ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: leaf area index; smartphone camera sensor; conifer forest; canopy gap fraction
Online: 17 January 2017 (09:59:36 CET)
Plant leaf area index (LAI) is a key characteristic affecting field canopy microclimate. In addition to traditional professional measuring instruments, smartphone camera sensors have been used to measure plant LAI. However, when smartphone methods were used to measure conifer forest LAI, very different performances were obtained depending on whether the smartphone was held at the zenith angle or at a 57.5° angle. To validate further the potential of smartphone sensors for measuring conifer LAI and to find the limits of this method, this paper reports the results of a comparison of two smartphone methods with an LAI-2000 instrument. It is shown that both methods can be used to reveal the conifer leaf-growing trajectory. However, the method with the phone oriented vertically upwards always produced better consistency in magnitude with LAI-2000. The bias of the LAI between the smartphone method and the LAI-2000 instrument was explained with regard to four aspects that can affect LAI: gap fraction, leaf projection ratio, sensor field of view (FOV), and viewing zenith angle (VZA). It was concluded that large FOV and large VZA cause the 57.5° method to overestimate the gap fraction and hence underestimate conifer LAI, especially when tree height is greater than 2.0 m. For the vertically upward method, the bias caused by the overestimated gap fraction is compensated for by an underestimated leaf projection ratio.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant architecture determination; graph theoretic approach; leaf detection; leaf tracking; leaf status report.
Online: 22 January 2021 (14:01:50 CET)
Rigid-body visual tracking is an active research field with many practical applications including visual surveillance and intelligent transport system. In this paper, we define a new problem domain, called visual growth tracking, to track different parts of an object that grow non-uniformly over space and time for application in image-based plant phenotyping. The paper introduces a novel method to detect and track each leaf of a plant for automated leaf stage monitoring. The method has four phases: optimal view selection, plant architecture determination, leaf tracking and generation of a leaf status report. The proposed method uses a graph theoretic approach to reliably detect and track individual leaves by overcoming the challenge of leaf-losses based on temporal image sequence analysis for automatically generating the leaf status report containing the following phenotypes, i.e., the emergence timing of each leaf, total number of leaves present at any time, the day on which a particular leaf stopped growing, and the length and relative growth rate of individual leaves. The proposed method demonstrates high accuracy in detecting leaves and tracking them through the early vegetative stages of maize plants based on experimental evaluation on a publicly available benchmark dataset.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0141.v1
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:04:09 CEST)
Tomato leaf curl disease (TLCD) is the most common viral disease in the tomato plant. It is caused by begomoviruses, which are viruses that cause plant development to be slowed. Many of the traditional disease management methods are still in use. They are, however, ineffective and out of date. Modern biotechnology is being used to detect illness in tomato plants as early as possible, thus reducing damage to the plants. Through genetic engineering, the spread of viruses may be controlled or prevented entirely. Here reviewed many methods for decreasing or eliminating the viral influence on crop growth through biotechnology and genomics. We also investigated the possibility of genetic engineering to reduce or remove the virus TLCD impact on tomato crop development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0487.v1
Online: 28 April 2020 (08:36:03 CEST)
Among the rust diseases, leaf rust of wheat caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most prevalent worldwide and causes significant yield losses. This study aimed to determine the genomic location of loci that control adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust in the pre-Green Revolution landrace accession, Aus27506, from the ‘Watkins Collection’. An Aus27506/Aus27229-derived F7 recombinant inbred (RIL) population was screened under field conditions across three cropping seasons and genotyped with the iSelect 90K Infinium SNP bead chip array. One QTL on each of chromosomes 1BL, 2B and 2DL explained most of the leaf rust response variation in the RIL population and were named QLr.sun-1BL, QLr.sun-2B and QLr.sun-2DL, respectively. QLr.sun-1BL and QLr.sun-2DL were contributed by Aus27506. QLr.sun-1BL is likely Lr46, while QLr.sun-2DL appeared to be a new APR locus. The alternate parent, Aus27229, carried the putatively new APR locus QLr.sun-2B. Comparisons of average severities among RILs carrying these QTL in different combinations indicated that QLr.sun-2B does not interact with either of the other two QTL; however, the combination of QLr.sun-1BL and QLr.sun-2DL reduced disease severity significantly. In-planta fungal quantification assays validated these results. The RILs carrying QLr.sun-1BL and QLr.sun-2DL did not differ significantly from parent Aus27506 in resistance. Aus27506 can be used as a source of adult plant leaf rust resistance in breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0542.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: leaf surface; soil surface cover; growth rate; nitrogen leaf content; SPAD; triangular greenness index (TGI)
Online: 21 December 2020 (18:50:21 CET)
Management practices must be developed to improve yam production sustainability. Image-based phenotyping techniques could help developing such practices based on non-destructive analyses of important plant traits. Our objective was to determine the potential of image-based phenotyping methods to assess traits relevant for tuber yield formation in yam grown in glasshouse and field. We took plant and leaf pictures with consumer cameras. We used the numbers of image pixels to derive the shoot biomass and the total leaf surface and calculated the ‘triangular greenness index’ (TGI) which is an indicator of the plant nitrogen (N) nutritional status. Under glasshouse conditions, the number of pixels obtained from nadir view (image taken top down) was positively correlated to the shoot biomass, and the total leaf surface, while the TGI was negatively correlated to the N content of diagnostic leaves. Under field conditions, pictures taken from the nadir view showed an increase in soil surface cover and a decrease in TGI with time. TGI was negatively correlated to SPAD measured on specific leaves but was not correlated to the N content of these leaves. In conclusion, these phenotyping techniques deliver relevant results but need to be further developed and validated for application in yam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Northern Corn Leaf Blight (Exserohilum); Gray Leaf Spot (Cerospora); Common Rust (Puccinia sorghi); Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN); Neuroph Studio
Online: 21 February 2019 (13:04:05 CET)
Plant leaf diseases can affect the plants’ leaves to an extent that the plants can collapse and die completely. These diseases may drastically drop the supply of vegetables and fruits to the market, and result in a low agricultural economy. In the literature, different laboratory methods of plant leaf disease detection have been used. These methods were time consuming and could not cover large areas for the detection of leaf diseases. This study infiltrates through the facilitated principles of the Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in order to model a network for image recognition and classification of these diseases. Neuroph was used to perform the training of a CNN network that recognized and classified images of the maize leaf diseases that were collected by use of a smart phone camera. A novel way of training and the methodology used, expedite a quick and easy implementation of the system in practice. The developed model was able to recognize 3 different types of maize leaf diseases out of healthy leaves. The Northern Corn Leaf Blight (Exserohilum), Common Rust (Puccinia sorghi) and Gray Leaf Spot (Cerospora) diseases were chosen for this study as they affect most parts of Southern Africa’s maize fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0189.v1
Online: 18 August 2019 (03:19:48 CEST)
The onset of leaf senescence is triggered by external cues and internal factors such as phytohormones and signaling pathways involving transcription factors (TFs). Abscisic acid (ABA) strongly induces senescence and endogenous ABA levels are finely tuned by many senescence-associated TFs. Here, we report on the regulatory function of the senescence-induced TF OsWRKY5 TF in rice (Oryza sativa). OsWRKY5 expression was rapidly upregulated in senescing leaves, especially in yellowing sectors initiated by aging or dark treatment. A T-DNA insertion activation-tagged OsWRKY5-overexpressing mutant (termed oswrky5-D) promoted leaf senescence under natural and dark-induced senescence (DIS) conditions. By contrast, a T-DNA insertion oswrky5-knockdown mutant (termed oswrky5) retained leaf greenness during DIS. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that OsWRKY5 upregulates the expression of genes controlling chlorophyll degradation and leaf senescence. Furthermore, RT-qPCR and yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that OsWRKY5 indirectly upregulates the expression of senescence-associated NAC genes including OsNAP and OsNAC2. Precocious leaf yellowing in the oswrky5-D mutant might be caused by elevated endogenous ABA concentrations resulting from upregulated expression of ABA biosynthesis genes OsNCED3, OsNCED4, and OsNCED5, indicating that OsWRKY is a positive regulator of ABA biosynthesis during leaf senescence. Furthermore, OsWRKY5 expression was significantly suppressed by ABA treatment, indicating negative feedback regulation of OsWRKY5 expression by ABA. OsWRKY5 is a positive regulator of leaf senescence that upregulates senescence-induced NAC genes leading to expression of ABA biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation genes.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Functional Food; Sauce; Olive Oil; Olive Leaf; Polyphenolic Compounds
Online: 23 April 2021 (12:02:07 CEST)
This study was carried out in three phases. During the first stage, the physicochemical properties of French sauce prepared from different blends of soybean and olive oils were evaluated. In the second stage, the oxidative stability of the optimum sauce sample from the first stage enriched with various amounts of olive leaf polyphenolic extract (OLE) (obtained via ultrasound-assisted extraction) was investigated over 90 days of storage. During the third stage, the microbiological and sensory properties of the samples containing the optimum amounts of OLE, as a substitution for the synthetic preservatives, were studied. According to the results, addition of olive oil at higher levels (75 and 100%) could affect the physicochemical properties of the sauce as compared to the control sample. It was also found that the addition of olive oil (up to 50%) would not significantly impact the sauce properties. Regarding the OLE enrichment in the samples, it was found that high levels of OLE could improve the oxidative stability of the samples. Based on the results of the experiments in the third phase, it was found that OLE could be used as a preservative instead of the commercial ones. Overall, this study suggests the potential use of olive oil and olive leaf extract in the preparation of French sauce to boost its nutritional value and its stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0453.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Actinidia arguta; leaf; bioactivity; antioxidant activity; LC-MS/MS
