ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0761.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Re-enaction history learning; Game-based learning; historical thinking skills; historical game; historical education
Online: 31 March 2021 (11:59:27 CEST)
Regardless of country and age, the importance of history education is always being emphasized. Although the importance of history education is being emphasized in Korea, there are many difficulties in getting students to understand history properly through school classes alone, and it is also difficult to attract students to participate in classes. The effectiveness of education using games has been proven 20 years ago, and the demand for game-based education is gradually increasing in the current education world, which is becoming more open. In this paper, based on the effects proven through research on the existing game-based education, the improvement of historical thinking ability, experiential history learning, and the problems of game-based education introduced in the ESN report and the discomfort of teachers who participated in the education were improved. A plan was suggested to select and use games suitable for basic education. In this thesis, we selected a history game with a clear historical and periodic background and without distortion of history, and experimented with teaching using games focusing on historical thinking and empirical history learning. The learning achievement of textbook-based education was compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Re-enaction history learning; Game-based learning; historical thinking skills; historical game; historical education
Online: 9 March 2021 (10:01:01 CET)
Regardless of country and age, the importance of history education is always being emphasized. Although the importance of history education is being emphasized in Korea, there are many difficulties in getting students to understand history properly through school classes alone, and it is also difficult to attract students to participate in classes. The effectiveness of education using games has been proven 20 years ago, and the demand for game-based education is gradually increasing in the current education world, which is becoming more open. In this paper, based on the effects proven through research on the existing game-based education, the improvement of historical thinking ability, experiential history learning, and the problems of game-based education introduced in the ESN report and the discomfort of teachers who participated in the education were improved. A plan was suggested to select and use games suitable for basic education. In this thesis, we selected a history game with a clear historical and periodic background and without distortion of history, and experimented with teaching using games focusing on historical thinking and empirical history learning. The learning achievement of textbook-based education was compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0142.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant Diseases; Modern Agriculture; Plant Health; AWS DeepLens; SageMaker; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 14 September 2020 (06:24:16 CEST)
In the Agriculture sector, control of plant leaf diseases is crucial as it influences the quality and production of plant species with an impact on the economy of any country. Therefore, automated identification and classification of plant leaf disease at an early stage is essential to reduce economic loss and to conserve the specific species. Previously, to detect and classify plant leaf disease, various Machine Learning models have been proposed; however, they lack usability due to hardware incompatibility, limited scalability and inefficiency in practical usage. Our proposed DeepLens Classification and Detection Model (DCDM) approach deal with such limitations by introducing automated detection and classification of the leaf diseases in fruits (apple, grapes, peach and strawberry) and vegetables (potato and tomato) via scalable transfer learning on A.W.S. SageMaker and importing it on AWS DeepLens for real-time practical usability. Cloud integration provides scalability and ubiquitous access to our approach. Our experiments on extensive image data set of healthy and unhealthy leaves of fruits and vegetables showed an accuracy of 98.78% with a real-time diagnosis of plant leaves diseases. We used forty thousand images for the training of deep learning model and then evaluated it on ten thousand images. The process of testing an image for disease diagnosis and classification using AWS DeepLens on average took 0.349s, providing disease information to the user in less than a second.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: non-destructive evaluation; hammering inspection; audio signal processing; machine learning; online learning
Online: 9 February 2018 (06:55:24 CET)
Developing efficient Artificial Intelligence (AI)-enabled system to substitute human role in non-destructive testing is an emerging topic of considerable interest. In this study, we propose a novel impact-echo analysis system using online machine learning, which aims at achieving near-human performance for assessment of concrete structures. Current computerized impact-echo systems commonly employ lab-scale data to validate the models. In practice, however, the echo patterns can be far more complicated due to varying geometric shapes and materials of structures. To deal with a large variety of unseen data, we propose a sequential treatment for echo characterization. More specifically, the proposed system can adaptively update itself to approaching human performance in impact-echo data interpretation. To this end, a two-stage framework has been introduced, including echo feature extraction and the model updating scheme. Various state-of-the-art online learning algorithms have been reviewed and evaluated for the task. To conduct experimental validation, we collected 10,940 echo instances from multiple inspection sites with each sample had been annotated by human experts with healthy/defective condition labels. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme achieved favorable echo pattern classification accuracy with high efficiency and low computation load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0047.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: image classification; astronomy; asteroids; convolutional neural network; deep learning
Online: 1 August 2023 (11:08:14 CEST)
Near Earth Asteroids represent potential threats to human life because their trajectories may bring them in the proximity of the Earth. Monitoring these objects could help predict future impact events, but such efforts are hindered by the large numbers of objects that pass through the Earth’s vicinity. Additionally, there is also the problem of distinguishing asteroids from other objects in the night sky, which implies sifting through large sets of telescope image data. Within this context, we believe that employing machine learning techniques could greatly improve the detection process by sorting out the most likely asteroid candidates to be reviewed by human experts. At the moment, the use of machine learning techniques is still limited in the field of astronomy and the main goal of the present paper is to study the effectiveness of deep CNNs for the classification of astronomical objects, asteroids in this particular case, by comparing some of the well-known deep convolutional neural networks, including InceptionV3, Xception, InceptionResNetV2 and ResNet152V2. We have applied transfer learning and fine-tuning on these pre-existing deep convolutional networks and from the results that we have obtained one can see the potential of using deep convolutional neural networks in the process of asteroid classification. The InceptionV3 model has the best results in the asteroid class, meaning that by using it, we loose the least number of valid asteroids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: reflective learning, assessment, self-reflection, self-regulation, physics education
Online: 7 August 2018 (23:43:05 CEST)
This paper addresses the development of knowledge and assessment-centered learning approaches within a reflective learning framework in a first year physics class in a university faculty. The quality of students’ reflections was scored using a Self-reporting Reflective Learning Appraisal Questionnaire at the end of each learning approach. The results showed the differences between the approaches based on reflections on the learning control through self-knowledge, by connecting experience and knowledge, as well as through self-reflection and self-regulation. Assessment-centered activities fundamentally help students identify aspects of their attitudes towards, as well as regulate, their sustainability learning education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1088.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: deep learning; image aesthetics assessment; image enhancement
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:15:16 CEST)
Abstract: Image aesthetic assessment (IAA) with neural attention has made significant progress due to its effectiveness in object recognition. Current studies have shown that the features learned by convolutional neural networks (CNN) at different learning stages indicate meaningful information. The shallow feature contains the low-level information of images and the deep feature perceives the image semantics and themes. Inspired by this, we propose a visual enhancement network with feature fusion (FF-VEN). It consists of two sub-modules, the visual enhancement module (VE module) and the shallow and deep feature fusion module (SDFF module). The former uses an adaptive filter in the spatial domain to simulate human eyes according to the region of interest (ROI) extracted by neural feedback. The latter not only takes out the shallow feature and the deep feature by transverse connection, but also uses a feature fusion unit (FFU) to fuse the pooled features together with the aim of information contribution maximization. Experiments on standard AVA dataset and Photo.net dataset show the effectiveness of FF-VEN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1855.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; kidneys; PFAS; Polyfluoro-Alkyl Substances; Toxicokinetics
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:09:26 CET)
Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent chemicals that accumulate in the body and environment. Although recent studies have indicated that PFAS may disrupt kidney function, the underlying mechanisms and overall effects on the organ remain unclear. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the impact of PFAS on kidney health using machine learning techniques. Utilizing a dataset containing PFAS chemical features and kidney parameters, dimensionality reduction and clustering were performed to identify patterns. Machine learning models, including XGBoost classifier, regressor, and Random Forest regressor, were then developed to predict kidney type from PFAS descriptors, estimate PFAS accumulation in the body, and predict the ratio of glomerular surface area to proximal tubule volume, which indicates kidney filtration efficiency. The kidney type classifier achieved 100% accuracy, confirming that PFAS exposure alters kidney morphology. The PFAS accumulation model attained an R^2 of 1.00, providing a tool to identify at-risk individuals. The ratio prediction model reached an R^2 of 1.00, offering insights into PFAS effects on kidney function. Furthermore, PFAS descriptors and anatomical variables were identified through analyses using feature importance, demonstrating discernible links between PFAS and kidney health, offering further biological significance. Overall, this study can significantly contribute to the current findings on the effect of PFAS while offering machine learning as a contributive tool for similar studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental stress; EEG; data analysis; connectivity network; machine Learning
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:06:13 CEST)
Mental stress is one of the serious factors that lead to many health problems. Scientists and physicians have developed various tools to assess the level of mental stress in its early stages. Several neuroimaging tools have been proposed in the literature to assess mental stress in the workplace. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is one important candidate because it contain rich information about mental states and condition. In this paper, we review the existing EEG signal analysis methods on the assessment of mental stress. The review highlights the critical differences between the research findings and argues that variations of the data analysis methods contribute to several contradictory results. The variations in results could be due to various factors including lack of standardized protocol, the brain region of interest, stressor type, experiment duration, proper EEG processing, feature extraction mechanism, and type of classifier. Therefore, the significant part related to mental stress recognition is choosing the most appropriate features. In particular, a complex and diverse range of EEG features, including time-varying, functional, and dynamic brain connections, requires integration of various methods to understand their associations with mental stress. Over this, the review suggests fusing the cortical activations with the connectivity network measures and deep learning approaches to improve the accuracy of mental stress level assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0082.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Active learning; professional skills; civic education; higher education; e-learning; serious games; critical thinking; sustainability
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:39:36 CET)
This study assesses the development of professional skills in university students using serious games (SG), from a sustainability perspective. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were set by the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Universities are strategic agents in the transformation process towards sustainability. This way, they should be committed to promoting such sustainable values in the students through curricular sustainability, implementing active methodologies and SG for that purpose. Transversal skills are essential for the development of future graduates. The objective of this study was to assess which professional skills should be developed through the SG called The Island, to improve the degree of student satisfaction with the incorporation of a sustainable curriculum. The data were obtained using a questionnaire, and then analysed using linear regression models, with their inference estimated through the goodness of fit and ANOVA. The first results indicated that the implementation of the SG promoted a strengthening of the students' sustainable curriculum through the development of those skills. It was concluded that the key to success in education for sustainable development is improving the development of strategic thinking, collaborative thinking, and self-awareness, in addition to encouraging systemic, critical, and problem-solving thinking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0133.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban flood; Decision making; Machine learning; Risk; Hazard; Vulnerability
Online: 1 March 2022 (10:18:57 CET)
Urban flood risk mapping is an important tool for the mitigation of flooding in view of human activities and climate change. Many developing countries, however, lack sufficiently detailed data to produce reliable risk maps with existing methods. Thus, improved methods are needed that can improve urban flood risk management in regions with scarce hydrological data. Given this, we estimated the flood risk map for Rasht City (Iran), applying a composition of decision-making and machine learning methods. Flood hazard maps were produced applying six state-of-the-art machine learning methods such as classification and regression trees (CART), random forest (RF), boosted regression trees (BRT), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA), and support vector machine (SVM). Flood conditioning parameters applied in modeling were elevation, slope angle, aspect, rainfall, distance to river (DTR), distance to streets (DTS), soil hydrological group (SHG), curve number (CN), distance to urban drainage (DTUD), urban drainage density (UDD), and land use. In total, 93 flood location points were collected from the regional water company of Gilan province combined with field surveys. We used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) decision-making tool for creating an urban flood vulnerability map, which is according to population density (PD), dwelling quality (DQ), household income (HI), distance to cultural heritage (DTCH), distance to medical centers and hospitals (DTMCH), and land use. Then, the urban flood risk map was derived according to flood vulnerability and flood hazard maps. Evaluation of models was performed using receiver-operator characteristic curve (ROC), accuracy, probability of detection (POD), false alarm ratio (FAR), and precision. The findings showed that the CART method is most accurate method (AUC = 0.947, accuracy = 0.892, POD = 0.867, FAR = 0.071, and precision = 0.929). The results also demonstrated that DTR, UDD, and DTUD played important roles in flood hazard modeling; whereas, the population density was the most significant parameter in vulnerability mapping. These findings indicated that machine learning methods can improve urban flood risk management significantly in regions with limited hydrological data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0664.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Policy Optimization; Ensemble Learning; Artificial Neural Network; Index Sensitivity
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:19:11 CEST)
Capability assessment plays a crucial role in the demonstration and construction of equipment. To improve the accuracy and stability of capability assessment, we study the neural network learning algorithms in the field of capability assessment and index sensitivity. Aiming at the problem of over-fitting and parameter optimization in neural network learning, the paper proposes an improved machine learning algorithm—the Ensemble Learning Based on Policy Optimization Neural Networks (ELPONN) algorithm with the policy optimization and ensemble learning. This algorithm presents optimized neural network learning algorithm through different strategies evolution, and builds an ensemble learning model of multi-intelligent algorithms to assessment the capability and analyze the sensitivity of the indexes. Through the assessment of capabilities, the algorithm effectively avoids parameter optimization from entering the minimum point in performance to improve the accuracy of equipment capability assessment, which is significantly better than previous neural network assessment methods. The experimental results show that the mean relative error is 4.10%, which is better than BP, GABP, and early stopping. The ELPONN algorithm has better accuracy and stability performance, and meets the requirements of capability assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0364.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Poultry behaviour; target tracking; deep learning; precision livestock farming; poultry production systems.
