COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: academic leadership; change management; educational leadership; leadership; leadership development
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:05:40 CEST)
Medical education is facing great challenges and uncertainties amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical Education Institutions are required to build a task force team for crisis management. These should be committed to supporting a sudden online education transition, academic support, and psychological well-being of students, staff members, health care professionals, paramedics, and faculty administration. As the situation evolves, the task force has to monitor the challenges and provide appropriate plans, guidance, and solutions. Leaders in medical education have a crucial role in response to the pandemic crisis in securing a successful educational process while ensuring the mental and psychological well-being of the stakeholders. Herein, we provide tips that can provide a guide for medical education leaders to coordinate crisis management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education for sustainable leadership; gender equality; competencies; higher education; women managers
Online: 5 September 2019 (02:55:41 CEST)
Education is an imperative key to driving sustainability and gender equity. In addition to addressing well-known female deficiencies in leadership training, it is really important to develop initiatives in sustainable leadership education for women to acquire skills, competencies and tools on leadership and to increase their self-perceptions. The purpose of this study is to assess a Women’s Leadership Program for university students. The sample consisted of 50 students enrolled in the program. A mixed-method approach was applied. Quantitative methods with a survey were conducted to evaluate the training and the achievement of leadership skills. In the data analysis, a descriptive statistics variance analysis, using a Welch statistic and T2 Dunnett test, was applied. Qualitative research methods were conducted through three focus groups to evaluate personal changes in their own-perceptions and self-confidence. Results suggest that the female students in the program reached a level of leadership knowledge with practical tools for their future. The program inspired them and confirmed changes in their personal capacities or self-confidence, including reflection about facing challenges in the work environment. The findings support the effectiveness of the specific education in breaking two barriers shown by the literature for women to getting a managerial position: lack of training and female self-confidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Leadership, management, competency-based learning, organizational performance, institutions of higher learning, university, education
Online: 15 March 2019 (10:04:47 CET)
This paper presents a brief account and rationale for implementation of competency-based learning in any form of management and leadership development programmes in South Africa. The fact that competency-based learning (CBL), also known as outcomes-based learning has been scrapped from the schooling system in South Africa is unfortunate as this method enhances critical thinking skills and practical problem-solving skills. This paper presents CBL as a model of meta-cognitive approach to learning that integrates both theory and practice into experiential learning through six dimensions, namely, active learning, constructive learning, cumulative learning, goal-oriented learning, learner-centred and curriculum design strategies. In the advent of the fast-paced global economy, managers and leaders need to seek those business schools that value real-time practical approach to curriculum for relevance and to maximize shareholder value through human resource development. This brief presentation ends by recommending an approach through CBL that fosters three critical pillars of leadership development, namely: intellectual, behavioural and emotional agenda.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0280.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable leadership; sustainability leadership; environmental leadership; sustainability; leadership
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:46:16 CEST)
Leadership and sustainability have been researched and examined concurrently. We know much about sustainable, sustainability and environmental leadership as separate areas of research and the leadership behaviours and practices that facilitate achievement of sustainability outcomes. Whilst these research streams have developed alongside each other, we know little about the similarities and differences of each of these three leadership approaches. The purpose of this paper is to review and compare which sustainable, sustainability and environmental leadership approaches are predictive of improved organizational performance with a view to understanding leadership towards sustainability. Through a comprehensive review of the extant literature, we integrate the three leadership approaches and highlight areas of similarity and difference. From a theoretical perspective, this paper seeks to make a significant contribution to the scholarly literature by building on current knowledge and developing a unified framework that combines our findings on leadership practices and behaviours in terms of the types of leadership required for achieving sustainability outcomes. By unifying existing frameworks and clarifying points of integration and differentiation under the umbrella of ‘leadership towards sustainability’, this paper seeks to advance research on leadership approaches. From a practical perspective, a cohesive set of leadership behaviours and practices will be emphasized so that leaders can adapt these to suit the context of their organization, thus helping leaders make sense of the literature to inform their practice and reach sustainability goals. Thus, the main goal of this paper is to identify a range of leadership behaviours and practices that are required to improve the performance of sustainability in organizations thus informing the broader leadership field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0418.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: transformational leadership; workplace engagement; education; meta-analysis; endogeneity; causal studies
Online: 30 June 2022 (07:43:16 CEST)
One of the major areas of research in a business setting has been the effect of the transformational leadership style on workplace engagement. Much debate has taken place on the definitions of both constructs but in recent years, general agreement appears to have been reached on the Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Avolio and Bass, 2004) as the measure of transformational leadership, and on workplace engagement measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) (Schaufeli et al, 2006). However, in the education setting, there is much less agreement on the definition of transformational leadership. Furthermore, there is less of a focus on workplace engagement than in the business field even though available evidence suggests that workplace engagement worldwide is in crisis. This study sought to address both the lack of agreement on the transformational leadership definition and the lack of focus on workplace engagement in educational research by means of a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis resulted in a significant pooled effect size although due recognition is given to the endogeneity problem in causal studies. The endogeneity issue together with the results of the meta-analysis are discussed with a view to furthering educational leadership research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0634.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: project leadership; project leadership theory; project leadership model; organizational leadership
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:47:59 CEST)
Individuals and their leadership competencies have been the sole focus of project leadership research, rather than the project leadership's behaviour and functions in project and organizational settings. As a result, this study investigates the project leadership functions and behaviours required for various project and organizational situations in order to propose a project leadership model that will be effective in all project and organizational situations. The model that was developed and tested in this study theorized on the project leadership function that project leaders are expected to perform as a result of their positions. It also described how project leaders could tailor their leadership functions and behaviours to address issues related to positions, organizational situations, and project situations. Three hypotheses were developed and tested using structural equation modelling to validate the model. The model's perceptive power demonstrates adequate validity. The model's validity implies that there are appropriate project leadership functions for different leadership levels and circumstances. The model's validity also implies that each project leadership behaviour has its own value, as conditions and necessities dictate. The study assumes that a project leader can embrace project leadership by combining a few different project leadership functions and behaviours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0497.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; international students; leadership and governance; SEM; STEM; sustainable development; sustainability
Online: 31 December 2021 (09:39:26 CET)
Attracting and retaining international students has been widely discussed in higher education settings. Increasing the number of international students has become an indispensable strategy for national and global competition. This study focuses on effective strategies and international students' issues regarding satisfaction in the most popular STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) programs. We designed a structural equation modeling (SEM) method to determine the effect of institutional mediation between push factors and satisfaction factors for the development of better strategies by which to attract and retain international students. Taking Taiwan as an example, this study employed a self-designed questionnaire to collect data: 485 degree-seeking international students in STEM programs were invited and successfully participated in this study during spring 2021. IBM SPSS 26 and AMOS 26 (Analysis of Moment Structure) were used to carry out the data analysis. We employed reliability, factor, and SEM analyses. This study assumed that the impact of push factors can be modified by institutional situations and result in international students’ satisfaction with their learning and environment and regarding migration policy. The results revealed that the predictors, mediation, and criteria were significant at the 0.05 or 0.01 levels. The findings suggest that push factors impact international students’ satisfaction when using institutional leadership and international strategy. The results of the bootstrap with a generalized least square method showed that the SEM model fit in 2000 bootstrap samples. The effect of institutional mediation can provide useful information for STEM programs to boost their future recruitment and retention strategies. This study provides an innovative approach to the detection of issues among international students in specific programs. These findings can enrich our knowledge regarding attracting and retaining global students in higher education settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0241.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: leadership; community leadership; job performance
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:37:32 CET)
