REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; complexity; machine learning; deep learning; fluid dynamics; turbulence; chaos
Online: 27 September 2019 (07:24:43 CEST)
Cancers remain the lead cause of disease-related, pediatric death in North America. The emerging field of complex systems has redefined cancer networks as a computational system with intractable algorithmic complexity. Herein, a tumor and its heterogeneous phenotypes are discussed as dynamical systems having multiple, strange attractors. Machine learning, network science and algorithmic information dynamics are discussed as current tools for cancer network reconstruction. Deep Learning architectures and computational fluid models are proposed for better forecasting gene expression patterns in cancer ecosystems. Cancer cell decision-making is investigated within the framework of complex systems and complexity theory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; machine learning; Kalman filter; thermal modelling; online prediction; electromagnetic impedance spectroscopy; computational cost
Online: 6 July 2021 (17:34:49 CEST)
Highly nonlinear characteristics of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are significantly influenced by the external and internal temperature of the LIB cell. Moreover, cell temperature beyond the manufacturer’s specified safe operating limit could lead to thermal runaway and even fire hazards and safety concerns to operating personnel. Therefore, accurate information of cell internal and surface temperature of LIB is highly crucial for effective thermal management and proper operation of a battery management system (BMS). Accurate temperature information is also essential to BMS for the accurate estimation of various important states of LIB such as state of charge, state of health and so on. High capacity LIB pack, used in electric vehicles and grid-tied stationary energy storage system essentially consists of thousands of individual LIB cells. Therefore, installing a physical sensor at each cell especially at the cell core is not practically feasible from the solution cost, space and weight point of view. A solution is to develop a suitable estimation strategy which led scholars to propose different temperature estimation schemes aiming to establish a balance among accuracy, adaptability, modelling complexity and computational cost. This article presented an exhaustive review of these estimation strategies covering recent developments, current issues, major challenges, and future research recommendations. The prime intention is to provide a detailed guideline to the researchers and industries towards developing a highly accurate, intelligent, adaptive, easy to implement and compute efficient online temperature estimation strategy applicable to health-conscious fast charging and smart onboard BMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0078.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: missing value imputation; machine learning; decision tree imputation; k-nearest neighbors imputation; self-organizing map imputation
Online: 15 December 2016 (08:27:13 CET)
Many clinical research datasets have a large percentage of missing values that directly impacts their usefulness in yielding high accuracy classifiers when used for training in supervised machine learning. While missing value imputation methods have been shown to work well with smaller percentages of missing values, their ability to impute sparse clinical research data can be problem specific. We previously attempted to learn quantitative guidelines for ordering cardiac magnetic resonance imaging during the evaluation for pediatric cardiomyopathy, but missing data significantly reduced our usable sample size. In this work, we sought to determine if increasing the usable sample size through imputation would allow us to learn better guidelines. We first review several machine learning methods for estimating missing data. Then, we apply four popular methods (mean imputation, decision tree, k-nearest neighbors, and self-organizing maps) to a clinical research dataset of pediatric patients undergoing evaluation for cardiomyopathy. Using Bayesian Rule Learning (BRL) to learn ruleset models, we compared the performance of imputation-augmented models versus unaugmented models. We found that all four imputation-augmented models performed similarly to unaugmented models. While imputation did not improve performance, it did provide evidence for the robustness of our learned models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0265.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Ecommender system; learning to rank; Mining software repositories; Text Mining; Deep learning; Stack Overflow
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:20:33 CEST)
In software development, developers received bug reports that describe the software bug. Developers find the cause of bug through reviewing the code and reproducing the abnormal behavior that can be considered as tedious and time-consuming processes. The developers need an automated system that incorporates large domain knowledge and recommends a solution for those bugs to ease on developers rather than spending more manual efforts to fixing the bugs or waiting on Q&A websites for other users to reply to them. Stack Overflow is a popular question-answer site that is focusing on programming issues, thus we can benefit knowledge available in this rich platform. This paper, presents a survey covering the methods in the field of mining software repositories. We propose an architecture to build a recommender System using the learning to rank approach. Deep learning is used to construct a model that solve the problem of learning to rank using stack overflow data. Text mining techniques were invested to extract, evaluate and recommend the answers that have the best relevance with the solution of this bug report.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0165.v1
Online: 14 August 2019 (16:01:48 CEST)
In this brief letter we report our initial results on the application of deep-learning to the massive MIMO channel estimation challenge. We show that it is possible to estimate wireless channels and that the possibility of mitigating pilot-contamination with deep-learning is possible given that the leaning model underwent an extensive training-phase and that it has been presented with a large number of different channel conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0058.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Internet of Things; Incremental Machine Learning; Intrusion Detection System; Online Machine Learning; Cyber-Security; Ensemble Learning
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:47:23 CEST)
Computers have evolved over the years and as the evolution continues, we have been ushered into an era where high-speed internet has made it possible for devices in our homes, hospital, energy and industry to communicate with each other. This era is what is known as the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT has several benefits in the health, energy, transportation and agriculture sectors of a country’s economy. These enormous benefits coupled with the computational constraint of IoT devices which makes it difficult to deploy enhanced security protocols on them make IoT devices a target of cyber-attacks. One approach that has been used in traditional computing over the years to fight cyber-attacks is Intrusion Detection System (IDS). However, it is practically impossible to deploy IDS meant for traditional computers in IoT environments because of the computational constraint of these devices. In this regard, this study proposes a lightweight IDS for IoT devices using an incremental ensemble learning technique. We used Gaussian Naive Bayes and Hoeffding tree to build our incremental ensemble model. The model was then evaluated on the TON IoT dataset. Our proposed model was compared with other state-of-the-art methods proposed and evaluated using the same dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed model achieved an average accuracy of 99.98\%. We also evaluated the memory consumption of our model which showed that our model achieved a lightweight model status of 650.11KB as the highest memory consumption and 122.38KB as the lowest memory consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0142.v3
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant Diseases; Modern Agriculture; Plant Health; AWS DeepLens; SageMaker; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 14 September 2020 (06:24:16 CEST)
In the Agriculture sector, control of plant leaf diseases is crucial as it influences the quality and production of plant species with an impact on the economy of any country. Therefore, automated identification and classification of plant leaf disease at an early stage is essential to reduce economic loss and to conserve the specific species. Previously, to detect and classify plant leaf disease, various Machine Learning models have been proposed; however, they lack usability due to hardware incompatibility, limited scalability and inefficiency in practical usage. Our proposed DeepLens Classification and Detection Model (DCDM) approach deal with such limitations by introducing automated detection and classification of the leaf diseases in fruits (apple, grapes, peach and strawberry) and vegetables (potato and tomato) via scalable transfer learning on A.W.S. SageMaker and importing it on AWS DeepLens for real-time practical usability. Cloud integration provides scalability and ubiquitous access to our approach. Our experiments on extensive image data set of healthy and unhealthy leaves of fruits and vegetables showed an accuracy of 98.78% with a real-time diagnosis of plant leaves diseases. We used forty thousand images for the training of deep learning model and then evaluated it on ten thousand images. The process of testing an image for disease diagnosis and classification using AWS DeepLens on average took 0.349s, providing disease information to the user in less than a second.
Online: 15 September 2021 (15:58:51 CEST)
The relevance of bacteria to subjective experiences or qualia is under-appreciated. Here, I make four proposals. Firstly, living systems traverse sequences of active states that determine their behaviour; these states result from competitive coherence, which depends on a connectivity-based competition between a Next process and a Now process whereby elements in the active state at time n+1 are chosen between the elements in the active state at time n and those elements in the developing n+1 state. Secondly, bacteria should help us link the mental to the physical world given that bacteria were here first, are highly complex, influence animal behaviour and dominate the Earth. Thirdly, the operation of competitive coherence to generate active states in bacteria, brains and other living systems is inseparable from qualia. Fourthly, these qualia become particularly important to the generation of active states in the highest levels of living systems, namely, the ecosystem and planetary levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: communities of learning; systems; apps; teacher education; TEALEAF
Online: 14 April 2017 (08:12:10 CEST)
This work provides an update to the Erasmus Plus TEALEAF project The outcomes of a week-long EU-funded / Irish Government-recognized teacher course in July 2016 is described within the context of a qualitative small scale study investigating teachers' progress in the course. The explicit aim of the teacher course was to equip a diverse group of teachers with the initial tools to work to produce simple digital apps for learning about biodiversity in their respective domains. A community of practice seeks to establish a new concept of the pre-existing generalised collective conscience through triangulated conversation between the generalised and particularised collective and individual consciences. In particular to revise the generalised collective conscience that teachers can program apps for learning about biodiversity. A number of features of teaching and learning were selected in general and their relationship to constructivism delineated. The teachers were prompted for their responses to each day of the course through a self evaluation tool and the responses were ranked according the the rubric. The data was analyzed using multidimensional scaling - ASCAL procedure - in SPSS 23TM and within the repertory grid domain according to the RepSocio tool in Rep 5TM. The plots show a gradual development throughout the week in terms of specific features becoming 'stronger' or exerting more influence towards the middle of the course and fragmenting after that. Analyses were able to show which participants correlated most closely with the hypothetical IDEAL within the community of practice. Concerning this community of practice, one determine the interrelationships within the community are determined using a social mapping exercise moving from the individual consciences to a particularised collective conscience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0698.v1
Subject: Keywords: Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Syntactic Pattern Recognition, Pattern Primitives and Heart Disease
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:44:07 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may sometimes unexpected loss of life. It affects the heart and blood vessels of body. CVD plays an important factor of life since it may cause death of human. It is necessary to detect early of this disease for securing patients life. In this chpter two exclusively different methods are proposed for detection of heart disease. The first one is Pattern Recognition Approach with grammatical concept and the second one is machine learning approach. In the syntactic pattern recognition approach initially ECG wave from different leads is decomposed into pattern primitive based on diagnostic criteria. These primitives are then used as terminals of the proposed grammar. Pattern primitives are then input to the grammar. The parsing table is created in a tabular form. It finally indicates the patient with any disease or normal. Here five diseases beside normal are considered. Different Machine Learning (ML) approaches may be used for detecting patients with CVD and assisting health care systems also. These are useful for learning and utilizing the patterns discovered from large databases. It applies to a set of information in order to recognize underlying relationship patterns from the information set. It is basically a learning stage. Unknown incoming set of patterns can be tested using these methods. Due to its self-adaptive structure Deep Learning (DL) can process information with minimal processing time. DL exemplifies the use of neural network. A predictive model follows DL techniques for analyzing and assessing patients with heart disease. A hybrid approach based on Convolutional Layer and Gated-Recurrent Unit (GRU) are used in the paper for diagnosing the heart disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: SHM; Electromechanical Impedance; Piezoelectricity; Intelligent Fault Diagnosis; Machine Learning; CNN; Deep Learning
Online: 6 August 2018 (21:51:53 CEST)
Preliminaries Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) applications have recently emerged in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems focusing mostly on vibration analysis. However, the SHM literature shows clearly that there is a lack of application regarding the combination of PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) based method and CNN. Likewise, applications using CNN along with the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) technique applied to SHM systems are rare. To encourage this combination, an innovative SHM solution through the combination of the EMI-PZT and CNN is presented here. To accomplish this, the EMI signature is split into several parts followed by computing the Euclidean distances among them to form a RGB (red, green and blue) frame. As a result, we introduce a dataset formed from the EMI-PZT signals of 720 frames, encompassing a total of 4 types of structural conditions for each PZT. In a case study, the CNN-based method was experimentally evaluated using three PZTs glued onto an aluminum plate. The results reveal an effective pattern classification; yielding a 100% hit rate which outperforms other SHM approaches. Furthermore, the method needs only a small dataset for training the CNN, providing several advantages for industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0598.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Reinforcement Learning; Simulation; Health Services Research; Operational Research
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:45:33 CEST)
Background and motivation: Combining Deep Reinforcement Learning (Deep RL) and Health Systems Simulations has significant potential, for both research into improving Deep RL performance and safety, and in operational practice. While individual toolkits exist for Deep RL and Health Systems Simulations, no framework to integrate the two has been established. Aim: Provide a framework for integrating Deep RL Networks with Health System Simulations, and to ensure this framework is compatible with Deep RL agents that have been developed and tested using OpenAI Gym. Methods: We developed our framework based on the OpenAI Gym framework, and demonstrate its use on a simple hospital bed capacity model. We built the Deep RL agents using PyTorch, and the Hospital Simulation using SimPy. Results: We demonstrate example models using a Double Deep Q Network or a Duelling Double Deep Q Network as the Deep RL agent. Conclusion: SimPy may be used to create Health System Simulations that are compatible with agents developed and tested on OpenAI Gym environments. GitHub repository of code: https://github.com/MichaelAllen1966/learninghospital