Online: 16 May 2021 (22:43:58 CEST)
The world's growing population is highly dependent on animal agriculture. Animal products provide nutrient-packed meals that help to sustain individuals of all ages in communities across the globe. As the human demand for animal proteins grows, the agricultural industry must continue to advance its efficiency and quality of production. One of the most commonly farmed livestock is poultry and their significance is felt on a global scale. Current poultry farming practices result in the premature death and rejection of billions of chickens on an annual basis before they are processed for meat. This loss of life is concerning regarding animal welfare, agricultural efficiency, and economic impacts. The best way to prevent these losses is through the individualistic and/or group level assessment of animal on a continuous basis. On large-scale farms, such attention to detail was generally considered to be inaccurate and inefficient, but with the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) assisted technology individualized and per-herd assessments of livestock are possible and accurate. Various studies have shown cameras linked with specialized systems of AI can properly analyze flocks for health concerns, thus improving the survival rate and product quality of farmed poultry. Building on the recent advancements, this review explores the aspects of AI in the detection, counting and tracking of the poultry in commercial and research-based applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0405.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: animal welfare; pigs; deep learning; computer vision; stress detection; facial expression recognition
Online: 19 August 2021 (13:17:08 CEST)
Animal welfare is not only an ethically important consideration in good animal husbandry, but can also have a significant effect on an animal’s productivity. The aim of this paper is to show that a reduction in animal welfare, in the form of increased stress, can be identified in pigs from frontal images of the animals. We train a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) using a leave-one-out design and show that it is able to discriminate between stressed and unstressed pigs with an accuracy of >90% in unseen animals. Grad-CAM is used to identify the animal regions used, and these support those used in manual assessments such as the Pig Grimace Scale. This innovative work paves the way for further work examining both positive and negative welfare states with a view to the development of an automated system that can be used in precision livestock farming to improve animal welfare.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Face detection; CSEM; Deep learning; GPU; CPU; Benchmark; Regression
Online: 27 July 2020 (14:54:15 CEST)
Face recognition is a valuable forensic tool for criminal investigators since it certainly helps in identifying individuals in scenarios of criminal activity like fugitives or child sexual abuse. It is, however, a very challenging task as it must be able to handle low-quality images of real world settings and fulfill real time requirements. Deep learning approaches for face detection have proven to be very successful but they require a large computation power and processing time. In this work, we evaluate the speed-accuracy tradeoff of three popular deep-learning-based face detectors on the WIDER Face and UFDD data sets in several CPUs and GPUs. We also develop a regression model capable to estimate the performance, both in terms of processing time and accuracy. We expect this to become a very useful tool for the end user in forensic laboratories in order to estimate the performance for different face detection options. Experimental results showed that the best speed-accuracy tradeoff is achieved with images resized to 50% of the original size in GPUs and images resized to 25% of the original size in CPUs. Moreover, performance can be estimated using multiple linear regression models with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.113 what is very promising for the forensic field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0130.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; calibration; air quality; low-cost sensors; exposure assessment
Online: 7 September 2021 (14:24:56 CEST)
Although commercially-available low-cost air quality sensors have low accuracy, the sensor system are being used to collect the data for the regulation of PM2.5 emission caused by industrial activities or to estimate the personal exposure for PM2.5. In this work, to solve the accuracy problem of low-cost PM sensor, we developed a new PM2.5 calibration model by combining the deep neural network (DNN) optimized in calibration problem and a LSTM optimized in time-dependent characteristics. First, two datasets were generated to test the accuracy performance and generalization performance of the PM2.5 calibration machine learning (ML) model. The PM2.5 concentrations, temperature and humidity by low-cost sensor and gravimetric-based PM2.5 measuring instrument were sampled for a sufficiently long time. The proposed model was compared with benchmark (multiple linear regression model) and low-cost sensor results. For root mean square error (RMSE) for PM2.5 concentrations, the proposed model reduced 41-60% of error compared to the raw data of low-cost sensor, and reduced 30-51% of error compared to the benchmark model. R2 of ML model, MLR and raw data were 93, 80 and 59 %. Also, the developed model still showed consistent calibration performance when calibrated with new sensors in different locations. Low-cost sensors combined with ML model not only can improve the calibration performance of benchmark, but also can be applied to the sensor monitoring systems for various epidemiologic investigations and regulatory decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0723.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: no-reference image quality assessment; multitask learning; image restoration; multi-level features.
Online: 21 April 2023 (10:52:35 CEST)
When the image quality is evaluated, the human visual system (HVS) infers the details in the image through its internal generative mechanism. In this process, the HVS integrates both local and global information of the image, utilizes contextual information to restore the original image information, and compares it with the distorted image information for image quality evaluation. Inspired by this mechanism, a no-reference image quality assessment method is proposed based on a multitask image restoration network. The multitask image restoration network generates a pseudo-reference image as the main task and produces structural similarity index measure map as an auxiliary task. By mutually promoting the two tasks, a higher quality pseudo-reference image is generated. In addition, when predicting the image quality score, both the quality restoration features and the difference features between the distorted and reference images are used, thereby fully utilizing the information from the pseudo-reference image. To enable the model to focus on both global and local features, a multi-scale feature fusion module is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves excellent performance on both synthetically and authentically distorted databases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1950.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: broiler; welfare; mobility; YOLOv5; semi-supervised learning; neo-deepsort
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:31:34 CEST)
Mobility is a vital welfare indicator which may influence broilers’ daily activities. Classical broiler mobility assessment methods are laborious and cannot provide timely insights into their conditions. Here, we proposed a semi-supervised Deep Learning (DL) model, YOLOv5, combined with Deep Sort algorithm conjoined with our newly proposed algorithm, Neo-Deep Sort, for individual broiler mobility tracking. Initially, 1,650 labeled images from five days were employed to train the YOLOv5 model. Through semi-supervised learning (SSL), this narrowly trained model was then used for pseudo-labeling 2,160 images, of which 2,153 were successfully labeled. Thereafter, the YOLOv5 model was fine-tuned on the newly labeled images. Lastly, the trained YOLOv5 and the Neo-Deep Sort algorithm were applied to detect and track 28 broilers in two pens and categorized them in terms of hourly and daily traveled distances and speeds. SSL helped in increasing the YOLOv5 model’s mean Average Precision (mAP), in detecting birds, from 81% to 98%. As compared with the manually measured covered distances of broilers, the combined model provided individual broiler's hourly moved distances with a validation accuracy of about 80%. Eventually, individual and flock level mobilities were quantified while overcoming the occlusion, false and miss detection issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; orthodontics; radiology; cephalometry
Online: 6 May 2023 (08:33:31 CEST)
The aim was to assess the precision and accuracy of cephalometric analyses performed by artificial intelligence (AI) with and without human augmentation. Four dental professionals with varying experience levels and AI identified 31 landmarks on 30 cephalometric radiographs twice. These landmarks were re-identified by all examiners with the aid of AI. Precision and accuracy were assessed by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and mean absolute errors (MAEs). AI revealed the highest precision with a mean ICC of 0.97, while the dental student had the lowest (mean ICC: 0.77). AI/human augmentation method significantly improved precision of the orthodontist, resident, dentist, and dental student by 3.26%, 2.17%, 19.75%, and 23.38%, respectively. The orthodontist demonstrated the highest accuracy with a MAE of 1.57 mm/˚. AI/human augmentation method improved the accuracy of the orthodontist, resident, dentist, and dental student by 12.74%, 19.10%, 35.69%, and 33.96%, respectively. AI demonstrated excellent precision and good accuracy in automated cephalometric analysis. The precision and accuracy of the examiners with the aid of AI improved by 10.47% and 27.27%, respectively. The AI/human augmentation method significantly improved the precision and accuracy of less experienced dental professionals to that of an experienced orthodontist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0164.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fine particulate matter; exposure assessment; machine learning; spatiotemporal; high resolution
Online: 17 December 2021 (14:46:46 CET)
Currently available nationwide prediction models for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) lack prediction confidence intervals and usually do not describe cross validated model performance at different spatiotemporal resolutions and extents. We used 41 different spatiotemporal predictors, including data on land use, meteorology, aerosol optical density, emissions, wildfires, population, traffic, and spatiotemporal indicators to train a machine learning model to predict daily averages of PM2.5 concentrations at 0.75 sq km resolution across the contiguous United States from 2000 through 2020. We utilized a generalized random forest model that allowed us to generate asymptotically-valid prediction confidence intervals and took advantage of its usefulness as an ensemble learner to quickly and cheaply characterize leave-one-location-out CV model performance for different temporal resolutions and geographic regions. Using a variable importance metric, we selected 8 predictors that were able to accurately predict daily PM2.5, with an overall leave-one-location-out cross validated median absolute error of 1.20 ug/m3, an R2 of 0.84, and confidence interval coverage fraction of 95%. When considering aggregated temporal windows, the model achieved leave-one-location-out cross validated median absolute errors of 0.99, 0.76, 0.63, and 0.60 ug/m3 for weekly, monthly, annual, and all-time exposure assessments, respectively. We further describe the model’s cross validated performance at different geographic regions in the United States, finding that it performs worse in the Western half of the country where there are less monitors. The code and data used to create this model are publicly available and we have developed software packages to be used for exposure assessment. This accurate exposure assessment model will be useful for epidemiologists seeking to study the health effects of PM across the continental United States, while possibly considering exposure estimation accuracy and uncertainty specific to the the spatiotemporal resolution and extent of their study design and population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0386.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: remaining useful life; c-mapss; extreme learning machine; prognostic and health management; neural networks
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:24:08 CEST)
This work can be considered as a first step of designing a future competitive data-driven approach for remaining useful life prediction of aircraft engines. The proposed approach is an ensemble of serially connected extreme learning machines. The results of prediction of the first networks are scaled and fed to the next networks as an additive features to the original inputs. This feature mapping allows increasing the correlation of training inputs with their targets by holding new prior knowledge about the probable behavior of the target function. The proposed approach is evaluated under remaining useful estimation using a set of “time-varying” data retrieved from the public dataset C-MAPSS (Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation) provided by NASA. The prediction performances are compared to basic extreme learning machine and proved the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: E raining; digital learning objects; electronic assessment; tablets; smartphones
Online: 7 May 2018 (06:09:24 CEST)
This research assess the effects of training program based on the usage of the digital learning objects in teaching practice at the Northern Borders University staff. E Assessment through the tablets and smart phones and the teachers’ attitudes towards such way of evaluation is the major objective of this study as the researcher expects that the assessment mechanism in the university through utilization of tablets and smart phones and its application will inevitably bring in a systematic improvement in the assessment and evaluation process of the curricula. Moreover, making use of the e learning objects in training will make a significant change in e training program of the university. Hence, the researcher has chosen voluntary random samples from the university teaching staff (men\women) from various different faculties (medicine, medical sciences, science, education and arts, business administration, home economics, and science and literature). These samples included 300 members of the teaching staff. In a group of 20 to 25 members, a personal training was conducted regarding the usage of tablets and smart phones and its applications in the assessment process. Each group participated by producing a complete e-assessment for their students in the Northern Borders University and by the e learning system i.e. Blackboard and Question Mark. The research also depends on the semi-experimental design of multiple groups and on testing the groups’ pre and post achievement tests. In addition, the research identifies the level of the university teaching staff in using the tablets and the smartphones and its applications in the assessment process by the note card that the individuals have during the test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0948.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Cognitive stress analysis; Human robot collaboration (HRC); Neuroimaging; EEG; fNIRS; Machine learning
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:24:26 CEST)
Collaborative robots (cobots) have largely replaced conventional industrial robots in today’s workplaces, particularly in manufacturing setups due to their improved performance and intelligent design. In the framework of Industry 5.0, humans are working alongside cobots to accomplish the required level of automation. However, human-robot interaction has brought up concerns regarding human factors (HF) and ergonomics. A human worker may experience cognitive stress as a result of cobots' irresponsive nature in unpredictably occurring situations, which adversely affects productivity. Therefore, there is a necessity to measure stress to enhance a human worker’s performance in a human-robot collaborative environment. In this study, factory workers’ mental workload has been assessed using physiological, behavioural, and subjective measures. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals have been collected to acquire brain signals and track hemodynamic activity, respectively. The effect of task complexity, cobot’s movement speed, and cobot’s payload capacity on the mental stress of a human worker have been observed, for a task designed in the context of a smart factory. Task complexity and cobot’s speed have proved to be more impactful. As physiological measures are unbiased and more authentic means to estimate stress, eventually, they may replace the other conventional measures if they prove to correlate with the results of traditional ones. Here, regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) have been utilised to determine the correlation between physiological data and subjective and behavioural measures. Regression has performed better for most of the targets and the best correlation (rsq-adj = 0.654146) has been achieved for predicting missed beeps, behavioural measure, using a combination of multiple EEG and fNIRS predictors. The k-nearest neighbours (KNN) algorithm has been used to evaluate the accuracy of correlation between traditional measures and physiological variables, with highest accuracy of 77.8% achieved for missed beeps as the target. Results show that physiological measures can be more insightful and have the tendency to replace other biased parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1901.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Clinical instructor; Undergraduate nursing students; Clinical learning; Descriptive phenomenological approach
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:50:14 CEST)
This study aimed to determine clinical instructors’ perceptions of the assessments used to evaluate the clinical knowledge of undergraduate nursing students. This study uses a descriptive phenomenological approach. Purposive sampling was used to recruit sixteen clinical instructors for semi-structured interviews between August to December 2019. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven-step method. Four criteria were used to ensure the study’s validity: credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Three themes were identified in the clinical instructors’ views on evaluating the clinical performance of student nurses: familiarity with students, patchwork clinical learning, and differing perceptions of the same scoring system. Study results suggest the need for a reliable, valid, and consistent approach to evaluating students’ clinical knowledge. If the use of patchwork clinical internships for student nurses is unavoidable, a method for assessing student nurses’ clinical performance that requires instructor consensus is necessary.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0142.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: pre-harvest; ripeness; image analysis; machine learning; fruit phenotyping
Online: 20 December 2017 (09:35:36 CET)
Global food security for the increasing world population not only requires increased sustainable production of food but a significant reduction in pre- and post-harvest waste. The timing of when a fruit is harvested is critical for reducing waste along the supply chain and increasing fruit quality for consumers. The early in field assessment of fruit ripeness and prediction of the harvest date and yield by non-destructive technologies have the potential to revolutionize farming practices and enable the consumer to eat the tastiest and freshest fruit possible. A variety of non-destructive techniques have been applied to estimate the ripeness or maturity but not all of them are applicable for in situ (field or glasshouse) assessment. This review focuses on the non-destructive methods which are promising, or have already been, applied to the pre-harvest in field measurement including colorimetry, visible imaging, spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Machine learning and regression models used in assessing ripeness are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0754.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: higher education; learning outcomes; student satisfaction; human capital development; employability; lecturer professionalism