Leadership performance by village leaders is essential to promote sustainable life among rural communities, especially fisheries community who living along coastal villages. Otherwise, previous studies found that performance issues among village’s leaders remain as serious problems, and need to find the best solution. This study was conducted to profile the job performance among village leaders based on demographic factors such as educational level, age and experiences as village leader. The data of this cross-sectional survey were collected by questionnaires on 300 respondents consist of members of village organization through stratified sampling’s technique, while the data was analysed by SPSS using items of mean, standard deviation, independent-sample t-test and anova. The finding shown that there were differences in job performance among village leaders on educational level, age and experiences. Interestingly, the finding told the best on job performance among village leaders are (i) the age between 41 to 50 years old; (iii) the experience between 11 to 20 years; and (iii) the higher educational level the higher job performance among them. This result can be using by government or any responsible parties to improve job performance among village leaders, especially for recruitment selection and for in-service training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0465.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Leadership; transformational leadership; moderator; mediator; innovation
Online: 26 December 2022 (03:05:16 CET)
Leaders are essential in encouraging and facilitating creative thinking among members of a group or organization. A leader must also monitor the group's initiatives to encourage innovation and fresh thinking. In this article, we take a look at the circumstances under which there is a link between leadership and original problem-solving. Thirty separate studies served as the basis for this sample. Many of these analyses see leadership independently from the concept of innovation. Both moderating and mediating factors were discussed, and two additional factors were identified for which no firm conclusions could be drawn. This investigation reveals three new potential mediators or moderators of the connection between leadership and inventiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Sustainability; textile industry; biotechnological solutions; leadership; sustainable leadership; start-up,
Online: 24 October 2022 (07:13:36 CEST)
Many pigments and dyes are not only valuable molecules in manufacturing, but also pollutants. Science has certainly been producing sustainable alternatives to counter the issue of dyes, but this is not enough. There is also a need for change in the business attitude and leadership approach of the organizations that operate in the industry. Only through the successful combination of new technologies and forward-looking decision making, it will be possible to alter the status quo and deal with the multiple environmental and supply chain challenges that these businesses are and will be facing. With a focus on colorants, this critical review article will reflect on the importance of both a biotechnological approaches and sustainable leadership to achieve a sustainable, forward-looking fashion industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: distributed leadership; school principal’s practices; teacher leadership; teacher profes-sional development
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:30:33 CEST)
Distributed leadership is based on increasing the knowledge of the skills of those who exercise the role of leaders in the school. The objectives are a) to analyse school principals’ practices aimed at creating professional development opportunities linked to teacher leadership for school improvement and b) to relate the perceptions of teacher leaders with professional development opportunities granted by principals. The methods of the study were based on an examination of 21 interviews, between individual semi-structured interviews with school principals and group interviews with teacher leaders at six public schools in Chile, as well as a documentary analysis of institutional educational projects using grounded theory and NVivo 12 software. The results are presented in three categories: management of principals about school organisation, development of the professional capacities of teacher leaders, and management of principals about school coexistence and participation of teacher leaders. The conclusions detailing school principal practices show that distributed leadership practices are helpful in developing teachers’ leadership competencies. Furthermore, this study suggests that training amplifies the beneficial effects of distributed leadership on teachers’ development. Finally, the findings imply that school principals should regularly fulfil their managerial responsibilities and pay more attention to teacher training to improve the school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Women Leadership; leadership development; identity; experience; role model; narrative; social; culture development
Online: 12 April 2023 (03:07:14 CEST)
This qualitative research study explores the experiences of three Emirati women who have achieved significant success in their higher education institutes in the (UAE). The study aims to understand how childhood and adolescent experiences shape the leadership development of these women, both positively and negatively. The study also includes interviews with family members and close colleagues of the participants to gain additional perspectives. The findings the importance of family support, role models, and mentors in shaping the leadership development of women in the UAE. The study also sheds light on the challenges and barriers that women face in leadership positions, including gender bias and discrimination. Overall, the study contributes to a deeper understanding of the experiences of Emirati women in leadership positions and provides insights into how to support their leadership development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1205.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Vocations; Leadership; Work Environment; Nursing
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:10:16 CEST)
Background: The presence of a leadership role in the nursing manager appears to be closely related to a positive and productive work environment within health settings. In some contexts, such as Mexico, the profile of the nursing manager has not been formally defined, and, sometimes those who occupy these positions do not always have sufficient training, and therefore this vocation, which is related to the social image of the nursing profession. This study aims to understand the influence of the vocation for leadership that the nursing manager has and how it can influence the work environment, through the analysis of experiences lived by health professionals with a management profile of different health environments; Methods: Qualitative study of an approximation to grounded theory using Corbin & Strauss as reference, using semi-structured individual interviews as a technique, and with the participation of 10 Mexican nursing managers from second-level care hospitals; Results: The meaning of the vocation for the interviewed managers is based in the first instance on the love of the profession and the vocation to be a nurse, then on the development of leadership for decision-making in practice and is fed back with the positive effects that it generates in the work environment, helping them to better organize human resources and professional activities, and strengthening themselves with specific training on the subject and the experience acquired. ; Conclusions: An understanding model is provided about the phenomenon where two central categories were identified, the first central category is the "Management vocation and natural nursing leadership" which is the basis; The second central category is the "Explanation and influence of the managerial vocation, natural leadership and work environment in nursing". Two connection categories were also created; the connection category one "Motives, meaning, and practical vocation of managerial nursing" and the connection category two "Description of the managerial vocation, natural leadership, and work environment", said connection categories emanate from the central category one, to connect with the central category two, which contains the interaction of the managerial vocation, natural leadership, and work environment in nursing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0101.v1
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:21:03 CEST)
Abstract: The present study seeks to investigate MNOs leadership style and how it influences their compassion competence and their personal level of compassion at work. This is a cross-sectional study carried out from December 2019 to May 2020 using the method of convenience sampling. The study involved 235 MNOs serving in Greek Military Hospitals. A single questionnaire containing Compassion at Work index, Compassion competence scale, and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X), and socio-demographic and professional data, was used for data collection. A total of 400 printed questionnaires were distributed with a response rate of 58.75%. Data analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS 22.0. The research showed that the transformational and transactional leadership styles coexist in the Nursing Corps of the Armed Forces with an average value of 2.72(SD=0.70)-2.95(SD=0.54) points and 2.47(SD=0.69)-2.74(SD=0.63) points respectively, while the passive style represented a very small percentage with an average subscale value of 0.88(SD=0.61)-0.94(SD=0.63) points. It was also found that both actual compassion at work and compassion ability had improved with the increase of transformational or transactional leadership style characteristics and amelioration of leadership outcome criteria. On the other side, a deterioration of these was observed with the increase of the passive leadership. Specifically, a higher score in the «Intellectual Stimulation» scale was associated with a higher level of compassion at work in the dimension «Experiencing the suffering of others» (p=0.010/SD=0.14), while higher values on the «Laissez-Faire Leadership» scale were associated with less compassion at work in the same dimension (p<0.001/SD=0.13). Also, a higher score on the «Contingent Reward» scale was associated with more compassion at work in the dimension «Takes appropriate action» (p=0.023/SD=0.16). Furthermore, higher values observed in the «Inspirational Motivation», «Individual Consideration» and «Extra Effort» scales were associated with a better communication ability (p=0.035/SD=0.09, p=0.022/SD=0.12, and p=0.042/SD=0.08 accordingly). Finally, a higher score on the «Effectiveness» scale was associated with higher sensitivity (p=0.049/SD=0.08). Teaching appropriate leadership behavior, promoting a culture of compassion, and continuing to train nurses to manage their emotions should be included in the infrastructure of nursing science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mentorship; mentoring culture; minority higher education leadership; leadership; higher education; minority faculty; diversity; inclusivity
Online: 31 August 2023 (12:11:59 CEST)
Recent years have seen organizations increasingly shift towards the development of a mentoring culture, as opposed to the imposition of formalized mentoring programs. This original research paper set out to explore the utility of fostering mentoring cultures within higher education settings with a particular emphasis placed on the ways in which a mentoring culture may support the nurturing of leadership potential and serve underrepresented minority faculty and staff members. Primary data was gathered using an open-ended qualitative survey, which was followed up by semi-structured interviews. One hundred faculty members in diverse academic and administrative leadership roles across the United States were sent online surveys, with 18 individuals expressing interest in participating in a semi-structured interview. Those who responded affirmatively were then contacted via telephone to follow up with further questions. Analysis of their insights, in conjunction with analysis of other literature, suggests that the cultivation of a mentoring culture offers diverse benefits for mentees advancing into leadership positions; for mentors; and for the institution as a whole. Overall, the development of a mentoring culture characterized by informal, spontaneous exchanges, and tailored to the needs of underrepresented minority faculty members, appears to be a useful tool in enhancing leadership potential in higher education contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0567.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Nurses; Leadership; COVID-19; Management; Communication