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:14:24 CET)
Actinidia arguta (Sieb. et Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. is abundant of vitamin C and bioactive compounds with high antioxidant activities. In this study, eight wild A. arguta accessions from different areas in Northeast China were collected. Some bioactive compounds were examined on the different tissues of different germplasms including four kinds of leaves, petioles and fruits. The method of UPLC-MS was used to detect the flavonoid compounds. The results showed that some bioactive compounds including vitamin C, soluble sugar, free amino acid, total phenolics and flavonoids content showed significant differences between six tissues of A. arguta accessions and showed significant variability with maturity. In eight accessions, the highest vitamin C content was found in young apical leaves of ‘CBS-6’ (7.47 mg/g fresh weight), and the highest soluble sugar content was in fruits of ‘CJ-1’ (196.52 mg/g fresh weight) and the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoids content were in young apical leaves of ‘CBS-11’ (3.48 mg/g fresh weight) and of ‘CBS-3’ (2.00 mg/g fresh weight), respectively. Ten flavonoid compounds including kaempferol, isorhamnetin and quercetin were detected in leaves, petioles and fruits. The total content of flavonoids were highest in young apical leaves (10219.84 µg·g-1) and the lowest in fruits (78.75 µg·g-1). Based on the comparison of the contents of several bioactive compounds, the two accessions ‘CJ-1’ and ‘CBS-8’ had relatively outstanding performance, and in the comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant activity among different tissues, the young leaves had the strongest antioxidant activity. These results highlighted the antioxidant potentialities of A. arguta leaves as a major source of phenolics and vitamin C as well as flavonoids. It provided a theoretical basis for the utilization of leaves of A. arguta.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0445.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: allelopathy; leaf litter; condensed tannins; mangrove forests; natural regeneration
Online: 16 June 2021 (12:43:27 CEST)
Kandelia obovata (Ko) and Aegiceras corniculatum (Ac) are common and dominant plant species in mangrove wetlands in South China, and distribute in the similar tidal zones along the coastline. The present study aimed to determine the allelopathic effects of leaf litter leachates (LLLs) from Ko and their purified condensed tannins (PCTs) on the germination and growth of Ac by mangrove microcosms. Replicate pots containing five different levels of LLLs and PCTs were separately prepared and propagules of Ac were placed in each treatment. Both LLLs and PCTs significantly inhibited the germination and growth of Ac, especially in high levels. The final germination rates of roots, stems, and the number of fine roots declined continuously while other growth indicators, including the lengths of fine roots, nutritive roots, the biomasses of roots, stems, leaves, increased firstly and then decreased with increasing levels. These results indicated that LLLs from the leaf litter of Ko, in particular, their PCTs exerted an inhibition effect on propagule germination and seedling growth of Ac, and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent. This study suggested that condensed tannins from leaf litter, acting as allelochemicals, could regulate the natural regeneration of a mangrove forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0224.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biomass allocation; drought; irrigation; leaf anatomy; mRNA level; proline
Online: 9 August 2020 (21:53:38 CEST)
Recent climatic changes have resulted in an increased frequency and prolonged periods of drought and strained water resources affecting plant production. We explored the possibility of reducing irrigation in a container nursery and studied the growth response of seedlings of economically important forest trees: broadleaf deciduous angiosperms Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and evergreen conifers Abies alba and Pinus sylvestris. We also studied markers of water stress including modifications of biomass allocation, leaf anatomy, proline accumulation and expression of selected genes. Growth of the broadleaved deciduous species was more sensitive to the reduced water supply than that of conifers. Remarkably, growth of the shade tolerant Abies was not affected. Adjustment of biomass allocations was strongest in P. sylvestris, with a remarkable increase in allocation to roots. In response to water deficit both deciduous species accumulated proline in leaves and produced leaves with shorter palisade cells, reduced vascular tissues and smaller conduit diameters, but not conifers. Relative transcript abundance of a gene encoding a Zn-finger protein in Q. petraea and a gene encoding a pore calcium channel protein 1 in A. alba increased as water deficit increased. These findings suggest that in container nursery, the genetic selection can be initiated by water deficit. Our study shows major differences between functional groups in response to irrigation, with seedlings of evergreen conifers having higher tolerance than the deciduous species. This suggests that major water savings could be achieved by adjusting irrigation regime to functional group or species requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0497.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: leaf water content; hyperspectral spectroscopy; leaf water potential; drought; diurnal cycle; plant water status; relative water content; equivalent water thickness; Dracaena marginate; water stress; leaf water variation
Online: 25 August 2021 (15:00:37 CEST)
Water plays a crucial role in maintaining plant functionality and drives many ecophysiological processes. The distribution of water resources is in a continuous change due to global warming affecting the productivity of ecosystems around the globe, but there is a lack of non-destructive methods capable of continuous monitoring of plant and leaf water content that would help us in understanding the consequences of the redistribution of water. We studied the utilization of novel small hyperspectral sensors in the 1350-2450 nm spectral range in non-destructive estimation of leaf water content in laboratory and field conditions. We found that the sensors captured up to 96% of the variation in equivalent water thickness (EWT, g/m2) and up to 90% of the variation in relative water content (RWC). These laboratory findings were supported by field measurements, where repeated leaf spectra measurements were in good agreement (R2=0.79) with a time-lagged change of tree xylem diameter. Further tests were done with an indoor plant (Dracaena marginate Lem.) by continuously measuring leaf spectra while drought conditions developed, which revealed detailed diurnal dynamics of leaf water content. We conclude that close-range hyperspectral spectroscopy can provide a novel tool for continuous measurement of leaf water content at the single leaf level and help us to better understand plant responses to varying environmental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: ZnO-NPs; corrosion; synthesis; carbon steel; convolvulus; leaf; extract
Online: 12 January 2020 (13:53:53 CET)
This paper studies the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) synthesized using an extract of convolvulus leaves and expired ZnCl2, as an efficient inhibitor for carbon steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution. ZnO-NPs are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and UV–Vis analysis. The technique of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has also been used to investigate the prevention of carbon steel corrosion in 1M HCl. The results showed that the efficiency of restraint increased when the concentration of ZnO-NPs was raised to 91% and that the inhibition efficiency is still high despite its decrease at high temperature, and it acts as a mixed-type inhibitor A sample of carbon steel with the protective inhibitor layer on top was immersed for 20 hours and observed; an increase in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) and stability of the inhibitor was noticed after 6 hours. Adsorption isotherm models demonstrated that the inhibitor adsorption mechanism on the carbon steel surface followed Langmuir, more than Freundlich and Temkin, behavior. The thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process is a mixed adsorption, spontaneous, and exothermic. The results illustrated that the acid medium was a strong inhibitor of carbon steel corrosion. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the ZnO-NPs formed a good protective film on the carbon steel surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0266.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: gas exchange; leaf canopy temperature; life forms; thermography; woody vines
Online: 20 April 2018 (11:55:08 CEST)
Leaf temperature (Tleaf) influences photosynthesis and respiration. Currently, there is a growing interest on including lianas in productivity models due to their increasing abundance, and their detrimental effects on net primary productivity in tropical environments. Therefore, understanding the differences of Tleaf between lianas and trees is important for future of forest on whole ecosystem productivity. Here we determined the displayed leaf temperature (Td= Tleaf – ambient temperature) of several species of lianas and their host trees during ENSO and non-ENSO years to evaluate if the presence of lianas affects the Td of their host trees, and if leaves of lianas and their host trees exhibit differences in Td. Our results suggest that close to midday, the presence of lianas does not affect the Td of their host trees; however, lianas tend to have higher values of Td than their hosts across seasons, in both ENSO and non-ENSO years. Although lianas and trees tend to have similar physiological-temperature responses, differences in Td could lead to significant differences in rates of photosynthesis and respiration based temperature response curves. Future models should thus consider differences in leaf temperature between these life forms to achieve robust predictions of productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0125.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: vegetation health monitoring; leaf water content; terahertz; sensing; plants health
Online: 9 July 2019 (03:25:11 CEST)
An increasing global aridification due to climate change has made the health monitoring of vegetation indispensable to maintaining the food supply chain. Cost-effective and smart irrigation systems are required not only to ensure the efficient distribution of water, but also to track the moisture of plant leaves, which is an important marker of the overall health of the plant. This paper presents a novel electromagnetic method to monitor the water content (WC) and characterization in plant leaves utilizing the absorption spectra of water molecules in the terahertz (THz) frequency for four consecutive days. We extracted the material properties of leaves of eight types of pot herbs from the scattering parameters, measured using a material characterization kit in the frequency range of 0.75 to 1.1 THz. From the computed permittivity, it is deduced that the leaf specimens increasingly become transparent to the THz waves as they dry out with the passage of days. Moreover, the loss in weight and thickness of leaves were observed due to the natural evaporation of leaf moisture cells and change occurred in the morphology of fresh and water-stressed leaves. It is also illustrated that loss observed in WC on day 1 was in the range of 5\% to 22\%, and increased from 83.12\% to 99.33\% on day 4. Furthermore, we observed an exponential decaying trend in the peaks of the real part of the permittivity from day 1 to 4, which was reminiscent of the trend observed in the weight of all leaves. Thus, results in paper demonstrated that timely detection of water stress in leaves can help to take proactive action in relation to plants health monitoring, and for precision agriculture applications, which is of high importance to improve the overall productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0328.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: epigenomics, hordeum vulgare, leaf, root, tissue-specific methylation, developmental epigenomics