Online: 12 July 2023 (05:45:43 CEST)
With limited state budget, developed nation public higher education have increased their fees making education expensive for most developing nation students. Some developing nations have set up regional low-cost education hubs to attract developed nation universities to offer their reputable degree programs. However, the intense competition for student enrolment in both has led to the marketisation of education. Students as paying customers need to experience satisfying stress-free teaching and learning to sustain enrolment. With employers increasingly unhappy with the quality of human capital, has the marketisation of higher education led to nominal human capital development? Can substantive human capital be developed in the new normal of marketisation of higher education? An adaptation of randomised control trials was used to measure learning outcomes desired by future employers for two teaching and learning approaches namely students as customers (n=497) and employers as customers (n=355). Findings show both approaches have good learning outcomes with the latter generally more superior. However, the former leads to nominal learning outcomes. This research extends the literature on achieving substantive learning outcomes conducive to employability. Implications for student satisfaction, lecturer professionalism, employability and quality assurance are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0136.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: air entrainment; confined plunging jet; liquid jet reactor; reactor parameters; machine learning algorithms
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:44:18 CEST)
: The effects of the main parameters on the air entrainment rate, Qa, were investigated experimentally in a confined plunging liquid jet reactor CPLJR. Various downcomer diameters (Dc), jet lengths (Lj), liquid volumetric flow rates (Qj), nozzle diameters (dn), and jet velocity (Vj) were used to measure air entrainment, Qa. The non-linear relationship between the air entrainment ratio and confined plunging jet reactor parameters suggests that applying unconventional regression algorithms to predict the air entrainment ratio is appropriate. This study applied machine learning algorithms to the confined plunging jet reactor parameters to predict Qa. The obtained results showed that K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) gave the best prediction abilities, R2 = 0.900, RMSE = 0.069, and MAE = 0.052. The sensitivity analysis was applied to determine the most effective predictor. The liquid volumetric flow rate (Qj) and jet velocity (Vj) were the most influential among all the input variables. Our findings support using machine learning algorithms to accurately forecast the CPLJR system’s experimental results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK); Drugs; environmental chemicals; Adverse outcome pathway (AOP); machine learning
Online: 30 December 2022 (01:30:07 CET)
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models (PBPK) are mechanistical tools generally employed in the pharmaceutical industry and environmental health risk assessment. These models are recognised by regulatory authorities for predicting organ concentration-time profile, pharmacokinetic and daily intake dose of xenobiotics. Extension of PBPK models to capture sensitive populations like pediatric, geriatric, pregnant females, fetus etc. and diseased population like renal impairment, liver cirrhosis etc. is a must. However, the current modelling practice and existing models are not mature enough to confidently predict the risk in these populations. A multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, experimental and modeler scientist is vital to improve the physiology, and calculation of biochemical parameters for integrating the knowledge and refining existing PBPK models. Specific PBPK covering compartments like cerebrospinal fluid, and hippocampus are required to gain mechanistic understanding about xenobiotic disposition in these sub-parts. The PBPK model assists in building quantitative adverse outcome pathways (qAOPs) for several endpoints like developmental neurotoxicity (DNT), hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. Machine learning algorithms can predict physicochemical parameters required to develop in-silico models where experimental data is unavailable. Integrating machine learning with PBPK carries the potential to revolutionize the field of drug discovery and development and environmental risk. Overall, this review tried to summarize the recent developments in the in-silico models, building qAOPs, use of machine learning for improving existing models along with a regulatory perspective. This review can act as a guide for toxicologists who wish to build their careers in kinetic modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0687.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: automatic speech recognition (ASR); automatic assessment tools; foreign language pronunciation; pronunciation training; computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT); automatic pronunciation assessment; learning environments; minimal pairs
Online: 29 June 2021 (07:31:41 CEST)
General–purpose automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems have improved their quality and are being used for pronunciation assessment. However, the assessment of isolated short utterances, as words in minimal pairs for segmental approaches, remains an important challenge, even more for non-native speakers. In this work, we compare the performance of our own tailored ASR system (kASR) with the one of Google ASR (gASR) for the assessment of Spanish minimal pair words produced by 33 native Japanese speakers in a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) scenario. Participants of a pre/post-test training experiment spanning four weeks were split into three groups: experimental, in-classroom, and placebo. Experimental group used the CAPT tool described in the paper, which we specially designed for autonomous pronunciation training. Statistically significant improvement for experimental and in-classroom groups is revealed, and moderate correlation values between gASR and kASR results were obtained, beside strong correlations between the post-test scores of both ASR systems with the CAPT application scores found at the final stages of application use. These results suggest that both ASR alternatives are valid for assessing minimal pairs in CAPT tools, in the current configuration. Discussion on possible ways to improve our system and possibilities for future research are included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Patient Reported Outcome Measure; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Predictive Analytics; Cancer Patients; Palliative Care
Online: 1 November 2023 (08:51:18 CET)
Machine learning (ML) techniques can help predict survival among cancer patients and might help with a timely integration in palliative care. We aim to explore the importance of subjective variables self-reported and collected via electronic patient reported outcome measure (ePROM) for survival prediction. A total of 256 advanced cancer patients met the eligible criteria. We analyzed objective variables collected from electronic health records, subjective variables collected via ePROM and all clinical variables combined. We used logistic regression (LR), decision trees, and random forests to predict 1-year mortality. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve - area under the curve (AUC) and the ML models feature importance were analyzed. The performance of all variables for predictions (LR reaches 0.80 [ROC AUC] and 0.72 [F1 Score]) does not improve over the performance of only clinical non-patient reported outcome (non-PRO) variables (LR reaches 0.81 [ROC AUC] and 0.72 [F1 Score]). Our study indicates that patient-reported outcome (PRO) variables, which measure subjective burden, cannot be reliably used to predict survival. Further research in this area is needed to clarify the role of self-reported patient's burden and mortality prediction via ML.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1418.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Half-cell potential; Electrical resistivity; Impact echo; Numerical simulation; Machine learning; Multi-NDE; Corrosion; Bridge deck; concrete; Random Forest; classification algorithm; regression algorithm
Online: 23 October 2023 (08:59:09 CEST)
Several factors impact the durability of concrete bridge decks, including traffic loads, fatigue, temperature changes, environmental stress, and maintenance activities. Detecting problems such as corrosion, delamination, or concrete degradation early on can lower maintenance costs. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques can detect these issues at early stages. Each NDE method, meanwhile, has limitations that reduce the accuracy of the assessment. In this study, multiple NDE technologies were combined with machine learning algorithms to improve the interpretation of half-cell potential (HCP) and electrical resistivity (ER) measurements. A parametric study was performed to analyze the influence of five parameters on HCP and ER measurements, such as degree of saturation, corrosion length, delamination depth, concrete cover, and moisture condition of delamination. The results were obtained through finite element simulations and used to build two machine learning algorithms, a classification algorithm and a regression algorithm, based on the Random Forest methodology. The algorithms were tested using data collected from a bridge deck in the BEAST® facility. Both machine learning algorithms were effective in improving the interpretation of ER and HCP measurements using data from multiple NDE technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0218.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; machine learning; applied deep learning
Online: 10 October 2018 (11:37:13 CEST)
Deep learning is an emerging area of machine learning (ML) research. It comprises multiple hidden layers of artificial neural networks. The deep learn- ing methodology applies nonlinear transformations and model abstractions of high level in large databases. The recent advancements in deep learning architec- tures within numerous fields have already provided significant contributions in artificial intelligence. This article presents a state of the art survey on the contri- butions and the novel applications of deep learning. The following review chron- ologically presents how and in what major applications deep learning algorithms have been utilized. Furthermore, the superior and beneficial of the deep learning methodology and its hierarchy in layers and nonlinear operations are presented and compared with the more conventional algorithms in the common applica- tions. The state of the art survey further provides a general overview on the novel concept and the ever-increasing advantages and popularity of deep learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1901.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Drones; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence; Supervised learning; Unsupervised Learning; Reinforcement Learning
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:27:38 CEST)
The use of drones for various applications has become increasingly popular in recent years, and machine learning has played a significant role in this trend. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the classification and application of machine learning in drones. The paper begins with an overview of the different types of machine learning algorithms and their applications in drones, including supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. Next, we present a detailed analysis of various real-world applications of machine learning in drones, such as object recognition, route planning, obstacle avoidance, search area optimization, and autonomous search. The paper also discusses the challenges and limitations of using machine learning in drones, such as data privacy, data quality, and computational requirements. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the future directions of machine learning in drones and its potential impact on various industries and fields. This paper provides a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, and students interested in the intersection of machine learning and drones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0092.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Federated Learning; Learning Analytics
Online: 5 January 2023 (02:39:04 CET)
Federated learning techniques aim to train and build machine learning models based on distributed datasets across multiple devices, avoiding data leakage. The main idea is to perform training on remote devices or isolated data centers without transferring data to centralized repositories, thus mitigating privacy risks. Data analytics in education, in particular learning analytics, is a promising scenario to apply this approach to address the legal and ethical issues related to processing sensitive data. Indeed, given the nature of the data to be studied (personal data, educational outcomes, data concerning minors), it is essential to ensure that the conduct of these studies and the publication of the results provide the necessary guarantees to protect the privacy of the individuals involved and the protection of their data. In addition, the application of quantitative techniques based on the exploitation of data on the use of educational platforms, student performance, use of devices, etc., can account for educational problems such as the determination of user profiles, personalized learning trajectories, or early dropout indicators and alerts, among others. This paper presents the application of federated learning techniques to two learning analytics problems: dropout prediction and unsupervised student classification. The experiments allow us to conclude that the proposed solutions achieve comparable results from the performance point of view with the centralized versions, avoiding centralizing the data for training the models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0015.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; Machine learning
Online: 1 February 2022 (13:34:28 CET)
We study the brain segmentation by dividing the brain into multiple tissues. Given possible brain segmentation by deep, machine learning can be efficiently exploited to expedite the segmentation process in the clinical practice. To accomplish segmentation process, a MRI and tissues transfer using generative adversarial networks is proposed. Given the better result, we propose the transfer model using GAN. For the case of the brain tissues, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are segmented. Empirical results show that this proposed model significantly improved segmentation results compared to the stat-of-the-art results. Furthermore, a dice coefficient (DC) metric is used to evaluate the model performance.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; hybrid learning; innovation; education
Online: 31 January 2023 (08:07:58 CET)
In recent years, online learning has become one of the most popular methods of educational delivery due to advances in technology, which has been made even more evident in the COVID-19 lockdown period. Online education has evolved into a distinct field of study within the educational system over the last few years. It is also important to note that parallel with the growth in this field, there has also been an increase in the number of scholarly journals that regularly publish research in this field, reflecting the importance of this field in the modern day. In spite of the fact that online learning offers a wide range of educational options, from short courses to full-time degrees, as well as being accessible, flexible, environmentally friendly, and affordable, there are also certain challenges associated with this educational approach. These challenges include the lack of social interaction, technical errors, a lack of hands-on training, and difficulties in assessing students. It is, therefore, imperative to ask the crucial question of whether online learning can replace traditional classroom learning or whether it can supplement it in hybrid models with it, as well as what factors and conditions are likely to determine this in the short- and long-term, as well as how it will be blended together in the future. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a brief summary of the current status of both learning models, as well as their pros and cons, in order to answer the question that was posed above.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0309.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: economics; deep reinforcement learning; deep learning; machine learning
Online: 20 March 2020 (07:13:42 CET)
The popularity of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) methods in economics have been exponentially increased. DRL through a wide range of capabilities from reinforcement learning (RL) and deep learning (DL) for handling sophisticated dynamic business environments offers vast opportunities. DRL is characterized by scalability with the potential to be applied to high-dimensional problems in conjunction with noisy and nonlinear patterns of economic data. In this work, we first consider a brief review of DL, RL, and deep RL methods in diverse applications in economics providing an in-depth insight into the state of the art. Furthermore, the architecture of DRL applied to economic applications is investigated in order to highlight the complexity, robustness, accuracy, performance, computational tasks, risk constraints, and profitability. The survey results indicate that DRL can provide better performance and higher accuracy as compared to the traditional algorithms while facing real economic problems at the presence of risk parameters and the ever-increasing uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0524.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; image representation learning; self-supervised learning; masked image modeling; contrastive learning
Online: 9 October 2023 (12:52:30 CEST)
Self-supervised learning is a method that learns general representation from unlabeled data. Masked image modeling (MIM), one of the generative self-supervised learning methods, has drawn attention showing state-of-the-art performance on various downstream tasks, though showing poor linear separability resulting from the token-level approach. In this paper, we propose a contrastive learning-based multi-view masked autoencoder for MIM, exploiting an image-level approach by learning common features from two different augmented views. We strengthen MIM by learning long-range global patterns from contrastive loss. Our framework adopts simple encoder-decoder architecture, learning rich and general representation by following a simple process: 1) two different views are generated from an input image with random masking and by contrastive loss, we can learn semantic distance of the representations generated by an encoder. By applying a high mask ratio, 80%, it works as strong augmentation and alleviates the representation collapse problem. 2) With reconstruction loss, decoder learns to reconstruct an original image from the masked image. We assess our framework by several experiments on benchmark datasets of image classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation. We achieve 84.3% fine-tuning accuracy on ImageNet-1K classification and 76.7% in linear probing, exceeding previous studies and show promising results on other downstream tasks. Experimental results demonstrate that our work can learn rich and general image representation by applying contrastive loss to masked image modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0199.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep reinforcement learning; transfer learning; fire; evacuation
