ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power gating; read decoupling; read-write static noise margin; dynamic noise margin; read-write energy; schmitt trigger; leakage power
Online: 4 August 2017 (11:08:55 CEST)
An ultra-low power (ULP), power gated static random access memory (SRAM) is presented for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, which operates in sub-threshold voltage ranges from 300mV to 500mV. The proposed SRAM has tendency to operate in low supply voltages with high static and dynamic noise margins. The IoT application involves battery enabled low leakage memory architecture in subthreshold regime which has low power consumption. Therefore, to improve power consumption along with better cell stability, a power gated 10T SRAM is presented. The proposed cell uses a power gated p-MOS transistor to reduce the leakage power or static power in standby mode. Moreover, due to the schmitt triggering and read decoupling of 10T SRAM the static and dynamic behavior in read, write and standby mode has shown enhanced tolerance at different process, voltage and temperature (PVT) conditions. The proposed SRAM shows better results in terms of leakage power, read static noise margin (RSNM), write static noise margin (WSNM), write-ability or write trip point (WTP), read-write energy and dynamic read margin (DRM). Further, these parameters are observed at 8-Kilo bit (Kb) and compared with already existing SRAM architectures. It is observed that the leakage power is reduced by 1/81×, 1/75× of the conventional 6T (C6T) SRAM and read decoupled 8T (RD8T) SRAM, respectively at 300mV VDD. On the contrary, RSNM, WSNM, WTP and DRM values are improved by 3×, 2×, 11.11% and 31.8% as compared to C6T SRAM, respectively. Similarly, proposed 10T has 1.48×, 25% and 9.75% better RSNM, WSNM and WTP values as compared to RD8T SRAM, respectively at 300mV VDD.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: IoT; leakage current; Metal Oxide Surge Arrester; remote monitoring; resistive component of leakage current.
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:49:32 CET)
This article presents the development of the theoretical background and the design of an electronic device for monitoring the condition of a gapless Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA). The device is intended to be used online. Due to the inaccessibility and possible remote location of most surge arresters, it is equipped with a communication system, allowing the device to convey the measurement of the surge arrester characteristics under any conditions. By gathering measurements of the surge arrester’s resistive component of leakage current, it is possible to determine the condition of the MOSA. After interpreting the results, these can be sent via a data transfer unit to a server, which, in turn, sends it onward to the authorised personnel through the surge arrester control centre.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0304.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: converter; leakage current; common-mode; renewable
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:29:11 CEST)
Power generation systems based on renewable energy sources are finding ever-widening applications and many researchers work on this problem. Many papers address the problem of transformerless structures, but few of them are aimed at conducting research on structures with multilevel converter topologies. In this paper a grid-tied transformerless PV-generation system based on a multilevel converter is discussed. There are common-mode leakage currents which act as a parasitic factor. It is also known that common-mode voltage is the main cause of the common-mode leakage current in grid-tied PV-generation systems. This paper considers the space vector pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique which is used to suppress or reduce common-mode leakage current. The proposed engineering solutions for a generation system based on the multilevel converter controlled with a pulse-width modulation technique are verified by experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0205.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Chlorine Gas Leakage, ALOHA, WISER, CCP, Cancer
Online: 23 August 2019 (11:00:14 CEST)
Background: Qazvin province has suffered a lot of natural disasters (earthquakes) for a long time. so, the establishment of the first industrial city in Iran, has always been a source of concern. One of these problems is the possibility of chlorine gas leaking from the chlorination system of drinking water and treatment plant the existing ones are on the health of the inhabitants of this region.Material and method: This analytical study was carried out in Novorossiysk district of Alborz in December 2012. Initially, chlorine gas leakage scenarios from these facilities were simulated by ALOHA and WISER software, and then using the Emergency Level System, according to the CCPS Consultative Center's Chemical Process Safety Advice, the Emergency Response Program was presented. Results: ALOHA software, in comparison with WISER software, has more precision to identify and address the consequences of chlorine gas leakage hazards and according to the simulation of this software in the event of a leak from the well and water resources unit at 8240 m from the area and at night 7520 meters will be affected. Due to the speed of delivering results through the WISER software, this software can be used at times when the operating speed is considered (incident time).Conclusion: According to the CCPS model, the emergency conditions were classified at levels 3 and 4, therefore, the relevant crisis management agencies (Qazvin Crisis Management Committee, Alborz City Health Center, Red Crescent and Firefighting Authority) should provide training maneuvers At Alborz city level, and informing people of cities and industrial companies, many efforts have been made to reduce human and environmental damage in case of possible leakage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0082.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Hydro-priming; lettuce; Sodium chloride; synchronization; electrolyte leakage