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:14:55 CET)
Purpose: To evaluate nursing leaders' perception towards communication and relationship management competencies while using digital platforms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Background: Communication and relationship management competencies among nursing leaders will ensure healthcare models are successfully implemented. Nursing leaders can achieve effective leadership by mastering these competencies leading to an overall improvement in the quality of nursing care. However, digital platforms have been rapidly evolving in the healthcare ecosystem and have been significant during the battle with COVID-19. It is crucial to ensure that nursing leaders can use digital platforms to communicate and practice efficient management in their op-erations, especially during a crisis when their services are vital. Design: Descriptive, comparative study. Methods: The study was conducted between February to March 2021. A 5-item Linkert-type questionnaire was adopted from the American Organization for Nursing Executives (2005) and was sent to identified nursing leaders in Hamad Medical Corporation through the official email. Results: Two hundred fifty nurse leaders were invited to participate, but only 116 responded positively, translating to a response rate of 46.4%. The male participants represented a larger proportion of 64.10%, while the female was 35.90%. Regarding the questionnaire, the Cronbach alpha was α ˃ 0.987, indicating that all items revealed a sufficient level of internal consistency. The respondents had a minimum of 0 and a maximum of 52.6n in the communication and relationship management items. Influencing behavior, relationship management, and effective communica-tion had the lowest scores, which indicate low competency. The F value in ANOVA analysis was close to 1.0, implying that the null hypothesis is true. The significance value is <0.5 implying that there is a difference in response on effective communication proficiency of nurse leaders. Conclusions: Digital platforms are communication tools that are widely adopted to engage and reach nurses on numerous topics. Nurse leaders should capitalize on their benefits and generate critical discussions. The continued need to research nursing leadership competencies is critical as healthcare continues to change and evolve. Educational institutions and healthcare organizations must understand that nursing leaders should strive for professional development and knowledge acquisition to improve their communication and management.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Management; entrepreneurial behavior; leadership; SMEs; innovation
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:48:59 CET)
The objective of this study is to identify how demographic characteristics (gender, age, seniority at work, and educational level) are related to the entrepreneurial behavior of companies. To comply with the above, a quantitative, transversal, and non-experimental research was carried out, which consisted in applying an instrument to 262 managers of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a northern city in Mexico. The collected information was analyzed in the software SPSS, version 26 with statistical testing by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis. The main findings dermore highly educated managers are those who contribute to this behavior of the studied companies, while gender and seniority at work are not differentiating elements in relation to the above. This research generates different possibilities of studies to be carried out in large companies from other sectors, as well as to include behavioral characteristics as study variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0545.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gender; academic; STEM; leadership; barriers; assistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:06:20 CEST)
Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are under-represented, and women are also less likely than men to be in leadership positions generally. Little is known about the intersection of these areas: women in leadership in STEM. To determine what sort of barriers and assistance female STEM leaders have encountered, a survey was developed asking women who are in academic leadership positions in STEM about their experiences. The main barriers were similar in the STEM area and in leadership: balancing work/home life, devaluing of achievements, and imposter syndrome. The main two types of assistance in both STEM and leadership were support from spouse/partner, and encouragement from peers. The main barriers women encounter are cultural and will take time to overcome. The main assistance women have had comes from people, not training or institutional structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0120.v1
Online: 11 November 2019 (04:53:34 CET)
A considerable body of research exists on women in leadership and likewise on women in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) fields. However, the intersection of the two is terra incognita: women in leadership in STEM. At the most fundamental level, we don’t even have a solid idea of how many women hold leadership positions in STEM. This study determined the proportion of women in leadership positions in several academic STEM areas via a sampling of institutions across the United States and other countries. In every area studied, women held fewer leadership positions than the proportion of female PhDs in those fields. The proportion of women in non-STEM specific top academic leadership roles was also examined to see what proportion of those individuals leading academic institutions might have background in a STEM discipline and how that compares to men in the same positions. This study opens the door to exploring the experiences of women who lead in STEM, which is likely to promote women’s participation in these fields.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0052.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: workplace, toxicity, leadership, distributive bargaining, zero sum gain, Uhl Bien, complex adaptive systems, complexity leadership theory.
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:22:29 CET)
The issue of workplace toxicity constitutes a major problem for employers, employees and society at large. Toxicity in a workplace context relates to damaging behaviours perpetrated by individuals and organisations that netatively impact on the health and wellbeing of others. Workplace toxicty is habitually associated with activities such as bullying, harrassment, unethical and even illegal acts. In this article, today’s workplace is likenened to a cage where ambition and greed drive people to engage in toxic behaviour to fight for whatever scarce rewards are on offer. Set against a backdrop of continuous demands on employees in a era of constant change and challenge, leadership practice in the 21st century is understandably seeped in complexity. Whilst conditions of scarcity are in fact constructed by employers in today’s lean environments, workplace toxicity has significant implications for organisational leaders in terms of work place disputes, absenteeism and litigation etc. Twentieth century hierarchial and autocratic leadership models are now deemed to be both obsolete and wholly inadedgate to inform leadership practice in the knowledge era. This conceptual article looks at the efficacy of complexity leadership theory (CLT) in empowering today’s leader to better understand and address 21st century workplace toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Leadership Experiences; Women in Leadership; Adolescent experiences; UAE; Women; Leadership development; Qualitative research; Semi-structured interviews; Document analysis; Diary writing; Family upbringing; Cultural values; Education; Societal expectations
Online: 12 April 2023 (09:41:03 CEST)
Women have been leading organizations and communities for centuries, but their journeys in leadership have sometimes been challenging. This paper aims to reflect on women's positive and negative experiences in leadership roles and understand the factors contributing to their successes and challenges.To explore these issues, we will draw on various academic literature, including studies on gender and leadership and case studies of women in leadership positions. We will also examine the cultural and social factors that affect women's experiences in leadership, including bias and discrimination, societal expectations, and work-life balance challenges.One key theme from this analysis is the importance of role models and support networks in helping women succeed in leadership roles. Women with access to mentorship, sponsorship, and peer networks are more likely to thrive in their roles and overcome the challenges they may face. However, lacking female role models and mentors can make it difficult for women to advance in their careers and contribute to feelings of isolation and imposter syndrome.Another important theme is the need for organizations and society to address systemic biases and discrimination that prevent women from reaching their full potential. This can include initiatives such as unconscious bias training, flexible work arrangements, and policies that support gender diversity and inclusion.In conclusion, this paper highlights women's positive and negative experiences in leadership roles and emphasizes the need for ongoing efforts to support and empower women in leadership. By addressing the challenges women face and building a culture of inclusion and support, organizations and society can help unlock the full potential of women leaders and create a more equitable and just world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0458.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: family-supportive workplaces; corporate family responsibility; ethical leadership; authentic leadership; family-supportive supervisor behavior; chief executive officer
Online: 29 October 2021 (16:39:36 CEST)
Purpose: The goal of the present study was to investigate chief executives’ intention and potential to create a family-supportive culture in the Brazilian context, further assessing the role of their aspirations in their employees’ perceptions. Methodology: Two researchers conducted 60 minutes of online semi-structured interviews with CEOs of seven companies of different sizes (measured by the number of employees), economic sectors, and capital structure. To complement the data gathered from CEOs, we also conducted private and individual 30-minute online interviews with three employees from each company. Findings: A total of four categories and 11 sub-categories emerged from the analysis of CEO interviews, and four categories and six sub-categories emerged from the analysis of employee interviews. Originality: The results suggest that family-supportive culture is promoted through behaviors that are consistent with the organization’s core values, as well as through commitment of the agenda and resources of the company’s leadership team.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0522.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: job crafting; meta-analysis; leadership; social factors
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:52:46 CEST)