Online: 25 April 2018 (16:53:56 CEST)
The barley (Hordeum vulgare) genome comprises over 32,000 genes, with differentiated cells expressing only a subset of genes; the remainder being silent. Mechanisms by which tissue-specific genes are regulated are not entirely understood, although DNA methylation is likely to be involved. DNA methylation patterns are not static during plant development, but it is still unclear whether different organs possess distinct methylation profiles. Methylation-sensitive GBS was used to generate DNA methylation profiles for roots, leaf-blades and leaf-sheaths from five barley varieties, using seedlings at the three-leaf stage. Differentially Methylated Markers (DMMs) were characterised by pairwise comparisons of roots, leaf-blades and leaf-sheaths of three different ages. While very many DMMs were found between roots and leaf parts, only a few existed between leaf-blades and leaf-sheaths, with differences decreasing with leaf rank. Organ-specific DMMs appeared to target mainly repeat regions, implying that organ differentiation partially relies on the spreading of DNA methylation from repeats to promoters of adjacent genes. Furthermore, the biological functions of differentially methylated genes in the different organs correlated with functional specialisation. Our results indicate that different organs do possess diagnostic methylation profiles and suggest that DNA methylation is important for both tissue development and differentiation and organ function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0426.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: leaf water potential; lidar intensity; terrestrial laser scanning; diurnal variation; leaf water content; drought; tree health; plant water dynamics
Online: 26 May 2020 (08:26:48 CEST)
Drought-induced plant mortality has increased globally during the last decades and is forecasted to influence global vegetation dynamics. Timely information on plant water dynamics is essential for understanding and anticipating drought-induced plant mortality. The most common metric that has been used for decades for measuring water stress is leaf water potential (ΨL), which is measured destructively. To obtain information on water dynamics from trees and forested landscapes, remote sensing methods have been developed. However, the spatial and temporal resolution of the existing methods have limited our understanding of water dynamics and diurnal variation of ΨL within single trees. Thus, we investigated the capability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) intensity in observing diurnal variation in ΨL during a 50 hour monitoring period and aimed to improve understanding on how large part of the diurnal variation in ΨL can be captured using intensity observations. We found that TLS intensity at 905 nm wavelength was able to explain 78% of the variation in ΨL for three trees of two tree species with a root-mean square error of 0.137 MPa. Based on our experiment with three trees, time-series of TLS intensity measurements can be used in detecting changes in ΨL, and thus it is worthwhile to expand the investigations to cover a wider range of tree species and forests and further increase our understanding of plant water dynamics at wider spatial and temporal scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: BRAF melanoma; chemotherapeutics; extra virgin oil; Oleuropein; olive leaf extract
Online: 12 November 2018 (09:58:50 CET)
Oleuropein (Ole), a secoiridoid glucoside present in Olea europaea leaves, gained the interest of many scientists thanks to its several biological properties, including the anticancer one. We verified whether Ole might potentiate cytotoxicity of conventional drugs used to treat melanoma, disclosing new potential therapeutic strategy. We tested the cytotoxic action of Ole alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics on A375 human melanoma cells. We found that Ole was able, at a dose of 500 μM, to stimulate apoptosis in melanoma cells, while at a non-toxic dose of 250 μM, it affected cell proliferation and induced the downregulation of pAKT/pS6 pathway. 250 μM Ole did not potentiate the effect of Vemurafenib (PLX4032), but it succeeded in increase the cytotoxic effect of Dacarbazine (DTIC). The mayor effect was found in the association between Ole and Everolimus (RAD001), also on PLX4032-resistant BRAF melanoma cells, possibly cooperating in the inhibition of pAKT/pS6 pathway. Of interest, an olive leaf extract enriched in equimolar Ole was more effective and able to further improve DTIC and, particularly, RAD001 efficacy on BRAF melanoma cells than Ole alone. Therefore, Ole represents a natural product able to potentiate a wide array of chemotherapeutics against BRAF melanoma cells affecting pAKT/pS6 pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0465.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: insect; leaf miner; Coffea; pest control; biopesticide; silencing
Online: 29 August 2022 (04:27:45 CEST)
Background, Leucoptera coffeella (Guerin-Meneville, 1842) is a moth species (Lyonetiidae, Lepidoptera) pest that causes severe losses to coffee crops. Further information about its genomic data is required to allow molecular strategies for the development of sustainable pesticides and to gain in-depth knowledge on phylogenetics. However, the closest complete genome available is within the superfamily level (Yponomeutoidea). Here we report the generation of the first long-read genome, transcriptome and proteome results of L. coffeella and the in silico analysis performed in these molecular levels to investigate genes involved in the siRNA processing. Results, PACBio and paired-end Illumina combined DNA sequencing from pupae samples resulted in more than 436 Gb subreads and 31Mb reads with N50 read length of 15,512 nt, mean read length 13.8 Kb and max read length 420.7 Kb. Additionally, 20Gb data of short DNA sequencing was combined to produce 1,984 contigs comprising 397 Mb in total. The longest and shortest scaffold sizes are 10,809,567 nt and 15,247 nt, respectively (mean size 200,178 nt). The N50 scaffold was 275,598 nt and the GC content was 36.10%. Predicted coding DNA sequences counted 39.930 gene models. Searching of 5286 BUSCO groups revealed 91.7 percent of completeness (single and duplicated genes combined) compared to lepidoptera genomes (lepidoptera_odb10). Flow cytometry showed the 1C DNA content is approximately 295 Mb. RNA-Seq from seven development stages resulted in 28294 identified transcripts. Additionally, proteomics from immature stages resulted in 2045 proteins matching the gene models. Conclusions, This first nuclear genome of the Lyonetiidae family brings valuable molecular resources to study Lepidoptera genomes. Genome, transcriptome and proteome sequencing to raise genome annotation precision may resolve uncovered taxonomic issues. In addition, these combined approaches provide insights into plant-insect interaction players, as horizontally transferred genes (HGT) and endosymbionts. Put together, the generated data enables the development of molecular tools towards sustainable biotechnology solutions for lepidopteran pest control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0316.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: leaf area index; cocoa beans; volatile compounds; artificial neural networks; VitiCanopy app
Online: 28 April 2019 (11:36:14 CEST)
Cocoa is an important commodity crop not only to produce one of the most complex products such as chocolate from the sensory perspective, but one that commonly grows in developing countries close to the tropics. This paper presents novel techniques applied using cover photography and a novel computer application (VitiCanopy) to assess the canopy architecture of cocoa trees in a commercial plantation in Queensland, Australia. From the cocoa trees monitored, pod samples were collected, fermented, dried and grinded to obtain the aroma profile per tree using gas chromatography. The canopy architecture data were used as inputs in an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm and the aroma profile considering six main aromas as targets. The ANN model rendered high accuracy (R = 0.82; MSE = 0.09) with no overfitting. The model was then applied to a satellite image from the whole cocoa field studied to produce canopy vigor and aroma profile maps up to the tree-by-tree scale. The tool developed could aid significantly the canopy management practices in cocoa trees that have a direct effect on cocoa quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0038.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: dye; ZnO; NPs; leaf extract; Rosmarinus officinalis; photodegradation; methylene bleu; crystal violet
Online: 2 April 2021 (08:11:51 CEST)
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract at 80 ° C (ZnO-80) and 180 ° C (ZnO-180). The biosynthesized ZnO NPs were characterized and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV) under sunlight irradiation. The results of the characterizations by XRD, TEM and SEM showed that the size of the NPs of ZnO-80 was smaller than that of ZnO-180 which exhibited flakier agglomerated spherical structures. Photocatalytic tests showed ZnO-80 which was prepared by a cheap and easy procedure compared to ZnO-180 effectively degrades MB and CV dyes under sunlight. The superior performance of ZnO-80 over ZnO-180 can be explained by the differences in their textural properties. This is because ZnO-80 has a smaller crystallite size, a specific surface area and a higher pore volume than ZnO-180. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyzes revealed that both samples contained an adsorbed carboxylate group (COO-), and accordingly a mechanism was proposed for the formation of ZnO NPs that include the carboxyl group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0402.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: chemical composition; smoothies; fruit blends; antioxidant properties; Moringa oleifera leaf; sensory evaluation
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:56:56 CET)
This study evaluated the impact of the level of supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaves on the nutritional (proximate, mineral and vitamin content) as well as on the antioxidant capacities of smoothies made from a blend of pineapple, banana and apple. The beverage (smoothies) were supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves at 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% levels and evaluated for proximate, antioxidant (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazy, DPPH), mineral, vitamin, physicochemical and quality acceptability. The results showed that the moisture content of the beverage ranged between 49.24 – 78.62%, total ash: 1.01 – 9.71, crude fiber: 5.14 – 9.39%, crude fat: 0.72 – 1.86%, crude protein: 5.47 – 19.37% and carbohydrate: 3.65 – 16.99%. Calcium (12.03 -15.53) and potassium (17.22 -25.38) were the predominant mineral elements when compared to magnesium (1.51 – 3.05) mg/L. The vitamin contents ranged between 2.5 – 10.8 and 0.15 – 0.93 mg/L for vitamin C and E, respectively. Total phenolic contents ranged between 4.68 – 6.18 mg/ml while the total flavonoid contents ranged between 0.01 – 0.14 mg/ml. The radical scavenging abilities (DPPH) of the samples ranged between 16.05 – 88.77% while the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) ranged between 0.38 – 7.36 mg/ml. The brix values showed high sugar contents (15 – 18%) while the pH results showed that the sample was almost neutral at a range between 6.3 and 6.5. The overall quality (sensory) acceptability of the different quality parameters evaluated indicated that the control sample was more preferred. While supplementation with Moringa oleifera leaves significantly affected the sensory parameters, its addition nevertheless offers a potential avenue to obtain additional nutrients besides its improved antioxidative properties.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Leaf monoterpene emission; heath stress; chlorophyll fluorescence; photosynthesis; grapevine