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:38:05 CEST)
There is only a very short reaction time for people to find the best way out of a building in a fire outbreak. Software applications can be used to assist the rapid evacuation of victims; however, this is an arduous task, which requires an understanding of advanced technologies. Since well-known pathway algorithms (such as, Dijkstra, Bellman-Ford and A*) can lead to serious problems over performance, we decided to make use of deep reinforcement learning techniques. A wide range of strategies including a random initialization of replay buffer and transfer learning were assessed in three projects involving schools of different sizes. The results showed the proposal was viable and that in most cases the performance of transfer learning was superior. In addition, the study raised challenges that had to be faced in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; data efficient; curriculum learning; transfer learning
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:35:06 CEST)
Sparse reward long horizon task is a major challenge for deep reinforcement learning algorithm. One of the key barriers is data-inefficiency. Even in the simulation environment, it usually takes weeks to training the agent. In this study, a data-efficiency training framework is proposed, where a curriculum learning is design for the agent in the simulation scenario. Different distributions of the initial state are set for the agent to get more informative reward during the whole training process. A fine-tuning of the parameters in the output layer of the neural network for value function is conduct to bridge the gap between sim-to-real. An experiment of UAV maneuver control is conducted in the proposed training framework to verify the method more efficient. We demonstrate that data-efficiency is different for the same data in different training stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Informal learning; Computers in education; Distance education and online learning; Learning communities; Mobile learning
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:31:13 CEST)
This article discusses the comparison between digital and traditional face-to-face coaching within the scope of shadow education institutions. While analyzing the differences and similarities between the two educational models, both their advantages and disadvantages are thoroughly discussed. In this context, interviews were conducted with students and teachers who receive education in both face-to-face and digital coaching, and the positive and negative aspects of both institutions, suitable and unsuitable courses, the future situation, and the effects on students' academic achievements were revealed. According to the results obtained from the research, it is noteworthy that students who do not receive education in digital coaching have prejudices against digitalization. Additionally, no significant difference was found between the academic achievements of students receiving education in digital coaching and those receiving education in face-to-face coaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Deep learning; Variational Autoencoders (VAEs); data representation learning; generative models; unsupervised learning; few shot learning; latent space; transfer learning
Online: 22 September 2021 (16:04:22 CEST)
Despite the importance of few-shot learning, the lack of labeled training data in the real world, makes it extremely challenging for existing machine learning methods as this limited data set does not represent the data variance well. In this research, we suggest employing a generative approach using variational autoencoders (VAEs), which can be used specifically to optimize few-shot learning tasks by generating new samples with more intra-class variations. The purpose of our research is to increase the size of the training data set using various methods to improve the accuracy and robustness of the few-shot face recognition. Specifically, we employ the VAE generator to increase the size of the training data set, including the basic and the novel sets while utilizing transfer learning as the backend. Based on extensive experimental research, we analyze various data augmentation methods to observe how each method affects the accuracy of face recognition. We conclude that the face generation method we proposed can effectively improve the recognition accuracy rate to 96.47% using both the base and the novel sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0457.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: graph neural networks; machine learning; transfer learning; multi-task learning
Online: 31 January 2022 (12:49:31 CET)
Graph neural networks (GNNs) build on the success of deep learning models by extending them for use in graph spaces. Transfer learning has proven extremely successful for traditional deep learning problems: resulting in faster training and improved performance. Despite the increasing interest in GNNs and their use cases, there is little research on their transferability. This research demonstrates that transfer learning is effective with GNNs, and describes how source tasks and the choice of GNN impact the ability to learn generalisable knowledge. We perform experiments using real-world and synthetic data within the contexts of node classification and graph classification. To this end, we also provide a general methodology for transfer learning experimentation and present a novel algorithm for generating synthetic graph classification tasks. We compare the performance of GCN, GraphSAGE and GIN across both the synthetic and real-world datasets. Our results demonstrate empirically that GNNs with inductive operations yield statistically significantly improved transfer. Further we show that similarity in community structure between source and target tasks support statistically significant improvements in transfer over and above the use of only the node attributes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0060.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; artificial neural network; artificial intelligence; discriminative learning; generative learning; hybrid learning; intelligent systems;
Online: 2 August 2021 (17:33:48 CEST)
Deep learning (DL), a branch of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) is nowadays considered as a core technology of today's Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR or Industry 4.0). Due to its learning capabilities from data, DL technology originated from artificial neural network (ANN), has become a hot topic in the context of computing, and is widely applied in various application areas like healthcare, visual recognition, cybersecurity, and many more. However, building an appropriate DL model is a challenging task, due to the dynamic nature and variations in real-world problems and data. Moreover, the lack of core understanding turns DL methods into black-box machines that hamper development at the standard level. This article presents a structured and comprehensive view on DL techniques including a taxonomy considering various types of real-world tasks like supervised or unsupervised. In our taxonomy, we take into account deep networks for supervised or discriminative learning, unsupervised or generative learning as well as hybrid learning and relevant others. We also summarize real-world application areas where deep learning techniques can be used. Finally, we point out ten potential aspects for future generation DL modeling with research directions. Overall, this article aims to draw a big picture on DL modeling that can be used as a reference guide for both academia and industry professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0306.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: online learning; face-to-face learning; learning effectiveness; challenges with online learning; lecture-based courses.
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:57:22 CEST)
During the COVID-19 outbreak, most university courses have been offered on online platforms. A sudden shift from face-to-face classroom learning to online formats could influence the learning effectiveness of classes. This study aims to investigate differences in the learning effectiveness of online and face-to-face lecture courses. It also explores factors that impact the effectiveness of online instruction. These factors include interactions among learners, interactions between learners and the instructor, the quality of online platforms, learners’ ability to use devices and follow instructions, and learners’ situational challenges. The study participants were 261 university students at King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok, Thailand. All participants were enrolled in at least one lecture course, such as history, humans and the environment, the environment and development, or general philosophy, during the 2019 academic year. A questionnaire was distributed to participants after they completed these courses in May 2020. Paired simple t-test analyses were used to compare the effectiveness of online and face-to-face classes, and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors that impact the learning effectiveness of online classes. The results show that online classes are less effective than face-to-face courses. The multiple regression analysis also revealed that the effectiveness of online learning was significantly impacted by learners’ ability to interact with classmates during class, their ability to interact with instructors after the class, the quality of online platforms, and disturbances or distractions in learners’ environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1552.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Fruit Quality; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 24 July 2023 (03:09:22 CEST)
Fruit quality is a critical factor in the produce industry, affecting producers, distributors, consumers, and the economy. High-quality fruits are more appealing, nutritious, and safe, boosting consumer satisfaction and revenue for producers. Artificial Intelligence can aid in assessing the quality of the fruit using images. This paper presents a general machine-learning model for assessing fruit quality using deep image features. The model leverages the learning capabilities of the recent successful networks for image classification called Vision Transformers (ViT). The ViT model is built and trained with a combination of various fruit datasets and learned to distinguish between good and rotten fruit images. The general model demonstrated impressive results in accurately identifying the quality of various fruits such as Apples (with a 99.50% accuracy), Cucumbers (99%), Grapes (100%), Kakis (99.50%), Oranges (99.50%), Papayas (98%), Peaches (98%), Tomatoes (99.50%), and Watermelons (98%). However, it showed slightly lower performance in identifying Guavas (97%), Lemons (97%), Limes (97.50%), mangoes (97.50%), Pears (97%), and Pomegranates (97%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1522.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Recommendation system; Contrast learning; Deep Learning
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:55:55 CEST)
Modelling both long and short-term user interests from historical data is crucial for accurate recommendations. However, unifying these metrics across multiple application domains can be challenging, and existing approaches often rely on complex, intertwined models which can be difficult to interpret. To address this issue, we propose a lightweight, plug-and-play interest enhancement module that fuses interest vectors from two independent models. After analyzing the dataset, we identify deviations in the recommendation performance of long and short-term interest models. To compensate for these differences, we use feature enhancement and loss correction during training. In the fusion process, we explicitly split long-term interest features with longer duration into multiple local features. We then use a shared attention mechanism to fuse multiple local features with short-term interest features to obtain interaction features. To correct for bias between models, we introduce a comparison learning task that monitors the similarity between local features, short-term features, and interaction features. This adaptively reduces the distance between similar features. Our proposed module combines and compares multiple independent long-term and short-term interest models on multiple domain datasets. As a result, it not only accelerates the convergence of the models but also achieves outstanding performance in challenging recommendation scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; generative models
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:05:39 CET)
Over the past decade, research in the field of Deep Learning has brought about novel improvements in image generation and feature learning; one such example being a Generative Adversarial Network. However, these improvements have been coupled with an increasing demand on mathematical literacy and previous knowledge in the field. Therefore, in this literature review, I seek to introduce Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to a broader audience by explaining their background and intuition at a more foundational level. I begin by discussing the mathematical background of this architecture, specifically topics in linear algebra and probability theory. I then proceed to introduce GANs in a more theoretical framework, along with some of the literature on GANs, including their architectural improvements and image-generation capabilities. Finally, I cover state-of-the-art image generation through style-based methods, as well as their implications on society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: deep learning; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 19 October 2022 (11:04:23 CEST)
This study evaluated the using of machine vision in combination with deep learning to identify weeds in real-time for wheat production system. PMAS-Arid Agriculture university research farm were selected for collection of images (6000 total images) of weeds and wheat crops under different weather condition. During growing season, the database was constructed to identify the weeds. For this study two framework were used TensorFlow and PyTorch under CNNs and Deep learning. Deep learning perfromed better with in PyTourch value as compared to another model in Tensorflow. comparing with other networks such as YOLOv4, we concluded that our network reaches a better result between speed and accuracy. Specifically, the maximum precision of weed and wheat plants were 0.89 and 0.91 respectively with 9.43 ms and 12.38 ms inference time per image (640 × 640) NVIDIA RTX2070 GPU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0583.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: quantum machine learning; quantum deep learning
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:00:45 CET)
Tremendous progress has been witnessed in artificial intelligence within the domain of neural network backed deep learning systems and its applications. As we approach the post Moore’s Law era, the limit of semiconductor fabrication technology along with a rapid increase in data generation rates have lead to an impending growing challenge of tackling newer and more modern machine learning problems. In parallel, quantum computing has exhibited rapid development in recent years. Due to the potential of a quantum speedup, quantum based learning applications have become an area of significant interest, in hopes that we can leverage quantum systems to solve classical problems. In this work, we propose a quantum deep learning architecture; we demonstrate our quantum neural network architecture on tasks ranging from binary and multi-class classification to generative modelling. Powered by a modified quantum differentiation function along with a hybrid quantum-classic design, our architecture encodes the data with a reduced number of qubits and generates a quantum circuit, loading it onto a quantum platform where the model learns the optimal states iteratively. We conduct intensive experiments on both the local computing environment and IBM-Q quantum platform. The evaluation results demonstrate that our architecture is able to outperform Tensorflow-Quantum by up to 12.51% and 11.71% for a comparable classic deep neural network on the task of classification trained with the same network settings. Furthermore, our GAN architecture runs the discriminator and the generator purely on quantum hardware and utilizes the swap test on qubits to calculate the values of loss functions. In comparing our quantum GAN, we note our architecture is able to achieve similar performance with 98.5% reduction on the parameter set when compared to classical GANs. With the same number of parameters, additionally, QuGAN outperforms other quantum based GANs in the literature for up to 125.0% in terms of similarity between generated distributions and original data sets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0203.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; ensemble models
Online: 20 August 2019 (08:41:28 CEST)
The conventional machine learning (ML) algorithms are continuously advancing and evolving at a fast-paced by introducing the novel learning algorithms. ML models are continually improving using hybridization and ensemble techniques to empower computation, functionality, robustness, and accuracy aspects of modeling. Currently, numerous hybrid and ensemble ML models have been introduced. However, they have not been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. This paper presents the state of the art of novel ML models and their performance and application domains through a novel taxonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0023.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; graph kernels; unsupervised learning
Online: 4 February 2018 (10:52:50 CET)
This paper presents a new method : HIVEC to learn latent vector representations of graphs in a manner that captures the semantic dependencies of sub-structures. The representations can then be used in machine learning algorithms for tasks such as graph classification, clustering etcetera. The method proposed is unsupervised and uses the information of co-occurrence of sub-structures. It introduces a notion of hierarchical embeddings that allows us to avoid repetitive learning of sub-structures for every new graph. As an alternative to deep learning methods, the edit distance similarity between sub-structures is also used to learn vector representations. We compare the performance of these methods against previous work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0900.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: student learning, learning satisfaction; prior learning experience, first-year writing program
Online: 15 November 2023 (05:15:07 CET)
Undergraduate learning is a multifaceted concept that many researchers have investigated to promote student engagement, academic performance, etc. Exploring factors promoting learning among undergraduates in FYW programs, which are required for undergraduates might potentially contribute to sustainable, cross-disciplinary undergraduate education. This study used the 10-year longitudinal grade and survey data at San José State University (SJSU) and the data was collected from Academic Years (AYs) 2015 to 2020, and five student surveys constituted the sample size of 18,101 students. In 2016, SJSU changed the remedial writing course to college writing courses. Since then, students need to complete an online module course before placing themselves into a one-semester or two-semester writing course. The previous study showed that students with higher writing comfort and confidence tend to place themselves into a semester-long class. Regression analysis was applied to examine the relationships among factors promoting learning among those students. University admitted students from various diversity and backgrounds, the results of this study suggested that what students chose and persisted in were more important in advancing their academic success rather than prior learning experience or psychological factors before the class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0441.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Hybrid Learning; Collaborative Learning; Orchestration load; Smart Learning Environments; Teacher agency.