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0070.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: sentiment analysis; deep learning; recommender system; natural language processing
Online: 2 July 2021 (15:45:36 CEST)
Recommender systems have been applied in a wide range of domains such as e-commerce, media, banking, and utilities. This kind of system provides personalized suggestions based on large amounts of data in order to increase user satisfaction. These suggestions help client select products, while organizations can increase the consumption of a product. In the case of social data, sentiment analysis can help gain better understanding of a user’s attitudes, opinions and emotions, which is beneficial to integrate in recommender systems for achieving higher recommendation reliability. On the one hand, this information can be used to complement explicit ratings given to products by users. On the other hand, sentiment analysis of items that can be derived from online news services, blogs, social media or even from the recommender systems themselves is seen as capable of providing better recommendations to users. In this study, we present and evaluate a recommendation approach that integrates sentiment analysis into collaborative filtering methods. The recommender system proposal is based on an adaptive architecture, which includes improved techniques for feature extraction and deep learning models based on sentiment analysis. The results of the empirical study performed with two popular datasets show that sentiment–based deep learning models and collaborative filtering methods can significantly improve the recommender system’s performance.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable systems; storage; dispatch; optimization; energy markets; machine learning
Online: 21 January 2020 (10:20:43 CET)
Environmental and economic needs drive the increased penetration of intermittent renewable energy in electricity grids, enhancing uncertainty in market conditions prediction and network constraints. Thereafter, the importance of energy systems with flexible dispatch is reinforced, ensuring energy storage as an essential asset for these systems to be able to balance production and demand. In order to do so, such systems should participate in whole-sale energy markets, enabling competition among all players, including conventional power plants. Consequently, an effective dispatch schedule considering market and resource uncertainties is crucial. In this context, an innovative dispatch optimization strategy for schedule planning of renewable systems with storage is presented. Based on an optimization algorithm combined with a machine learning approach, the proposed method develops a financial optimum schedule with the incorporation of uncertainty information. Simulations performed with a concentrated solar power plant model following the proposed optimization strategy demonstrate promising financial improvement with a dynamic and intuitive dispatch planning method, emphasizing the importance of uncertainty treatment on the enhanced quality of renewable systems scheduling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0034.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Blockchain technology; security; Machine learning; Smart System
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:53:16 CET)
Blockchain and Machine Learning gives the best solutions together in performing various tasks in the Smart Health care system. With these two new emerging technologies, that have materialized in the last decade. In this paper, we proposed secure, transparent and intelligent methods in the Internate of medical things industry using Machine learning models and blockchain technology to enhance security level and train our models to improve diagnostic, prevention, treatment of the patient, patient rights, patient autonomy and equality in the health care system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: direct nanoimprint; process design; deep learning
Online: 15 June 2022 (08:49:17 CEST)
A hybrid smart process and material design system for nanoimprinting is proposed, which combines with a learning system based on experimental and numerical simulation results. Instead of carrying out extensive learning experiments for various condition, the simulation learning results are partially complimented where the results can be theoretically predicted by numerical simulation. In other word, the lacking data in experimental learning are complimented by simulation-based learning results. Therefore, the prediction of nanoimprint results under various conditions without experimental learning could be realized even for unknown materials. In this study, material and process design for a low-temperature nanoimprint process using glycerol-containing polyvinyl alcohol are demonstrated. Experimental results under limited conditions are learned to investigate optimum Glycerol concentrations and process temperatures. On the other hand, simulation-based learning is used to predict the dependence on press pressure and shape parameters. The prediction results for unknown Glycerol concentrations agreed well with the follow-up experiments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0166.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; big data; hydrology; climate change; global warming; hydrological model; earth systems
Online: 15 August 2019 (05:50:48 CEST)
Artificial intelligence methods and application have recently shown great contribution in modeling and prediction of the hydrological processes, climate change, and earth systems. Among them, deep learning and machine learning methods mainly have reported being essential for achieving higher accuracy, robustness, efficiency, computation cost, and overall model performance. This paper presents the state of the art of machine learning and deep learning methods and applications in this realm and the current state, and future trends are discussed. The survey of the advances in machine learning and deep learning are presented through a novel classification of methods. The paper concludes that deep learning is still in the first stages of development, and the research is still progressing. On the other hand, machine learning methods are already established in the fields, and novel methods with higher performance are emerging through ensemble techniques and hybridization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0364.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Poultry behaviour; target tracking; deep learning; precision livestock farming; poultry production systems.
Online: 16 May 2021 (22:43:58 CEST)
The world's growing population is highly dependent on animal agriculture. Animal products provide nutrient-packed meals that help to sustain individuals of all ages in communities across the globe. As the human demand for animal proteins grows, the agricultural industry must continue to advance its efficiency and quality of production. One of the most commonly farmed livestock is poultry and their significance is felt on a global scale. Current poultry farming practices result in the premature death and rejection of billions of chickens on an annual basis before they are processed for meat. This loss of life is concerning regarding animal welfare, agricultural efficiency, and economic impacts. The best way to prevent these losses is through the individualistic and/or group level assessment of animal on a continuous basis. On large-scale farms, such attention to detail was generally considered to be inaccurate and inefficient, but with the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) assisted technology individualized and per-herd assessments of livestock are possible and accurate. Various studies have shown cameras linked with specialized systems of AI can properly analyze flocks for health concerns, thus improving the survival rate and product quality of farmed poultry. Building on the recent advancements, this review explores the aspects of AI in the detection, counting and tracking of the poultry in commercial and research-based applications.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID 19; Health Education; RCSI; teaching and learning; Pandemic
Online: 30 October 2020 (10:13:08 CET)
Background: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain) was closed due to COVID 19. The aim of this paper is to present our experience, in managing teaching and learning, during this pandemic. Methods: Following, ethical approval, several meetings were held with the senior faculty and student representatives to select alternative virtual approaches for teaching, learning and assessment with evidence-based instructional design. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. All procedures were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. In alignment with global scenario, we decided upon early graduation for our students, and expedited the clinical examinations, with special permission from health and education ministries. Two major clinical examinations were redesigned to form a single hybrid clinical examination with two parts. Following all COVID 19 preventive measures, students were taken in groups of seven and simulated patients were substituted for real patients. No more than 40 students were present at any point of time, with no more than 10 examined in one block. 149 out of 152 RCSI students attended the clinical examinations and 524 students from the three RCSI campuses attended the written online examination. A structured survey was conducted to elicit students’ perceptions and participation was entirely voluntary. Results: 82% of students were happier to be joining the workforce early and, 22% expressed concerns. A comparison of student performance in these examinations against the equivalent components from semester one yielded no significant deviation in student performance, illustrating that the quality was consistent. Conclusion: We recommend that the government accredit online or distance learning programmes and explore appropriate methodologies for evaluation of online learning and assessment. Incorporating practical/clinical training, will continue to be a great challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0053.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Brain-Computer Interface Systems; Convolutional Neural Network; Deep Learning
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:23:36 CEST)
Objective A trained T1 class Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model will be used to examine its ability to successfully identify motor imagery when fed pre-processed electroencephalography (EEG) data. In theory, and if the model has been trained accurately, it should be able to identify a class and label it accordingly. The CNN model will then be restored and used to try and identify the same class of motor imagery data using much smaller sampled data in an attempt to simulate live data. Approach PyCharm, a Python platform, will be used to house and process the CNN. The raw data used for the training of the CNN will be sourced from the PhysioBank website. The EEG signal data will then be pre-processed using Brainstorm software that is a toolbox used in conjunction with MATLAB. The sample data used to validate and test the trained CNN, will be also be extracted from Brainstorm but in a much smaller size compared to the training data which is comprised of thousands of images. The sample size would be comparable to a person wearing a Brain Computer Interface (BCI), offering approximately 20 seconds of motor imagery signal data. Results The raw EEG data was successfully extracted and pre-processed. The deep learning model was trained using the extracted image data along with their corresponding labels. After training, it was able to accurately identify the T1 class label at 100 percent. The python coding was then modified to restore the trained model and feed it test sample data in which it was found to recognise 6 out of 10 lines of T1 signal image data. The result suggested that the initial training of the model required a different, more varying approach, so that it would be able to detect varying sample signal image data. The outcome of which could mean that the model could be used in applications for multiple patients wearing the same BCI hardware to control a device or interface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0029.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Mobility; infrastructure; flexible pavement; pavement condition index (PCI); international roughness index (IRI); artificial intelligence (AI); predictive models; ensemble learning; structural health monitoring; machine learning
Online: 3 April 2020 (09:35:44 CEST)
The construction of different roads, such as freeways, highways, major roads or minor roads must be accompanied by constant monitoring and evaluation of service delivery. Pavements are generally assessed by engineers in terms of the smoothness, surface condition, structural condition and surface safety. Pavement assessment is often conducted using the qualitative indices such as international roughness index (IRI), pavement condition index (PCI), structural condition index (SCI) and skid resistance value (SRV), which are used for smoothness assessment, surface condition assessment, structural condition assessment, and surface safety assessment, respectively. In this paper, Tehran-Qom Freeway in Iran has been selected as the case study and its smoothness and pavement surface conditions are assessed. At 2-km intervals, a 100-meter sample unit is selected in the slow-speed lane (totally, 118 sample units). In these sample units, the PCI is calculated after a visual inspection of the pavement and the recording of distresses. Then, in each sample unit, the average IRI is computed. The purpose of this study is to provide a method for estimating PCI based on IRI. The proposed theory was developed by Random Forest (RF), and Random Forest optimized by Genetic Algorithm (RF-GA) methods and these methods were validated using correlation coefficient (CC), scattered index (SI), and Willmott’s index of agreement (WI) criteria. The proposed method reduces costs, saves time and eliminates the safety risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0018.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: fiber optics communications; coherent communications; machine learning; clustering; nonlinearity cancellation
Online: 2 September 2019 (07:32:23 CEST)
We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, blind nonlinearity compensation using the Density-Based Spatial-Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm for a 40-Gb/s 16-quadrature amplitude modulated being transmitted at 50 km of standard single-mode fiber. At high launched optical powers, DBSCAN offers up to 0.83- and 8.84-dB enhancement in Q-factor when compared to conventional K-means clustering and linear equalization, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Digital Twins; Cyber-Physical Systems; Control; Communication; Computation; 5G; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Computational Intelligence
Online: 29 August 2022 (09:51:49 CEST)
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are integrations of computation and physical processes. Physical processes are monitored and controlled by embedded computers and networks, which frequently have feedback loops where physical processes affect computations and vice versa. To ease the analysis of a system, the costly physical plants can be replaced by high-fidelity virtual models that provide a framework for Digital-Twins (DT). This paper aims to briefly review the state-of-the-art and recent developments in DT and CPS. Three main components in CPS, including communication, control, and computation, are reviewed. Besides, the main tools and methodologies required for implementing practical DT are discussed by following the main applications of DT in the fourth industrial revolution through aspects of smart manufacturing, sixth wireless generation (6G), health, production, energy, and so on. Finally, the main limitations and ideas for future remarks are talked about followed by a short guideline for real-world application of DT towards CPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0664.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep learning; feedback control; conventional controller; neural network; backpropagation.
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:16:18 CEST)
Training data for a deep learning (DL) neural network (NN) controller are obtained from the input and output signals of a conventional digital controller that is designed to provide the suitable control signal to a speciﬁed plant within a feedback digital control system. It is found that if the DL controller is suﬃciently deep (four hidden layers), it can outperform the conventional controller in terms of settling time of the system output transient response to a unit-step reference signal. That is, the DL controller introduces a damping eﬀect. Moreover, it does not need to be retrained to operate with a reference signal of diﬀerent magnitude, or under system parameter change. Such properties make the DL control more attractive for applications that may undergo parameter variation, like sensor networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0177.v1
Subject: Keywords: Overweight, obesity, deep learning, Convolutional layer, GRU, COVID-19, lifestyle.