Online: 4 March 2022 (13:44:53 CET)
Seed germination is the most sensitive stage to abiotic stress, including salt stress (SS). SS affects plant growth and performance through ion toxicity, decreases seed germination percentage, and increases the germination time. Several priming treatments were used to enhance germination under SS. The objectives of this study are to 1) identify priming treatments to shorten the emergence period; 2) evaluate priming treatments against the SS; 3) induce synchronized seed germination. Salt-sensitive “Burpee bibb’ lettuce seeds were treated with 0.05% Potassium nitrate, 3 mM Gibberellic acid, and distilled water (HP). All the primed and non-primed seeds were subjected to 100 mM NaCl or 0 mM NaCl. The 7-day experiment arranged in a complete randomized block design with four replications was conducted in a growth chamber maintained with 16/8 h photoperiod (light/dark), 60% relative humidity, and day/night temperature of 22/18 °C. The result indicated that HP seeds were better synchronized under SS. Similarly, FM and DM of cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radicle were highest in HP lettuce regardless of SS. Electrolyte leakage was the lowest in the HP lettuce, while other priming methods under SS increased membrane permeability leading to osmotic stress and tissue damage. Overall, the HP can be a suitable priming method to synchronize germination and increase FM and DM by creating the least osmotic stress and ion toxicity in lettuce under SS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: porosity; multijetfusion; fluids; watertightness; 3Dprint; orientation; pressure; leakage;
Online: 17 July 2018 (11:10:14 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to explore the watertightness behaviour for high pressure applications using Multijetfusion technology and polyamide 12 as a material. It reports an efficient solution for manufacturing functional prototypes and final parts for water pressure applications. It provides manufacturing rules to engineers in the pressurized product development process up to 10 MPa of nominal pressure. The research findings show manufacturers the possibility of using additive manufacturing as an alternative to traditional manufacturing. Water leakage was studied using different printing orientations and wall thickness for a range of pressure values. An industrial ball valve was printed and validated with the ISO 9393 standard also meeting tolerance requirements. This paper is a pioneering approach to the additive manufacturing of high performance fluid handling components. This approach solves the problem of leakage caused by porosity in additive manufacturing technologies
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0092.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PMMA; bone cement; cardiac embolism; cement leakage; viscosity
Online: 26 September 2016 (10:34:26 CEST)
Percutaneous vertebroplasty procedure is of major importance, given the significant increasing aging population and higher number of orthopedic procedures related to vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty is a complex technique involving injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the compressed vertebral body for mechanical stabilization of the fracture. Our understanding and ability to modify these mechanisms through alterations in cement material is rapidly evolving. However, the rate of cardiac complications secondary to PMMA injection and subsequent cement leakage has increased with time. The following review considers the main features of PMMA bone cement on the heart, and the extent of influence of materials on cardiac embolism. Clinically, cement leakage results in life-threatening cardiac injury. The convolution of this outcome through an appropriate balance of complex material properties is highlighted via clinical case report.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel; gas pipeline; leakage; computational fluid dynamics; ventilation scheme
Online: 19 December 2017 (07:43:46 CET)
Due to poor ventilation conditions in the tunnel, if gas pipeline leaks, the consequence of the accident will be more serious. Therefore, before the emergency repair, gas in the tunnel needs to be excharged so as not to explode during the repair process. Therefore, it is necessary to study the ventilation of gas in the tunnel. Based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) theory and taking the Yanyingshan tunnel section of China-Myanmar pipeline as an example, this paper uses Fluent software to establish the leakage model of the gas pipeline and fan model in the tunnel and analyzes the influence of different fan locations and number of fans on gas concentration. It can be concluded that: (1) the use of press-in method makes it more efficient to discharge gas out of the tunnel. (2) In order to make ventilation efficient, the fan should be arranged in a higher position and needs to be at a distance from the top of the tunnel. (3) Parallel use of two fans has better ventilation effect than single fan.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: zero energy building, measured data, energy measurement, building air leakage
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:01:18 CEST)
This paper provides an open dataset of measured energy use, solar energy production, and building air leakage data from a 328 m2 (3,531 ft2) all-electric, zero energy commercial building in Virginia, USA. Over two years of energy use data were collected at 1-hour intervals using circuit-level energy monitors. Over six years of solar energy production data were measured at 1-hour intervals by 56 microinverters. The building air leakage data was measured post-construction per ASTM-E779 Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate by Fan Pressurization and the United States Army Corps (USACE) Building Enclosure Testing procedure; both pressurization and depressurization results are provided. The architectural and engineering (AE) documents are provided to aid researchers and practitioners in reliable modelling of building performance. The paper describes the data collection methods, cleaning, and convergence with weather data. This dataset can be employed to predict, benchmark, and calibrate operational outcomes in zero energy commercial buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0027.v1
