from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: The presence of the virus was evaluated post-mortem from airways of 27 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients at three different time points (T1 2 hours; T2 12 hours – T3 24 hours) by real-time PCR. Detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was performed by Maglumi 2019-nCoV IgM/IgG chemiluminescence assay. Results: SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA was still detectable in 70,3% of cases within 2 hours after death and in 66,6% of cases up to 24 hours after death. Our data showed an increase of the viral load in 78,6% of positive individuals 24 hours post-mortem (T3) in comparison to that evaluated 2 hours after death (T1). Noteworthy, we detected a positive T3 post-mortem swab (24 hours after death) from 4 subjects who were negative at T1 (2 hours after death). Conclusion: The results of our study may have an important value in the management of deceased subjects not only with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, but also for unspecified causes and in the absence of clinical documentation or medical assistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0524.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: death penalty; legal system; risk; citizens; predictive model; Serbia
Online: 27 August 2021 (13:59:11 CEST)
This paper presents the results of quantitative research regarding the predictive model of citizens' attitudes about the risks of introducing the death penalty in the Republic of Serbia legal system. The research was conducted with the use of a questionnaire that was requested and then collected online from 427 people in June 2021. A multivariate regression analysis was used, identifying the extent to total scores of the main dependent variables (introducing the death penalty; trust in the legal system; advantages of introduction; disadvantages of introduction scores) were associated with five demographic and socio-economic variables: gender, marital, education, income, and age. We tested the central hypothesis of which gender is predicting variables citizens' attitudes about the risks of introducing the death penalty in the legal system of Serbia. The findings revealed that gender and educational level were the most effective predictors of the research variables under question. The majority of respondents support the introduction of the death penalty and the most important predictor of disadvantages of introducing the death penalty in the legal system is age. Based on the findings that there are major differences in the citizens' attitudes about the risks of introducing the death penalty in the legal system, policies, strategies, and regulations must take into account these very important findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0027.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: environment; environmental pollution; environmental management; textile industry; legal instruments
Online: 12 July 2017 (10:14:33 CEST)
The aim of this short communication is to find out the legal set up that complies with the environmental management in the textile sector of Bangladesh. This sector is the one of the biggest contributor to the economy of the nation. This sector contributes 81% to the total export earnings involving an immense number of stakeholders to its production processes. It is also true that this sector is largely responsible for the overall environmental pollution through its effluent discharge. The findings suggest that there are both international and national legal guidelines exist for environmental management in the said sector. In order to improve the environmental standards rehearsing lawful instruments is compulsory for the said industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Online content; Social media; Legal frameworks; TCRA; Tanzania; Online anonymity
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:41:53 CEST)
This paper examines the challenges to justice in Tanzania posed by the proliferation of anonymous social media accounts and the dissemination of offensive and harassing content. The study analyzes the legal frameworks governing online content in Tanzania, including the Electronic and Postal Communications Act and the Electronic and Postal Communications (Online Content) Regulation of 2018, and highlights their shortcomings in identifying the publishers of such content. The paper also discusses the Legal and Human Rights Center's challenge to the EPOCA regulation and the authorities and responsible organs identified to deter, adjudicate, and open court processes in dealing with alleged offenses arising from online published content. Ultimately, the paper argues that a better understanding of the hindrances to justice in Tanzania must consider the paucity of legal frameworks governing published and online social media content. The findings of this study have significant implications for policymakers, legal practitioners, and civil society organizations seeking to promote accountability and protect human rights in Tanzania.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0731.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: alcoholic beverages; spirits; methanol; risk mitigation; legal limits; quality control.