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:22:56 CEST)
Obesity and overweight is a foremost concern around the globe for each group of age. This can be accelerated by the current imposed lockdown. However, excessive weight gain may result in other chronic diseases. This study has been considering the age group of 25 to 55 years as the sample populations and monitoring them from July, 2020 to November, 2020. The lifestyle of this population, food habit, mental health conditions are explored using deep learning based framework. All these parameters need to be monitored as these have close relation with currently imposed constraints due to COVID-19. A predictive model is constructed using deep learning techniques to predict the risk of gaining weight. The predictive model hybridizes the convolutional layer and gated recurrent neural networks as a unified entity for achieving the objective of early weight gain prediction. The result obtained by this model exhibits an encouraging predictive efficiency of 93.7%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: digitalisation; digital learning; mental health; parenting; China
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:28 CET)
While a raft of existing Chinese literature examines the associations between the outbreak of the pandemic and students’ mental health, rarely do Chinese studies assess the nuanced relationships between digital learning, parenting, and students’ mental health since the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Such a rarely discussed topic has substantial scholarly value as mismanagement of digital learning and parenting, such as the exposure to cyberbullying and negative parenting during the public health crisis, could add substantial, unforeseeable psychological burdens for Chinese students. In this article, the author applied a systematic review to find all relevant Chinese literature that contains the words “digital learning”, “children/adolescents”, “mental health”, and “parenting” published since January 2020. As such a complex topic has rarely been addressed in Chinese contexts, the author was only able to find four related scholarly articles. The author summarises the arguments and empirical findings to explore the nuanced relationships between a) digitalisation, isolation, parenting, and children’s mental health, b) parenting, teacher-student relationships, and students’ mental health, and c) maternal and paternal parenting styles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Primary distribution systems; Transfer learning; YoloV4; Porcelain Insulator detection; UAVs; BRISQUE; LIME; LapSRN; YoloV5
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:54:42 CET)
The primary distribution systems are comprised of power lines delivering power to utility feeders from substations. The inspection and maintenance of damaged and broken power system insulators are of paramount importance for continuous power supply and public safety. hence, to identify any faults and defects in advance a periodic inspection of power line insulators and other components be ensured beforehand. To automate the process and reduce operational cost and risk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being extensively utilized. As they present a safer and efficient way to examine the power system insulators and their components without closing the power distribution system ensuring continuous supply to the end-users. To achieve these objectives in this work a novel dataset is designed by capturing real images using UAVs and manually generated images collected to overcome the data insufficiency problem. Deep Laplacian pyramids based super-resolution network is implemented to reconstruct high-resolution training images. To improve the visibility of low light images a low light image enhancement technique is used for the robust exposure correction of the training images. Using computer vision-based object detection techniques to identify faults and classify them according to classes they belong. A different fine-tuning strategy is implemented for fine-tuning the object detection model to increase detection accuracy for the specific faulty insulators. To improve the faults detection several flight path strategies are proposed for efficient inspection. Such strategies overcome the shuttering effect of insulators along with providing a less complex, time, and energy-efficient approach for capturing video stream of the power system components. Performance of different object detection models is presented for selecting the suitable one for fine-tuning on the specific faulty insulator dataset. Our proposed approach gives a less complex and more efficient flight strategy along with better results. For defect detection, our proposed method achieved an F1-score of 0.81 and 0.77 on two different datasets. Our approach is based on real aerial inspection of in-service porcelain insulators by extensive evaluation of several video sequences showing robust faults recognition and diagnostic capabilities. Our approach is demonstrated on data acquired by a drone in Swat Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: context sensitivity; cyber physical systems; flexible manufacturing system; process optimization; self-learning systems; SOA
Online: 28 December 2016 (11:13:22 CET)
Highly flexible manufacturing systems require continuous run-time (self-) optimization of processes with respect to various parameters, e.g. efficiency, availability, energy consumption etc. A promising approach for achieving (self-) optimization in manufacturing systems is the usage of the context sensitivity approach. Thereby the Cyber-Physical Systems play an important role as sources of information to achieve context sensitivity. In this paper it is demonstrated how context sensitivity can be used to realize a holistic solution for (self-) optimization of discrete flexible manufacturing systems, by making use of Cyber-Physical System integrated in manufacturing systems/processes. A generic approach for context sensitivity, based on self-learning algorithms, is proposed aiming at a various manufacturing systems. The new solution is propos encompassing run-time context extractor and optimizer. Based on the self-learning module both context extraction and optimizer are continuously learning and improving their performance. The solution is following Service Oriented Architecture principles. The generic solution is developed and then applied to two very different manufacturing processes. This paper proposes a holistic solution to achieve context sensitivity for Flexible Manufacturing Systems, whereby the knowledge created by applying the context sensitivity approach can be used for (self-) optimization of manufacturing processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0318.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Interpretable Artificial Intelligence; Cardiovascular disease prediction; Machine Learning in Healthcare
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:49:13 CET)
Learning systems have been very focused on creating models that are capable of obtaining the best results in error metrics. Recently, the focus has shifted to improvement in order to interpret and explain their results. The need for interpretation is greater when these models are used to support decision making. In some areas this becomes an indispensable requirement, such as in medicine. This paper focuses on the prediction of cardiovascular disease by analyzing the well-known Statlog (Heart) Data Set from the UCI’s Automated Learning Repository. This study will analyze the cost of making predictions easier to interpret by reducing the number of features that explain the classification of health status versus the cost in accuracy. It will be analyzed on a large set of classification techniques and performance metrics. Demonstrating that it is possible to make explainable and reliable models that have a good commitment to predictive performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: synchronization; chaos; chaotic system; Iterative Learning Control (ILC); Lyapunov function; error convergent
Online: 1 November 2017 (05:45:02 CET)
This research not only dedicated a less restrictive method of iteration-varying function for a learning control law to design a controller but also synchronize two nonlinear systems with free time-delay. In addition, the mathematical theory of system synchronization has proved rigorously and the theory verified through an example to demonstrate the behavior of each parameter in the theory. The design of a controller using the iterative learning control law is significant for robotic tracking. The controller in this research generates a feed-forward control input using the error dynamics among the drive-response systems. The error dynamics satisfies the Lyapunov function and the combination of output errors, which respectively represented relative estimated differences of the drive-response systems. The iterative learning control rule serves the function of a filter adding previous control error after the end of each iteration. The numerical example of a synchronous system is given a Lorenz system for driving and another with the iterative learning control law for response under different initial condition. The results verify and demonstrate the proposed mathematical theory. The simulation exhibits consistency in the behavior of each parameter to match mathematical theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0510.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Flood Early Warning; forecasting; hydrological extremes; Machine Learning; Andes
Online: 26 November 2021 (13:30:09 CET)
Flood Early Warning Systems (FEWSs) using Machine Learning (ML) has gained worldwide popularity. However, determining the most efficient ML technique is still a bottleneck. We assessed FEWSs with three river states, No-alert, Pre-alert, and Alert for flooding, for lead times between 1 to 12 hours using the most common ML techniques, such as Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Logistic Regression (LR), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Naive Bayes (NB), and Random Forest (RF). The Tomebamba catchment in the tropical Andes of Ecuador was selected as case study. For all lead times, MLP models achieve the highest performance followed by LR, with f1-macro (log-loss) scores of 0.82 (0.09) and 0.46 (0.20) for the 1- and 12-hour cases, respectively. The ranking was highly variable for the remaining ML techniques. According to the g-mean, LR models correctly forecast and show more stability at all states, while the MLP models perform better in the Pre-alert and Alert states. Future efforts are recommended to enhance the input data representation and develop communication applications to boost the awareness of the society for floods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0386.v1
Subject: Keywords: remaining useful life; c-mapss; extreme learning machine; prognostic and health management; neural networks
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:24:08 CEST)
This work can be considered as a first step of designing a future competitive data-driven approach for remaining useful life prediction of aircraft engines. The proposed approach is an ensemble of serially connected extreme learning machines. The results of prediction of the first networks are scaled and fed to the next networks as an additive features to the original inputs. This feature mapping allows increasing the correlation of training inputs with their targets by holding new prior knowledge about the probable behavior of the target function. The proposed approach is evaluated under remaining useful estimation using a set of “time-varying” data retrieved from the public dataset C-MAPSS (Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation) provided by NASA. The prediction performances are compared to basic extreme learning machine and proved the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0253.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Cold start, Recommender systems, Active learning, Collaborative filtering
Online: 29 March 2018 (15:08:38 CEST)
This paper focuses on the new users cold-start issue in the context of recommender systems. New users who do not receive pertinent recommendations may abandon the system. In order to cope with this issue, we use active learning techniques. These methods engage the new users to interact with the system by presenting them with a questionnaire that aim to understand their preferences to the related items. Example of questions may include "do you like this book?" and the users answer,"yes", "no", "I have not read it (unknown)", will reflect the degree of interest for the item by the users. As a consequence, the system can learn the users' preferences from these answers. The goal of active learning is to correctly choose the questions (items) for users. Thus it is necessary to personalize the questionnaires to retrieve the maximum information by avoiding "unknown" answers. In this paper, we propose an active learning technique that exploits past users' interests and past users' predictions in order to identify the best questions to ask.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cyber-Physical Systems; Automotive; Cyber-Physical Attack; Integrity; Sensor Attack Detection; Speed Estimation; Deep learning
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:16:50 CET)
The violation of data integrity in automotive Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) may lead to dangerous situations for drivers and pedestrians in terms of safety. In particular, cyber-attacks on the sensor could easily degrade data accuracy and consistency over any other attack, we investigate attack detection and identification based on a deep learning technology on wheel speed sensors of automotive CPS. For faster recovery of a physical system with detection of the cyber-attacks, estimation of a specific value is conducted to substitute false data. To the best of our knowledge, there has not been a case of joining sensor attack detection and vehicle speed estimation in existing literatures. In this work, we design a novel method to combine attack detection and identification, vehicle speed estimation of wheel speed sensors to improve the safety of CPS even under the attacks. First, we define states of the sensors based on the cases of attacks that can occur in the sensors. Second, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is applied to detect and identify wheel speed sensor attacks. Third, in order to estimate the vehicle speeds accurately, we employ Weighted Average (WA), as one of the fusion algorithms, in order to assign a different weight to each sensor. Since environment uncertainty while driving has an impact on different characteristics of vehicles and cause performance degradation, the recovery mechanism needs the ability adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, we estimate the vehicle speeds after assigning a different weight to each sensor depending on driving situations classified by analyzing driving data. Experiments including training, validation, and test are carried out with actual measurements obtained while driving on the real road. In case of the fault detection and identification, classification accuracy is evaluated. Mean Squared Error (MSE) is calculated to verify that the speed is estimated accurately. The classification accuracy about test additive attack data is 99.4978%. MSE of our proposed speed estimation algorithm is 1.7786. It is about 0.2 lower than MSEs of other algorithms. We demonstrate that our system maintains data integrity well and is safe relatively in comparison with systems which apply other algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0226.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Supply Chain Management (SCM); Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM); risk modelling; time-series analysis; machine learning
Online: 20 January 2020 (10:21:00 CET)
Risk modelling along with multi-objective optimization problems have been at theepicenter of attention for supply chain managers. In this paper, we introduce a datasetfor risk modelling in sophisticated supply chain networks based on formal mathematical models. We have discussed the methodology and simulation tools used to synthesize the dataset. Additionally, the underlying mathematical models are discussed in granular details along with providing directions to conducting statistical analyses or neural machine learning models. The simulation is performed using MATLAB ™Simulink and the models are illustrated as well.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Neural Networks; Deep Learning; Diabetic Retinopathy; Diabetes Mellitus
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:26:52 CEST)
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and one of the leading causes of blindness globally. Due to the progressive nature of the disease, earlier detection and timely treatment can lead to substantial reductions in the incidence of irreversible vision-loss. Artificial intelligence (AI) screening systems have offered clinically acceptable and quicker results in detecting diabetic retinopathy from retinal fundus and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant investigations was performed to document the performance of AI screening systems that were applied to fundus and OCT images of patients from diverse geographic locations including North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. A systematic literature search on Medline, Global Health, and PubMed was performed and studies published between October 2015 and January 2020 were included. The search strategy was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines, and AI-based investigations were mandatory for studies inclusion. The abstracts, titles, and full-texts of potentially eligible studies were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies were included in this systematic review; 18 met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of the evaluated AI screening systems in detecting diabetic retinopathy was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92-0.94) and the specificity was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86-0.89). The included studies detailed training and external validation datasets, criteria for diabetic retinopathy case ascertainment, imaging modalities, DR-grading scales, and compared AI results to those of human graders (e.g., ophthalmologists, retinal specialists, trained nurses, and other healthcare providers) as a reference standard. The findings of this study showed that the majority AI screening systems demonstrated clinically acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity for detecting referable diabetic retinopathy from retinal fundus and OCT photographs. Further improvement depends on the continual development of novel algorithms with large and gradable sets of images for training and validation. If cost-effectiveness ratios can be optimized, AI can become a financially sustainable and clinically effective intervention that can be incorporated into the healthcare systems of low-to-middle income countries (LMICs) and geographically remote locations. Combining screening technologies with treatment interventions such as anti-VEGF therapy, acellular capillary laser treatment, and vitreoretinal surgery can lead to substantial reductions in the incidence of irreversible vision-loss due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Real-time Control; Reinforcement Learning; Smart Stormwater Systems; Urban Flooding