Online: 6 July 2023 (15:50:21 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the growth of hybrid and online learning environments and the trend to introduce more technology into the classroom. One such change would be the use of smart synchronous hybrid learning environments (SSHLE), which are settings with both in-person and online students concurrently, and in which technology plays a key role in sensing, analyzing, and reacting throughout the teaching and learning process. These changing environments and the incorporation of new technologies can place a greater orchestration load on participants and a reduction in teacher agency. In this context, the aim of this paper is to analyse the orchestration load and teacher agency in different SSHLEs. The NASA-TLX model was used to measure the orchestration load in several scenarios. Questionnaires and interviews were used to measure teacher agency. The results obtained indicate that the orchestration load of the teacher tends to be high (between 60 and 70 points out of 100 of the NASA-TLX workload), especially when they lack experience in synchronous hybrid learning environments, and the orchestration load of the students tends to have average values (between 50 and 60) in the SSHLEs analysed. Meanwhile, the teacher agency does not appear to be altered but shows potential for improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: domain generalization; contrastive learning; classification; deep learning; encoder; Zero-Shot Learning
Online: 4 November 2022 (07:29:50 CET)
A common challenge in real-world classification scenarios with sequentially appending target domain data is insufficient training datasets during the training phase. Therefore, conventional deep learning and transfer learning classifiers are not applicable especially when individual classes are not represented or are severely underrepresented at the outset. Domain Generalization approaches reach their limits when domain shifts become too large, making them occasionally unsuitable as well. In many (technical) domains, however, it is only the defect/ worn/ reject classes that are insufficiently represented, while the non-defect class is often available from the beginning. The proposed classification approach addresses such conditions and is based on a CNN encoder. Following a contrastive learning approach, it is trained with a modified triplet loss function using two datasets: Besides the non-defective target domain class (= 1st dataset), a state-of-the-art labeled source domain dataset that contains highly related classes (e.g., a related manufacturing error or wear defect) but originates from a (highly) different domain (e.g., different product, material, or appearance) (= 2nd dataset) is utilized. The approach learns the classification features from the source domain dataset while at the same time learning the differences between the source and the target domain in a single training step, aiming to transfer the relevant features to the target domain. The classifier becomes sensitive to the classification features and – by architecture – robust against the highly domain-specific context. The approach is benchmarked in a technical and a non-technical domain and shows convincing classification results. In particular, it is shown that the domain generalization capabilities and classification results are improved by the proposed architecture, allowing for larger domain shifts between source and target domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0035.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: meta-learning; lie group; machine learning; deep learning; convolutional neural network
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:09:53 CET)
Deep learning has achieved lots of successes in many fields, but when trainable sample are extremely limited, deep learning often under or overfitting to few samples. Meta-learning was proposed to solve difficulties in few-shot learning and fast adaptive areas. Meta-learner learns to remember some common knowledge by training on large scale tasks sampled from a certain data distribution to equip generalization when facing unseen new tasks. Due to the limitation of samples, most approaches only use shallow neural network to avoid overfitting and reduce the difficulty of training process, that causes the waste of many extra information when adapting to unseen tasks. Euclidean space-based gradient descent also make meta-learner's update inaccurate. These issues cause many meta-learning model hard to extract feature from samples and update network parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel method by using multi-stage joint training approach to post the bottleneck during adapting process. To accelerate adapt procedure, we also constraint network to Stiefel manifold, thus meta-learner could perform more stable gradient descent in limited steps. Experiment on mini-ImageNet shows that our method reaches better accuracy under 5-way 1-shot and 5-way 5-shot conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0104.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: neural networks; statistical physics of learning; on-line learning; concept drift; continual learning; learning vector quantization;
Online: 5 September 2018 (16:27:10 CEST)
We introduce a modelling framework for the investigation of on-line machine learning processes in non-stationary environments. We exemplify the approach in terms of two specific model situations: In the first, we consider the learning of a classification scheme from clustered data by means of prototype-based Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). In the second, we study the training of layered neural networks with sigmoidal activations for the purpose of regression. In both cases, the target, i.e. the classification or regression scheme, is considered to change continuously while the system is trained from a stream of labeled data. We extend and apply methods borrowed from statistical physics which have been used frequently for the exact description of training dynamics in stationary environments. Extensions of the approach allow for the computation of typical learning curves in the presence of concept drift in a variety of model situations. First results are presented and discussed for stochastic drift processes in classification and regression problems. They indicate that LVQ is capable of tracking a classification scheme under drift to a non-trivial extent. Furthermore, we show that concept drift can cause the persistence of sub-optimal plateau states in gradient based training of layered neural networks for regression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1286.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ransomware; malware classification; deep learning; few-shot learning; entropy features; transfer learning
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:20:15 CET)
Ransomware attacks have rapidly proliferated, inflicting severe financial damages on businesses and individuals. Machine learning approaches to automate ransomware detection have shown promise but grapple with challenges like limited training data. This study introduces a novel deep learning model for few-shot ransomware classification. The model employs entropy features derived directly from malware binaries coupled with a twin neural network architecture utilizing transfer learning. Tests on over 1000 samples across 11 families demonstrate a weighted F1-score of 85.8\%, surpassing existing methods. The approach mitigates biases in limited training data and preserves intricacies lost in image-based features. It exhibits precise classification capabilities even with sparse samples of new ransomware variants. The research highlights the potential of entropy-driven deep learning to equip defenses against emerging zero-day ransomware strains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1820.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Breast Cancer; Deep Learning Methods; Image Classification; GAN; Transfer Learning; Lifelong Learning
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:17:09 CEST)
Breast cancer is a common malignant tumour and studies have shown that early and accurate detection is crucial for patients. With the maturity of medical imaging and deep learning development, significant progress has been made in breast cancer classification, which greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of classification. This review focuses on deep learning, migration learning, GAN, and lifelong learning to elaborate and summarise the important roles arising from breast cancer detection. This review also examines the dataset and labeling issues required for breast cancer classification. In conclusion, at the end of the article, we look at future directions for breast cancer classification research, including cross-migration learning, multimodal data fusion, model interpretability, and lifelong learning, and also explore how to provide personalized treatment plans for patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1767.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: distance learning; distance learning exit model; distance learning financing; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 25 August 2023 (09:16:32 CEST)
At the beginning of 2020, with the onset of the pandemic, the traditional learning environment for learners drastically changed globally. Since then, most students/teachers have started and practiced distance and virtual learning/teaching. Thus, a technological breakthrough in virtual learning has followed. In connection with this, many countries worldwide have commenced allocating additional financing and funds for educational institutions' technological improvement and development. The long-term stay in distance learning has revealed and highlighted new problems students face: their knowledge level has decreased, they lack socialization skills, and they face psychological and physical health problems. Due to this negative impact on students, a need to research and evaluate how much the EU countries allocated to solve the distance learning-caused problems and what programs or models they prepared has emerged and encouraged further studies. The research has found that many countries increased their allocations very minimally, e.g., 0.0.1%, but some increased their available budgets to 32%. Notably, most countries did not separate distance learning exit funding from distance learning preparation funding. Based on the problems the countries saw, only a few states identified withdrawal from distance learning as a problem. Considering this, we set ourselves the goal to evaluate exit models from distance learning and allocated funding amounts. The following objectives were planned to achieve the goal: · to evaluate the global practice of exit from distance learning; · to determine the scope of funding for pandemic management; · to evaluate the amounts of funding allocated to manage pandemic-caused consequences and the GDP ratio. Research methods: mathematical-statistical analysis, empirical analysis, and analysis of scientific literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0756.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: reinforcement learning； meta learning； deep reinforcement learning； autonomous driving； robot operating system
Online: 10 August 2023 (05:42:54 CEST)
Reinforcement Learning (RL) has demonstrated considerable potential in solving challenges across various domains, notably in autonomous driving. Nevertheless, implementing RL in autonomous driving comes with its own set of difficulties, such as the overestimation phenomenon, extensive learning time, and sparse reward problems. Although solutions like Hindsight Experience Replay (HER) have been proposed to alleviate these issues, the direct utilization of RL in autonomous vehicles remains constrained due to the intricate fusion of information and the possibility of system failures during the learning process. In this paper, we present a novel RL-based autonomous driving system technology that combines Obstacle Dependent Gaussian (ODG) RL, Soft Actor-Critic (SAC), and meta-learning algorithms. Our approach addresses key issues in RL, including the overestimation phenomenon and sparse reward problems, by incorporating prior knowledge derived from the ODG algorithm. We evaluated our proposed algorithm on official F1 circuits, using high-fidelity racing simulations with complex dynamics. The results demonstrate exceptional performance, with our method achieving up to 89% faster learning speed compared to existing algorithms in these environments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Micro-credentials; Higher Education; Online Learning; E-learning; MOOCs; Digital Learning Ecosystems
Online: 2 March 2023 (12:40:42 CET)
This review paper delves into using micro-credentials in higher education ecosystems as a digital enablers. Micro-credentials, which are digital credentials that attest to a learner’s mastery of a specific skill or knowledge area, are becoming more popular in higher education. The paper examines the successful implementation of micro-credential frameworks in higher education, using case studies to demonstrate the advantages of micro-credentials. The review emphasizes the agility and flexibility of microcredentials, which enable learners to acquire new skills quickly and respond to changes in the job market. In addition, the paper discusses the digital nature of micro-credentials and how they allow institutionsto provide targeted, skills-based training that isrelevant to employers. It also explores how micro-credentials are delivered through online platforms, making them convenient and easily accessible for learners. The review underscores the significance of digital infrastructure, connectivity, and public utility for promoting micro-credentials. The paper argues that micro-credentials function as a digital enabler for higher edu- cation ecosystems, allowing learners to acquire targeted training and enabling institutions to expand their offerings and reach more students. The paper concludes by highlighting the potential for micro-credentials to help bridge the skills gap and equip learners with the skills necessary to succeed in today’s digital economy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Transfer Learning; Computer-aided Diagnosis
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:00:44 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) disease still remain a major global threat due to the growing number of drug-resistant species and global warming. Despite the fact that there are new molecular diagnostic approaches, however, majority of developing countries and remote clinics depends on conventional approaches such as Tuberculin test, microscopic examinations and radiographic imaging (Chest X-ray). These techniques are hindered by several challenges which can lead to miss-diagnosis especially when interpreting large number of sample cases. Thus, in order to reduce workload and prevent miss-diagnosis, scientists incorporated computer-aided technology for detection of medical images known as Computer aided Detection (CADe) or Diagnosis (CADx). The use of AI-powered techniques has shown to improve accuracy, sensitivity, specificity. In this review, we discussed about the epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. The review also provides background information on Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DL), Transfer Learning (TL) and their applications in detection of tuberculosis from both microscopic slide images and X-ray images. The review also proposed an IoT/AI powered system which allows transfer of results obtained from DL models with end users through internet networks. The concept of futuristic diagnosis, limitations of current techniques and open research issues are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0093.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: game-based learning; learning practicies; learning with mobility; oncological treatment; well-being
Online: 5 July 2021 (11:45:18 CEST)
The use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education brings up new possibilities of promoting the learning and health experiences. In this sense, education contexts of 21st century must consider these two areas of knowledge, especially their integration. This article presents learning practices developed with mobile devices and games, in order to improve learning and well-being in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment in non-formal educational setting. The methodology is based on qualitative case studies with content-based data analysis, involving informal interviews and observation methods. The study considers data from 5 patients who participated in the research between 2015 and 2019. The results demonstrate a positive influence of the practices with mobile technologies and games in terms of learning and in the well-being feeling of patients during the treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1152.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Medicine; Deep Learning
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:39:56 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming increasingly important, especially in the medical field. While AI has been used in medicine for some time, its growth in the last decade has been remarkable. Specifically, Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques in medicine have been increasingly adopted thanks to the growing abundance of health-related data, improved suitability of such techniques for managing large data-sets, and more computational power. The Italian scientific community has been instrumental in advancing this research area. This article aims to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the ML and DL methodologies and applications used in medicine by the Italian research community in the last five years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0062.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning; Natural Language Processing; Deep Learning