Subject: Keywords: Keywords: Ship Recycling, Predictive Analytics, Big Data, Shipbreaking, Leakage Effect
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:43:52 CET)
Abstract:Global ship demolition is mostly concentrated in south Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and China, since 1990’s, having competitive advantage for their high natural tide, and low environmental and social costs. Due to high social and environmental externalities, stakeholders increase monitoring of the externalities and continue to prescribe improvement towards sustainability, which put pressures on profitability and competitiveness. As a consequence, also seen in the past, a leakage effect may emerge, leading to shift of this activity to a region, with relatively less monitored and less stricter on social and environmental impacts. Unfortunately, the leakage effect is never predicted in shipbreaking in order to understand the level of push compatible in the given socio-economic contexts. In this study, we have attempted to predict the future ship demolition landscape, applying machine learning technique to 34,531 in-service vessels worldwide, larger than 500 gross tonnage (GT), which is run against a learning model based on 3500 demolished vessels from 2014. This study shows that redistribution may occur among the top recycling nations: India may emerge out to be a dominant player in shipbreaking, surpassing Bangladesh by a margin of two-fold, while Pakistan and China are in decreasing trend. In addition, the leakage effect is observed, in that Vietnam is predicted to be the fourth largest ship demolition country, while China and Pakistan recede from the third and fourth place to 6th and 8th. Turkey is predicted to advance from fifth position to third position by vessel count but stays same in term of total GT dismantled. Although it is not clear if any leakage is to be observed in the near future, this study may be a model for future predictive analytics and help stakeholders take evidence-based business decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0039.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: poly-Si TFT; FT-IR; Raman; surface passivation; leakage current
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:32:53 CET)
We report the effects of surface passivation by depositing a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer on the electrical characteristics of low temperature polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors (LTPS TFTs). The a-Si:H layer was optimized by hydrogen dilution and its structural and electrical characteristics were investigated. The a-Si:H layer in the transition region between a-Si:H and µc-Si:H resulted in superior device characteristics. Using an a-Si:H passivation layer, the field-effect mobility of the LTPS TFT was increased by 78.4% compared with a conventional LTPS TFT. Moreover, the leakage current measured at a VGS of 5 V was suppressed because the defect sites at the poly-Si grain boundaries were well passivated. Our passivation layer, which allows thorough control of the crystallinity and passivation-quality, should be considered a candidate for high performance LTPS TFTs.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: storage tank; continuous real–time; release model; leakage test; hole discharge
Online: 8 July 2019 (04:34:54 CEST)
The calculation of the release of liquid hazardous chemicals storage tanks is an important part of the quantitative risk assessment of accidents. This paper mainly establishes a continuous real–time release model based on the instantaneous mass flow Qm model. Meanwhile, the software function module was analyzed, and programming software was developed using C# language for model solving. A series of experiments for repeated leakage tests was designed and the discharges through three small holes with different heights for 200 s were observed. The results show that the continuous real–time leakage model is effective, and the deviation between theoretical and experimental release amounts are within a reasonable range. The higher the liquid level above the leak hole is, and the smaller the height of the leak hole from the ground is, the greater the flow rate at the leak orifice is and the smaller discharge rate change is. Therefore, the deviation between the theoretical release amount Mt and the experimental average release amount Ma is greater while the height of the leak hole from the ground is smaller, which indicates that the smaller the distance from the leak orifice to the ground, the greater the influence of the empirical discharge coefficient C0 on the release amount M.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: leakage; leak detection; leak characterisation; leak localization; pipelines; wireless sensor networks
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:52:28 CEST)
Pipelines are widely used for transportation of hydrocarbon fluids over millions of miles over the world. The structures of the pipelines are designed to withstand several environmental loading conditions to ensure safe and reliable distribution from point of production to the shore or distributions deport. However, leaks in pipeline networks are one of the major causes of innumerable losses in pipeline operators and nature. Incidents of pipeline failure can result in serious ecological disasters, human casualties and financial loss. In order to avoid such menace and maintain safe and reliable pipeline infrastructure, substantial research efforts have been devoted to implementing pipeline leak detection and localisation using different approaches. This paper discusses on pipelines leakage detection technologies and summarises the state-of-the-art achievements. Different leakage detection and localisation in pipeline systems are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses are highlighted. Comparative performance analysis is performed to provide a guide in determining which leak detection method is appropriate for particular operating settings. In addition, research gaps and open issues for development of reliable pipeline leakage detection systems are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Methane emission; Spontaneous combustion of coal; Sealing the air leakage; Mining fractures; Inorganic solidified foam