Despite the considerable focus on job characteristics and individual differences in job crafting research, the influence of social factors on job crafting has not been well-acknowledged. This meta-analysis estimates the associations between social factors and job crafting, and how social factors contribute to employee outcomes through their job crafting. Based on a sample of 51 empirical studies that included 54 independent effect sizes (N = 17,863), we found that social factors of positive leadership styles (e.g., empowering and transformational) and coworker support were positively related to employee job crafting. Further, our study showed that employee job crafting positively mediate the relationships between social factors and work outcomes (e.g., job performance and well-being). Our study contributes to job crafting literature by integrating social factors into the job crafting model and demonstrating that the social context of work (in particular organizational-insiders) play a crucial role in shaping employees’ job crafting behavior. We also emphasize the critical role that job crafting plays in transmitting valuable social resources into improved work outcomes. Building on our results, we provide future direction for job crafting research and discuss how our results can imply practice in terms of job crafting training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: competition; trust; team; evaluation; vocational training; leadership education
Online: 1 March 2023 (07:59:24 CET)
The research question in this article concerns how a competitive environment affects the learner (officer cadet's) personal leadership development and their relationship to their team and with future civilian foundations. More specifically, what are the possible learning effects of the “hidden” curriculum? This article investigates how a more than 250 years of leadership education provides new army officers with new skills and how such an environment may affect the cadets' leadership training. The paper builds on ethnographic data gathered during the three-year education program in most of the relevant practical locations and contexts. Findings regarding trust in their learning environment, cadets have reported scores of (Mean 2.83) on a 1 (low trust) to 5 (high trust) Likert scale, underpinning interviewdata regarding the lack trust in the academy and in their fellow cadets. Cadets also point out that competition has hindered their learning (Mean 2.50). These findings are interpreted in relation to possible negative effects stemming from internal competition and the evaluation system as a whole. The overall output of this system is a zero–sum game, and thus effects evaluative practices and learning processes. This study is of relevance to higher education officers responsible for designing learning environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0442.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital transformation; digital strategy; corporate culture; leadership; performance
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:10:26 CET)
Digital transformation of companies is often referred to as a future track and a strategic path towards ensuring the survival and sustainability of companies. In this paper, we aim to outline this transformation process in Tunisian companies and identify its driving factors and finally explain its key success factors. To this end, we examine a sample of 70 companies operating in all economic sectors. The results indicate that such a digital strategy has a significant and a positive effect on the success of digital transformation of companies. Leadership has an effect at a low level of digital maturity. On the other hand, corporate culture does not have a significant effect on digital transformation. These results contribute to explaining this emerging phenomenon by focusing on the driving factors as well as the factors that contribute to its success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0391.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: occupational health; leadership; mental health; workplace climate; worksite
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:27:08 CEST)
Objectives: This study validated the Japanese version of O’Donovan et al.’s (2020) composite measure of psychological safety scale and examined the associations of psychological safety with mental health and job-related outcomes. Methods: Online surveys were administered twice to Japanese employees with teams of more than three members. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was tested using Cronbach’s α and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Convergent validity was tested. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between psychological safety and psychological distress, work engagement, job performance, and job satisfaction. Results: Two hundred healthcare workers and 200 non-healthcare workers were analyzed. The Cronbach’s alpha of the total score was 0.92 - 0.96 and ICC was 0.88 - 0.92. CFA demonstrated poor fit, and EFA yielded a two-factor structure, suggesting one factor combined with peers and team. The scale showed good convergent validity. The total score of the scale showed significant associations with all outcomes in adjusted model in all workers. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the measure of the psychological safety scale presented good reliability and validity. Psychological safety is important for employees’ mental health and performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0068.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: humanistic values; principal's leadership; a character school environment
Online: 2 November 2020 (19:21:43 CET)
This research described the fundamental inspiration behind the implementation of a humanistic approach to the principal's leadership and the steps of the principal's humanistic approach that have an impact on optimizing the implementation of the program for strengthening character education. This research used a qualitative approach, a case study design. The data collection was performed through in-depth interviews, participant observation, and documentation studies to achieve the research objectives. Data analysis used a modified analytic analysis method. The level of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability was the basis of data validity. The research findings explained that personal excellence (integrity, wholeness, and self-authenticity) and the humanistic spirituality of inspirational figures inspired the principal’s humanistic approach. In addition, the application of the principal's humanistic approach had adequate impacts on optimizing the implementation of a program for strengthening character education and influenced the strengthening of the student's character. Through the principal's humanistic approach, school becomes an environment for empowering the character of the students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0149.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Leadership, Women, Women Clergy, Black, Religion and Gender.
Online: 8 October 2018 (13:57:05 CEST)
Despite the increase of seminary training, Black clergywomen continuously undergo subjugation, degradation, and humiliation in ministry leadership due to gender and race bias (Leslie, 2013) by clergymen. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that examined the experiences of Black clergywomen regarding obstacles in ministry leadership and how these clergywomen ascribed meaning to their experiences. The two primary research questions were, “What are the experiences of Black clergywomen regarding obstacles in ministry leadership?” and “How do Black clergywomen attribute meaning to their experiences regarding obstacles in ministry leadership?” The results of the study indicated that bias of gender and inequality exists among clergymen; however, the Black clergywomen learned to embrace the experiences and learned from them. The conclusion of this article includes a discussion regarding practical implications of the education of clergy; and the re-evaluation of the perception of Black clergywomen and their experiences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Black clergywomen pertaining to challenges in clergy leadership and to explore how Black clergywomen attributed meaning to their experiences regarding challenges in ministry leadership.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0277.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: gender; leadership; women in top management; career management, Chile
Online: 19 October 2018 (05:48:06 CEST)
The issue of women’s participation in top management and boardroom positions has received increasing attention in the academic literature and the press. However, the pace of advancement for women managers and directors continues to be slow and uneven. The novel framework of this study organizes the factors at the individual, organizational and public policy level that affect both career persistence and the advancement of women in top management positions; namely, factors affecting 1) career persistence (staying at the organization) and 2) career advancement or mobility (getting promoted within the organization). In the study location, Chile, only 32 percent of women “persist”, or have a career without interruptions, mainly due to issues with work–family integration and organizational environments with opaque and challenging working conditions. Women who “advanced” in their professional careers represent 30 percent of high management positions in the public sector and 18 percent in the private sector. Only 3 percent of general managers in Chile are women. Women in Chile have limited access and are still not integrated into business power networks. Our findings will enlighten business leaders and public policy-makers interested in designing organizations that retain and promote talented women in top positions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0081.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: empowerment; innovation culture; inclusive leadership; innovation capacity; school
Online: 6 June 2018 (10:07:23 CEST)
This paper has two objectives: the first, to analyze the mediating effect of teacher empowerment between innovation culture and innovation capacity, and between inclusive leadership and innovation capacity; the second, to analyze the moderating effects of the school context on the innovation capacity. Data were collected in a representative sample of secondary schools in Valencia, Spain. The research model adopted is structural equation modeling, using the partial least squares (PLS) technique. The model has confirmed that teacher empowerment mediates between innovation culture and innovation capacity and between inclusive leadership and the innovation capacity. It is found that the educational context does not moderate the relationships in the proposed analysis model. This paper emphasizes the role of teacher empowerment in educational innovation and extends the knowledge of culture and leadership in the school organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: female; women; academia; higher education; leadership; gender equality; diversity
Online: 2 August 2023 (02:26:53 CEST)
The goal of this narrative review was to identify, synthesize and summarize research providing both institutional and personal recommendations for female leaders who aspire to hold leadership roles in academia. Existing evidence regarding factors that influence females acquiring leadership positions was first gathered and examined, noting recurring issues that have been identified as inimical to women assuming leadership roles. Recent research studies and statistical trends were then investigated, tracking and reporting on the increase in female leadership in academia that has occurred over recent years. Quantitative and qualitative literature focusing on successful strategies to support females aspiring to academic leadership positions were then elaborated upon, with specific factors identified in order to deepen understanding of shifts that may help to account for the rise of females in academic leadership roles. The recommendations resulting from the findings of this narrative review could be used to scaffold female success in the pursuit of academic leadership roles and offer insights for university executives and administrators on methods of more effectively supporting an increase in female leaders in academia.