Online: 3 September 2021 (12:53:42 CEST)
Documenting cultural heritage by using artificial intelligence (AI) is crucial for preserving the memory of the past and a key point for future knowledge. However, modern AI technologies make use of statistical learners that lead to self-empiricist logic, which, unlike human minds, use learned non-symbolic representations. Nevertheless, it seems that it is not the right way to progress in AI. If we want to rely on AI for these tasks, it is essential to understand what lies behind these models. Among the ways to discover AI there are the senses and the intellect. We could consider AI as an intelligence. Intelligence has an essence, but we do not know whether it can be considered “something” or “someone”. Important issues in the analysis of AI concern the structure of symbols -operations with which the intellectual solution is carried out- and the search for strategic reference points, aspiring to create models with human-like intelligence. For many years, humans, seeing language as innate, have carried out symbolic theories. Everything seems to have skipped with the advent of Machine Learning. In this paper, after a long analysis of history, the rule-based and the learning-based vision, we propose KERMIT as a unit of investigation for a possible meeting point between the different learning theories. Finally, we propose a new vision of knowledge in AI models based on a combination of rules, learning and human knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: predictive maintenance; transfer learning; interpretable machine learning
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:38:28 CEST)
Using data-driven models to solve predictive maintenance problems has been prevalent for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). However, such models fail to solve two tasks that OEMs are interested in: (1) Making the well-built failure prediction models working on existing scenarios (vehicles, working conditions) adaptive to target scenarios. (2) Finding out the failure causes, furthermore, determining whether a model generates failure predictions based on reasonable causes. This paper investigates a comprehensive architecture towards making the predictive maintenance system adaptive and interpretable by proposing (1) an ensemble model dealing with time-series data consisting of a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network and Gaussian threshold to achieve failure prediction one week in advance and (2) an online transfer learning algorithm and a meta learning algorithm, which render existing models adaptive to new vehicles with limited data volumes. (3) Furthermore, the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations (LIME) interpretation tool and super-feature methods are applied to interpret individual and general failure causes. Vehicle data from Isuzu Motors, Ltd., are adopted to validate our method, which include time-series data and histogram data. The proposed ensemble model yields predictions with 100% accuracy for our test data on engine stalling problem and is more rapidly adaptive to new vehicles with smaller error following application of either online transfer learning or the meta learning method. The interpretation methods help elucidate the global and individual failure causes, confirming the model credibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0115.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: machine learning; virtual diagnostics; reinforcement learning control
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:58:41 CET)
We discuss the implementation of a suite of virtual diagnostics at the FACET-II facility currently under commissioning at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The diagnostics will be used for prediction of the longitudinal phase space along the linac, spectral reconstruction of the bunch profile and non-destructive inference of transverse beam quality (emittance) using edge radiation at the injector dogleg and bunch compressor locations. These measurements will be folded in to adaptive feedbacks and ML-based reinforcement learning controls to improve the stability and optimize the performance of the machine for different experimental configurations. In this paper we describe each of these diagnostics with expected measurement results based on simulation data and discuss progress towards implementation in regular operations.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Deep learning; Big data; Machine learning; Biofuels
Online: 30 September 2020 (11:19:52 CEST)
The importance of energy systems and its role in economics and politics is not hidden for anyone. This issue is not only important for the advanced industrialized countries, which are major energy consumers, but is also important for oil-rich countries. In addition to the nature of these fuels which contains polluting substances, the issue of their ending up has aggravated the growing concern. Biofuels can be used in different fields for energy production like electricity production, power production or for transportation. Various scenarios have been written about the estimated biofuels from different sources in the future energy system. The availability of biofuels for the electricity market, heating and liquid fuels is very important. Accordingly, the need for handling, modelling, decision making and future forecasting for biofuels can be one of the main challenges for scientists. Recently, machine learning and deep learning techniques have been popular in modeling, optimizing and handling the biodiesel production, consumption and its environmental impacts. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the ML and DL techniques developed for handling biofuels production, consumption and environmental impacts, both for modeling and optimization purposes. This will help for sustainable biofuel production for the future generations.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Crime prediction; Ensemble Learning; Machine Learning; Regression
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:53:30 CEST)
While the use of crime data has been widely advocated in the literature, its availability is often limited to large urban cities and isolated databases tend not to allow for spatial comparisons. This paper presents an efficient machine learning framework capable of predicting spatial crime occurrences, without using past crime as a predictor, and at a relatively high resolution: the U.S. Census Block Group level. The proposed framework is based on an in-depth multidisciplinary literature review allowing the selection of 188 best-fit crime predictors from socio-economic, demographic, spatial, and environmental data. Such data are published periodically for the entire United States. The selection of the appropriate predictive model was made through a comparative study of different machine learning families of algorithms, including generalized linear models, deep learning, and ensemble learning. The gradient boosting model was found to yield the most accurate predictions for violent crimes, property crimes, motor vehicle thefts, vandalism, and the total count of crimes. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets of crimes reported in 11 U.S. cities demonstrated that the proposed framework achieves an accuracy of 73 and 77% when predicting property crimes and violent crimes, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0181.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Cartpole; Q Learning; Mathematical Modeling
Online: 10 May 2020 (18:02:43 CEST)
The prevalence of differential equations as a mathematical technique has refined the fields of control theory and constrained optimization due to the newfound ability to accurately model chaotic, unbalanced systems. However, in recent research, systems are increasingly more nonlinear and difficult to model using Differential Equations only. Thus, a newer technique is to use policy iteration and Reinforcement Learning, techniques that center around an action and reward sequence for a controller. Reinforcement Learning (RL) can be applied to control theory problems since a system can robustly apply RL in a dynamic environment such as the cartpole system (an inverted pendulum). This solution successfully avoids use of PID or other dynamics optimization systems, in favor of a more robust, reward-based control mechanism. This paper applies RL and Q-Learning to the classic cartpole problem, while also discussing the mathematical background and differential equations which are used to model the aforementioned system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0456.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Explainability; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 25 April 2020 (02:57:06 CEST)
The world has been evolving with new technologies and advances day-by-day. With the advent of various learning technologies in every field, the research community is able to provide solution in every aspect of life with the applications of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Computer Vision, etc. However, with such high achievements, it is found to lag behind the ability to provide explanation against its prediction. The current situation is such that these modern technologies are able to predict and decide upon various cases more accurately and speedily than a human, but failed to provide an answer when the question of why to trust its prediction is put forward. In order to attain a deeper understanding into this rising trend, we explore a very recent and talked-about novel contribution which provides rich insight on a prediction being made -- ``Explainability.'' The main premise of this survey is to provide an overview for researches explored in the domain and obtain an idea of the current scenario along with the advancements published to-date in this field. This survey is intended to provide a comprehensive background of the broad spectrum of Explainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: interpretable machine learning; deep learning; predictive biology
Online: 17 February 2020 (04:12:20 CET)
Machine learning (ML) has emerged as a critical tool for making sense of the growing amount of genetic and genomic data available because of its ability to find complex patterns in high dimensional and heterogeneous data. While the complexity of ML models is what makes them powerful, it also makes them difficult to interpret. Fortunately, recent efforts to develop approaches that make the inner workings of ML models understandable to humans have improved our ability to make novel biological insights using ML. Here we discuss the importance of interpretable ML, different strategies for interpreting ML models, and examples of how these strategies have been applied. Finally, we identify challenges and promising future directions for interpretable ML in genetics and genomics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0510.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; imitation learning; soft robotics
Online: 23 November 2018 (11:57:55 CET)
The increasing trend of studying the innate softness of robotic structures and amalgamating it with the benefits of the extensive developments in the field of embodied intelligence has led to sprouting of a relatively new yet extremely rewarding sphere of technology. The fusion of current deep reinforcement algorithms with physical advantages of a soft bio-inspired structure certainly directs us to a fruitful prospect of designing completely self-sufficient agents that are capable of learning from observations collected from their environment to achieve a task they have been assigned. For soft robotics structure possessing countless degrees of freedom, it is often not easy (something not even possible) to formulate mathematical constraints necessary for training a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agent for the task in hand, hence, we resolve to imitation learning techniques due to ease of manually performing such tasks like manipulation that could be comfortably mimicked by our agent. Deploying current imitation learning algorithms on soft robotic systems have been observed to provide satisfactory results but there are still challenges in doing so. This review article thus posits an overview of various such algorithms along with instances of them being applied to real world scenarios and yielding state-of-the-art results followed by brief descriptions on various pristine branches of DRL research that may be centers of future research in this field of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0467.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; organisational learning; paradigm; organisational learning paradigm
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:09:10 CEST)
Crowdsourcing is one of the new themes that has appeared in the last decade. Considering its potential, more and more organisations reach for it. It is perceived as an innovative method that can be used for problem solving, improving business processes, creating open innovations, building a competitive advantage, and increasing transparency and openness of the organisation. Crowdsourcing is also conceptualised as a source of a knowledge-based organisation. The importance of crowdsourcing for organisational learning is seen as one of the key themes in the latest literature in the field of crowdsourcing. Since 2008, there has been an increase in the interest of public organisations in crowdsourcing and including it in their activities. This article is a response to the recommendations in the subject literature, which states that crowdsourcing in public organisations is a new and exciting research area. The aim of the article is to present a new paradigm that combines crowdsourcing levels with the levels of learning. The research methodology is based on an analysis of the subject literature and exemplifications of organisations which introduce crowdsourcing. This article presents a cross-sectional study of four Polish municipal offices that use four types of crowdsourcing, according to the division by J. Howe: collective intelligence, crowd creation, crowd voting, and crowdfunding. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the management personnel of those municipal offices. The research results show that knowledge acquired from the virtual communities allows the public organisation to anticipate changes, expectations, and needs of citizens and to adapt to them. It can therefore be considered that crowdsourcing is a new and rapidly developing organisational learning paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0117.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Continual Learning; Lifelong Learning; Prototypical Networks; Catastrophic Forgetting; Intransigence; Task-free; Incremental Learning; Online Learning; Human Activity Recognition
Online: 5 August 2022 (08:35:15 CEST)
Continual learning (CL), a.k.a lifelong learning, is an emerging research topic that has been attracting increasing interest in the field of machine learning. With human activity recognition (HAR) playing a key role in enabling numerous real-world applications, an essential step towards the long-term deployment of such systems is to extend the activity model to dynamically adapt to changes in people’s everyday behavior. Current research in CL applied to HAR domain is still under-explored with researchers exploring existing methods developed for computer vision in HAR. Moreover, analysis has so far focused on task-incremental or class-incremental learning paradigms where task boundaries are known. This impedes the applicability of such methods for real-world systems. To push this field forward, we build on recent advances in the area of continual learning and design a lifelong adaptive learning framework using Prototypical Networks, LAPNet-HAR, that processes sensor-based data streams in a task-free data-incremental fashion and mitigates catastrophic forgetting using experience replay and continual prototype adaptation. Online learning is further facilitated using contrastive loss to enforce inter-class separation. LAPNet-HAR is evaluated on 5 publicly available activity datasets in terms of its ability to acquire new information while preserving previous knowledge. Our extensive empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of LAPNet-HAR in task-free CL and uncover useful insights for future challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0311.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Botnet detection; Network traffic analysis; Machine learning; Deep learning Cybersecurity; Adversarial machine learning
Online: 6 November 2023 (08:17:49 CET)
Abstract: Botnets pose a grave cybersecurity threat, enabling widescale malicious activities through networks of compromised devices. Detecting botnets is challenging given their frequent use of evasion techniques like encryption. Traditional signature-based methods fail against modern botnets capable of zero-day attacks. This paper surveys recent advances applying machine learning for botnet detection based on analysis of network traffic payloads, flows, DNS data, and hybrid feature fusion. Core machine learning models include support vector machines, neural networks, random forests, and deep learning architectures, which extract patterns to separate benign and botnet behaviors automatically. Results demonstrate machine learning's capabilities in identifying heterogeneous botnets using artefacts in network streams. However, challenges remain around limited labeled data, real-time streaming, adversarial evasion, and model interpretability. Promising directions involve semi-supervised learning, adversarial training, scalable analytics, and explainable AI to address these gaps. Beyond the technical aspects, responsible development and deployment of botnet detection systems raise ethical considerations around privacy, transparency, and accountability. With diligent cross-disciplinary collaboration, machine learning promises enhanced, generalizable, and trustworthy techniques to combat the serious threat posed by continuously evolving botnets across the digital ecosystem.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0230.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:46:12 CEST)