Online: 20 October 2020 (15:03:45 CEST)
Climate change and development have increased urban flooding, requiring modernization of stormwater infrastructure. Retrofitting standard passive systems with controllable valves/pumps is promising, but requires real-time control (RTC). One method of automating RTC is reinforcement learning (RL), a general technique for sequential optimization and control in uncertain environments. The notion is that an RL algorithm can use inputs of real-time flood data and rainfall forecasts to learn a policy for controlling the stormwater infrastructure to minimize measures of flooding. In real-world conditions, rainfall forecasts and other state information, are subject to noise and uncertainty. To account for these characteristics of the problem data, we implemented Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG), an RL algorithm that is distinguished by its capability to handle noise in the input data. DDPG implementations were trained and tested against a passive flood control policy. Three primary cases were studied: (i) perfect data, (ii) imperfect rainfall forecasts, and (iii) imperfect water level and forecast data. Rainfall episodes (100) that caused flooding in the passive system were selected from 10 years of observations in Norfolk, Virginia, USA; 85 randomly selected episodes were used for training and the remaining 15 unseen episodes served as test cases. Compared to the passive system, all RL implementations reduced flooding volume by 70.5% on average, and performed within a range of 5%. This suggests that DDPG is robust to noisy input data, which is essential knowledge to advance the real-world applicability of RL for stormwater RTC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0001.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Artificial intelligence; machine learning; data science; advanced analytics; intelligent computing; automation; smart systems; industry 4.0 applications
Online: 1 February 2022 (10:26:21 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a leading technology of the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR), with the capability of incorporating human behavior and intelligence into machines or systems. Thus AI-based modeling is the key to building automated, intelligent, and smart systems according to today's needs. To solve real-world issues various types of AI such as analytical, functional, interactive, textual, and visual AI can be applied to enhance the intelligence and capabilities of an application. However, developing an effective AI model is a challenging task due to the dynamic nature and variation in real-world problems and data. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on "AI-based Modeling" with the principles and capabilities of potential AI techniques that can play an important role in developing intelligent and smart systems in various real-world application areas including business, finance, healthcare, agriculture, smart cities, cybersecurity and many more. We also emphasize and highlight the research issues within the scope of our study. Overall, the goal of this paper is to provide a broad overview of AI-based modeling that can be used as a reference guide by academics and industry people as well as decision-makers in various real-world scenarios and application domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0194.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: ANN; continual learning; machine intelligence; prediction; vandalism; security; SDR
Online: 9 August 2018 (15:02:06 CEST)
Oil and gas pipeline vandalism is a recurrent problem in oil rich zones of Nigeria and its West African neighbors and remains a challenge for multinationals to set ahead control measures to avert possible damages to operations both in infrastructure and business profit margins. In this paper, an integrative systems model comprising of a machine intelligence technique called Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) and a sequence learning neural network called the Online-Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) is proposed for monitoring and prediction of pipeline pressure data. The system models the continual prediction of pipeline oil/gas pressure signals useful for secure monitoring and control to avert acts of vandalism in oil and gas installations. The HTM uses a spatial pooler operated in temporal aggregated fashion and is defined as HTM-SP. The OS-ELM technique uses an explicit hierarchical training scheme so that the best cost estimates may be found after a stipulated number of trial runs. We study the performance of three OS-ELM neural activations: the sigmoid (sig), sinusoidal (sin) and radial basis function (rbf) activations. The results indicate improvement factors of 1.297, 1.297 and 1.300 of the HTM-SP over the OS-ELM sigmoid, sinusoidal and radial basis activations respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0004.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Mental Models; Dynamic Decision Making; Systems Thinking; Learning
Online: 24 August 2022 (03:49:41 CEST)
This article is a theoretical contribution to mental model research, which currently has different threads. Whereas some researchers focus on the perceived causal structure, others also include decision policies and decisions. We focus on the link between recognized causal structure (“mental models of dynamic systems”) and policies, proposing Johnson-Laird’s theory of mental models as the link. The resulting framework hypothesizes two types of systematic mental model errors: (1) misrepresentation of the system’s structure and (2) failure to deploy relevant mental models of possibilities. Examination of three experiments through this lens reveals errors of both types. Therefore, we propose that the cognitive theory of mental models opens a path to better understand how people construct their decision policies and develop interventions to reduce such mental model errors. The article closes by raising several questions for empirical studies of the reasoning process leading from mental models of dynamic systems to decision policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0591.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: health indicator; performance degradation assessment; deep learning; vibration monitoring; bearing; remaining useful life; digital twin
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:59:20 CET)
Estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of components is a crucial task to enhance the reliability, safety, productivity, and to reduce maintenance cost. In general, predicting the RUL of a component includes constructing a health indicator ( ) to infer the current condition of the component, and modelling the degradation process, to estimate the future behavior. Although many signal processing and data-driven based methods were proposed to construct the , most of the existing methods are based on manual feature extraction techniques, and need the prior knowledge of experts, or rely on a large amount of failure data. Therefore, in this study, a new data-driven method based on the convolutional autoencoder (CAE) is presented to construct the . For this purpose, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) technique is used to convert the raw acquired vibrational signals into a two-dimensional image; then, the CAE model is trained by the healthy operation dataset. Finally, the Mahalanobis Distance (MD) between the healthy and failure stages is measured as the . The proposed method is tested on a benchmark bearing dataset and compared with several other traditional construction models. Experimental results indicate that the constructed exhibits a monotonically increasing degradation trend and has a good performance to detect incipient faults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; health care; learning health systems; health serives; public health
Online: 30 August 2022 (08:23:26 CEST)
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed health systems globally, and affected delivery of other health services. We conducted a study in Uganda to describe interventions for continuity of access to other health services. Methods: We reviewed documents and interviewed 21 key informants. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes using the World Health Organization health system building blocks as a guiding framework. Results: Governance strategies included establishment of coordination committees and development and dissemination of guidelines. Infrastructure and commodities strategies included review of drug supply plans and allowing emergency orders. Workforce strategies included provision of infection prevention and control equipment, recruitment and provision of incentives. Service delivery modifications included designation of facilities for COVID-19 management, patient self-management, dispensing drugs for longer periods and leveraging community patient networks to distribute medicines. However, multi-month drug dispensing led to drug stock-outs while community drug distribution was associated with stigma concerns. Conclusions: Health service maintenance during emergencies requires coordination to harness existing health system investments. The service continuity committee coordinated efforts to maintain services and should remain a critical element of emergency response. Self-management and leveraging patient networks should address stigma to support service continuity in similar settings and strengthen service delivery beyond the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0002.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Digital; end-user; framework; health; implementation; learning; model; professional; research; social; theory
Online: 4 May 2022 (06:48:50 CEST)
Digital health research is an emerging discipline that requires easy-to-understand theoretical frameworks and implementation models for digital health providers in health and social care settings. The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened demand for digital health discipline-specific instruction on ‘how to’ manage evidence-based digital health transformation. Access to the use of these models guarantees that digital health providers can investigate phenomena using safe and suitable approaches and methods to conduct research and identify answers to challenges and problems that arise in health and social care settings. The COMPASS theory is designed to aid transformation of health and social care environments. A navigational rose of primary quadrants is divided by four main compass points, with person-centred care being central to the philosophy. Two axes produce Cartesian planes that intersect to form a box plot, which can be used to discover human and physical resource weightings to augment digital health research design and implementation. A third continuum highlights stakeholders' capabilities, critical for any multidisciplinary study. The COMPASS mnemonic guides end-users through the process of design, development, implementation, evaluation, and communication of digital health transformations. The theory's foundations are presented and explained in context of the 'new normal' of health and social care delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0157.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: information theory; cohomology; algebraic topology; topological data analysis; genetic expression; epigenetics; machine learning; statistical physic; multivariate mutual-information; complex systems; biodiversity
Online: 12 April 2018 (05:35:26 CEST)
This paper establishes methods that quantify the structure of statistical interactions within a given data set using the characterization of information theory in cohomology by finite methods, and provides their expression in terms of statistical physic and machine learning. Following [1–3], we show directly that k multivariate mutual-informations (Ik) are k-coboundaries. The k-cocycles are given by Ik = 0, which generalize statistical independence to arbitrary dimension k. The topological approach allows to investigate Shannon’s information in the multivariate case without the assumptions of independent identically distributed variables. We develop the computationally tractable subcase of simplicial information cohomology represented by entropy Hk and information Ik landscapes. The I1 component defines a self-internal energy functional Uk, and (−1)k Ik,k≥2 components define the contribution to a free energy functional Gk of the k-body interactions. The set of information paths in simplicial structures is in bijection with the symmetric group and random processes, provides a topological expression of the 2nd law and points toward a discrete Noether theorem (1st law). The local minima of free-energy, related to conditional information negativity and the non-Shannonian cone of Yeung , characterize a minimum free energy complex. This complex formalizes the minimum free-energy principle in topology, provides a definition of a complex system, and characterizes a multiplicity of local minima that quantifies the diversity observed in biology. Finite data size effects and estimation bias severely constrain the effective computation of the information topology on data, and we provide simple statistical tests for the undersampling bias and for the k-dependences following . We give an example of application of these methods to genetic expression and cell-type classification. The maximal positive Ik identifies the variables that co-vary the most in the population, whereas the minimal negative Ik identifies clusters and the variables that differentiate-segregate the most. The methods unravel biologically relevant I10 with a sample size of 41. It establishes generic methods to quantify the epigenetic information storage and a unified epigenetic unsupervised learning formalism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: deep neural network; deep learning controller; nonlinear plant; adaptive inverse control; robust control; autoencoder; computational complexity; sensor control
Online: 20 July 2022 (13:44:39 CEST)
An adaptive deep neural network is used in an inverse system identification setting to approximate the inverse of a nonlinear plant with the aim of constituting the plant controller by copying to the latter the weights and architecture of the converging deep neural network. This deep learning (DL) approach to the adaptive inverse control (AIC) problem is shown to outperform adaptive filtering techniques and algorithms normally used in adaptive control, especially when the plant is nonlinear. The deeper the controller the better the inverse function approximation, provided that the nonlinear plant have an inverse and that this inverse can be approximated. Simulation results prove the feasibility of this DL-based adaptive inverse control scheme. The DL-based AIC system is robust to parameter change of the nonlinear plant in that, under such change, the plant output reassumes the value of the reference signal considerably faster than with the adaptive filter counterpart of the deep neural network. Settling times and rise times of the step response are shown to improve in the DL-based AIC system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0687.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: automatic speech recognition (ASR); automatic assessment tools; foreign language pronunciation; pronunciation training; computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT); automatic pronunciation assessment; learning environments; minimal pairs
Online: 29 June 2021 (07:31:41 CEST)
General–purpose automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems have improved their quality and are being used for pronunciation assessment. However, the assessment of isolated short utterances, as words in minimal pairs for segmental approaches, remains an important challenge, even more for non-native speakers. In this work, we compare the performance of our own tailored ASR system (kASR) with the one of Google ASR (gASR) for the assessment of Spanish minimal pair words produced by 33 native Japanese speakers in a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) scenario. Participants of a pre/post-test training experiment spanning four weeks were split into three groups: experimental, in-classroom, and placebo. Experimental group used the CAPT tool described in the paper, which we specially designed for autonomous pronunciation training. Statistically significant improvement for experimental and in-classroom groups is revealed, and moderate correlation values between gASR and kASR results were obtained, beside strong correlations between the post-test scores of both ASR systems with the CAPT application scores found at the final stages of application use. These results suggest that both ASR alternatives are valid for assessing minimal pairs in CAPT tools, in the current configuration. Discussion on possible ways to improve our system and possibilities for future research are included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0323.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS); HNADAM-SDG(Hybrid Nestrov-Accelerated Adaptive Moment Estimation –Stochastic Gradient Descent); Network-based Intrusion Detection System (NIDS); Host-based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS); Signature-based Intrusion Detection System (SIDS); Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System (AIDS); Algorithms; Machine Learning.