Online: 30 December 2020 (16:51:05 CET)
Rising temperature is among the most remarkably stressful phenomena induced by global climate changes with negative impacts on crop productivity and quality. It has been previously shown that volatiles belonging to the isoprenoid family can confer protection against abiotic stresses. In this work, two Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’ clones (SMA130 and INRA809) differing for a mutation of the DXS gene encoding for 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (the first dedicated enzyme of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway) and involved in the regulation of isoprenoids biosynthesis were investigated in field trials and laboratory experiments. Leaf monoterpene emission, chlorophyll fluorescence and gas-exchange measurements were assessed over three seasons at different phenological stages and either carried out in vivo or controlled conditions under contrasting temperatures. A significant (p<0.001) increase in leaf monoterpene emission was observed in INRA809 when plants were experiencing high temperatures and over two experiments while no differences were recorded for SMA130. Significant variation was observed for the rate of leaf CO2 assimilation under heat stress, with INRA809 maintaining higher photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance values than SMA130 (p=0.003) when leaf temperature increased above 30°C. At the same time, maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was affected by heat stress in the non-emitting clone (SMA130), while the INRA809 showed a significant resilience of PSII under elevated temperature conditions. Consistent data were recorded between field seasons and temperature treatments in controlled environment conditions suggesting a strong influence of monoterpene emission on heat tolerance under elevated temperatures. This work provides further insights on the photoprotective role of isoprenoids under high temperatures in Vitis vinifera and additional studies should focus at unravelling the mechanisms underlying heat tolerance on the monoterpene-emitter grapevine clone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0617.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: UAV images; mangrove; vegetation indices; Leaf Area Index (LAI)
Online: 26 October 2018 (05:32:52 CEST)
The urban mangrove of the Vitória Bay, Espírito Santo, Southern Brazil suffers from anthropogenic impacts, which interfere in the foliar spectral response of its species. Identifying the spectral behavior of these species and creating regression models to indirectly obtain structure data like the Leaf Area Index (LAI) are powerful environmental monitoring tools. In this study, LAI was obtained in 32 plots distributed in four stations. In situ LAI regression analysis with the SAVI resulted in significant positive relationships (r2 = 0.58). Forest variability regarding the degree of maturity and structural heterogeneity and LAI influenced the adjustment of vegetation indices (VIs). The highest regression values were obtained for the homogeneous field data, represented by R. mangle plots, which also had higher LAI values. The same field data were correlated with SAVI of a RapidEye image for comparison purposes. The results showed that, images obtained by a UAV have higher spatial resolution than the Rapideye image, and therefore had a greater influence of the background. Another point is that the statistical analysis of the field data with the IVs obtained from the RapidEye image did not present high regression coefficient (r2 = 0.7), suggesting that the use of VIs applied to the study of urban mangroves needs to be better evaluated, observing the factors that influence the leaf spectral response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0147.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Sentinel-3; SAIL; PROSPECT; TARTES; PROSAIL; LAI; fAPAR; fPAR; leaf pigments; Automatic Differentiation
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:59:24 CEST)
Multi- and hyper-spectral, multi-angular top-of-canopy reflectance data call for an efficient retrieval system which can improve the retrieval of standard canopy parameters (as albedo, LAI, fAPAR), and exploit the information to retrieve additional parameters (e.g. leaf pigments). Furthermore consistency between the retrieved parameters and quantification of uncertainties are required for many applications. % (2) methods We present a retrieval system for canopy and sub-canopy parameters (OptiSAIL), which is based on a model comprising SAIL, PROSPECT-D (leaf properties), TARTES (snow properties), a soil model (BRDF, moisture), and a cloud contamination model. The inversion is gradient based and uses codes % created by Automatic Differentiation. The full per pixel covariance-matrix of the retrieved parameters is computed. For this demonstration, single observation data from the Sentinel-3 SY_2_SYN (synergy) product is used. The results are compared with the MODIS 4-day LAI/fPAR product and PhenoCam site photography. OptiSAIL produces generally consistent and credible results, at least matching the quality of the technically quite different MODIS product. For most of the sites, the PhenoCam images support the OptiSAIL retrievals. The system is computationally efficient with a rate of 150 pixel per second (7 millisecond per pixel) for a single thread on a current desktop CPU using observations on 26 bands. Not all of the model parameters are well determined in all situations. Significant correlations between the parameters are found, which can change sign and magnitude over time. OptiSAIL appears to meet the design goals, puts real-time processing with this kind of system into reach, seamlessly extends to hyper-spectral and multi-sensor retrievals, and promises to be a good platform for sensitivity studies. The incorporated cloud and snow detection adds to the robustness of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0426.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Rubus; cultural practice; leaf removal; flowers; fruit; floricane; trellis; cane training; pruning; management strategy
Online: 18 September 2020 (10:02:57 CEST)
Primocane-fruiting (PF) blackberries are adaptable to different production systems. To increase yields in PF blackberries, their primocanes are typically tipped or topped in summer to encourage branch formation from axillary buds below the cut. In this study, we determined in PF ‘Prime-Ark Traveler’ whether early emerging primocanes were more productive than those that emerged later in the season and the effect of primocane bending and defoliation on flowering. The primocanes that emerged in April produced 64% more flower shoots than those that emerged after May. Also, these findings indicate the alternative primocane management practices of selecting the early emerging primocanes and bending to orient primocanes horizontally and leaf removal increase budbreak and flower shoot emergence. The present work contributes toward a better understanding of primocane emergence time and orientation-flowering relations and how they mediate crop performance in PF blackberry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0093.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: land surface modelling; data assimilation; leaf area index; surface soil moisture; summer 2018
Online: 10 January 2019 (06:49:01 CET)
This study aims to assess the potential of the LDAS-Monde a land data assimilation system developed by Météo-France to monitor the impact of the 2018 summer heatwave over western Europe vegetation state. The LDAS-Monde is forced by the ECMWF’s (i) ERA5 reanalysis, and (ii) the Integrated Forecasting System High Resolution operational analysis (IFS-HRES), used in conjunction with the assimilation of Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) satellite derived products, namely the Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) and the Leaf Area Index (LAI). Analysis of long time series of satellite derived CGLS LAI (2000-2018) and SSM (2008-2018) highlights marked negative anomalies for July 2018 affecting large areas of North Western Europe and reflects the impact of the heatwave. Such large anomalies spreading over a large part of the considered domain have never been observed in the LAI product over this 18-yr period. The LDAS-Monde land surface reanalyses were produced at spatial resolutions of 0.25°x0.25° (January 2008 to October 2018) and 0.10°x0.10° (April 2016 to December 2018). Both configuration of the LDAS-Monde forced by either ERA5 or HRES capture well the vegetation state in general and for this specific event, with HRES configuration exhibiting better monitoring skills than ERA5 configuration. The consistency of ERA5 and IFS HRES driven simulations over the common period (April 2016 to October 2018) allowed to disentangle and appreciate the origin of improvements observed between the ERA5 and HRES. Another experiment, down-scaling ERA5 to HRES spatial resolutions, was performed. Results suggest that land surface spatial resolution is key (e.g. associated to a better representation of the land cover, topography) and using HRES forcing still enhance the skill. While there are advantages in using HRES, there is added value in down-scaling ERA5, which can provide consistent, long term, high resolution land reanalysis. If the improvement from LDAS-Monde analysis on control variables (soil moisture from layers 2 to 8 of the model representing the first meter of soil and LAI) from the assimilation of SSM and LAI was expected, other model variables benefit from the assimilation through biophysical processes and feedbacks in the model. Finally, we also found added value of initializing 8-day land surface HRES driven forecasts from LDAS-Monde analysis when compared with model only initial conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0192.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: genetic differentiation; leaf beetle; mitochondrial DNA; microsatellites; haplotype; gene flow
Online: 14 March 2022 (16:48:57 CET)
leaf beetle (BLB) (Ootheca mutabilis) has emerged as an important bean pest in Uganda, leading to devastating crop losses. There is limited information on the population genetic structure of BLB despite their importance. In this study, novel microsatellite markers and the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene sequences were used to analyze the spatial population genetic structure, genetic differentiation, gene flow and haplotype diversity of 87 O. mutabilis samples from five populations. We identified 19,356 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) (mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, and hexa-nucleotides) of which 81 di, tri and tetra-nucleotides were selected for primer synthesis. Five highly polymorphic SSR markers (4-21 alleles, heterozygosi-ty 0.59-0.84, polymorphic information content (PIC) 50.13-83.14%) were used for this study. Analyses of the five O. mutabilis populations with these five novel SSRs found 89% of genetic variation occurring within individuals, 9% among individuals and 2% among populations. Genetic differentiation was low but significant for SSR and insignificant for mtCOI partial sequence data while gene flow was high across the populations. There was no evidence of isolation by distance between geographical and genetic distances. Bayesian clustering identified signature of admixture that suggests genetic contributions from two ancestral genetic lineages, and the median-joining haplotype network showed low differentiation of many different haplotypes from the most common haplotype. Low genetic differentiation and high gene flow indicates unrestricted migrations between populations. This information will contribute to the design of BLB control strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0330.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biostimulant; carotenoids; chlorophyll; IBA; leaf senescence; NAA; phenology; soluble proteins