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Gender equality; Human rights; Female Leadership; Uzbekistan; Philosophical understanding
Online: 27 July 2023 (08:03:33 CEST)
This advanced scholarly article examines gender equality, human rights, and women’s rights in Uzbekistan, focusing on domestic violence and women's leadership. It explores their relevance to the region and their connections to global human rights discussions and social justice theories. The first section addresses the widespread problem of domestic violence in Central Asia, emphasizing the need for comprehensive understanding and effective measures. The second section assesses women's progress in achieving gender equality and leadership positions in the Uzbek workplace, identifying research gaps and the impact of recent reforms. The study employs an observational approach, integrating raw data and social media information to analyze gender equality and research. Findings and recommendations draw from global human rights debates and social justice theories, contributing to future research on gender issues in Central Asia. Overall, this article offers a comprehensive analysis, contextualizing the issues within local and global perspectives and contributing to the dialogue on gender equality in a cultural context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0456.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Inclusive leadership; Job crafting; Innovative work behavior; Belongingness; Uniqueness
Online: 24 November 2022 (09:25:46 CET)
The study aims to examine the mediating role of job crafting between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The data were collected from 314 workers employed in China's small and medium-sized industries. The data collection was done through survey design. The data analysis was done through structural equation modeling using Spss 26 and Mplus 8. Inclusive leadership was found to be related to job crafting and innovative work behavior of the employees. Job crafting was found to be mediating between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The study delineated the link mechanism between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. Studying inclusive leadership in the context of Chinese culture is a powerful complement to inclusive leadership theory. This paper provides the managers of SMEs with significant managerial insights into how inclusive leadership can effectively motivate employees’ innovative work behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0157.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: innovative; inclusive leadership behaviour; work engagement; innovative workplace behaviour
Online: 7 September 2020 (05:16:55 CEST)
(1) Background: Work creativity, manifested in innovative workplace behaviour (IWB) and employee work engagement, is fundamental to maintain firms’ sustainability and competitiveness. In this regard, this study aims at investigating the supporting effect of innovative leadership on IWB and employee engagement through maximising employee vigour, dedication and absorption. (2) Methods: The study data were collected from questionnaires administered to 150 respondents working in mobile phone companies in southern and central Iraq. The statistical analyses were conducted through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Smart PLS. In analysing the measurement model and testing the proposed hypotheses, the study results revealed that inclusive leadership and work engagement were intimately connected to IWB; (3) Results: Work engagement played a mediating role between inclusive leadership and IWB. The questionnaire data indicated that inclusive leadership behaviours, such as openness, accessibility and availability, motivated the subordinates to be engaged in IWB.; and (4) Conclusions: To promote IWB, company leaders then need to effectively engage their followers by taking pride and satisfaction in employee output, which might aid employee workplace and IWB engagement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: servant leadership; perceived organizational support; employee well-being; correlation
Online: 13 March 2020 (02:53:46 CET)
This current research follows up on Greenleaf’s oft-quoted best test of servant leadership that calls for employees to be better off financially, emotionally, physically, psychologically, etc. because of the time spent with the servant leader. While oft-quoted, little empirical work exists to see if this is true. In this study, 170 participants provided their perception of their supervisors’ level of servant leadership, their perception of the organization’s support, and their self-report of their general well-being. Gender and age bracket information described the participants, and there were no significant differences between gender or age brackets for participants’ perception of their supervisors’ servant leadership. The analysis showed that there was a moderate positive correlation between servant leadership, perceived organizational support, and general well-being. A modification of an existing general well-being instrument provided a new eight-item general well-being scale with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.956.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: collaboration; leadership; push-pull technology; sustainability; transdisciplinary research; Ethiopia
Online: 5 April 2018 (04:47:49 CEST)
Transdisciplinary research approach requires that different scientists with their discipline-specific theories, concepts and methods find ways to work together with other societal players to solve a real-life problem. In order to put this into practice, Trans-disciplinary Action Research (TDR) approach was applied in this study using Push pull technology (PPT) as a boundary object. The study was conducted in Bako Tibe, Jimma arjo and Yayu Woredas (Districts) in the Oromia region of Ethiopia from August 2014 to April 2015. PPT is a biological based mechanism developed by researchers for stemborer pest control in maize. It involves inter-cropping maize with a stemborer moth-repellent silverleaf or Greenleaf Desmodium (push), and planting an attractive trap crop, Napier or Brachiaria grass (pull), around the maize crop. On farm PPT implementation was used to provide an opportunity for collaboration, interaction and learning among heterogeneous set of stakeholders comprising of researchers from Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural research and the practitioners from the ministry of agriculture and smallholder farmers/traders. The data was collected using mixed methods approach comprising of key informant interviews, Focus Group discussions, workshops, on-farm practical demonstrations and participant observations. The findings shows that; collaborative leadership provides a chance for the stakeholders to participate in the technology learning and decision making by enabling them to jointly contribute skills towards development, refinement and adaptation of PPT. In situations where there are conflicts, they are embraced and become opportunities for in-depth learning, finding solutions and adaptation rather than being sources of contradictions or misunderstandings. Leadership roles taken by farmers play a key role in terms of ability to reflect on their own practices and drawing on scientific explanations from researchers. It also enables them take lead in new technology implementation and information sharing in free and easy manner with fellow farmers and other stakeholders. Although PPT perennial nature of cropping provides opportunities for continuous stakeholder interaction and learning, it requires a personally committed leadership and formal institutional engagements for the sustainability of its activities spanning over several cropping seasons. Market forces and the involvement of private sector players also has a role to achieve this as shown from the involvement of individual farmers and traders in Desmodium and Brachiaria seed production, collection and distribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0448.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Spiritual leadership; Knowledge hiding behavior; Professional Commitment; Agriculture research institutes
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:36:49 CEST)
Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of spiritual leadership on knowledge hiding behavior of employees in agriculture research institutes of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study also aims to analyze theoretically and then investigate empirical evidence concerning the mediation pathway (namely, professional commitment) to clarify the significant association amid spiritual leadership and subordinate's knowledge hiding behavior. Design/methodology- The cross-sectional data using five point lickert scale was used in this survey based study to investigate the given hypotheses. In order to account for the prim effect and any potential for common method bias, data was gathered at two different time points with a gap of four weeks. Smart PLS4 was used to assess a sample of 298 complete and valid responses for hypotheses testing. Findings – The results show that spiritual leadership impacts negatively the employees’ knowledge hiding behavior. Moreover, this relationship is mediated by professional commitment. Originality/value – First, in contrast to the majority of past studies that concentrated on antecedents of knowledge sharing, the present study examined the impact of spiritual leadership on employee’s knowledge hiding behaviors, which are two opposing concepts. Secondly, the study examined empirically, the mediation effect of professional commitment. These three variables have not been studied together previously.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: palm oil industry; palm oil milling; process safety; leadership; culture
Online: 7 December 2022 (08:58:35 CET)
Several studies have highlighted the importance and evolution of process safety leadership and culture in various industries. However, none has focused on the palm oil milling industry yet. This paper critically reviews the latest developments in the palm oil milling process and unit operations leading to process safety concerns. It also discusses the Principle of 3C that is applied to explain repeat accidents and the four-level safety culture in the palm oil milling industry. For this purpose, the author presents case studies of two key palm oil companies in Malaysia. Overall, this paper offers guidelines to leaders in the palm oil milling industry about the required process safety leadership and culture to be understood in order to improve their safety outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: COVID-19; safety performance; safety climate; safety leadership; risk management
Online: 22 September 2022 (05:43:27 CEST)
COVID-19 had a significant impact on construction projects due to labor shortages and COVID-19 restrictions, yet little is known about the impact it had on construction safety. To address this gap, an Australian construction project was selected to study the impact of COVID-19 on safety performance, safety climate and safety leadership. The study collected data from safety climate surveys, leading and lagging safety indicators and used linear regression to compare safety performance pre and post the onset of COVID-19. Our results showed after the onset of COVID-19 there was a significant reduction (Pr>F at 0.05%) in incident rate, an improvement in supervisor safety leadership and safety climate, and satisfaction with organisational communication. The study identified the increase level of safety awareness due to COVID-19 did not result in an increase in the level of engagement in safety leadership. Interestingly, participation in the safety leadership activities did not improve until a change of Project Manager occurred. The study determined leaders who establish a positive safety climate within a project could negate the safety performance impact of COVID-19. The study confirms the importance of site safety leadership in maintaining engagement in risk management and the value of focused safety communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVD-19; moral distress; healthcare worker; mental health; communication; leadership
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:45:50 CEST)
Background: Sudden changes in clinical practice and the altered ability to care for patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with moral distress and mental health concerns in healthcare workers internationally. This study aimed to investigate the severity, prevalence, and predictors of moral distress experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey of self-identified frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. Results: 7846 complete responses were received from nurses (39.4%), doctors (31.1%), allied health staff (16.7%) or other roles (6.7%). Many participants reported moral distress related to resource scarcity (58.3%), wearing PPE (31.7%) limiting their ability to care for patients, exclusion of family going against their values (60.2%), and fear of letting co-workers down if they were infected (55.0%). Many personal and workplace predictors of moral distress were identified, with those working in certain frontline areas, metropolitan locations, and with prior mental health diagnoses at particular risk of distress. Moral distress was associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Feeling appreciated by the community mitigated this risk in healthcare workers. Conclusions: Safeguarding healthcare workforces during crises is important for both patient safety and workforce longevity. Targeted interventions are required to prevent or minimise moral distress and associated mental health concerns in healthcare workers during COVID-19 and other crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Humble leadership; employee creativity; top management support; project management effectiveness
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:40:27 CEST)
This paper aims to explore the effect of humble leadership on project success by integrating the mediating role of employee creativity. Top management support moderates the direct relationship (humble leadership and project management effectiveness) and indirect relationships through employee creativity. Time-lagged data were obtained from 332 persons working in the matrix organization across the information technology. The results showed that humble leadership enhance project management effectiveness by mediating and moderating processes. This study provides a solution to an underlying research question that has gone unanswered in prior studies. What are the strategies proposed for humble leadership in fostering the effectiveness of the project?