Online: 21 December 2021 (11:45:39 CET)
A single Information security is of pivotal concern for consistently streaming information over the widespread internetwork. The bottleneck flow of incoming and outgoing data traffic introduces the issue of malicious activities taken place by intruders, hackers and attackers in the form of authenticity desecration, gridlocking data traffic, vandalizing data and crashing the established network. The issue of emerging suspicious activities is managed by the domain of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). The IDS consistently monitors the network for identifica-tion of suspicious activities and generates alarm and indication in presence of malicious threats and worms. The performance of IDS is improved by using different signature based machine learning algorithms. In this paper, the performance of IDS model is determined using hybridization of nestrov-accelerated adaptive moment estimation –stochastic gradient descent (HNADAM-SDG) algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is compared with other classi-fication algorithms as logistic regression, ridge classifier and ensemble algorithm by adapting feature selection and optimization techniques
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0218.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; machine learning; applied deep learning
Online: 10 October 2018 (11:37:13 CEST)
Deep learning is an emerging area of machine learning (ML) research. It comprises multiple hidden layers of artificial neural networks. The deep learn- ing methodology applies nonlinear transformations and model abstractions of high level in large databases. The recent advancements in deep learning architec- tures within numerous fields have already provided significant contributions in artificial intelligence. This article presents a state of the art survey on the contri- butions and the novel applications of deep learning. The following review chron- ologically presents how and in what major applications deep learning algorithms have been utilized. Furthermore, the superior and beneficial of the deep learning methodology and its hierarchy in layers and nonlinear operations are presented and compared with the more conventional algorithms in the common applica- tions. The state of the art survey further provides a general overview on the novel concept and the ever-increasing advantages and popularity of deep learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0015.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep learning; Machine learning
Online: 1 February 2022 (13:34:28 CET)
We study the brain segmentation by dividing the brain into multiple tissues. Given possible brain segmentation by deep, machine learning can be efficiently exploited to expedite the segmentation process in the clinical practice. To accomplish segmentation process, a MRI and tissues transfer using generative adversarial networks is proposed. Given the better result, we propose the transfer model using GAN. For the case of the brain tissues, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are segmented. Empirical results show that this proposed model significantly improved segmentation results compared to the stat-of-the-art results. Furthermore, a dice coefficient (DC) metric is used to evaluate the model performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0309.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: economics; deep reinforcement learning; deep learning; machine learning
Online: 20 March 2020 (07:13:42 CET)
The popularity of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) methods in economics have been exponentially increased. DRL through a wide range of capabilities from reinforcement learning (RL) and deep learning (DL) for handling sophisticated dynamic business environments offers vast opportunities. DRL is characterized by scalability with the potential to be applied to high-dimensional problems in conjunction with noisy and nonlinear patterns of economic data. In this work, we first consider a brief review of DL, RL, and deep RL methods in diverse applications in economics providing an in-depth insight into the state of the art. Furthermore, the architecture of DRL applied to economic applications is investigated in order to highlight the complexity, robustness, accuracy, performance, computational tasks, risk constraints, and profitability. The survey results indicate that DRL can provide better performance and higher accuracy as compared to the traditional algorithms while facing real economic problems at the presence of risk parameters and the ever-increasing uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Deep learning; Variational Autoencoders (VAEs); data representation learning; generative models; unsupervised learning; few shot learning; latent space; transfer learning
Online: 22 September 2021 (16:04:22 CEST)
Despite the importance of few-shot learning, the lack of labeled training data in the real world, makes it extremely challenging for existing machine learning methods as this limited data set does not represent the data variance well. In this research, we suggest employing a generative approach using variational autoencoders (VAEs), which can be used specifically to optimize few-shot learning tasks by generating new samples with more intra-class variations. The purpose of our research is to increase the size of the training data set using various methods to improve the accuracy and robustness of the few-shot face recognition. Specifically, we employ the VAE generator to increase the size of the training data set, including the basic and the novel sets while utilizing transfer learning as the backend. Based on extensive experimental research, we analyze various data augmentation methods to observe how each method affects the accuracy of face recognition. We conclude that the face generation method we proposed can effectively improve the recognition accuracy rate to 96.47% using both the base and the novel sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0457.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: graph neural networks; machine learning; transfer learning; multi-task learning
Online: 31 January 2022 (12:49:31 CET)
Graph neural networks (GNNs) build on the success of deep learning models by extending them for use in graph spaces. Transfer learning has proven extremely successful for traditional deep learning problems: resulting in faster training and improved performance. Despite the increasing interest in GNNs and their use cases, there is little research on their transferability. This research demonstrates that transfer learning is effective with GNNs, and describes how source tasks and the choice of GNN impact the ability to learn generalisable knowledge. We perform experiments using real-world and synthetic data within the contexts of node classification and graph classification. To this end, we also provide a general methodology for transfer learning experimentation and present a novel algorithm for generating synthetic graph classification tasks. We compare the performance of GCN, GraphSAGE and GIN across both the synthetic and real-world datasets. Our results demonstrate empirically that GNNs with inductive operations yield statistically significantly improved transfer. Further we show that similarity in community structure between source and target tasks support statistically significant improvements in transfer over and above the use of only the node attributes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0060.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; artificial neural network; artificial intelligence; discriminative learning; generative learning; hybrid learning; intelligent systems;
Online: 2 August 2021 (17:33:48 CEST)
Deep learning (DL), a branch of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) is nowadays considered as a core technology of today's Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR or Industry 4.0). Due to its learning capabilities from data, DL technology originated from artificial neural network (ANN), has become a hot topic in the context of computing, and is widely applied in various application areas like healthcare, visual recognition, cybersecurity, and many more. However, building an appropriate DL model is a challenging task, due to the dynamic nature and variations in real-world problems and data. Moreover, the lack of core understanding turns DL methods into black-box machines that hamper development at the standard level. This article presents a structured and comprehensive view on DL techniques including a taxonomy considering various types of real-world tasks like supervised or unsupervised. In our taxonomy, we take into account deep networks for supervised or discriminative learning, unsupervised or generative learning as well as hybrid learning and relevant others. We also summarize real-world application areas where deep learning techniques can be used. Finally, we point out ten potential aspects for future generation DL modeling with research directions. Overall, this article aims to draw a big picture on DL modeling that can be used as a reference guide for both academia and industry professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: online learning; face-to-face learning; learning effectiveness; challenges with online learning; lecture-based courses.
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:57:22 CEST)
During the COVID-19 outbreak, most university courses have been offered on online platforms. A sudden shift from face-to-face classroom learning to online formats could influence the learning effectiveness of classes. This study aims to investigate differences in the learning effectiveness of online and face-to-face lecture courses. It also explores factors that impact the effectiveness of online instruction. These factors include interactions among learners, interactions between learners and the instructor, the quality of online platforms, learners’ ability to use devices and follow instructions, and learners’ situational challenges. The study participants were 261 university students at King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok, Thailand. All participants were enrolled in at least one lecture course, such as history, humans and the environment, the environment and development, or general philosophy, during the 2019 academic year. A questionnaire was distributed to participants after they completed these courses in May 2020. Paired simple t-test analyses were used to compare the effectiveness of online and face-to-face classes, and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors that impact the learning effectiveness of online classes. The results show that online classes are less effective than face-to-face courses. The multiple regression analysis also revealed that the effectiveness of online learning was significantly impacted by learners’ ability to interact with classmates during class, their ability to interact with instructors after the class, the quality of online platforms, and disturbances or distractions in learners’ environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0583.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: quantum machine learning; quantum deep learning
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:00:45 CET)
Tremendous progress has been witnessed in artificial intelligence within the domain of neural network backed deep learning systems and its applications. As we approach the post Moore’s Law era, the limit of semiconductor fabrication technology along with a rapid increase in data generation rates have lead to an impending growing challenge of tackling newer and more modern machine learning problems. In parallel, quantum computing has exhibited rapid development in recent years. Due to the potential of a quantum speedup, quantum based learning applications have become an area of significant interest, in hopes that we can leverage quantum systems to solve classical problems. In this work, we propose a quantum deep learning architecture; we demonstrate our quantum neural network architecture on tasks ranging from binary and multi-class classification to generative modelling. Powered by a modified quantum differentiation function along with a hybrid quantum-classic design, our architecture encodes the data with a reduced number of qubits and generates a quantum circuit, loading it onto a quantum platform where the model learns the optimal states iteratively. We conduct intensive experiments on both the local computing environment and IBM-Q quantum platform. The evaluation results demonstrate that our architecture is able to outperform Tensorflow-Quantum by up to 12.51% and 11.71% for a comparable classic deep neural network on the task of classification trained with the same network settings. Furthermore, our GAN architecture runs the discriminator and the generator purely on quantum hardware and utilizes the swap test on qubits to calculate the values of loss functions. In comparing our quantum GAN, we note our architecture is able to achieve similar performance with 98.5% reduction on the parameter set when compared to classical GANs. With the same number of parameters, additionally, QuGAN outperforms other quantum based GANs in the literature for up to 125.0% in terms of similarity between generated distributions and original data sets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0203.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; ensemble models
Online: 20 August 2019 (08:41:28 CEST)
The conventional machine learning (ML) algorithms are continuously advancing and evolving at a fast-paced by introducing the novel learning algorithms. ML models are continually improving using hybridization and ensemble techniques to empower computation, functionality, robustness, and accuracy aspects of modeling. Currently, numerous hybrid and ensemble ML models have been introduced. However, they have not been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. This paper presents the state of the art of novel ML models and their performance and application domains through a novel taxonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0023.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: deep learning; graph kernels; unsupervised learning
Online: 4 February 2018 (10:52:50 CET)
This paper presents a new method : HIVEC to learn latent vector representations of graphs in a manner that captures the semantic dependencies of sub-structures. The representations can then be used in machine learning algorithms for tasks such as graph classification, clustering etcetera. The method proposed is unsupervised and uses the information of co-occurrence of sub-structures. It introduces a notion of hierarchical embeddings that allows us to avoid repetitive learning of sub-structures for every new graph. As an alternative to deep learning methods, the edit distance similarity between sub-structures is also used to learn vector representations. We compare the performance of these methods against previous work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0035.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: meta-learning; lie group; machine learning; deep learning; convolutional neural network
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:09:53 CET)
Deep learning has achieved lots of successes in many fields, but when trainable sample are extremely limited, deep learning often under or overfitting to few samples. Meta-learning was proposed to solve difficulties in few-shot learning and fast adaptive areas. Meta-learner learns to remember some common knowledge by training on large scale tasks sampled from a certain data distribution to equip generalization when facing unseen new tasks. Due to the limitation of samples, most approaches only use shallow neural network to avoid overfitting and reduce the difficulty of training process, that causes the waste of many extra information when adapting to unseen tasks. Euclidean space-based gradient descent also make meta-learner's update inaccurate. These issues cause many meta-learning model hard to extract feature from samples and update network parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel method by using multi-stage joint training approach to post the bottleneck during adapting process. To accelerate adapt procedure, we also constraint network to Stiefel manifold, thus meta-learner could perform more stable gradient descent in limited steps. Experiment on mini-ImageNet shows that our method reaches better accuracy under 5-way 1-shot and 5-way 5-shot conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0104.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: neural networks; statistical physics of learning; on-line learning; concept drift; continual learning; learning vector quantization;
Online: 5 September 2018 (16:27:10 CEST)
We introduce a modelling framework for the investigation of on-line machine learning processes in non-stationary environments. We exemplify the approach in terms of two specific model situations: In the first, we consider the learning of a classification scheme from clustered data by means of prototype-based Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). In the second, we study the training of layered neural networks with sigmoidal activations for the purpose of regression. In both cases, the target, i.e. the classification or regression scheme, is considered to change continuously while the system is trained from a stream of labeled data. We extend and apply methods borrowed from statistical physics which have been used frequently for the exact description of training dynamics in stationary environments. Extensions of the approach allow for the computation of typical learning curves in the presence of concept drift in a variety of model situations. First results are presented and discussed for stochastic drift processes in classification and regression problems. They indicate that LVQ is capable of tracking a classification scheme under drift to a non-trivial extent. Furthermore, we show that concept drift can cause the persistence of sub-optimal plateau states in gradient based training of layered neural networks for regression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0208.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Transfer Learning; Computer-aided Diagnosis
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:00:44 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) disease still remain a major global threat due to the growing number of drug-resistant species and global warming. Despite the fact that there are new molecular diagnostic approaches, however, majority of developing countries and remote clinics depends on conventional approaches such as Tuberculin test, microscopic examinations and radiographic imaging (Chest X-ray). These techniques are hindered by several challenges which can lead to miss-diagnosis especially when interpreting large number of sample cases. Thus, in order to reduce workload and prevent miss-diagnosis, scientists incorporated computer-aided technology for detection of medical images known as Computer aided Detection (CADe) or Diagnosis (CADx). The use of AI-powered techniques has shown to improve accuracy, sensitivity, specificity. In this review, we discussed about the epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. The review also provides background information on Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DL), Transfer Learning (TL) and their applications in detection of tuberculosis from both microscopic slide images and X-ray images. The review also proposed an IoT/AI powered system which allows transfer of results obtained from DL models with end users through internet networks. The concept of futuristic diagnosis, limitations of current techniques and open research issues are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0093.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: game-based learning; learning practicies; learning with mobility; oncological treatment; well-being
Online: 5 July 2021 (11:45:18 CEST)
The use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education brings up new possibilities of promoting the learning and health experiences. In this sense, education contexts of 21st century must consider these two areas of knowledge, especially their integration. This article presents learning practices developed with mobile devices and games, in order to improve learning and well-being in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment in non-formal educational setting. The methodology is based on qualitative case studies with content-based data analysis, involving informal interviews and observation methods. The study considers data from 5 patients who participated in the research between 2015 and 2019. The results demonstrate a positive influence of the practices with mobile technologies and games in terms of learning and in the well-being feeling of patients during the treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0062.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Machine Learning; Natural Language Processing; Deep Learning
Online: 3 September 2021 (12:53:42 CEST)
Documenting cultural heritage by using artificial intelligence (AI) is crucial for preserving the memory of the past and a key point for future knowledge. However, modern AI technologies make use of statistical learners that lead to self-empiricist logic, which, unlike human minds, use learned non-symbolic representations. Nevertheless, it seems that it is not the right way to progress in AI. If we want to rely on AI for these tasks, it is essential to understand what lies behind these models. Among the ways to discover AI there are the senses and the intellect. We could consider AI as an intelligence. Intelligence has an essence, but we do not know whether it can be considered “something” or “someone”. Important issues in the analysis of AI concern the structure of symbols -operations with which the intellectual solution is carried out- and the search for strategic reference points, aspiring to create models with human-like intelligence. For many years, humans, seeing language as innate, have carried out symbolic theories. Everything seems to have skipped with the advent of Machine Learning. In this paper, after a long analysis of history, the rule-based and the learning-based vision, we propose KERMIT as a unit of investigation for a possible meeting point between the different learning theories. Finally, we propose a new vision of knowledge in AI models based on a combination of rules, learning and human knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: predictive maintenance; transfer learning; interpretable machine learning
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:38:28 CEST)
Using data-driven models to solve predictive maintenance problems has been prevalent for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). However, such models fail to solve two tasks that OEMs are interested in: (1) Making the well-built failure prediction models working on existing scenarios (vehicles, working conditions) adaptive to target scenarios. (2) Finding out the failure causes, furthermore, determining whether a model generates failure predictions based on reasonable causes. This paper investigates a comprehensive architecture towards making the predictive maintenance system adaptive and interpretable by proposing (1) an ensemble model dealing with time-series data consisting of a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network and Gaussian threshold to achieve failure prediction one week in advance and (2) an online transfer learning algorithm and a meta learning algorithm, which render existing models adaptive to new vehicles with limited data volumes. (3) Furthermore, the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations (LIME) interpretation tool and super-feature methods are applied to interpret individual and general failure causes. Vehicle data from Isuzu Motors, Ltd., are adopted to validate our method, which include time-series data and histogram data. The proposed ensemble model yields predictions with 100% accuracy for our test data on engine stalling problem and is more rapidly adaptive to new vehicles with smaller error following application of either online transfer learning or the meta learning method. The interpretation methods help elucidate the global and individual failure causes, confirming the model credibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0115.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: machine learning; virtual diagnostics; reinforcement learning control
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:58:41 CET)
We discuss the implementation of a suite of virtual diagnostics at the FACET-II facility currently under commissioning at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The diagnostics will be used for prediction of the longitudinal phase space along the linac, spectral reconstruction of the bunch profile and non-destructive inference of transverse beam quality (emittance) using edge radiation at the injector dogleg and bunch compressor locations. These measurements will be folded in to adaptive feedbacks and ML-based reinforcement learning controls to improve the stability and optimize the performance of the machine for different experimental configurations. In this paper we describe each of these diagnostics with expected measurement results based on simulation data and discuss progress towards implementation in regular operations.