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:40:44 CET)
Some biostimulants, including plant origin preparations, act similarly to plant hormones. Moreover, the supplementation of known and unknown rooting cofactors can stimulate rhizogenesis in cuttings. The aim of this research was to assess the response of difficult-to-root and long-rooting stem cuttings of the once-blooming old variety Rosa ‘Hurdal’ to preparations of plant origin. The hypothesis was that plant origin preparations could enhance rooting processes by inhibiting chlorophyll a/b degradation in leaves and postponing leaf senescence, simultaneously increasing the quality of cuttings. The one-bud stem cuttings were made in four phenological stages: (H1) flower buds closed, (H2) open flowers, (H3) just after petal fall, (H4) 7-14 days after petal shedding. They were treated with either standard commercial powder preparations containing 0.4% indolebutyric acid (IBA) or 0.2% naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) as well as with commercial plant origin preparations that this work will henceforth refer to as: Algae Extract, Organic Preparation, and Plant Extract. The cuttings were evaluated after 12 weeks of rooting them in two substrates: peat-perlite and peat-sand (v:v; 1:1). Mean root percentages for both substrates were noted after preparation from stage H1 (74.5 %), H2 (59.5 %), H3 (50.8 %) shoots. The H4 cuttings didn’t root at all and were not considered further. The means for all phenology stages together were the highest by the use of 0.6 % Algae Extract, 0.012 % and 0.02 % Organic Preparation, 0.2 % and 0.4 % Plant Extract. The lowest means were reported for the control cuttings as well as NAA and IBA treatment. Plant origin preparations encouraged growth parameters but did not unequivocally inhibit the decrease of chlorophyll content in the cuttings’ leaves. Rooting percentage depended on the quality of cuttings as well as chlorophyll a/b and soluble protein content in leaves in both rooting substrates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0644.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Diversity mapping; Imaging spectroscopy; Leaf traits; Radiative transfer; DART; PROSPECT
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:47:28 CEST)
Optical remote sensing can contribute to biodiversity monitoring and species composition mapping in tropical forests. Inferring ecological information from canopy reflectance is complex and data availability suitable to such a task is limiting, which makes simulation tools particularly important in this context. We explored the capability of the 3D radiative transfer model DART to simulate top of canopy reflectance acquired with airborne imaging spectroscopy in complex tropical forest, and to reproduce spectral dissimilarity within and among species, as well as species discrimination based on spectral information. We focused on two factors contributing to these canopy reflectance properties: the horizontal variability in leaf optical properties (LOP) and the fraction of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPVf). The variability in LOP was induced by changes in leaf pigment content, and defined for each pixel based on a hybrid approach combining radiative transfer modeling and spectral indices. The influence of LOP variability on simulated reflectance was tested by considering variability at species, individual tree crown and pixel level. We incorporated NPVf into simulations following two approaches, either considering NPVf as a part of wood area density in each voxel or using leaf brown pigments. We validated the different scenarios by comparing simulated scenes with experimental airborne imaging spectroscopy using statistical metrics, spectral dissimilarity (within crowns, within species, and among species dissimilarity) and supervised classification for species discrimination. The simulation of NPVf based on leaf brown pigments resulted in the closest match between measured and simulated canopy reflectance. The definition of LOP at pixel level resulted in conservation of the spectral dissimilarity and expected performances for species discrimination. Our simulation framework could contribute to better understand performances for species discrimination and relationship between spectral variations and taxonomic and functional dimensions of biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0547.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Agroecology; functional trait; intraspecific trait variation; Leaf Economics Spectrum; plant trait spectra; Vitis vinifera.
Online: 31 August 2022 (13:35:02 CEST)
Variability in traits forming the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) among and within crop species play a key role in governing agroecosystem processes. However, studies evaluating the extent, causes, and consequences of within-species variation in LES traits for some of the world’s most common crops remain limited. We quantified variation in nine leaf traits measured across 90 vines of five wine grape (Vitis vinifera) varieties at two ontogenetic stages. Grape traits covary along an intraspecific LES, in patterns similar to those documented in wild plants. Across varieties, high rates of photosynthesis (A), and leaf nitrogen (N) concentrations, are coupled with low leaf mass per area (LMA), while the opposite suite of traits defines the “resource conserving end” of this intraspecific LES in grape. Variety identity predicted of leaf physiological (A) and morphological traits (i.e., leaf area and leaf mass), while leaf chemical traits and LMA were best explained by ontogenetic stage. All varieties expressed greater resource conserving trait syndromes (i.e., higher LMA, lower N, lower Amass) later in the growing season. Traits related to leaf hydraulics, including instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE), were unrelated to LES and other resource capture traits, and were better explained by spatial location. Our results highlight the relative contributions of genetic vs. phenotypic factors in structuring this variation and point to a key role of domestication in governing trait relationships in the world’s crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0662.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Aesculus hippocastanum; insect pest; fungal disease; invasive species; leaf damage; model; competition; urban environment
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:13:43 CEST)
The horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is an invasive pest of horse chestnut and has spread through Europe since 1985. The horse chestnut leaf blotch Guignardia aesculi (Botryosphaeriales: Botryosphaeriaceae) is a fungal disease that also seriously damages horse chestnut trees in Europe. The interaction between the leaf miner and the fungus has not yet been sufficiently described. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess leaf damage inflicted to horse chestnut by both C. ohridella and G. aesculi during the vegetation season and to model their interaction. The damage to leaf area was measured monthly from May to September 2013 in České Budějovice, the Czech Republic. A simple phenomenological model describing the expected dynamics of the two species was developed. The study revealed a significant effect of sampling site and sampling period on the damage caused by both the pest and the fungus. The mathematical model indicates that infestation by C. ohridella is more affected by G. aesculi than vice versa. The possible mechanisms affecting the relationship between G. aesculi and C. ohridella are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0501.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, Sida golden mosaic Florida virus, Whitefly, Snap beans, Lima beans
Online: 25 October 2020 (19:12:11 CET)
The production and quality of Phaseolus vulgaris (snap bean) have been negatively impacted by leaf crumple disease caused by two whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses; cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFV), which often appear as a mixed infection in Georgia. Host resistance is the most economical management strategy against whitefly-transmitted viruses. Currently, information is not available with respect to resistance to these two viruses in commercial cultivars. In two field seasons (2018 and 2019), we screened Phaseolus sp. genotypes (n = 84 in 2018; n = 80 in 2019; most of the genotypes were common in both years with a few exceptions) for resistance against CuLCrV and/or SiGMFV. Twenty genotypes with high- to moderate-levels of resistance (disease severity ranging from 5-50%) to CuLCrV and/or SiGMFV were identified. Twenty-one genotypes were found to be highly susceptible with a disease severity of ≥66%. Adult whitefly counts differed significantly among snap bean genotypes for both years. The whole genome of these Phaseolus sp. (n=82) genotypes was sequenced and genetic variability among them was identified. Over 900 giga-base (Gb) of filtered data were generated and >88% of the resulting data were mapped to the reference genome, and SNP and Indel variants in Phaseolus genotypes were obtained. A total of 645,729 SNPs and 68,713 Indels including 30,169 insertions and 38,543 deletions were identified, which were distributed in 11 chromosomes with chromosome 02 harboring the maximum number of variants. These phenotypic and genotypic information will be helpful in genome-wide association studies that will aid in identifying genetic basis of resistance to these begomoviruses in Phaseolus sp.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0568.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: ecological chemometrics; carbon cycle; nitrogen cycle; carbon and nitrogen distribution; plant leaf-litter-soil continuum
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:12:48 CEST)
We analyzed the plant-litter-soil continuum to investigate the carbon and nitrogen distribution and ecological stoichiometry of an evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dagangshan Mountain, Jiangxi. The results showed that the average C and N contents and C:N ratios in the leaves and fine roots among 6 different tree species were 401.87g/kg, 21.41g/kg, 19.27 and 348.64g/kg, 15.73g/kg, 23.97, respectively; the average C and N contents and C:N ratios were 323.06 g/kg, 12.76 g/kg, 25.58 respectively in leaf litter, and 16.40 g/kg, 1.09 g/kg, 16.27 respectively for soil. In contrast with the C content, the total N content of the fine roots and litter had a high coefficient of variation and a high spatial heterogeneity. We ranked the six different representative tree species according to total C and N content in leaves and fine roots. The results for each species were generally consistent with each other, showing a positive correlation relationship between total C and N content in the leaves and roots. Among them, S. discolor (Champ. ex Benth.) Muell. plants displayed high carbon and nitrogen storage capacities, and on the other hand, C. fargesii Franch., C. myrsinifolia (Blume) Oersted, A. fortunei (Hemsl.) Makino, and V. fordii (Hemsl.) Airy Shaw showed a high nitrogen transfer rate. Total soil N and C decreased with depth. Soil organic carbon (SOC), soil resistant organic carbon (ROC), total N, alkali nitrogen, NH4+-N and NO3--N contents were all also negative correlated with soil depth, but the contents of the NH4+-N and NO3--N did not change significantly; The spatial distribution of soil NO3--N was significantly heterogeneous. At 0-10 cm soil depth, SOC was positively correlated with alkaline nitrogen, and at 10-20 cm soil depth, SOC was significantly positively correlated with total N. In general, when soil carbon was abundant, nitrogen supply capacity was also high.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; Nissan Leaf; lithium-ion battery; capacity loss; battery degradation
Online: 15 March 2018 (07:19:52 CET)