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Leadership; schools; education for sustainable development; ESD; management strategies; principals
Online: 2 April 2020 (11:23:23 CEST)
Education is expected to support the development of a more sustainable way of thinking, working, and living. Although there is a broad range of literature on Education for Sustainable development (ESD), the role of principals in the implementation of sustainability and ESD in schools has rarely been taken into consideration. However, based on the results of school effectiveness research, one can assume that school principals exert a significant influence on ESD. Sustainability is a leadership issue. When a school aims at integrating sustainability and ESD, the principal plays a pivotal role. She or he has to support the endeavor wholeheartedly and credibly, organize a participative process of school development, push ahead sustainability and ESD in the daily life of the school, support teaching staff in the application of ESD, involve students and offer them opportunities to launch their own initiatives. This article seeks to support principals in leading their schools towards sustainability. Four stages of the integration of Sustainability and ESD in a school are defined. For each of these stages, a number of actions and management strategies are suggested and explained in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: hiking; trekking tours; engagement; outdoor leadership; soft skills; informal learning
Online: 3 May 2019 (16:20:03 CEST)
Organised hiking and trekking tours are promoted by many providers in adventure travel. Such guided tours shall be engaging for the tourists and evoke positive attitudes towards enjoying nature. We present the Trekking Engagement Profile as a tool to evaluate engagement factors of such guided tours, based on engagement research performed in a different domain, namely evaluating engagement in museums and science centres. This tool shall strengthen guides’ soft skills and enable them to increase engagement during an ongoing arrangement. For instance, the Trekking Engagement Profile can be applied when tourists indicate that the quality of a guided tour is not entirely to their liking. We show the viability of using the Trekking Engagement Profile in a small study with guides and participants of trekking tours offered by the Norwegian Trekking Association. Further, we offer guidance and charts to promote its practical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0389.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Communication; leadership; communion; technology-mediated learning; supportive collaboration; teacher-student communication
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:45:12 CET)
This qualitative inquiry explores how, during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Lithuania (European Union), the stakeholders in education system – university teachers, general education teachers, students and children’s parents – coped with the encountered challenge and what was important to them under changed conditions. This paper uses a communication management objective to describe how participants in the education system respond to the emerging distance learning situation and its challenges.The phenomenographic research approach was chosen to carry out the qualitative study. The 37 interviews from higher education teachers, university students, school teachers and parents of minor school-aged children were conducted during the early stage of COVID-19 quarantine. The research allows concluding that after a successful transition to distance learning the dimensions of communion and supportive collaboration acquired importance among stakeholders in education. Starting new activities, a need for communion and mobilization for joint activities under the crisis situation emerged. The research showed that the adaptation period was necessary at the beginning of the new activity. Competent leadership was expected from the teacher also advance preparation of all the actors in education process was needed. The data do offer a window into the dynamics of online teaching in crisis situation and experiences in new activity that are key to success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design; LEED; sustainable construction cost; Iran
Online: 3 January 2020 (04:42:10 CET)
Buildings use 30-40 % of all energy resources and are thus their main consumers in modern society. Moreover, buildings require a vast amount of different raw materials. During the last two decades, several green building certifications have been created in order to consider social, economic and environmental aspects of sustainability of buildings. One of the most famous and widely used of these certifications is Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). So far, the use of LEED has concentrated in the US and other developed countries. One reason that restricts the use of this point-based system certification in developing countries is the limited data about its costs. In this study, the extra cost of the certification process will be evaluated besides the changes needed in the design of the building to reach the points required by LEED. At the first stage, the number of points the case study earns in its current format (Scenario 1) were found out, then the cost difference of getting either the Certified (Scenario 2) or Silver (Scenario 3) level LEED certification for the building was studied. It was found that besides some technical considerations, filling the criteria of the Certified and Silver level increases the total costs of construction by 3.4% and 5.9%. Further improvement of the building’s energy efficiency would enable the attainment of a higher-level certification. The results of the study could help to promote the use of green building certifications in Western Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0632.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teacher leadership; COVID 19; teacher professional identity; latent profile analysis; school improvement
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:08:51 CEST)
As a result of the COVID 19 outbreak that has affected the whole world, teacher leadership has gained more significance. Teacher leadership is a multidimensional concept. While some teachers exercise leadership only at the classroom level, others exercise leadership at macro level. This level of leadership enactment is directly related to how teachers construct their professional identity in relation to leadership. This study aims to explore the leadership-related professional identities of teachers who came to the fore especially during the COVID 19 pandemic period by using the latent profile analysis method. The data were collected a sample of 710 teachers. Teachers completed Teacher Leadership Behavior Scale that measures teacher leadership behaviors at four levels: classroom, parental, micro-level, macro-level. Participants also completed Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale, Openness to Authority Scale, and Job Satisfaction Scale. As a result of latent profile analysis, three distinct profiles of teacher leadership identity emerged: those who exercise leadership at a minimum level, an intermediate level and a maximum level across all four levels of teacher leadership. These profiles were labeled as "extended professionality," "intermediate professionality," and "restricted professionality," drawing upon Hoyle's (1974) conceptualization of teacher professional identity. These findings suggest that teachers construct their identity differently about teacher leadership. It is essential for school leaders to first explore those different levels of professional identity and tailor their professional development activities accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2142.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: telecommuting; SDGs; organizational behavior; sustainable behaviors; living & working environment; leadership 4.0; digitalization
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:27:16 CEST)
Since the outbreak of the Covid-19, working from home has become the norm for millions of workers worldwide. The current research focuses on the benefits and challenges of teleworking in the administrative sectors of greek healthcare units, with a view to harnessing the knowledge gained through experience, in order to create the frame for sustainable behaviors. Anyways, the implementation of teleworking requires complex and dynamic changes in technical and behavioral aspects. Therefore, a systematic review was also conducted to identify the relationships between telecommuting and organizational behavior, with the aim of achieving sustainable development in businesses. Moreover, an important positive aspect of telework that emerged from this literature review appears to create opportunities for potential direct or indirect linkages between telework and many SDGs areas, based on the fact that telework appears to be a community-friendly form of work. In summary, this research strongly suggests that leaders facilitate telecommuters to adopt green practices and volunteerism that can consequently contribute to the SDGs. However, in order to meet the challenges arising from unprecedented times, the leaders of the organizations will have to redesign their policies, while the states will have to focus on guaranteeing the rights and freedoms of the workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1858.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Weighted student funding; School financial management; Principal leadership; School innovations; Failing school
Online: 27 June 2023 (08:25:25 CEST)
Weighted Student Funding (WSF) systems have been implemented in various countries to give schools more autonomy over how to allocate their funding. School principals use funding to maintain school operations and foster innovation for achieving educational goals. However, despite the importance of this process, scholarly research has largely overlooked how principals make decisions about their financial resources. Accordingly, this study seeks to provide practical insights into the strategies used by one school by highlighting their staff’s perceptions about using their WSF to maintain school operations and spur innovation. Using a case study approach, we investigated a principal who effectively used a school’s WSF to transform a failing school into an innovative one. The findings revealed that the principal strategically implemented financial management mechanisms in a way that inspired teachers to deeply consider how a school's WSF can help achieve educational goals. The principal fostered consensus on the school's direction, encouraged innovation through hands-on experiential learning and strategic planning, and facilitated funding for innovative teachers by guiding proposal development. Insights into the shifting cultural and practical landscape of financial resource utilization within schools are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: leadership; pride; authentic pride; hubristic pride; task satisfaction; group cohesion; leader satisfaction
Online: 10 September 2020 (07:46:40 CEST)
Studies of discrete pride in the workplace are both few and on the rise. We examined what has, to date, been yet unstudied: the impact that a leader’s expressions of authentic and hubristic pride can have on the followers at that moment, and on their feelings about their task, leader, and group. Students working in groups building Lego structures rated their perceived leader regarding expressions of pride, both authentic and hubristic. Students who perceived the leader as expressing more authentic pride rated the task, group (satisfaction and cohesion), and leader more positively; while the reverse was generally true for perceptions of expressions of hubristic pride. We found these effects both at the individual level, and at the group level. We also predicted and found moderation for the type of task worked on, creative or detailed. Implications abound for leader emotional labor and emotion management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Responsible leadership; Psychological ownership; Employee environmental commitment; Organizational citizenship behavior for the environment; China.