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:58:06 CEST)
Methanol is a natural ingredient with major occurrence in fruit spirits, such as apple, pear, plum or cherry spirits, but also in spirits made from coffee pulp. The compound is formed during fermentation and the following mash storage by enzymatic hydrolysis of naturally present pectins. Methanol is toxic above certain threshold levels and legal limits have been set in most jurisdictions. Therefore, the methanol content needs to be mitigated and its level must be controlled. This article will review the several factors that influence the methanol content including the pH value of the mash, the addition of various yeast and enzyme preparations, fermentation temperature, mash storage, and most importantly the raw material quality and hygiene. From all these mitigation possibilities, lowering the pH value and the use of cultured yeasts when mashing fruit substances is already common as best practice today. Also a controlled yeast fermentation at acidic pH facilitates not only reduced methanol formation, but ultimately also leads to quality benefits of the distillate. Special care has to be observed in the case of spirits made from coffee by-products which are prone to spoilage with very high methanol contents reported in past studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0474.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Legal artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Image Processing; Matlab
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:13:31 CEST)
Over the years, artificial intelligence (AI) is spreading its roots in different areas by utilizing the concept of making the computers learn and handle complex tasks that previously require substantial laborious tasks by human beings. With better accuracy and speed, AI is helping lawyers to streamline work processing. New legal AI software tools like Catalyst, Ross intelligence, and Matlab along with natural language processing provide effective quarrel resolution, better legal clearness, and superior admittance to justice and fresh challenges to conventional law firms providing legal services using leveraged cohort correlate model. This paper discusses current applications of legal AI and suggests deep learning and machine learning techniques that can be applied in future to simplify the cumbersome legal tasks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0218.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: driverless buses, autonomous vehicles, intelligent transportation, legal issues of autonomous driving
Online: 1 August 2018 (13:45:25 CEST)
Urban transportation in the next few decades will shift worldwide towards electrification and automation, with the final aim of increasing energy efficiency and safety for passengers. Such a big change requires strong collaboration and efforts among public administration, research and stakeholders in developing, testing and promoting these technologies in the public transportation. Working in this direction, in the present work the impact of the introduction of driverless electric minibuses, for the first and last mile transportation, in the public service is studied. More specifically, this paper covers a state of the art in terms of technological background for automation, energy efficiency via electrification, and the current state of the legal framework in Europe with focus on the Baltic Sea Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0428.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Roma minority, legal constrains, health care utilization, health status, geographical inequality
Online: 23 July 2018 (14:27:34 CEST)
Roma is the largest ethnic minority of Europe with poor health status, which is poorly explored due to legal constrains of ethnicity assessment. We aimed to elaborate health-indicators for adults living in segregated Roma settlements (SRS) representing the most vulnerable Roma subpopulation. SRSs were mapped in a study area populated by 54682 adults. Records of all adults living in the study area were processed in the National Institute of Health Insurance Fund Management. Aggregated, age-sex standardized SRS-specific and non-SRS-specific indicators on healthcare utilization and premature death along with the ratio of them (RR) were computed with 95% confidence intervals. The rate of GP appointments was significantly higher among SRS inhabitants (RR=1.152, 95%CI: 1.136–1.167). The proportion of subjects hospitalized (RR=1.286, 1.177–1.405), and the reimbursement for inpatient care (RR=1.060, 1.057–1.064) were elevated for SRS. Premature mortality was significantly higher in SRSs (RR=1.711, 1.085-2.696). Our study demonstrated that it is possible to compute the SRS-specific version of the routine healthcare indicators without violating the protection of personal data by converting a sensitive ethical issue to a non-sensitive small area geographical analysis; there is an SRS-specific healthcare utilization pattern, which is associated with elevated costs and increased risk of premature death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0308.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Legal capacity for robots; Emirates law; Robots in Islamic law
Online: 4 August 2023 (09:26:24 CEST)
The Dubai Digital Government launched its recent guidelines, which call for artificial intelligence systems to be subject to legal accountability. This study discusses the extent to which autonomous robots can be granted legal personality in UAE law and the consistency of this approach with the provisions of Islamic jurisprudence. This research paper answered two main questions: First, the extent to which these guidelines are considered the beginning of work on granting legal personality to AI systems in the UAE. Second, what form of legal personality can be given to autonomous robots in UAE law to be consistent with the provisions of Islamic jurisprudence as a primary source of legislation in the country? The research concluded the impossibility of considering autonomous robots as a "thing" and classifying them within the concept of "persons." It also concluded that it is possible to give them legal personality according to two legislative solutions: granting them partial or incomplete performance eligibility like minors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0250.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Blockchain; Decentralization; Innovation Policy; National Innovation Systems; Policy Tools; Legal and Regulatory
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:50:38 CET)