Analysis of 1382 measures of battery State of Health (SoH) from 283 Nissan Leafs (“Leaf/s”), manufactured between 2011 and 2017, has detected a faster rate of decline in this measure of energy-holding capacity for 30 kWh variants. At two years of age, the mean rate of decline of SoH of 30 kWh Leafs was 9.9% per annum (95% uncertainty interval of 8.7% to 11.1%; n = 82). This was around three times the rate of decline of 24 kWh Leafs which at two years averaged 3.1% per annum (95% uncertainty interval of 2.9% to 3.3%; n = 201). For both variants there was evidence for an increasing rate of decline as they aged, although this was much more pronounced in the 30 kWh Leafs. Higher use of rapid DC charging was associated with a small decrease in SoH. Additionally, while 24 kWh cars with greater distances travelled showed a higher SoH, in 30 kWh cars there was a reduction in SoH observed in cars that had travelled further. The 30 kWh Leafs sourced from United Kingdom showed slower initial decline than those from Japan, but the rate of decline was similar at two years of age. Improvements in the battery health diagnostics, continuous monitoring of battery temperatures and state of charge, and verification of a fundamental model of battery health are needed before causes and remedies for the observed decline can be pinpointed. If the high rate of decline in battery capacity that we observed in the first 2.3 years of a 30 kWh Leaf’s lifetime were to continue, the financial and environmental benefits of this model may be significantly eroded. Despite 30 kWh Leafs accounting for only 14% of all light battery electric vehicles registered for use on New Zealand roads at the end of February 2018, there is also the potential for the relatively poor performance of this specific model to undermine electric vehicle uptake more generally unless remedies can be found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0036.v1
Subject: Keywords: Sorghum bicolor leaf extract; SBLS; Jobelyn®; antioxidant; Immune-modulatory; anti-inflammatory; anti-anemia; HIV
Online: 7 December 2017 (04:37:20 CET)
The West-African variety of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheath (SBLS) Jobelyn® is a natural remedy, which has gained international recognition for its anti-anemic effect and energy boosting qualities in debilitating diseases. The widespread use of traditional medicine in the region usually confirms its safety, but not its efficacy or deep assessment of their pharmacological properties. The other major issue for herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of the extracts. Despite limitations, efforts have been made in isolation and characterisation of active compounds in this specie of sorghum showing various subclasses of flavonoids including apigeninidin, a stable 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and potential fungal growth inhibitor, which accounts for 84% of the total extract. Non-clinical in vitro and in vivo studies support previous indications that this variety of Sorghum bicolor possesses several biologically active compounds with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and neuro-protective properties. Clinical studies show that SBLS has the ability to boost hemoglobin concentrations in anemic conditions and most remarkably to increase CD4 count in HIV-positive patients. The multiple effects and high safety profiles of this extract may encourage its development as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of anemia, chronic inflammatory conditions or in the symptomatic management of HIV infections. This review describes the potential therapeutic aspects of SBLS extract and its potential benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0273.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: irrigation; remote sensing; Sentinel-2; grasslands; leaf area index; land use classification
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:14:55 CEST)
Conventional methods of crop mapping need ground truth information to train the classifier. Thanks to the frequent acquisition allowed by recent satellite missions (Sentinel 2), we can identify temporal patterns that depend on both phenology and crop management. Some of these patterns are specific to a given crop and thus can be used to map it. Thus, we can substitute ground truth information used in conventional methods with agronomic knowledge. This approach was applied to identify irrigated permanent grasslands (IPG) in the Crau area (Southern France) which play a crucial role in groundwater recharge. The grassland is managed by making three mows during the May-October period which leads to a specific temporal pattern of leaf area index (LAI). The mowing detection algorithm was designed using the temporal LAI signal derived from Sentinel 2 observations. The algorithm includes some filtering to remove noise in the signal that might lead to false mowing detection. A pixel is considered a grassland if the number of detected mows is greater than 1. A data set covering five years (2016-2020) was used. The detection mowing number was done at the pixel level and then results are aggregated at the plot level. A validation data set including 780 plots was used to assess the performances of the classification. We obtained a Kappa index ranging between 0.94-0.99 according to the year. These results were better than other supervised classification methods that include training data sets. The analysis of land-use changes shows that misclassified plots concern grasslands managed less intensively with strong intra-parcel heterogeneity due to irrigation defects or year-round grazing. Time series analysis, therefore, allows us to understand different management practices. Real land-use change in use can be observed, but long time series are needed to confirm the change and remove ambiguities with heterogeneous grasslands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0033.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: willow-leaf sunflower; Jerusalem artichoke; supercritical extraction; water as co-solvent; antimicrobial activity; biocidal effect
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:47:35 CET)
The extracts from the aerial parts of Helianthus salicifolius A. Dietr and Helianthus tuberosus L. collected in June were obtained using carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction with water as co-solvent. The antimicrobial activity in vitro of these extracts were determined against the reference species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi, representing by the yeast species of Candida spp. The following parameters were estimated: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Both extracts were found to possess antimicrobial activity with MIC = 0.62-5 mg mL-1 for bacteria and MIC = 5-10 mg mL-1 for yeasts, showing bactericidal (MBC/MIC = 2-4) or fungicidal effect (MFC/MIC = 1-2 ). The highest activity was observed against S. aureus ATCC 29213 (MIC = 0.62 mg mL-1 for H. salicifolius extract; MIC = 2.5 mg mL-1 for H. tuberosus extract). Bactericidal effect of both extracts against S. aureus ATCC 29213 was confirmed by time-kill assay. Higher antioxidant activity was found for H. tuberosus extract (EC50 = 0.332 mg mL-1) as compared to that of H. salicifolius (EC50 = 0.609 mg mL-1). The total polyphenol content (TPC) expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was 13.75 ± 0.50 mg GAE (g of H. salicifolius extract)-1 and 33.06 ± 0.80 mg GAE (g of H. tuberosus extract)-1. There was a correlation between the antioxidant potential of both extracts and TPC but not between antistaphylococcal activity and TPC. The obtained data suggest potential application of these extracts as the natural preparations with the biocidal activity, including those with antistaphylococcal activity. Besides, both extracts may be regarded as potential natural conservants in cosmetics as well as natural preservatives in food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0402.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: chromosome engineering; wheat breeding; Aegilops longissima; Thinopyrum ponticum; gluten quality; yield; leaf rust; stem rust; powdery mildew
Online: 27 February 2020 (11:29:25 CET)
If genetic gains in wheat yield are to be achieved in today’s breeding, increasing genetic variability of cultivated genotypes is an essential requisite to meet. To this aim, alien gene transfer through chromosome engineering (CE) is a validated and sound strategy. Attempts to incorporate more than one alien segment into cultivated wheat have been rare, particularly for tetraploid durum wheat. Here we present the agronomic and quality performance of the first successful CE-mediated multiple introgression into the latter species. By assembling into 7AL, 3BS and 1AS arms of a single genotype homoeologous segments of Thinopyrum ponticum 7el1L, Aegilops longissima 3SlS, and Triticum aestivum 1DS arms, respectively, we have stacked several valuable alien genes, comprising Lr19+Sr25+Yp (leaf and stem rust resistance and a gene increasing semolina yellowness), Pm13 (powdery mildew resistance) and Gli-D1/Glu-D3 (genes affecting gluten properties), respectively. Advanced progenies of single, double and triple recombinants were field-tested across three years in a typical durum wheat growing area of Central Italy. The results showed that not only all recombinants had normal phenotype and fertility, but also that one of the triple recombinants had the highest yield through all seasons compared with all other recombinants and control cultivars. Moreover, the multiple introgressions enhanced quality traits, including gluten characteristics and semolina yellow index. Presence of effective disease resistance genes confers additional breeding value to the novel and functional CE products, which can greatly contribute to crop security and safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0240.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Gene Silencing; Host–Virus Interaction; RNA Interference; Saccharum officinarum; Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus and Target Prediction
Online: 14 September 2021 (12:43:22 CEST)
The Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is associated with sugarcane yellow leaf disease (SCYLD) and is considered to be the most economically deleterious emerging pathogen that represents a potential threat and danger to sugarcane cultivation in China. Over the last two decades, high genetic diversity in the SCYLV genotypes was observed worldwide, with a greater chance of YLD incidence for sugarcane injury. SCYLV infection has significantly damaged its economic traits and is responsible for substantial losses in biomass production in sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to identify and comprehensively analyze sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) as therapeutic targets against SCYLV using plant miRNA prediction tools. Mature sugarcane miRNAs are retrieved and are used for hybridization of the SCYLV. A total of seven common sugarcane miRNAs were selected based on consensus genomic positions. The biologically significant, top ranked ssp-miR528 was consensually predicted to have a potentially unique hybridization site at nucleotide position 4162 for targeting the ORF5 of the SCYLV genome; this was predicted by all the algorithms used in this study. Then, the miRNA–mRNA regulatory network was generated using the Circos algorithm, which was used to predict novel targets. There are no acceptable commercial SCYLV-resistant sugarcane varieties available at present. Therefore, the predicted biological data offer valuable evidence for the generation of SCYLV-resistant sugarcane plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0321.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: coffee leaf tea; novel food; coffee by-products; Coffea arabica; caffeine; epigallocatechin gallate
Online: 23 June 2022 (09:22:46 CEST)