Online: 12 May 2021 (09:47:21 CEST)
The world is looking towards organizations for social responsibility to contribute to a sustainable environment. Employees’ organizational citizenship behavior for the environment (OCBE) is a voluntary environmental-oriented behavior that is important for organizations’ environmental performance. Based on social learning theory, the study examined the effects of responsible leadership in connection with OCBE by using a sample of 520 employees of manufacturing and service sector including engine manufacturing, petroleum plants banking and insurance sector organizations of China. Further, the role of psychological ownership and employee environmental commitment were used as mediators and moderators simultaneously. The direct, mediation, and moderation model results exposed a positive relationship between responsible leadership and OCBE via employee psychological ownership and employee environmental commitment. The study also revealed that the indirect effect is stronger when employees hold higher employee environmental commitment. The theoretical and practical implications for environmental sustainability in respect of organizations as well as future research directions are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0235.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: World economy restructuring; nature of global crises; risks of the financial markets; leadership problem
Online: 21 January 2020 (10:06:40 CET)
The World economy after global crisis of 2008–2009 entered a restructuring era. It defines relevance of researches of its directions and patterns. The principles of determinism and systemic analysis are methodological basis of article. In research were used the methods of processing Big Date, as of continuous changes and the symmetric analysis of macroeconomic indicators according to databases of the IMF, WB, BIS, the Central banks and treasuries. As a result of the research it is proved that depth and globalism of recessionary processes are caused by a combination of crisis of world financial system and civilization problems. Intrinsic signs of risks in the modern economy caused by the duality of the nature of global crises have been identified. There are analyzes: the deficit of resources of the international financial institutions, a negative role of a fixed rate of Yuan, a big share of derivatives and off-balance obligations of banks, use of SPV in structures of deals, growth of debt obligations, trade wars, slowdown in the growth of the Chinese economy, aggravation of contradictions between global and national finances. The thesis is reasonable that deglobalization and dedollarization deepened this conflict, started the rollback mechanism from achievements of globalization, led to tariff wars. By means of a systematization it is proved the key directions of the restructuring of global economy: legal basis, leadership and reserve currency. On the basis of SWOT-analysis of the USA and China it was concluded that the question of leadership of one country should be excluded, but slow transition to use SDR (with a basket from 15–20 currencies) as a reserve.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; discharge plan; leadership; multidisciplinary team; respiratory medicine; patient safety; pulmonary rehabilitation.
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:43:00 CEST)
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may require frequent hospitalization due to worsening symptoms. Preventing prolonged hospital stay and readmission becomes a challenge for healthcare professionals treating patients with COPD. Although the integration of health and social care supports greater collaboration and enhanced patient care, organisational structure and poor leadership may hinder the implementation of patient-oriented goals. This paper presents a case of a 64-years-old chronic smoker with severe COPD who was to be discharged on long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). It further highlights the healthcare decisions made to ensure the patient’s safety at home, and further provide a long-lasting solution to the existing medical and social needs. The goal was accomplished through a discharge plan that reflects multidisciplinary working, efficient leadership and change management using Havelock’s theory. While COPD is characterized by frequent exacerbation and hospital readmission, it was emphasized that most failed discharge could be attributed to bureaucratic organizational workflow which might not be in the patient’s best interest. It was further demonstrated that healthcare professionals are likely to miss the window of opportunity to apply innovative and long-lasting solutions to the patient’s health condition in an attempt to remedy the immediate symptoms of COPD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0419.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: job satisfaction (JS); work style (WS); leadership style (LS); organizational climate (OC); register office; Mongolia
Online: 18 October 2018 (11:49:18 CEST)
Purpose - The purpose of the study is to investigate the missing link between leadership style and job satisfaction among Mongolian public sector employees. This study reiterates the mediating role of organizational climate (OC) and work style (WS) in a new proposed model. Methodology - The questionnaire is designed by a synthesis of existing constructs in the current relevant literature. The research sample consisted of 143 officers who work in the primary and middle units of territory and administration of Mongolia. Factor analysis, reliability test, collinearity test, and correlation analyses confirm validity and reliability of the model. Multiple regression analysis, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), tests the hypotheses of the study. Practical implications - This study has several important implications for studies related to organizational behavior and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the implications of findings are beneficial to organizations aiming at improving policies and practices related to organizational behavior and human resource management. Regulators and supervisors of private or public organizations aiming to increase the level of their employees’ job satisfaction will also benefit from the findings. Therefore, this study’s new proposed model can be the basis of fundamental research to build a better human resource policy. Although leadership style is an influential factor for job satisfaction, this study identifies the mediating missing links between leadership style and employees’ job satisfaction. Findings: The findings of this research indicate that organizational climate and work style complement and fully mediate the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. Appropriate leadership style is most effective when it matches organizational climate as well as employees’ work style. Furthermore, suitable organizational climate will increases the level of job satisfaction. If work style of employees is respected and taken into consideration, leadership style can find its way into job satisfaction. Originality/value - This study is the first to understand the motivators of job satisfaction in government sector of Mongolia. This study suggests valuable findings for executive officers, junior and primary unit’s officers of register sector of government in Mongolia. The findings of this study help managers and executives in their effort to develop and implement successful human resource strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0099.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: New Ecological Paradigm; Ethical Orientation Scale; ethical decision making; Values driven leadership; eco consciousness; deontological; teleological; anthropocentrism; ecocentrism
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:24:06 CEST)
Business school curriculums are designed to improve business skills and a student’s eventual workplace performance. In addition to these business skill sets the emerging business environment demands softer skills associated with ethical decision-making and sustainable business practices. Understanding the key influencers of ethical orientation and attitudes towards the environment is the first critical step for curriculum planning designed to develop both ethical decision-making and environmental sensibilities of students in business schools. Using a bivariate regression analysis (OLS) that compared the established New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale and the newly introduced Ethical Orientation Scale (EOS), this study assesses environmental eco-consciousness and ethical orientation over time and across varying socio-demographic variables. The study shows first, that in addition to socio-cultural variables, situational factors influence ethical decision-making. Secondly, it illuminates that ethical orientations as measured by the EOS predicts beliefs about the environment as measured by the NEP scale. It further provides evidence of the ethical underpinnings of the New Ecological Paradigm as well as provides initial validation for the new EOS. These outcomes provide additional levers to assist business educators in the creation of high impact teaching strategies to measure and encourage ethical decision-making and sustainable business practices that protect the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0131.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Pan-Africanism; African Diaspora; human rights; liberation; transformational leadership; civil rights; colonialism; Martin Luther King Jr.; Nelson Mandela
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:48:12 CEST)