Blockchain technology can achieve decentralization, multi-party verification, anti-tampering, anonymity, traceability of transactions, and the application of distributed ledger. Countries around the world continue to seek the blockchain business models, technologies and applications, and have different visions and policies for the development of blockchain. This study conducts a comparative policy framework of theoretical analysis of the blockchain technology between the USA and China. Using the innovative policy tools proposed by Rothwell and Zegveld, the above mentioned governments are analyzed from the viewpoint of twelve policy tools. The results show that the USA and China all prefer to use “Environmental-side” policy. The USA has paid more attention to “Legal and regulatory”, “Public services” and “Procurement”. China has the highest proportion of policies in “Political tools”, followed by “Legal & regulatory”, while “Scientific and technical”, “Education” and “Overseas agent” come in third . The blockchain technology has developed vigorously among industries and its applications have gradually diversified. The results are provided to various stakeholders as a reference for policy planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0264.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: defendant; legal psychology; litigation; mental health; plaintiff; user of the justice system
Online: 23 October 2019 (04:19:58 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the psychological effects of being processed by the justice system, either as a plaintiff or as a defendant. The sample consisted of 360 subjects, 32.8% defendants and 52.2% plaintiffs, residents in the Autonomous Community of Galicia (NW Spain). A lot of psychological test were administered. The results indicated significant differences between plaintiffs and defendants. The former were more pessimistic about the future, used poor strategies for protecting health, and had less empathy. In contrast, defendants had a more negative outlook on life, and in general more psychosomatic symptomology. Thus, both defendants and plaintiffs suffered health problems. Moreover, the group with the longest exposure to litigation had the worst deteriorated health. In conclusion, defendants were more pessimistic about the future, used poor strategies for protecting their own health, and showed less empathy. Likewise, plaintiffs had a more negative outlook on life, and on the whole presented more psychosomatic symptomology. Thus, both defendants and plaintiffs presented health problems. Moreover, the comparison between litigants and non-litigants showed health was more deteriorated in the former, but only in a few specific variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0418.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: economic indicators; financial markets; business rights; law; responsibilities of business; legal stability; information security; factors
Online: 17 December 2020 (08:00:57 CET)
Global economy, financial markets and technology are on the verge of moving to a new stage of development – information society. Three major world countries the US, Russia and China will play a leading role in this process. However, the specific development path will depend on many factors, including the stability of legal systems, security of computer and financial technologies, the effectiveness of legislation. The focus of this article is to assess the current condition of the economy the major countries, to identify trends and methods of stabilization of legal systems on the basis of balance of rights and obligations of the business, suggest some methods of objective evaluation of the impact factors of the total taxes, fixed costs and the legal system dynamics on financial indicators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0468.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Endometrial cancer (EC); assisted reproduction techniques (ART); miR-based; molecular evaluation; ethical and legal/regulatory implications
Online: 6 June 2023 (14:54:47 CEST)
This review article is aimed at exploring the possibility of developing an integrated approach in the management of the different needs of endometrial cancer (EC) patients seeking to become pregnant. Life preservation of the woman, health preservation of the baby, a precocious and – as much as possible – minimally invasive characterization of the health and fertility parameters of the patient, together with the concerns regarding the obstetric, neonatal, and adult health risks of the children conceived via assisted reproduction techniques (ART) are all essential aspects of the problem to be taken into consideration, yet the possibility to harmonize such needs through a concerted integrated approach is still highly challenging. This article aims to illustrate the main features of EC and how it affects the normal physiology of pre-menopausal women. Then, we focus on the prospect for a miR-based, molecular evaluation of patient health status, including both EC early diagnosis and staging and, similarly, the receptivity of the woman, discussing the possible evaluation of both aspects using a single specific panel of circulating miR in the patient, thus allowing a relatively fast, non-invasive way to perform such testing with a significantly reduced margin of error. Finally, the ethical and legal/regulatory complexities arising from such innovative techniques require not only a risk-benefit analysis; respect for patient autonomy and equitable health care access allocation are fundamental issues as well.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1713.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Breast Cancer (BC); MicroRNAs (miRNAs); non-coding RNA; competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA); personalized medicine; ethical and legal challenges
Online: 25 September 2023 (16:47:32 CEST)