Online: 30 September 2020 (11:19:52 CEST)
The importance of energy systems and its role in economics and politics is not hidden for anyone. This issue is not only important for the advanced industrialized countries, which are major energy consumers, but is also important for oil-rich countries. In addition to the nature of these fuels which contains polluting substances, the issue of their ending up has aggravated the growing concern. Biofuels can be used in different fields for energy production like electricity production, power production or for transportation. Various scenarios have been written about the estimated biofuels from different sources in the future energy system. The availability of biofuels for the electricity market, heating and liquid fuels is very important. Accordingly, the need for handling, modelling, decision making and future forecasting for biofuels can be one of the main challenges for scientists. Recently, machine learning and deep learning techniques have been popular in modeling, optimizing and handling the biodiesel production, consumption and its environmental impacts. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the ML and DL techniques developed for handling biofuels production, consumption and environmental impacts, both for modeling and optimization purposes. This will help for sustainable biofuel production for the future generations.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Crime prediction; Ensemble Learning; Machine Learning; Regression
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:53:30 CEST)
While the use of crime data has been widely advocated in the literature, its availability is often limited to large urban cities and isolated databases tend not to allow for spatial comparisons. This paper presents an efficient machine learning framework capable of predicting spatial crime occurrences, without using past crime as a predictor, and at a relatively high resolution: the U.S. Census Block Group level. The proposed framework is based on an in-depth multidisciplinary literature review allowing the selection of 188 best-fit crime predictors from socio-economic, demographic, spatial, and environmental data. Such data are published periodically for the entire United States. The selection of the appropriate predictive model was made through a comparative study of different machine learning families of algorithms, including generalized linear models, deep learning, and ensemble learning. The gradient boosting model was found to yield the most accurate predictions for violent crimes, property crimes, motor vehicle thefts, vandalism, and the total count of crimes. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets of crimes reported in 11 U.S. cities demonstrated that the proposed framework achieves an accuracy of 73 and 77% when predicting property crimes and violent crimes, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0181.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Cartpole; Q Learning; Mathematical Modeling
Online: 10 May 2020 (18:02:43 CEST)
The prevalence of differential equations as a mathematical technique has refined the fields of control theory and constrained optimization due to the newfound ability to accurately model chaotic, unbalanced systems. However, in recent research, systems are increasingly more nonlinear and difficult to model using Differential Equations only. Thus, a newer technique is to use policy iteration and Reinforcement Learning, techniques that center around an action and reward sequence for a controller. Reinforcement Learning (RL) can be applied to control theory problems since a system can robustly apply RL in a dynamic environment such as the cartpole system (an inverted pendulum). This solution successfully avoids use of PID or other dynamics optimization systems, in favor of a more robust, reward-based control mechanism. This paper applies RL and Q-Learning to the classic cartpole problem, while also discussing the mathematical background and differential equations which are used to model the aforementioned system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0456.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Explainability; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 25 April 2020 (02:57:06 CEST)
The world has been evolving with new technologies and advances day-by-day. With the advent of various learning technologies in every field, the research community is able to provide solution in every aspect of life with the applications of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Computer Vision, etc. However, with such high achievements, it is found to lag behind the ability to provide explanation against its prediction. The current situation is such that these modern technologies are able to predict and decide upon various cases more accurately and speedily than a human, but failed to provide an answer when the question of why to trust its prediction is put forward. In order to attain a deeper understanding into this rising trend, we explore a very recent and talked-about novel contribution which provides rich insight on a prediction being made -- ``Explainability.'' The main premise of this survey is to provide an overview for researches explored in the domain and obtain an idea of the current scenario along with the advancements published to-date in this field. This survey is intended to provide a comprehensive background of the broad spectrum of Explainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0239.v1
Online: 17 February 2020 (04:12:20 CET)
Machine learning (ML) has emerged as a critical tool for making sense of the growing amount of genetic and genomic data available because of its ability to find complex patterns in high dimensional and heterogeneous data. While the complexity of ML models is what makes them powerful, it also makes them difficult to interpret. Fortunately, recent efforts to develop approaches that make the inner workings of ML models understandable to humans have improved our ability to make novel biological insights using ML. Here we discuss the importance of interpretable ML, different strategies for interpreting ML models, and examples of how these strategies have been applied. Finally, we identify challenges and promising future directions for interpretable ML in genetics and genomics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0510.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; imitation learning; soft robotics
Online: 23 November 2018 (11:57:55 CET)
The increasing trend of studying the innate softness of robotic structures and amalgamating it with the benefits of the extensive developments in the field of embodied intelligence has led to sprouting of a relatively new yet extremely rewarding sphere of technology. The fusion of current deep reinforcement algorithms with physical advantages of a soft bio-inspired structure certainly directs us to a fruitful prospect of designing completely self-sufficient agents that are capable of learning from observations collected from their environment to achieve a task they have been assigned. For soft robotics structure possessing countless degrees of freedom, it is often not easy (something not even possible) to formulate mathematical constraints necessary for training a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agent for the task in hand, hence, we resolve to imitation learning techniques due to ease of manually performing such tasks like manipulation that could be comfortably mimicked by our agent. Deploying current imitation learning algorithms on soft robotic systems have been observed to provide satisfactory results but there are still challenges in doing so. This review article thus posits an overview of various such algorithms along with instances of them being applied to real world scenarios and yielding state-of-the-art results followed by brief descriptions on various pristine branches of DRL research that may be centers of future research in this field of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0467.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: crowdsourcing; organisational learning; paradigm; organisational learning paradigm
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:09:10 CEST)
Crowdsourcing is one of the new themes that has appeared in the last decade. Considering its potential, more and more organisations reach for it. It is perceived as an innovative method that can be used for problem solving, improving business processes, creating open innovations, building a competitive advantage, and increasing transparency and openness of the organisation. Crowdsourcing is also conceptualised as a source of a knowledge-based organisation. The importance of crowdsourcing for organisational learning is seen as one of the key themes in the latest literature in the field of crowdsourcing. Since 2008, there has been an increase in the interest of public organisations in crowdsourcing and including it in their activities. This article is a response to the recommendations in the subject literature, which states that crowdsourcing in public organisations is a new and exciting research area. The aim of the article is to present a new paradigm that combines crowdsourcing levels with the levels of learning. The research methodology is based on an analysis of the subject literature and exemplifications of organisations which introduce crowdsourcing. This article presents a cross-sectional study of four Polish municipal offices that use four types of crowdsourcing, according to the division by J. Howe: collective intelligence, crowd creation, crowd voting, and crowdfunding. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the management personnel of those municipal offices. The research results show that knowledge acquired from the virtual communities allows the public organisation to anticipate changes, expectations, and needs of citizens and to adapt to them. It can therefore be considered that crowdsourcing is a new and rapidly developing organisational learning paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0117.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Continual Learning; Lifelong Learning; Prototypical Networks; Catastrophic Forgetting; Intransigence; Task-free; Incremental Learning; Online Learning; Human Activity Recognition
Online: 5 August 2022 (08:35:15 CEST)
Continual learning (CL), a.k.a lifelong learning, is an emerging research topic that has been attracting increasing interest in the field of machine learning. With human activity recognition (HAR) playing a key role in enabling numerous real-world applications, an essential step towards the long-term deployment of such systems is to extend the activity model to dynamically adapt to changes in people’s everyday behavior. Current research in CL applied to HAR domain is still under-explored with researchers exploring existing methods developed for computer vision in HAR. Moreover, analysis has so far focused on task-incremental or class-incremental learning paradigms where task boundaries are known. This impedes the applicability of such methods for real-world systems. To push this field forward, we build on recent advances in the area of continual learning and design a lifelong adaptive learning framework using Prototypical Networks, LAPNet-HAR, that processes sensor-based data streams in a task-free data-incremental fashion and mitigates catastrophic forgetting using experience replay and continual prototype adaptation. Online learning is further facilitated using contrastive loss to enforce inter-class separation. LAPNet-HAR is evaluated on 5 publicly available activity datasets in terms of its ability to acquire new information while preserving previous knowledge. Our extensive empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of LAPNet-HAR in task-free CL and uncover useful insights for future challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0230.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Machine Learning
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:46:12 CEST)
In this paper, various machine learning techniques are discussed. These algorithms are used for many applications which include data classification, prediction, or pattern recognition. The primary goal of machine learning is to automate human assistance by training an algorithm on relevant data. This paper should also serve as a collection of various machine learning terminology for easy reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0196.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Reinforcement Learning; Explainable Reinforcement Learning; XRL
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:13:44 CEST)
While machine learning models are powering more and more everyday devices, there is a growing need for explaining them. This especially applies to the use of Deep Reinforcement Learning in solutions that require security, such as vehicle motion planning. In this paper, we propose a method of understanding what the RL agent’s decision is based on. The method relies on conducting statistical analysis on a massive set of state-decisions samples. It indicates which input features have an impact on the agent’s decision and the relationships between decisions, the significance of the input features, and their values. The method allows us for determining whether the process of making a decision by the agent is coherent with human intuition and what contradicts it. We applied the proposed method to the RL motion planning agent which is supposed to drive a vehicle safely and efficiently on a highway. We find out that making such analysis allows for a better understanding agent’s decisions, inspecting its behavior, debugging the ANN model, and verifying the correctness of input values, which increases its credibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0311.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: zoonotic pathogens; mathematical algorithms; machine learning; deep learning
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:57:27 CEST)
Globally, zoonotic diseases have been on the rise in recent years. Predictive modelling approaches have been successfully used in the literature to identify the underlying causes of these zoonotic diseases. We examine the latest research in the field of predictive modeling that verifies the growth of zoonotic pathogens and assesses the factors associated with their spread. The results of our survey indicate that popular mathematical models can successfully be used in modeling the growth rate of these pathogens under varying storage temperatures. Additionally, some of them are used for the assessment of the inactivation of these pathogens based on various conditions. Based on the results of our study, machine learning models and deep learning are commonly used to detect pathogens within food items and to predict the factors associated with the presence of the pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0151.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; CNN; DenseNet; COVID-19; transfer learning
Online: 18 February 2022 (14:44:55 CET)
COVID-19 has a severe risk of spreading rapidly, the quick identification of which is essential. In this regard, chest radiology images have proven to be a practical screening approach for COVID-19 aﬀected patients. This study proposes a deep learning-based approach using Densenet-121 to detect COVID-19 patients eﬀectively. We have trained and tested our model on the COVIDx dataset and performed both 2-class and 3-class classification, achieving 96.49% and 93.71% accuracy, respectively. By successfully utilizing transfer learning, we achieve comparable performance to the state-of-the-art method while using 15x fewer model parameters. Moreover, we performed an interpretability analysis using Grad-CAM to highlight the most significant image regions at test time. Finally, we developed a website that takes chest radiology images as input and detects the presence of COVID-19 or pneumonia and a heatmap highlighting the infected regions. Source code for reproducing results and model weights are available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; metastasis; causal learning; machine learning
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:40:33 CET)
Background: Risk of metastatic recurrence of breast cancer after initial diagnosis and treatment depends on the presence of a number of risk factors. Although most univariate risk factors have been identified using classical methods, machine-learning methods are also being conducted to tease out non-obvious contributors to a patient’s individual risk of developing late distant metastasis. Bayesian-network algorithms may predict not only risk factors but also interactions among these risks, which consequently lead to metastatic breast cancer. We proposed to apply a previously developed machine-learning method to predict risk factors of 5-, 10- and 15-year metastasis. Methods: We applied a previously validated algorithm named the Markov Blanket and Interactive risk factor Learner (MBIL) on the electronic health record (EHR)-based Lynn Sage database (LSDB) from the Lynn Sage Comprehensive Breast Cancer at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. This algorithm provided an output of both single and interactive risk factors of 5-, 10-, and 15-year metastasis from LSDB. We individually examined and interpreted the clinical relevance of these interactions based on years to metastasis and the reliance on interactivity between risk factors. Results: We found that with lower alpha values (low interactivity score), the prevalence of variables with an independent influence on long term metastasis was higher (i.e., HER2, TNEG). As the value of alpha increased to 480, stronger interactions were needed to define clusters of factors that increased the risk of metastasis (i.e., ER, smoking, race, alcohol usage). Conclusion: MBIL identified single and interacting risk factors of metastatic breast cancer, many of which were supported by clinical evidence. These results strongly recommend the development of further large data studies with different databases to validate the degree to which some of these variables impact metastatic breast cancer in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0753.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Convolutional extreme learning machine; Deep learning; Multimedia analysis