The production of coffee leaf tea (Coffea arabica) in El Salvador and the influences of processing steps on non-volatile compounds and volatile aroma-active compounds were investigated. The tea was produced according to process steps of conventional tea (Camellia sinensis) with available possibilities on the farm. Influencing factors were the leaf type (old, young, yellow, shoots), processing (blending, cutting, rolling, freezing, steaming), drying (sun drying, oven drying, roasting) and fermentation (wild, yeast, Lactobacillus). Subsequently, the samples were analysed for the maximum levels of caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate permitted by the European Commission. The caffeine content varied between 0.37 g/100 g dry mass (DM) and 1.33 g/100 g DM, the chlorogenic acid between not detectable and 9.35 g /100 g DM and epigallocatechin gallate could not be detected at all. Furthermore, water content, essential oil, ash content, total polyphenols, total catechins, organic acids, and trigonelline were determined. Gas chromatography—mass spectrometry-olfactometry and calculating of the odour activity values (OAVs) were carried out to determine the main aroma-active compounds, which are β-ionone (honey-like, OAV 132-927), decanal (citrus-like, floral, OAV 14-301), α-ionone (floral, OAV 30-100), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber-like, OAV 18-256), 2,4-nonadienal (melon-like, OAV 2-18), octanal (fruity, OAV 7-23), (E)-2 nonenal (citrus-like, OAV 1-11), hexanal (grassy, OAV 1-10), and 4-heptenal (green, OAV 1-9).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bias; efficiency; element size; LAD; LAI; leaf and wood separation; LiDAR; multiple viewpoints; point cloud; TLS; UAV; voxel
Online: 24 May 2019 (07:53:44 CEST)
The amount and spatial distribution of foliage in a tree canopy have fundamental functions in ecosystems as they affect energy and mass fluxes through photosynthesis and transpiration. They are usually described by the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the Leaf Area Density (LAD), which can be measured through a variety of methods, including voxel-based methods applied to LiDAR point clouds. A theoretical study recently compared the numerical errors arising from different voxel-based estimation methods for Plant Area Density (PAD) based on Beer’s law-based, contact frequency and Maximum-Likelihood Estimation, showing that the bias-corrected Maximum Likelihood Estimator was theoretically the most efficient. However, this earlier study i) ignored wood volumes; ii) neglected vegetation clumping inside the voxel; iii) ignored instrument characteristics in terms of effective footprint, iv) was limited to a single viewpoint. In practice, retrieving LAD from PAD is not straightforward, vegetation is not randomly distributed in volumes of interest, beams are divergent and forestry plots are usually sampled from more than one viewpoint, to mitigate the effect of occlusion. In the present short communication, we extend the previous efficient formulation to actual field conditions to i) account for the presence of both wood volumes and wood hits, ii) rigorously include correction terms for vegetation and instrument characteristics, iii) integrate multiview data. A numerical comparison with other methods commonly used to combine information from different viewpoints led to error reduction, especially in poorly-explored volumes, which are frequent in actual canopies. Beyond its concision, completeness and efficiency, this new formulation -which can be applied to multiview TLS, but also UAV LiDAR scanning - can help reducing errors in LAD estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: oxygen plasma 2; active oxygen species 3; plasma irradiation on seed and leaf 4; growth enhancement 5; gene expression
Online: 6 December 2021 (13:28:01 CET)
Gene expression variations of plant leaf are investigated by irradiating seed and leaf with oxygen or air plasmas. Enhancement of leaf growth is induced by oxygen plasma irradiation on seeds, which is supported by increased gene expression for protein synthesis, oxidative-reduction reactions and decreased gene expression concerning DNA methylation and histone modification. Suppression of leaf growth is observed by the oxygen plasma, which would be owing to increased gene expression concerning heat shock protein and redox reaction, and decreased expression of photosynthesis and glycoprotein. Also, gene expression variation due to air plasma irradiation is almost same as that of oxygen plasma. Active oxygen species are major factors in both oxygen and air plasmas for the variation of gene expressions in plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0769.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: biochar; compost; vermicompost; biochar-compost mixtures; soil fertility; Swiss chard; nitrate content; leaf pigment content
Online: 31 December 2020 (07:32:17 CET)
In recent years, soil addition with organic amendments, such as biochar and compost, has gained attention as an effective agronomic practice to sustain soil fertility, enhance plant growth and crop yield. Well known are the positive effects of compost on yield of a wide crop varieties, while both positive and negative responses are reported for biochar Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify the effect of biochar mixed with three types of compost on quanti-qualitative response of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. cycla), a leafy green vegetable rich in dietary antioxidants, largely consumed worldwide. A factorial experiment in pots with two factors, including biochar (without biochar and with biochar from vine pruning residues) and compost (without compost, with compost from olive pomace, with vermicompost from cattle manure and with compost from cattle anaerobic digestate), was setup. Two growth cycles were considered and a set of quantitative (height of plants, number, area and fresh weight of leaves) and qualitative parameters (carotenoid, chlorophyll, total N and NO3-content of leaves) were analyzed. Biochar decreased plant growth and NO3- leaf content; on the contrary, it increased total N leaf content, while compost improved all the considered parameters. The interactive effect of biochar and compost was evident only on total N and NO3- leaf content. In our experimental conditions, the compost showed to be the best option to improve Swiss chard growth and increase the phytopigments content, while the biochar-compost mixtures didn’t produce the expected effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0232.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Sweet potato; Phosphorus fertilizer; Bacillus megaterium DSM2894; leaf and tuberous root nutrients contents; Tuberous root yield
Online: 14 December 2021 (12:15:41 CET)
Under Egyptian soil conditions, when phosphorus fertilizers were applied to the soil, it gets fixed and converts to unavailable form, leading to low solubility for the plant. This study were fulfilled on sweet potato (cv. Beauregard) under undesirable soil properties (CaCO3 10.8 vs 11.3%) using Bacillus megaterium DSM 2894 strain under different five mono calcium phosphate (CSP) levels [(69(CSP20); 138(CSP40); 207 (CSP60); 276 (CSP80) and 345 ((CSP100) kg ha-1 of calcium superphosphate (CSP)] to arise the potential efficiency of some nutrients uptake and decease the applied total amount of CSP in 2019 and 2020 seasons. The results mentioned that highest values were obtained by inoculated plants with DSM2894 strain under 20, 60 and 100% of CSP for all studied nutrients content in both seasons, except Mn content in the 2019. Also, inoculated plants with DSM2894 under previous treatments for all tuberous root nutrients content, except Fe and Zn contents in both seasons, in addition protein and anti-radical power and total yield. Statistically, leaf nutrients uptake and tuberous root content were highly significant affected by DSM and CSP combination. Appling of phosphorus fertilizer with DSM2894 mixture was gave the best values as compared with phosphorus fertilizer or DSM2894, individually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0235.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: abiotic stress; metro-scale; physiological acclimation; urban leaf morphology; red maple trees; stomate size; urban forests
Online: 15 April 2020 (09:32:30 CEST)
Environmental conditions, such as temperature, carbon dioxide, and nutrient availability, are altered by urban conditions at regional scales with potential for impact on tree leaf structure. Our goal was to compare leaf morphological characteristics driven by physiological acclimation in red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees in deciduous forests embedded in a small (Newark, DE) and a large (Philadelphia, PA) city. The study was conducted in six urban forests on eighteen mature red maple trees in a long-term urban forest network. We hypothesized that red maples in Philadelphia forests compared to Newark forests will have a thicker upper epidermal layer, spongy palisade and mesophyll layer, longer and wider stomates, and lower stomate density. Additionally, we hypothesized that red maples in Philadelphia forests compared to Newark forests will have lower leaf water content and specific leaf area, and greater leaf thickness, fresh leaf weight, dry leaf weight, and leaf dry matter content. Our results for stomate length and stomate width supported our predictions; red maple leaves had longer and wider stomates in Philadelphia forests than in Newark forests. The increased stomate size in red maple trees suggests potential altered gas exchange behavior and mutual abiotic stress mitigation responses in red maple to greater urbanization impacts in Philadelphia forests. This supports previous findings of possible physiological and biochemical acclimation of red maple trees to urban conditions. Furthermore, the findings from this study suggest red maple trees may be a good biomonitor of regional scale impacts in urban environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0755.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: wheat; leaf rust; powdery mildew; septoria; stem rust; yellow rust; image recognition; deep learning; convolutional neural network; phenotyping
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:35:37 CEST)
Diseases of cereals caused by pathogenic fungi can significantly reduce crop yields. Many cultures are exposed to them. The disease is difficult to control on a large scale, thus one of the relevant approaches is the crop field monitoring, which helps to identify the disease at an early stage and take measures to prevent its spread. One of the effective control methods is disease identification based on the analysis of digital images with the possibility of obtaining them in field conditions using mobile devices. In this work, we propose a method for the recognition of five fungal diseases of wheat shoots (leaf rust, stem rust, yellow rust, powdery mildew, and septoria), both separately and in combination, with the possibility of identifying the stage of plant development. A set of 2414 images of wheat fungi diseases (WFD2020) was generated, for which expert labeling was performed by the type of disease. WFD2020 data are available freely at http://wfd.sysbio.ru/. In the process of creating this set, a method was applied to reduce the degeneracy of the training data based on the image hashing algorithm. The disease recognition algorithm is based on the convolutional neural network with the EfficientNet architecture. The best accuracy (0.942) was shown by a network with a training strategy based on augmentation and transfer of image styles. The recognition method was implemented by the authors as a bot on the Telegram platform, which allows assessing plants by lesions in the field conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0083.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: evapotranspiration; green infrastructure; HYDRUS; leaf water potential; low impact development; optimization; overdesign; stomatal conductance; simulated runoff test; static sizing; stormwater control measure; tree trench
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:28:40 CET)