Online: 1 August 2018 (12:17:02 CEST)
Abstract: Unusual methane emission and spontaneous combustion of coal induced by the air leakage are both hazards during mining. The most common practice has been to improve mine safety is sealing the mining fractures. In this paper, the methane and geology, coal spontaneous combustion characteristics and the coexistence of methane emission and spontaneous combustion of coal were analyzed. The preparation system of inorganic solidified foam (ISF) in field applications is studied and the working principle of generating device consists of foam generator and mixer was expounded. The technical plan of site construction is that the foam fluids was injected to respectively seal the mining fractures behind hydraulic supports, the cavities of air return corner, and the fractures nearby the coal pillar. After the foam fluids injection, the two stress values in the coal pillar eventually maintained above 15.5Mpa and 13Mpa, respectively. It indicated that the ISF can enhance the bearing stress ability of the coal pillar by transforming the stress state from two dimensional to three dimensional. The methane concentration in the air return corner and air return roadway declined significantly to 0.63% and 0.25%. The differential pressure inside and outside of the 4301(1) goaf fluctuated between -100pa to 150pa and the concentration of CO and O2 declined to 9ppm and 6%. The CO concentration in the air return corner finally reached a stable level of 6ppm. What that all means, the foam fluids can seal the air leakage and inhibit spontaneous combustion of coal effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0369.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method; mass-conserved wall treatment; non-equilibrium extrapolation boundary condition; mass leakage; parallel computation; CFD
Online: 30 May 2019 (13:38:44 CEST)
In this study, the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method is applied to investigate the oscillatory instability of lid-driven flows in two-dimensional semi-elliptical cavities with different vertical to horizontal aspect ratios K in the range of 1.0--3.0. The program implemented in this study is parallelized using CUDA (compute unified device architecture), a parallel computing platform, and computations are carried out on NVIDIA Tesla K40c GPU. To carry out precise calculations, the CUDA algorithm is extensively investigated, and its parallel efficiency indicates that the maximum speedup is 47.6 times faster. Furthermore, the steady--oscillatory Reynolds numbers are predicted by implementing the CUDA-based programs. The amplitude coefficient is defined to quantify the time-dependent oscillation of the velocity magnitude at the monitoring point. The simulation results indicate that the transition Reynolds numbers correlate negatively with the aspect ratio of the semi-elliptical cavity, and are smaller than those of the rectangular cavity at the same aspect ratio. In addition, the detailed vortex structures of the semi-elliptical cavity within a single period are also investigated when the Reynolds number is larger than the steady--oscillatory value to determine the effects of periodic oscillation of the velocity magnitude.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0159.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: run off; deep leakage; Soil water; plant growth; Soil Water Resource Use Limit by plants; Soil Water Carrying Capacity for Vegetation; key period of plant water relationship regulation; sustainable use of soil water resources
Online: 7 June 2021 (09:29:51 CEST)
There is a balanced plant-water relationship in the primary vegetation of desert area. With the increase of population and social development in desert areas, people’s need for forest vegetation ecosystem’s goods and service have been changed. To meet the growing demand for plant community goods and services, more original vegetation has been changed into non-native vegetation such as in China loess plateau. However, with the plant growth, sometime soil drying happens and then becomes gradually serious with times in most of desert regions. Serious drying of soil eventually result in soil degradation, vegetation decline and agriculture failure，which influence the produce and supply of forest vegetation goods and service in market in dry year or waste of soil water resources in wet year, which wastes precious nature resources. In order to solve these problems, the soil water resources have to be used in sustainable way and plant-water relationship have to be regulated on Carrying Capacity of Soil Water for Vegetation in the key period of plant water relationship regulation, to carry out sustainable use of nature resources, high-quality and sustainable development of forest and grass or high-quality produce of fruit and crop in desert re-gions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL), drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), recessed channel array transistor (RCAT), on-current (Ion), off-current (Ioff), subthreshold slope (SS), threshold voltage (VTH), saddle FinFET (S-FinFET), Potential Drop Width (PDW), Shallow Trench Isolation (STI).
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:21:47 CET)
In this paper, we proposed a novel saddle type FinFET (S-FinFET) to effectively solve problems occurring under the capacitor node of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) cell and showed how its structure was superior to conventional S-FinFETs in terms of short channel effect (SCE), subthreshold slope (SS), and gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL). The proposed FinFET exhibited 4 times lower Ioff than modified S-FinFET called RFinFET with more improved DIBL characteristics while minimizing Ion reduction compared to RFinFET. Our results also confirmed that the proposed device showed improved DIBL and Ioff characteristics as gate channel length decreased.