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:31:14 CEST)
Many works have recently identified the need to combine deep learning with extreme learning to strike a performance balance with accuracy especially in the domain of multimedia applications. Considering this new paradigm, namely convolutional extreme learning machine (CELM), we present a systematic review that investigates alternative deep learning architectures that use extreme learning machine (ELM) for a faster training to solve problems based on image analysis. We detail each of the architectures found in the literature, application scenarios, benchmark datasets, main results, advantages, and present the open challenges for CELM. We follow a well structured methodology and establish relevant research questions that guide our findings. We hope that the observation and classification of such works can leverage the CELM research area providing a good starting point to cope with some of the current problems in the image-based computer vision analysis.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Multimodal Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Hate Speech Detection
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:46:27 CET)
Hateful and abusive speech presents a major challenge for all online social media platforms. Recent advances in Natural Language Processing and Natural Language Understanding allow more accurate detection of hate speech in textual streams. This study presents a multimodal approach to hate speech detection by combining Computer Vision and Natural Language processing models for abusive context detection. Our study focuses on Twitter messages and, more specifically, on hateful, xenophobic and racist speech in Greek aimed at refugees and migrants. In our approach we combine transfer learning and fine-tuning of Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and Residual Neural Networks (Resnet). Our contribution includes the development of a new dataset for hate speech classification, consisting of tweet ids, along with the code to obtain their visual appearance, as they would have been rendered in a web browser. We have also released a pre-trained Language Model trained on Greek tweets, which has been used in our experiments. We report a consistently high level of accuracy (accuracy score=0.970, f1-score=0.947 in our best model) in racist and xenophobic speech detection.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; bioinformatics; phylogenetics; cancer evolution
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:40:45 CET)
The exponential growth of biomedical data in recent years urged the application of numerous machine learning techniques to address emerging problems in biology and clinical research. By enabling automatic feature extraction, selection and generation of predictive models, these methods can be used to efficiently study complex biological systems. Machine learning techniques are frequently integrated with bioinformatic methods, as well as curated databases and biological networks, to enhance training and validation, identify the best interpretable features, and enable feature and model investigation. Here, we review recently developed methods that incorporate machine learning within the same framework with techniques from molecular evolution, protein structure analysis, systems biology and disease genomics. We outline the challenges posed for machine learning, and in particular, deep learning in biomedicine and suggest unique opportunities for machine learning techniques integrated with established bioinformatics approaches to overcome some of these challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0482.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Distance; Learning; Academic; Education; Students; Teaching-Learning; Modality
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:59:30 CET)
Education setting evolved from historical open learning system to traditional classroom set-up to distance learning modality. Teaching-Learning practice is transformed with an evolution of teaching-learning materials. With technological advancement in progressive manner and it’s increasing use in academic setting, distance learning has been the on-demand and on-debate topic in current educational discourse. Comparatively fresh topic in Nepali academic setting, this paper intended to analyze the perception of Nepali students towards online modality in Nepali academic setting. This paper further analyzed the student’s preference towards distance learning in current Nepali academic setting. Research findings were analyzed based on data collected through literature review, interview with students and professor and quantitative data collection through use of google form. Study identified opportunities as revenue generation; continuation of academic career from any part of country; increase learning outcome among jobholders. Study identified challenges as unequal access and quality of internet facilities; affordability of laptops/computers; limited interaction; and frequent disturbances. Seeing the better prospects, study strongly supported the need of shift in academic shift from traditional setting to non-traditional setting in Nepali context to meet the global needs of competitive and quality education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0177.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CALIOP; VIIRS; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Dust Detection
Online: 8 December 2020 (06:44:51 CET)
Identifying dust aerosols from passive satellite images is of great interest for many applications. In this study, we developed 5 different machine-learning (ML) and deep-learning (DL) based algorithms, including Logistic Regression, K Nearest Neighbor, Random Forest (RF), Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), to identify dust aerosols in the daytime satellite images from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) under cloud-free conditions on a global scale. In order to train the ML and DL algorithms, we collocated the state-of-the-art dust detection product from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) with the VIIRS observations along the CALIOP track. The 16 VIIRS M-band observations with the center wavelength ranging from deep blue to thermal infrared, together with solar-viewing geometries and pixel time and locations, are used as the predictor variables. Four different sets of training input data are constructed based on different combinations of VIIRS pixel and predictor variables. The validation and comparison results based on the collocated CALIOP data indicates that the FFNN method based on all available predictor variables is the best performing one among all methods. It has an averaged dust detection accuracy of about 81 %, 89 % and 85 % over land, ocean and whole globe, respectively, compared with collocated CALIOP. When applied to off-track VIIRS pixels, the FFNN method retrieves geographical distributions of dust that are in good agreement with on-track results as well as CALIOP statistics. For further evaluation, we compared our results based on the ML and DL algorithms to NOAA’s Aerosol Detection Product (ADP) , which is a product that classifies dust, smoke and ash using physical-based methods. The comparison reveals both similarity and differences. Overall, this study demonstrates the great potential of ML and DL methods for dust detection and proves that these methods can be trained on the CALIOP track and then applied to the whole granule of VIIRS granule.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Deep Learning; Thermodynamics; Learning and Generalization; Diophantine equations
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:32:18 CEST)
Deep learning machines are computational models composed of multiple processing layers of adaptive weights to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. Their structure is mainly reflecting the intuitive plausibility of decomposing a problem into multiple levels of computation and representation since it is believed that higher layers of representation allow a system to learn complex functions. Surprisingly, after decades of research, from learning and design perspectives these models are still deployed in a heuristic manner. In this paper, deep learning feed-forward machines are modeled from a statistical mechanics point of view as disordered physical systems where its macroscopic behavior is determined in terms of the interactions defined between the basic constituent of these models, namely, the artificial neuron. They are viewed as the equilibrium states of a theoretical body that is subject to the law of increase of the entropy. The study of the changes in energy of the body when passing from one equilibrium state to another is used to understand the structure and role of the phase space of the system, the stability of the equilibrium states, and the resulting degree of disorder. It is shown that the topology of these models is strongly linked to their stability and resulting level of disorder. Furthermore, the proposed theoretical characterization permit to assess the thermodynamic efficiency with which information can be processed by these models, and to provide a practical methodology to quantitatively estimate and compare their expected learning and generalization capabilities. These theoretical results provides new insights to the theory of deep learning and their implications are shown to be consistent through a set of benchmarks designed to experimentally assess their validity.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: waste classification; transfer learning; deep learning; recognition classification
Online: 23 February 2020 (14:01:01 CET)
Using machine learning or deep learning to solve the problem of garbage recognition and classification is an important application in computer vision, but due to the incomplete establishment of garbage datasets and the poor performance of complex network models on smart terminal devices, the existing garbage classification models The effect is not good.This paper presents a waste classification and identification method base on transfer learning and lightweight neural network. By migrating the lightweight neural network MobileNetV2 and rebuild it, The reconstructed network is used for feature extraction, and the extracted features are introduced into the SVM to realize the identification of 6 types of garbage. The model was trained and verified by using 2527 pieces of garbage labeled data in the TrashNet dataset, which ultimately resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.4% of the method, which proves that the method can effectively improve the classification accuracy and time and overcome the problem of weak data and less labeling. The over-fitting phenomenon encountered by small data sets in deep learning makes the model robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0273.v1
Subject: Keywords: Active Learning, Pedagogy, Student Learning, Interactive Effects, Education
Online: 24 April 2019 (12:44:14 CEST)
If students do not fully apply themselves, then they may be considered responsible for the result of being inadequately prepared. +- Nevertheless, student outcomes are more likely to reflect a combination of both effort and systematic problems with overall course architecture. Deficiencies in course design result in inadequate preparation that adversely and directly impacts students’ productivity upon entering the workforce. Such an impact negatively influences students' ability to maintain gainful employment and provide for their families, which inevitably contributes to the development of issues concerning their psychological well-being. It is well-documented that incorporating active learning strategies in course design and delivery can enhance student learning outcomes. Despite the benefit of implementing active learning techniques, rarely in the real world will it be possible for techniques to be used in isolation of one another. Therefore, the purpose of this proposed study is to determine the interactive effects of two active learning strategies because, at a minimum, technique-pairs more accurately represent the application of active learning in the natural educational setting. There is a paucity of evidence in the literature directed toward investigating the interactive effects of multiple active learning techniques that this study is aimed at filling. The significance of this research is that, by determining the interactive effects of paired active learning strategies, other research studies on the beneficial effects of using particular active learning technique-pairs will be documented contributing to the literature so that ultimately classroom instruction may be customized according to the determination of optimal sequencing of strategy-pairs for particular courses, subjects, and desired outcomes that maximize student learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0367.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Deep Learning; Image Classification; Machine Learning; Predictive Models; Small Datasets; Supervised Learning
Online: 25 January 2022 (08:24:17 CET)
One of the most important challenges in the Machine and Deep Learning areas today is to build good models using small datasets, because sometimes it is not possible to have large ones. Several techniques have been proposed in the literature to address this challenge. This paper aims at studying the different available Deep Learning techniques and performing a thorough experimentation to analyze which technique or combination thereof improves the performance and effectiveness of the models. A complete comparison with classical Machine Learning techniques was carried out, to contrast the results obtained using both techniques when working with small datasets. Thirteen algorithms were implemented and trained using three different small datasets (MNIST, Fashion MNIST, and CIFAR-10). Each experiment was evaluated using a well-established set of metrics (Accuracy, Precision, Recall, F1, and the Matthews correlation coefficient). The experimentation allowed concluding that it is possible to find a technique or combination of them to mitigate a lack of data, but this depends on the nature of the dataset, the amount of data, and the metrics used to evaluate them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0780.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep learning; Computer vision; Remote sensing; Supervised learning; Semi-supervised learning; Segmentation; Seagrass mapping
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:53:19 CEST)
Intertidal seagrass plays a vital role in estimating the overall health and dynamics of coastal environments due to its interaction with tidal changes. However, most seagrass habitats around the globe have been in steady decline due to human impacts, disturbing the already delicate balance in environmental conditions that sustain seagrass. Miniaturization of multi-spectral sensors has facilitated very high resolution mapping of seagrass meadows, which significantly improve the potential for ecologists to monitor changes. In this study, two analytical approaches used for classifying intertidal seagrass habitats are compared: Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) and Fully Convolutional Neural Networks (FCNNs). Both methods produce pixel-wise classifications in order to create segmented maps, however FCNNs are an emerging set of algorithms within Deep Learning with sparse application towards seagrass mapping. Conversely, OBIA has been a prominent solution within this field, with many studies leveraging in-situ data and multiscale segmentation to create habitat maps. This work demonstrates the utility of FCNNs in a semi-supervised setting to map seagrass and other coastal features from an optical drone survey conducted at Budle Bay, Northumberland, England. Semi-supervision is also an emerging field within Deep Learning that has practical benefits of achieving state of the art results using only subsets of labelled data. This is especially beneficial for remote sensing applications where in-situ data is an expensive commodity. For our results, we show that FCNNs have comparable performance with standard OBIA method used by ecologists, while also noting an increase in performance for mapping ecological features that are sparsely labelled across the study site.