In this paper, various machine learning techniques are discussed. These algorithms are used for many applications which include data classification, prediction, or pattern recognition. The primary goal of machine learning is to automate human assistance by training an algorithm on relevant data. This paper should also serve as a collection of various machine learning terminology for easy reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1758.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Blepharoplasty; Deep learning; Machine learning; Eye movement measurements
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:19:49 CET)
Measuring Marginal Reflex Distance-1 (MRD-1) is a crucial clinical tool used to evaluate the position of the eyelid margin in relation to the cornea. Traditionally, this assessment has been conducted manually by plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, or trained technicians. However, with the advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, there is a growing interest in the development of automated systems capable of accurately measuring MRD-1.In this context, we introduce novel MRD-1 measurement methods based on deep learning algorithms that can simultaneously capture images and compute the results. This prospective observational study involved 154 eyes of 77 patients aged over 18 years who visited Chungnam National University Hospital between September 1, 2023, and July 29, 2023. We collected four different MRD1 da-tasets from patients using three distinct measurement methods, each tailored to the individual patient. The mean MRD1 values, measured through the manual method using a penlight, the deep learning method, ImageJ analysis from RGB eye images, and ImageJ analysis from IR eye images in 56 eyes of 28 patients, were 2.64 ± 1.04 mm, 2.85 ± 1.07 mm, 2.78 ± 1.08 mm, and 3.07 ± 0.95 mm, respectively. Notably, the strongest agreement was observed between MRD1_deep learning (DL) and MRD1_IR (0.822, p < 0.01). In the Bland-Altman plot, the smallest difference was observed between MRD1_DL and MRD1_IR ImageJ, with a mean difference of 0.0611 and △LOA (limits of agreement) of 2.5162, which is the smallest among the other groups. In conclusion, this novel MRD1 measurement method, based on an IR camera and deep learning, demon-strates statistical significance and can be readily applied in clinical settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1975.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: foreign language learning; language learning strategies; iconic gestures
Online: 31 October 2023 (03:02:46 CET)
This review paper investigates the influence of gestures on foreign language (FL) vocabulary learning through a series of experiments conducted in our laboratory. The manipulation of the gesture-word relationship was a consistent factor across the studies. Firstly, we examined the impact of gestures on noun and verb learning. The results revealed that participants exhibited better learning outcomes when FL words were accompanied by congruent gestures compared to a no gesture condition. This suggests that gestures have a positive effect on FL learning when there is a meaningful connection between the words and the accompanying gestures. However, in general, the recall of words in conditions where gestures were incongruent or lacked meaning was lower than in the no gesture condition. This indicates that under certain circumstances, gestures may have a detrimental impact on FL learning. We analyzed these findings in terms of their implications for facilitating or interfering with FL acquisition. Secondly, we addressed the question of whether individuals need to physically perform the gestures themselves to observe the effects of gestures on vocabulary learning. To explore this, participants were divided into two experimental groups. In one group, participants learned the words by actively performing the gestures ("do" learning group), while the other group simply observed the gestures performed by others ("see" learning group). The processing of congruent gestures facilitated the recall of FL words in both the "see" and "do" learning groups. However, the interference effect associated with processing incongruent gestures was more pronounced in the "see" learning group than in the "do" learning group. Thus, the performance of gestures appears to mitigate the negative impact that gestures may have on the acquisition of FL vocabulary. In conclusion, our findings suggest that iconic gestures can serve as an effective tool for learning vocabulary in a FL, particularly when the gestures align with the meaning of the words. Furthermore, the active performance of gestures helps counteract the negative effects associated with inconsistencies between gestures and word meanings. Consequently, if a choice must be made, a FL learning strategy in which learners acquire words while making gestures congruent with their meaning would be highly desirable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2135.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: episodic memory; deep reinforcement learning; hierarchical reinforcement learning
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:39:49 CEST)
Deep reinforcement learning is one of the research hotspots in artificial intelligence and has been successfully applied in many research areas, however, the low training efficiency and high demand for samples are problems that limit the application To address these problems, a hierarchical episodic control model extending episodic memory to the domain of hierarchical reinforcement learning is proposed in this paper. The model is theoretically justified and employs a hierarchical implicit memory planning approach for counterfactual trajectory value estimation. Starting from the final step and recursively moving back along the trajectory, a hidden plan is formed within the episodic memory. Experience is aggregated both along trajectories and across trajectories, and the model is updated using a multi-headed backpropagation similar to bootstrapped neural networks. This model extends the parameterized episodic memory framework to the realm of hierarchical reinforcement learning and is theoretically analyzed to demonstrate its convergence and effectiveness. Experiments conducted in Four Room, Mujoco, and UE4-based active tracking , highlight that the hierarchical episodic control model effectively enhances training efficiency. It demonstrates notable improvements in both low-dimensional and high-dimensional environments, even in cases of sparse rewards.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1420.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: federated learning; multimodal learning; artificial intelligence of things
Online: 20 July 2023 (12:47:53 CEST)
Federated learning (FL) has become a burgeoning and attractive research area, which provides a collaborative training scheme for distributed data sources with privacy concerns. Most existing FL studies focus on taking unimodal data, such as images and text, as the model input and resolving the heterogeneity challenge, i.e., the non-identically distributed (non-IID) challenge caused by data distribution imbalance related to data labels and data amount. In real-world applications, data are usually described by multiple modalities. However, to the best of our knowledge, only a handful of studies have been proposed to improve the system performance by utilizing multimodal data. In this survey paper, we identify the significance of this emerging research topic – multimodal federated learning (MFL) and perform a literature review on the state-of-art MFL methods. Furthermore, we categorize multi-modal federated learning into congruent and incongruent multimodal federated learning based on whether all clients possess the same modal combinations. We investigate the feasible application tasks and related benchmarks for MFL. Lastly, we summarize the promising directions and fundamental challenges in this field for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Dental education; Dental curriculum; E-learning; Video learning
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:31:48 CEST)
Introduction: Dental students use of online material to supplement their learning has been studied but it is unclear whether educators are aware of the findings of this research. This study aimed to investigate dental students use of online content as a learning tool from an educator’s perspective. Methods: Educators in the Dublin Dental University Hospital were invited to complete an online survey based on dental students' use of online learning. Quantitative descriptive statistical analyses were carried out as appropriate on the data collected. A focus group with interested survey participants was held to gain a deeper insight into educator’s opinions on this topic. The transcript from this discussion was analyzed by deductive and inductive coding methods. Results: From a sample of 20 educators, this study found that educators were not aware that students rely on Google and YouTube for educational videos more than university websites. Most educators believed that students are likely to refer to online videos to prepare for dental procedures that they have not done before. The same amount also believed that teachers should incorporate videos into their learning. However, 30% of educators have not uploaded or recommended online videos to their students. Most educators believed they have discussed accuracy and/or relevancy of online content with their students. Interestingly, only 20% believed that students would discuss a contradictory video with their lecturers. The focus group participants expressed concern over the accuracy of online content. They felt that this along with a lack of time were the main reasons that deter them from referring students to online videos. Conclusions: Dental educators are unaware that students access online dental content through Google and YouTube more often than through official academic platforms. Educators are concerned about the accuracy of online dental content. Many believe that they direct their students on how to determine the accuracy of online content which contrasts with other researchers’ findings. More communication is needed between educators and dental students to address each other’s concerns and enhance student’s learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1318.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Hybrid Deep Learning Models; Sentiment Analysis; Machine Learning
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:33:58 CEST)
Sentiment analysis of public opinion expressed in social networks has been developed into various applications, especially in English. Hybrid approaches are potential models for reducing sentiment errors on increasingly complex training data. This paper aims to test some hybrid deep learning models' reliability in some domains' Vietnamese language. Our research questions are to determine whether it is possible to produce hybrid models that outperform the Vietnamese language. Hybrid deep sentiment-analysis learning models are built and tested on reviews and feedback of the Vietnamese language. The hybrid models outperformed the accuracy of Vietnamese sentiment analysis on Vietnamese datasets. It contributes to the growing body of research on Vietnamese NLP, providing insights and directions for future studies in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1162.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Decision tree; Explainable AI; Rule learning
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:14:59 CEST)
The demand for explainable and transparent models increases with the continued success of reinforcement learning. In this article, we explore the potential of generating shallow decision trees (DT) as simple and transparent surrogate models for opaque deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agents. We investigate three algorithms for generating training data for axis-parallel and oblique DTs with the help of DRL agents ("oracles") and evaluate these methods on classic control problems from OpenAI Gym. The results show that one of our newly developed algorithms, the iterative training, outperforms traditional sampling algorithms, resulting in well-performing DTs that often even surpass the oracle from which they were trained. Even higher dimensional problems can be solved with surprisingly shallow DTs. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different sampling methods and insights into the decision-making process made possible by the transparent nature of DTs. Our work contributes to the development of not only powerful but also explainable RL agents and highlights the potential of DTs as a simple and effective alternative to complex DRL models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early Learning Assessment; Students Performance; Learning Communities; Motivation
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:52:23 CET)
In this paper, we have investigated the impact of an early learning assessment on students' motivation for improving their performance throughout the semester. An observation analysis was conducted on an entry level mechanical engineering course in which students are enrolled in during their first semester of engineering work. This study analyzes the effect that a first exam, with an average below a passing grade, has on student's outcome in the course. It was hypothesized that students were motivated to achieve their desired grade outcomes following inadequate performance on the first exam. This was investigated by diving into the results of the course and referencing initial performance to the remaining exam and assessment outcomes. Students were placed into grade bands ranging from 0 to 100 in 20% increments. Their results were tracked and it was shown that for the second mechanics exam, averages jumped 43.333%, 35.35%, and 30.055% for grade bands of 0 to 20, 20 to 40, and 40 to 60 respectively. Assessment grades increased as well with the remaining assessments being averaged to a score of 91.095%. Variables contributing to student performance came from both with-in and outside the classroom. Learning communities, material differentiation, and student and professor adaptation all contributed to the rise in performance. It was concluded that the internal and external variables acted in combination with one another to increase student dedication to achieve success.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0423.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: time series; machine learning; anomaly detection; transfer learning
Online: 27 October 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Machine learning methods have widely been applied to detect anomalies in machine and cutting tool behavior during lathe or milling. However, detecting anomalies in the workpiece itself did not get the same attention by researchers. That is why in this article, the authors present a pub-licly available multivariate time series dataset which was recorded during milling of 16MnCr5. Due to artificially introduced, though realistic anomalies in the workpiece the dataset can be ap-plied for anomaly detection. By using a convolutional autoencoder as a first model good results in detecting the location of the anomalies in the workpiece were achieved. Furthermore, milling tools with two different diameters where used which led to a dataset eligible for transfer learn-ing. The objective of this article is to provide researchers with a real-world time series dataset of the milling process which is suitable for modern machine learning research topics like anomaly detection and transfer learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0196.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Reinforcement Learning; Explainable Reinforcement Learning; XRL
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:13:44 CEST)
While machine learning models are powering more and more everyday devices, there is a growing need for explaining them. This especially applies to the use of Deep Reinforcement Learning in solutions that require security, such as vehicle motion planning. In this paper, we propose a method of understanding what the RL agent’s decision is based on. The method relies on conducting statistical analysis on a massive set of state-decisions samples. It indicates which input features have an impact on the agent’s decision and the relationships between decisions, the significance of the input features, and their values. The method allows us for determining whether the process of making a decision by the agent is coherent with human intuition and what contradicts it. We applied the proposed method to the RL motion planning agent which is supposed to drive a vehicle safely and efficiently on a highway. We find out that making such analysis allows for a better understanding agent’s decisions, inspecting its behavior, debugging the ANN model, and verifying the correctness of input values, which increases its credibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: zoonotic pathogens; mathematical algorithms; machine learning; deep learning