Green infrastructure systems are often overdesigned. This may be a byproduct of static sizing (e.g., accounting for a design storm’s runoff volume but not exfiltration rates) or may be deliberate (e.g., buffering against performance loss through time). Regardless, overdesign may compromise plants’ access to water in systems where soil pits are embedded in infiltration beds. It could raise the storm size required for water to reach soil pits, reducing water availability between storms, which could ultimately induce plant physiological stress. This study investigated the hydrological dynamics and water relations of a tree trench system suspected to have been overbuilt and identified factors contributing to, compounding, and mitigating the risk of plant stress. Results provided strong evidence that the abovementioned processes played out. Water in the infiltration bed reached soil pits only once in three years, with that event occurring during a hydrant release. Moreover, minimal water was retained in the soil pit during the event due to the hydraulic properties of the soil media. Through a growing season, one of the two tree types frequently experienced water stress, while the other did so only rarely. These contrasting responses can likely be attributed to roots either being largely confined to the soil pits or reaching a deeper water source. Implications of these results for green infrastructure design are considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0271.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Idaeovirus; Blackcurrant leaf chlorosis associated virus; next-generation sequencing (NGS); bridge reads; abutting primers; RNase R digestion; circular RNA; concatenated RNA
Online: 30 March 2018 (11:40:46 CEST)
Blackcurrant leaf chlorosis associated virus (BCLCaV) was detected recently by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and proposed as a new and distinct species in the genus Idaeovirus. Genomic components of BCLCaV that were detected and confirmed include: 1) RNA-1 that is monocistronic and encodes the replicase complex; 2) a bicistronic RNA-2 that encodes a movement protein (MP) and the coat protein (CP) of the virus, with open reading frames (ORF) that overlap by a single adenine (A) nucleotide (nt) representing the third position of an opal stop codon of the MP ORF2a and the first position of the start codon of the CP ORF2b; 3) a subgenomic form of RNA-2 (RNA-3) that contains ORF2b; and 4) a concatenated form of RNA-2 that consists of a complementary and inverted RNA-3 conjoined to the full-length RNA-2. Analysis of NGS-derived paired-end reads revealed the existence of bridge reads encompassing the 3’-terminus and 5’-terminus of RNA-2 or RNA-3 of BCLCaV. The full RNA-2 or RNA-3 could be amplified using outward facing or abutting primers; also RNA-2/RNA-3 could be detected even after three consecutive RNase R enzyme treatments with denaturation at 95 oC preceding each digestion. Evidence was obtained indicating that there are circular forms of BCLCaV RNA-2 and RNA-3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0145.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: clumping index; crown architecture; crown projection area; lidar-based crown metrics; discrete-return lidar; fire severity; leaf area density; post-fire effects
Online: 13 October 2019 (15:34:43 CEST)
Fire-tolerant eucalypt forests of south eastern Australia are assumed to fully recover from even the most intense fires but surprisingly very few studies have quantitatively assessed that recovery. Accurate assessment of horizontal and vertical attributes of tree crowns after fire is essential to understand the fire’s legacy effects on tree growth and on forest structure. In this study, we quantitatively assessed individual tree crowns 8.5 years after a 2009 wildfire that burnt extensive areas of eucalypt forest in temperate Australia. We used airborne lidar data validated with field measurements to estimate multiple metrics that quantified the cover, density, and vertical distribution of individual-tree crowns in 51 plots of 0.05 ha in fire-tolerant eucalypt forest across four wildfire severity types (unburnt, low, moderate, high). Significant differences in the field-assessed mean height of fire scarring as a proportion of tree height, and in the proportions of trees with epicormic (stem) resprouts were consistent with the gradation in fire severity. Linear mixed-effects models indicated persistent effects of both moderate- and high-severity wildfire on tree crown architecture. Trees at high-severity sites had significantly less crown projection area and live crown width as a proportion of total crown width than those at unburnt and low-severity sites. Significant differences in lidar-based metrics (crown cover, evenness, leaf area density profiles) indicated that tree crowns at moderate- and high-severity sites were comparatively narrow and more evenly distributed down the tree stem. These conical-shaped crowns contrasted sharply with the rounded crowns of trees at unburnt and low-severity sites, and likely influenced both tree productivity and the accuracy of biomass allometric equations for nearly a decade after the fire. Our data provide a clear example of the utility of airborne lidar data for quantifying the impacts of disturbances at the scale of individual trees. Quantified effects of contrasting fire severities on the structure of resprouter tree crowns provide a strong basis for interpreting post-fire patterns in forest canopies and vegetation profiles in lidar and other remotely-sensed data at larger scales.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0311.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: fossil; morphology; evo-devo; paleobotany; evolution; development; macroevolution; modularity; hierarchy; structural fingerprint; regulatory module; auxin; polar auxin transport; embryophyte evolution; sporophyte evolution; polysporangiophyte; leaf evolution; secondary growth; secondary xylem; vascular cambium; strobilus; Sphenophyta; Equisetum; Lycophyta; root evolution; Lepidodendrales
Online: 14 July 2020 (13:34:20 CEST)
Fossils constitute the principal repository of data that allow for independent tests of hypotheses of biological evolution derived from observations of the extant biota. Traditionally, transformational series of structure, consisting of sequences of fossils of the same lineage through time, have been employed to reconstruct and interpret morphological evolution. More recently, a move toward an updated paradigm was fueled by the deliberate integration of developmental thinking in the inclusion of fossils in reconstruction of morphological evolution. The vehicle for this is provided by structural fingerprints – recognizable morphological and anatomical structures generated by (and reflective of) the deployment of specific genes and regulatory pathways during development. Furthermore, because the regulation of plant development is both modular and hierarchical in nature, combining structural fingerprints recognized in the fossil record with our understanding of the developmental regulation of those structures produces a powerful tool for understanding plant evolution. This is particularly true when the systematic distribution of specific developmental regulatory mechanisms and modules is viewed within an evolutionary (paleo-evo-devo) framework. Here, we discuss several advances in understanding the processes and patterns of evolution, achieved by tracking structural fingerprints with their underlying regulatory modules across lineages, living and fossil: the role of polar auxin regulation in the cellular patterning of secondary xylem and the parallel evolution of arborescence in lycophytes and seed plants; the morphology and life history of early polysporangiophytes and tracheophytes; the role of modularity in the parallel evolution of leaves in euphyllophytes; leaf meristematic activity and the parallel evolution of venation patterns among euphyllophytes; mosaic deployment of regulatory modules and the diverse modes of secondary growth of euphyllophytes; modularity and hierarchy in developmental regulation and the evolution of equisetophyte reproductive morphology. More generally, inclusion of plant fossils in the evo-devo paradigm has informed discussions on the evolution of growth patterns and growth responses, sporophyte body plans and their homology, sequences of character evolution, and the evolution of reproductive systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0270.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: red plum apricot; fruit forest; planting area; benefits; soil water resources use limit by red plum apricot; suitable leaf amount of red plum apricot; sustainable produce of red plum apricot
Online: 26 August 2019 (15:24:14 CEST)
Red plum apricot is the best apricot over the world. Since having been introduced into Guyuan county in 1987 from Shaanxi province, red plum apricot grows well and then has been selected as good varieties to popularize in semirid loess hilly regions because the color of red plum apricot is beautiful, aroma fragrant , and taste is the mix of sour and sweet and nutrition is rich. Since 1995, the yield, benefits and planting area of red plum apricot increase doubly, and the distribution range of red plum apricot increased from Guyuan to the whole Ningxia, and then to Gansu province and so on in the water-limited regions, China. However, there are still some problems in the sustainable produce of red plum apricot. In order to promote the development of red plum apricot and meet people's increasing demand, we should do intensive study of the relationship between red plum apricot and environment and the comparison of possible methods to reduce the bad influence of drought, low temperature and frost on quality and production of red plum apricot, and determine the soil water resources use limit by red plum apricot and the suitable leaf amount of red plum apricot when the planting density equal soil water carrying capacity for red plum apricot and select the best method to reduce or evade the bad influence of soil drought, low temperature, frost and soil drought on red plum apricot to ensure the sustainable produce of red plum apricot in Sustainable Produce of red plum apricot in water-limited regions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Aspirin; COVID-19; Human blood platelets; Platelet hemostatic function; Angiogenesis; Fatty acids; Immunity; Inflammation; Non-hemostatic function; Atherosclerosis; Cancer; Diabetes; Obesity; Hypertension; Bioactive compound; Water-soluble tomato extract; Kiwi fruit; Fruitflow®; papaya leaf extract; Polyphenols; Evodiamine; Polyphenols
Online: 10 March 2022 (02:42:26 CET)
Platelets have long been associated with sustaining the balance between hemostasis and thrombosis. Platelets, however, are also involved in a wide range of biological activities, including inflammation, immunology, wound healing, cancer biology, and angiogenesis. Platelets' diverse roles are mediated by the expression of various adhesive and immune receptors and the secretion of a diverse array of bioactive proteins, ions stored in granules, and several lipid mediators. Platelets also release pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, and angiogenic factors and shed microparticles into the bloodstream. The challenge for therapeutic intervention in non-hemostatic disease is identifying the factors that primarily inhibit specific targets implicated in platelets' complicated contribution to inflammation or tumor growth while leaving their hemostatic function intact. In addition, blood platelets are involved in infection and innate and adaptive immunity by mediating complicated vascular homeostasis via specialized receptors and granule release, RNA transfer, and mitochondrial secretion. Anti-platelet drugs/bioactive compounds are developed based on their platelet anti-aggregatory properties; however, very little information is available on their effects on non-hemostatic function. Therefore, a better understanding of the impact of the anti-platelet bioactive on the platelets' diverse roles and mechanisms may help develop new strategies and prevent CVD and other diseases. In this review, a comprehensive overview of platelet multifunctional roles in CVD and other diseases and dietary factors' modulatory effects are described.