Subject: Keywords: constructivism; e-learning; online teaching; social constructivism theory; cognitive learning theory; transformative learning theory
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:29:27 CET)
The COVID-19 outbreaks have caused universities all across the globe to close their campuses and forced them to initiate online teaching. This article reviews the pedagogical foundations for developing effective distance education practices, starting from the assumption that promoting autonomous thinking is an essential element to guarantee full citizenship in a democracy and for moral decision making in situations of rapid change, which has become a pressing need in the context of a pandemic. In addition, the main obstacles related to this new context are identified, and solutions are proposed according to the existing bibliography in learning sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0472.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Computer-aided Screening; Coronavirus; X-Ray; CT scan; Machine Learning; Transfer Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 21 August 2020 (05:17:46 CEST)
In this article, we analyse the computer aid screening method of COVID19 using Xray and CT scan images. The main objective is to set an analytical closure about the computer aid screening of COVID19 among the X-ray image and CT scan image. The computer aid screening method includes deep feature extraction, transfer learning and traditional machine learning image classification approach. The deep feature extraction and transfer learning method considered 13 pre-trained CNN model. The machine learning approach includes three sets of features and three classifiers. The pre-trained CNN models are alexnet, googlenet, vgg16, vgg19, densenet201, resnet18, resnet50, resnet101, inceptionv3, inceptionresnetv2, xception, mobilenetv2 and shufflenet. The features and classifiers in machine learning approaches are GLCM, LBP, HOG and KNN, SVM, Naive bay’s respectively. In addition, we also analyse the different paradigms of classifiers. In total, the comparative analysis is carried out in 65 classification models, i.e. 13 in deep feature extraction, 13 in transfer learning and 39 in machine learning approaches. Finally, all the classification models perform better in X-ray image set compare to CT scan image set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0351.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; aerodynamics; high-speed train; hybrid machine learning; Prediction Turbulence model; deep learning
Online: 26 December 2019 (05:23:14 CET)
In the present paper, an aerodynamic investigation of a high-speed train is performed. In the first section of this article, a generic high-speed train against a turbulent flow is simulated, numerically. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations combined with the SST turbulence model are applied to solve incompressible turbulent flow around a high-speed train. Flow structure, velocity and pressure contours and streamlines at some typical wind directions are the most important results of this simulation. The maximum and minimum values are specified and discussed. Also, the pressure coefficient for some critical points on the train surface is evaluated. In the following, the wind direction influence the aerodynamic key parameters as drag, lift, and side forces at the mentioned wind directions are analyzed and compared. Moreover, the effects of velocity changes (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 m/s) are estimated and compared on the above flow and aerodynamic parameters. In the second section of the paper, various data-driven methods including Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), and random forest (RF), are applied for predicting output parameters. So, drag, lift and side forces and also minimum and a maximum of pressure coefficients for mentioned wind directions and velocity are predicted and compared using statistical parameters. Obtained results indicated that RF in all coefficients of wind direction and most coefficients of free stream velocity provided the most accurate predictions. As a conclusion, RF may be recommended for the prediction of aerodynamic coefficients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0154.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; multiple instance learning; weakly supervised learning; demography; socioeconomic analysis; google street view
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:53:26 CEST)
(1) Background: Evidence-based policymaking requires data about the local population's socioeconomic status (SES) at detailed geographical level, however, such information is often not available, or is too expensive to acquire. Researchers have proposed solutions to estimate SES indicators by analyzing Google Street View images, however, these methods are also resource-intensive, since they require large volumes of manually labeled training data. (2) Methods: We propose a methodology for automatically computing surrogate variables of SES indicators using street images of parked cars and deep multiple instance learning. Our approach does not require any manually created labels, apart from data already available by statistical authorities, while the entire pipeline for image acquisition, parked car detection, car classification, and surrogate variable computation is fully automated. The proposed surrogate variables are then used in linear regression models to estimate the target SES indicators. (3) Results: We implement and evaluate a model based on the proposed surrogate variable at 30 municipalities of varying SES in Greece. Our model has $R^2=0.76$ and a correlation coefficient of $0.874$ with the true unemployment rate, while it achieves a mean absolute percentage error of $0.089$ and mean absolute error of $1.87$ on a held-out test set. Similar results are also obtained for other socioeconomic indicators, related to education level and occupational prestige. (4) Conclusions: The proposed methodology can be used to estimate SES indicators at the local level automatically, using images of parked cars detected via Google Street View, without the need for any manual labeling effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: COVID-19; active learning; science learning; applied technology, assessment for learning; new teaching material development
Online: 16 May 2022 (13:13:32 CEST)
Pandemic scenario has significantly changed several factors of life, including teaching, and learning at university. The development of suitable teaching materials to support university studies is mandatory to overcome distance learning difficulties and improve traditional teaching methodologies. This work explains a novel method for the preparation of teaching materials for medical sciences, but also plausible for other learning fields. An encephalon was extracted and prepared by using this methodology for teaching purposes. More than 200 students evaluated several factors of the material prepared this way, indicating a better understanding (up to 80%) of theoretical contents related to this human section, together with a high usability and good physical appearance
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: spatial machine learning; spatial dependence; spatial heterogeneity; scale; spatial observation matrix; learning algorithm; deep learning
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:18:55 CEST)
Properties of spatially explicit data are often ignored or inadequately handled in machine learning for spatial domains of application. At the same time, resources that would identify these properties and investigate their influence and methods to handle them in machine learning applications are lagging behind. In this survey of the literature, we seek to identify and discuss spatial properties of data that influence the performance of machine learning. We review some of the best practices in handling such properties in spatial domains and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We recognize two broad strands in this literature. In the first, the properties of spatial data are developed in the spatial observation matrix without amending the substance of the learning algorithm; in the other, spatial data properties are handled in the learning algorithm itself. While the latter have been far less explored, we argue they offer the most promising prospects for the future of spatial machine learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: e-learning; information technology services; e-learning adoption; e-learning diffusion; systematic review; bibliometric analysis
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:22:58 CEST)
Increased proliferation of IT services in all sectors has reinforced the adoption and diffusion across all levels of education and training institutions. However, lack of awareness of and knowledge about the key challenges and opportunities of elearning, seem to allude policymakers, resulting in low adoption or increased failure rate of many e-learning projects. Our study tries to address this problem through a review of relevant literature in e-learning. Our goal was to draw from the existing literature, insights into the opportunities and challenges of e-learning diffusion, and the current state-of-research in the field. To do this, we employed a systematic review of literature on some of the salient opportunities and challenges of e-learning innovation for educational institutions. These results aimed to inform policymakers and suggest some interesting issues to advance the research and adoption and diffusion of e-learning. Moreover, the bibliometric analysis shows that the field is experiencing high research attraction among scholars. However, several research areas in the field witnessed relatively low research paucity. Based on these findings, we discussed topics for possible future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0185.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep learning; multi-task learning; audio event detection; audio tagging; weak learning; low-resource data
Online: 10 July 2018 (16:05:15 CEST)
In training a deep learning system to perform audio transcription, two practical problems may arise. Firstly, most datasets are weakly labelled, having only a list of events present in each recording without any temporal information for training. Secondly, deep neural networks need a very large amount of labelled training data to achieve good quality performance, yet in practice it is difficult to collect enough samples for most classes of interest. In this paper, we propose factorising the final task of audio transcription into multiple intermediate tasks in order to improve the training performance when dealing with this kind of low-resource datasets. We evaluate three data-efficient approaches of training a stacked convolutional and recurrent neural network for the intermediate tasks. Our results show that different methods of training have different advantages and disadvantages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0306.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: AIoT; Artificial Intelligence; Assistive Technology; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:45:15 CEST)
According to the World Health Organization, about 15% of the world’s population has some form of disability. Assistive Technology, in this context, contributes directly to the overcoming of difficulties encountered by people with disabilities in their daily lives, allowing them to receive education and become part of the labor market and society in a worthy manner. Assistive Technology has made great advances in its integration with Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) devices. AIoT processes and analyzes the large amount of data generated by IoT devices and applies Artificial Intelligence models, specifically Machine Learning, to discover patterns for generating insights and assisting in decision making. Based on a systematic literature review, this article aims at identifying the Machine Learning models used in multiple different research about Artificial Intelligence of Things applied to Assistive Technology. The survey of the topics approached in this article also highlights the context of such research, their application, IoT devices used, and gaps and opportunities for further development. Survey results show that 50% of the analyzed research address visual impairment, and for this reason, most of the topics cover issues related to computational vision. Portable devices, wearables, and smartphones constituted the majority of IoT devices. Deep Neural Networks represent 81% of the Machine Learning models applied in the reviewed research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0100.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: biocatalysts; bioprospecting; esterases/lipases; hydrolases; machine learning; supervised learning
Online: 7 September 2022 (04:53:30 CEST)
When bioprospecting for novel industrial enzymes, substrate promiscuity is a desirable property that increases the reusability of the enzyme. Among industrial enzymes, ester hydrolases have great relevance for which the demand has not ceased to increase. However, the search for new substrate promiscuous ester hydrolases is not trivial since the mechanism behind this property is greatly influenced by the active site's structural and physicochemical characteristics. These characteristics must be computed from the 3D structure, which is rarely available, and expensive to measure, hence the need for a method that can predict promiscuity from a sequence alone. Here we report such a method called EP-pred, an ensemble binary classifier, that combines three machine learning algorithms: SVM, KNN, and a Linear model. EP-pred has been evaluated against the Lipase Engineering Database together with a hidden Markov approach leading to a final set of 10 sequences predicted to encode promiscuous esterases. Experimental results confirmed the validity of our method since all ten proteins were found to exhibit a broad substrate ambiguity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0056.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; convolutional neural networks; classification; machine learning; IoT
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:22:49 CEST)
In videos, the human's actions are of three-dimensional (3D) signals. These videos investigate the spatiotemporal knowledge of human behavior. The promising ability is investigated using 3D convolution neural networks (CNNs). The 3D CNNs have not yet achieved high output for their well-established two-dimensional (2D) equivalents in still photographs. Board 3D Convolutional Memory and Spatiotemporal fusion face training difficulty preventing 3D CNN from accomplishing remarkable evaluation. In this paper, we implement Hybrid Deep Learning Architecture that combines STIP and 3D CNN features to enhance the performance of 3D videos effectively. After implementation, the more detailed and deeper charting for training in each circle of space-time fusion. The training model further enhances the results after handling complicated evaluations of models. The video classification model is used in this implemented model. Intelligent 3D Network Protocol for Multimedia Data Classification using Deep Learning is introduced to further understand space-time association in human endeavors. In the implementation of the result, the well-known dataset, i.e., UCF101 to, evaluates the performance of the proposed hybrid technique. The results beat the proposed hybrid technique that substantially beats the initial 3D CNNs. The results are compared with state-of-the-art frameworks from literature for action recognition on UCF101 with an accuracy of 95%.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Ship detection; self-supervised learning; transfer learning; Sentinel 2
Online: 7 October 2021 (23:04:24 CEST)
Automatic ship detection provides an essential function towards maritime domain awareness for security or economic monitoring purposes. This work presents an approach for training a deep learning ship detector in Sentinel-2 multispectral images with few labeled examples. We design a network architecture for detecting ships with a backbone that can be pre-trained separately. By using Self Supervised Learning, an emerging unsupervised training procedure, we learn good features on Sentinel-2 images, without requiring labeling, to initialize our network’s backbone. The full network is then fine-tuned to learn to detect ships in challenging settings. We evaluated this approach versus pre-training on ImageNet and versus a classical image processing pipeline. We examined the impact of variations in the self-supervised learning step and we show that in the few-shot learning setting self-supervised pre-training achieves better results than ImageNet pre-training. When enough training data is available, our self-supervised approach is as good as ImageNet pre-training. We conclude that a better design of the self-supervised task and bigger non-annotated dataset sizes can lead to surpassing ImageNet pre-training performance without any annotation costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0243.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: distance learning; intelligent services; literature review; virtual learning environments.
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:06:55 CEST)
Distance learning has assumed a relevant role in the Educational scenario. The use of Virtual Learning Environments contributes to obtain a substantial amount of educational data. In this sense, the analyzed data generate knowledge used by institutions to assist managers and professors in strategic planning and teaching. The discovery of students’ behaviors enables a wide variety of intelligent services for assisting in the learning process. This article presents a literature review in order to identify the intelligent services applied in distance learning. The research covers the period from January 2010 to May 2021. The initial search found 1,316 articles, among which 51 were selected for further studies. Considering the selected articles, 33% (17/51) focus on learning systems, 35% (18/51) propose recommendation systems, 26% (13/51) approach predictive systems or models, and 6% (3/51) use assessment tools. This review allowed to observe that the principal services offered are recommendation systems and learning systems. In these services, the analysis of student profiles stands out to identify patterns of behavior, detect low performance and identify probabilities of dropouts from courses.