The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela were two of the world's most iconic civil (political) (human) rights advocates and leaders of all time. Both advocated for, and to varying degrees, applied elements of peaceful protests to the achievement of their goals. Both spent time in jail, often concurrently, but eventually forced their respective countries to extend the same rights that white populations had denied Africans and African Americans. For the US, civil rights, voting rights, right to education, housing and housing loans suggested that equality had been achieved, capped in South Africa by the election of Nelson Mandela as the first majority-rule president, and in the US, by Barack Obama’s election to the presidency. Yet the historical over-policing, police mistreatment and more generally, the judicial system’s inordinate ‘targeting’ of African Americans, with egregious cases running from Emmett Till to Rodney King to Walter Scott to Breonna Taylor to George Floyd to Rayshard Brooks and thousands of others shows the danger of such magical thinking. The now-persistent global wave pursuing human rights, civil rights and the right to be treated equally, primarily driven by the loosely-organized Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement, has become the leading voice in pursuit of equality. Riots such as those in LA, protests in Ferguson and everywhere in summer 2020 has ushered new civil rights campaign. In the US and elsewhere, it has morphed to include historical issues such as monuments to colonialism, the US civil war, slavery and slave owners and traders, institutions, companies and people whose wealth and existence has links to slavery. Instructively, the protests persisted even as COVID-19, the hundred-year plague, continues to ravage the world. Lost in the moment is the absence of central leadership and leaders such as MLK or Mandela. Their charisma and effectiveness has been lacking for 50 years. This paper evaluates whether this has led to inconsistent civil and human rights pursuit for equality, or whether perchance, Mandela and MLK were extraordinary, once-in-a-lifetime transformative leaders uniquely selected by history for their time.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: spiritual intelligence; leadership; Bible; project management; supply chain; workplace spirituality; theology of work; construction; neuroscience; cognitive psychology; psychoanalysis; neurology
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:36:11 CEST)
Spiritual intelligence had an impact on different biblical leaders, and in this text, we see some cases to serve as a sample (Joseph, Bezalel, and Daniel). In the Bible, this impact is demonstrated in innovations introduced by Joseph in Egypt, Bezalel the manager of the macro project of building in crisis time, Daniel the politician. It is the supreme intelligence and leaders are invited to make a shift from rationality to spirituality. The more leaders of organizations will use spiritual intelligence, the more leaders and followers will experience satisfaction, joy, accomplishment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1944.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Inclusive Leadership; Psychological Contract Fulfillment; Employee Well-Being; Workplace Well-Being; Life Well-Being; Proactive Work Behavior; Business Services Sector professionals
Online: 29 May 2023 (02:13:53 CEST)
Proactivity is a particularly important attribute of knowledge-intensive organizations, where the work required to increase the potential of knowledge-intensive employees is crucial. A priority challenge for these firms is also to understand the increasing importance of the functioning of cognitive mechanisms leading to increased knowledge workers' well-being following the implementation of the psychological contract. The aim of this article is to identify the relationship between inclusive leadership, the fulfillment of the psychological contract, two dimensions of well-being: workplace and life well-being and knowledge workers' proactivity. Based on survey data collected through the CAWI method from 1.000 knowledge workers employed in Polish companies in the business services sector, the research hypotheses were tested using a stepwise equation modelling (SEM) technique, leading to a model containing all the main constructs. The results obtained indicate that inclusive leadership positively impacts the fulfillment of the psychological contract. Furthermore, the fulfillment of the psychological contract positively affects proactive working behavior with and the wellbeing of knowledge workers. Along with proactive work behavior, two dimensions of well-being, were examined as outcome variables. The analysis also shows that knowledge-intensive organizations, intending to build the proactivity of their employees and nurture a high level of well-being in their lives and in the workplace, should take care to fulfil the expectations and obligations of the psychological contract. However, one way to achieve this is for managers to use an inclusive management style, which supports an atmosphere of a safe working environment in a diverse setting and leads to employees feeling comfortable sharing their opinions and ideas. The study of inclusive leadership in the context of knowledge-intensive organizations provides human resource professionals and employee man-agers with important insights into how inclusive leadership can effectively contribute to the psychological contract, which will consequently lead to proactive work behavior and also improve employees' workplace and life well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Childhood experiences; Adolescent experiences; UAE; Women; Leadership de-velopment; Qualitative research; Semi-structured interviews; Document analysis; Diary writing; Family upbringing; Cultural values; Education; Societal expectations
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:45:33 CEST)
This research paper aimed to explore the impact of childhood and adolescent experiences on the leadership development of Emirati women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Using a qualitative research methodology, the study utilized in-depth narrative semi-structured interviews, document analysis, and diary writing to understand the complex issue of leadership development. Findings indicate that childhood and adolescent experiences, including family upbringing, education, culture, and societal expectations, have significant impacts on the leadership development of Emirati women. Specifically, family upbringing and cultural values shape Emirati women's leadership aspirations and behaviors, while education and societal expectations provide opportunities and barriers for women's leadership development. The implications of these findings for policymakers and practitioners seeking to promote women's leadership development in the UAE are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0518.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; anxiety; somatic symptom; organizational factor; occupational factor; effort–reward imbalance; health-promoting leadership; health climate; inner strength; perceived social support; international salespeople; medical device industry
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:42:51 CEST)
Background: Physical and mental health of corporate employees is equally important, especially in international salespeople in the in vitro diagnostic (IVD) medical device industry. The rapid growth of the IVD market is driven by the increasing prevalence of chronic and infectious diseases. This study aims to identify the association of socio-demographic, occupational, organizational, and psychosocial factors with mental health outcomes for depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms in Chinese IVD international salespeople. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey of ISs in IVD companies officially registered in China. An online survey was designed to collect data through email contact with IVD companies and social media between August 2022 and March 2023. Measured factors included effort-reward imbalance (ERI), health-promoting leadership (HPL), health climate (HC), inner strength (IS), and perceived social support (PSS). Mental health outcomes assessed using the Core Symptom Index (CSI) were depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. Results: A total of 244 salespeople responded to the survey. CSI scores indicated that 18.4% (n = 45) and 10.2% (n = 25) of the respondents had symptoms of major depression and anxiety, respectively. ERI was positively correlated, while the IS and PSS were negatively correlated with major depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms (p < .01). Health climate was negatively correlated with major depression (p < .05). Education background was associated with somatic symptoms (p < .05). ERI, IS, and gender were significant predictors of major depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms (p < .05). Conclusion: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in China’s IVD international salespeople was considered low compared with prevalence in Chinese populations during COVID-19, but higher than those before the pandemic. Effort–reward imbalance, inner strength, and gender were significant factors in major depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among IVD international salespeople.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Self-Action Leadership (SAL), SAL model, SAL theory, nomological, existential growth, organizational (or corporate) citizen, SAR project, SAL project, step-habit, Self-Declaration of Independence, Self-Constitution
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:26:10 CEST)
In 2015, the Self-Action Leadership Theory—a qualitative, nomological expansion of self-leadership theory rooted in atmospheric and astronomical metaphor aimed at expanding the personal freedom of individuals, organizations, and nations by bolstering the existential growth of individuals through a series of Maslow-esque stages of holistic, personal development. This article introduces an accompanying, practitioner-based Model of Self-Action Leadership (SAL) aimed at the implicit enhancement of a holistic range of administrative processes through explicit training, mentoring, and coaching in the model’s general and universally-applicable principles and practices. The SAL model produces an original construct of personal leadership practice that builds upon the extant self-leadership academic canon, which dates back to 1983 (Manz, 1983). It also provides an analogue to four of the five core processes of Project Management by positioning a self-action leader (an individual) as the ongoing “project” at hand. The SAL Model is rooted in action research and was developed through a variety of self-oriented, action research projects in conjunction with a comprehensive, qualitative, analytical autoethnographic study of a scholar’s life experiences.