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:57:27 CEST)
Globally, zoonotic diseases have been on the rise in recent years. Predictive modelling approaches have been successfully used in the literature to identify the underlying causes of these zoonotic diseases. We examine the latest research in the field of predictive modeling that verifies the growth of zoonotic pathogens and assesses the factors associated with their spread. The results of our survey indicate that popular mathematical models can successfully be used in modeling the growth rate of these pathogens under varying storage temperatures. Additionally, some of them are used for the assessment of the inactivation of these pathogens based on various conditions. Based on the results of our study, machine learning models and deep learning are commonly used to detect pathogens within food items and to predict the factors associated with the presence of the pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0151.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; CNN; DenseNet; COVID-19; transfer learning
Online: 18 February 2022 (14:44:55 CET)
COVID-19 has a severe risk of spreading rapidly, the quick identification of which is essential. In this regard, chest radiology images have proven to be a practical screening approach for COVID-19 aﬀected patients. This study proposes a deep learning-based approach using Densenet-121 to detect COVID-19 patients eﬀectively. We have trained and tested our model on the COVIDx dataset and performed both 2-class and 3-class classification, achieving 96.49% and 93.71% accuracy, respectively. By successfully utilizing transfer learning, we achieve comparable performance to the state-of-the-art method while using 15x fewer model parameters. Moreover, we performed an interpretability analysis using Grad-CAM to highlight the most significant image regions at test time. Finally, we developed a website that takes chest radiology images as input and detects the presence of COVID-19 or pneumonia and a heatmap highlighting the infected regions. Source code for reproducing results and model weights are available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; metastasis; causal learning; machine learning
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:40:33 CET)
Background: Risk of metastatic recurrence of breast cancer after initial diagnosis and treatment depends on the presence of a number of risk factors. Although most univariate risk factors have been identified using classical methods, machine-learning methods are also being conducted to tease out non-obvious contributors to a patient’s individual risk of developing late distant metastasis. Bayesian-network algorithms may predict not only risk factors but also interactions among these risks, which consequently lead to metastatic breast cancer. We proposed to apply a previously developed machine-learning method to predict risk factors of 5-, 10- and 15-year metastasis. Methods: We applied a previously validated algorithm named the Markov Blanket and Interactive risk factor Learner (MBIL) on the electronic health record (EHR)-based Lynn Sage database (LSDB) from the Lynn Sage Comprehensive Breast Cancer at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. This algorithm provided an output of both single and interactive risk factors of 5-, 10-, and 15-year metastasis from LSDB. We individually examined and interpreted the clinical relevance of these interactions based on years to metastasis and the reliance on interactivity between risk factors. Results: We found that with lower alpha values (low interactivity score), the prevalence of variables with an independent influence on long term metastasis was higher (i.e., HER2, TNEG). As the value of alpha increased to 480, stronger interactions were needed to define clusters of factors that increased the risk of metastasis (i.e., ER, smoking, race, alcohol usage). Conclusion: MBIL identified single and interacting risk factors of metastatic breast cancer, many of which were supported by clinical evidence. These results strongly recommend the development of further large data studies with different databases to validate the degree to which some of these variables impact metastatic breast cancer in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0753.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Convolutional extreme learning machine; Deep learning; Multimedia analysis
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:31:14 CEST)
Many works have recently identified the need to combine deep learning with extreme learning to strike a performance balance with accuracy especially in the domain of multimedia applications. Considering this new paradigm, namely convolutional extreme learning machine (CELM), we present a systematic review that investigates alternative deep learning architectures that use extreme learning machine (ELM) for a faster training to solve problems based on image analysis. We detail each of the architectures found in the literature, application scenarios, benchmark datasets, main results, advantages, and present the open challenges for CELM. We follow a well structured methodology and establish relevant research questions that guide our findings. We hope that the observation and classification of such works can leverage the CELM research area providing a good starting point to cope with some of the current problems in the image-based computer vision analysis.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Multimodal Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Hate Speech Detection
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:46:27 CET)
Hateful and abusive speech presents a major challenge for all online social media platforms. Recent advances in Natural Language Processing and Natural Language Understanding allow more accurate detection of hate speech in textual streams. This study presents a multimodal approach to hate speech detection by combining Computer Vision and Natural Language processing models for abusive context detection. Our study focuses on Twitter messages and, more specifically, on hateful, xenophobic and racist speech in Greek aimed at refugees and migrants. In our approach we combine transfer learning and fine-tuning of Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and Residual Neural Networks (Resnet). Our contribution includes the development of a new dataset for hate speech classification, consisting of tweet ids, along with the code to obtain their visual appearance, as they would have been rendered in a web browser. We have also released a pre-trained Language Model trained on Greek tweets, which has been used in our experiments. We report a consistently high level of accuracy (accuracy score=0.970, f1-score=0.947 in our best model) in racist and xenophobic speech detection.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; bioinformatics; phylogenetics; cancer evolution
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:40:45 CET)
The exponential growth of biomedical data in recent years urged the application of numerous machine learning techniques to address emerging problems in biology and clinical research. By enabling automatic feature extraction, selection and generation of predictive models, these methods can be used to efficiently study complex biological systems. Machine learning techniques are frequently integrated with bioinformatic methods, as well as curated databases and biological networks, to enhance training and validation, identify the best interpretable features, and enable feature and model investigation. Here, we review recently developed methods that incorporate machine learning within the same framework with techniques from molecular evolution, protein structure analysis, systems biology and disease genomics. We outline the challenges posed for machine learning, and in particular, deep learning in biomedicine and suggest unique opportunities for machine learning techniques integrated with established bioinformatics approaches to overcome some of these challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0482.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Distance; Learning; Academic; Education; Students; Teaching-Learning; Modality
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:59:30 CET)
Education setting evolved from historical open learning system to traditional classroom set-up to distance learning modality. Teaching-Learning practice is transformed with an evolution of teaching-learning materials. With technological advancement in progressive manner and it’s increasing use in academic setting, distance learning has been the on-demand and on-debate topic in current educational discourse. Comparatively fresh topic in Nepali academic setting, this paper intended to analyze the perception of Nepali students towards online modality in Nepali academic setting. This paper further analyzed the student’s preference towards distance learning in current Nepali academic setting. Research findings were analyzed based on data collected through literature review, interview with students and professor and quantitative data collection through use of google form. Study identified opportunities as revenue generation; continuation of academic career from any part of country; increase learning outcome among jobholders. Study identified challenges as unequal access and quality of internet facilities; affordability of laptops/computers; limited interaction; and frequent disturbances. Seeing the better prospects, study strongly supported the need of shift in academic shift from traditional setting to non-traditional setting in Nepali context to meet the global needs of competitive and quality education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0177.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CALIOP; VIIRS; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Dust Detection
Online: 8 December 2020 (06:44:51 CET)
Identifying dust aerosols from passive satellite images is of great interest for many applications. In this study, we developed 5 different machine-learning (ML) and deep-learning (DL) based algorithms, including Logistic Regression, K Nearest Neighbor, Random Forest (RF), Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), to identify dust aerosols in the daytime satellite images from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) under cloud-free conditions on a global scale. In order to train the ML and DL algorithms, we collocated the state-of-the-art dust detection product from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) with the VIIRS observations along the CALIOP track. The 16 VIIRS M-band observations with the center wavelength ranging from deep blue to thermal infrared, together with solar-viewing geometries and pixel time and locations, are used as the predictor variables. Four different sets of training input data are constructed based on different combinations of VIIRS pixel and predictor variables. The validation and comparison results based on the collocated CALIOP data indicates that the FFNN method based on all available predictor variables is the best performing one among all methods. It has an averaged dust detection accuracy of about 81 %, 89 % and 85 % over land, ocean and whole globe, respectively, compared with collocated CALIOP. When applied to off-track VIIRS pixels, the FFNN method retrieves geographical distributions of dust that are in good agreement with on-track results as well as CALIOP statistics. For further evaluation, we compared our results based on the ML and DL algorithms to NOAA’s Aerosol Detection Product (ADP) , which is a product that classifies dust, smoke and ash using physical-based methods. The comparison reveals both similarity and differences. Overall, this study demonstrates the great potential of ML and DL methods for dust detection and proves that these methods can be trained on the CALIOP track and then applied to the whole granule of VIIRS granule.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: Deep Learning; Thermodynamics; Learning and Generalization; Diophantine equations
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:32:18 CEST)
Deep learning machines are computational models composed of multiple processing layers of adaptive weights to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. Their structure is mainly reflecting the intuitive plausibility of decomposing a problem into multiple levels of computation and representation since it is believed that higher layers of representation allow a system to learn complex functions. Surprisingly, after decades of research, from learning and design perspectives these models are still deployed in a heuristic manner. In this paper, deep learning feed-forward machines are modeled from a statistical mechanics point of view as disordered physical systems where its macroscopic behavior is determined in terms of the interactions defined between the basic constituent of these models, namely, the artificial neuron. They are viewed as the equilibrium states of a theoretical body that is subject to the law of increase of the entropy. The study of the changes in energy of the body when passing from one equilibrium state to another is used to understand the structure and role of the phase space of the system, the stability of the equilibrium states, and the resulting degree of disorder. It is shown that the topology of these models is strongly linked to their stability and resulting level of disorder. Furthermore, the proposed theoretical characterization permit to assess the thermodynamic efficiency with which information can be processed by these models, and to provide a practical methodology to quantitatively estimate and compare their expected learning and generalization capabilities. These theoretical results provides new insights to the theory of deep learning and their implications are shown to be consistent through a set of benchmarks designed to experimentally assess their validity.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: waste classification; transfer learning; deep learning; recognition classification
Online: 23 February 2020 (14:01:01 CET)
Using machine learning or deep learning to solve the problem of garbage recognition and classification is an important application in computer vision, but due to the incomplete establishment of garbage datasets and the poor performance of complex network models on smart terminal devices, the existing garbage classification models The effect is not good.This paper presents a waste classification and identification method base on transfer learning and lightweight neural network. By migrating the lightweight neural network MobileNetV2 and rebuild it, The reconstructed network is used for feature extraction, and the extracted features are introduced into the SVM to realize the identification of 6 types of garbage. The model was trained and verified by using 2527 pieces of garbage labeled data in the TrashNet dataset, which ultimately resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.4% of the method, which proves that the method can effectively improve the classification accuracy and time and overcome the problem of weak data and less labeling. The over-fitting phenomenon encountered by small data sets in deep learning makes the model robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: massive MIMO; pilot contamination; deep learning; machine learning
Online: 14 August 2019 (16:01:48 CEST)
In this brief letter we report our initial results on the application of deep-learning to the massive MIMO channel estimation challenge. We show that it is possible to estimate wireless channels and that the possibility of mitigating pilot-contamination with deep-learning is possible given that the leaning model underwent an extensive training-phase and that it has been presented with a large number of different channel conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Active Learning, Pedagogy, Student Learning, Interactive Effects, Education
Online: 24 April 2019 (12:44:14 CEST)
If students do not fully apply themselves, then they may be considered responsible for the result of being inadequately prepared. +- Nevertheless, student outcomes are more likely to reflect a combination of both effort and systematic problems with overall course architecture. Deficiencies in course design result in inadequate preparation that adversely and directly impacts students’ productivity upon entering the workforce. Such an impact negatively influences students' ability to maintain gainful employment and provide for their families, which inevitably contributes to the development of issues concerning their psychological well-being. It is well-documented that incorporating active learning strategies in course design and delivery can enhance student learning outcomes. Despite the benefit of implementing active learning techniques, rarely in the real world will it be possible for techniques to be used in isolation of one another. Therefore, the purpose of this proposed study is to determine the interactive effects of two active learning strategies because, at a minimum, technique-pairs more accurately represent the application of active learning in the natural educational setting. There is a paucity of evidence in the literature directed toward investigating the interactive effects of multiple active learning techniques that this study is aimed at filling. The significance of this research is that, by determining the interactive effects of paired active learning strategies, other research studies on the beneficial effects of using particular active learning technique-pairs will be documented contributing to the literature so that ultimately classroom instruction may be customized according to the determination of optimal sequencing of strategy-pairs for particular courses, subjects, and desired outcomes that maximize student learning.