According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (data of year 2020), Breast Cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancer types worldwide, with large geographical variations occurring between countries and world regions and highest incidence rates in countries that have undergone economic transition. The risk factors for BC include women ageing, genetic mutations, reproductive history, dense breast tissues, personal history of BC or specific non-cancerous breast diseases, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, previous treatment using radiation therapy, and exposure to hormone-like drugs such as diethylstilbestrol (DES). Additional risk factors include being overweight or having obesity after menopause, and taking hormones. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that have an essential role in gene expression and are significantly linked to the tumor development and angiogenesis process in different types of cancer, including BC. In the last years, the knowledge about miRNAs role in BC has significantly improved, and complex interactions among coding and non-coding RNA has been elucidated. In this context, an increasing number of papers had been published regarding the role of miR-125 in BC. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art about this research topic in addition to elaborating on the need to set novel ethical and legal standards for the governance of such innovations in healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2039.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: newborn screening; genome sequencing; ethical; legal; social implications (ELSI); NBSTRN; public health; databases; online tools; Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP)
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:28:14 CEST)
Rapid advances in the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic disorders has increased the number of conditions that could be detected through universal newborn screening (NBS). However, addition of conditions to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) and implementation of nationwide screening has been a slow process taking several years to accomplish for individual conditions. Here we describe web-based tools and resources developed and implemented by the newborn screening translational research network (NBSTRN) to advance newborn screening research and support NBS stakeholders. NBSTRN’s tools include the Longitudinal Pediatric Data Resource (LPDR), the NBS Condition Resource (NBS-CR), the NBS Virtual Repository (NBS-VR), and the Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI) Advantage. Research programs including the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Information System (IBEM-IS), BabySeq, EarlyCheck, and Family Narratives Use Cases have utilized NBSTRN’s tools, and in turn contributed research data to further expand and refine these this resource. Additionally, we discuss ongoing tool development to facilitate expansion of genetic disease screening in increasingly diverse populations. In conclusion, NBSTRN’s tools and resources provide a trusted platform to enable NBS stakeholders to advance NBS research and improve clinical care for patients and their families.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0744.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Infertility; assisted reproductive technologies (ART); human embryonic stem cells (ESCs); Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs); Ovarian Stem Cells (OSCs); Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSCs); ethics and legal implications
Online: 11 October 2023 (13:20:49 CEST)
Infertility” is a condition defined by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person’s capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with his/her partner’. The authors have set out to succinctly investigate, explore and assess infertility treatments harnessing the potential of stem cells to effectively and safely treat infertility, in addition to the legal and regulatory complexities at the heart of stem cell research, with an overview of the legislative state of affairs in six major European countries. In couples who cannot benefit from assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to treat their infertility, stem cells-based approaches have been shown to be a highly promising approach. Nonetheless, lingering ethical and immunological uncertainties require more conclusive findings and data before such treatment avenues can become mainstream and applied large scale. The isolation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is ethically controversial, since their collection involves the destruction of human embryonic tissue. Overall, stem cell research has resulted in important new breakthroughs in the treatment of infertility. The effort to untangle the complex web of ethical and legal issues associated with such therapeutic approaches will have to rely on evidence-based, broadly shared standards, guidelines and best practices to make sure that the procreative rights of patients can be effectively reconciled with the core values at the heart of medical ethics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Deep phenotyping; AI; 2D and 3D facial scans; Genetic diseases; Early treatment; Big data; 2D and 3D facial scans; Facial traits; Healthcare; Citizen privacy; Ethical concerns; EU legal framework; Forensic medicine; Orwellian ramifications
Online: 14 April 2023 (03:56:59 CEST)
One in 12 babies is born with a rare genetic disease. Sadly, most cases are undetected until later age, missing time for early treatment and opportunity to prevent complications. Humanity has entered a new era where Big Data collected by governments, including 2D and 3D facial scans, are available. Many rare genetic diseases can be identified by artificial intelligence (AI) analysis of the facial photo. Phenotyping AI utilizations facilitate comprehensive and accurate genetic evaluations. AI processing of this Big Data to identify rare genetic diseases could bring unimaginable benefits to healthcare, although this would be a questionable step in terms of citizen privacy and could lead to future "Orwellian" ramifications with government abuse. Going forward, a balance must be found between protecting the privacy of citizens and the enticing use of AI for their health risks and cost savings through prevention. The unimaginable potential of AI early diagnostics from facial photos also raises various ethical and legal concerns. This paper presents concept, protentional methods and legal and other limitations within EU legal framework in contrast with potential benefits. This paper is focused on AI utilization to early diagnostic of rare genetic diseases. Shift of paradigm in the screening for rare genetic diseases in population with AI face analysis is expected to have a significant impact. The potential of AI algorithms utilizations similar to face2gene app in general population or systematically on Big governmental datasets recording facial traits changes in time can have significant impact on public health but at the same time give raise to profound concern as violation of one’s privacy.