ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0166.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: methyl sulfonyl methane; sodium sulfate; laying hen; antioxidant capacity
Online: 10 December 2021 (08:32:41 CET)
The present study was conducted to investigate the comparative effects of organic and inorganic forms of sulfur, methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) and sodium sulfate (SS), on laying performance, egg quality, ileal morphology, ileal volatile fatty acids, and antioxidant and stress markers in various biological samples in aged laying hens. A total of 144, 73-week-old Lohman Brown-Lite laying hens were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: basal diet (CONT), CONT + 0.2% MSM (MSM), and CONT + 0.3% SS (SS). The trial lasted for 12 weeks. MSM and SS groups contained 0.07% of sulfur, either organic or inorganic. Dietary MSM did not affect egg production and feed conversion ratio at 12 weeks compared with the CONT group. Dietary sulfur did not affect egg quality except for Haugh unit at 4 weeks which was lowered (P < 0.05) in the SS group. Compared with the CONT group, higher (P < 0.05) villus height and crypt depth ratio was observed in the SS group. None of dietary sulfur affected the percentages of short-chain fatty acids in the ileum. Total antioxidant capacity of liver increased (P < 0.05) in laying hens fed MSM- and SS-added diets compared with the CONT group. The MSM and SS groups lowered (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in serum samples compared with the CONT. Finally, dietary MSM had the lowest (P < 0.05) MDA concentrations in yolk samples. Taken together, our study showed that dietary organic and inorganic sulfur have positive effects on ileal morphology and antioxidant capacity in laying hens. However, SS-mediated inhibition in laying performance needs to be clarified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0251.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: heat stress; temperature humidity index; laying performance; egg quality; stress indicators
Online: 6 November 2020 (16:58:30 CET)
The present study investigated the effect of different ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH) but equal temperature-humidity index (THI) on laying performance, egg quality, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio), corticosterone (CORT) concentration in blood, yolk and albumen, and plasma biochemical parameters in laying hens. One hundred and twenty commercial hens (Hy-Line Brown) aged 60 weeks were allocated into 2 environmental chambers. Laying hens were subjected to either one of two thermal treatments, i.e., 26ºC and 70% RH (LH75) and 30ºC and 30% RH (HL75) for 28 days. Both thermal treatments had equal THI being 75. Neither LH75 nor HL75 affected (P > 0.05) laying performance including egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Plasma biochemical parameters such as total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus was not altered (P > 0.05) by thermal treatments. As to the stress indicators, both environment regimes failed (P > 0.05) to affect blood H/L ratio and CORT levels in plasma, yolk and albumen although albumen CORT levels were elevated (P < 0.05) in LH75 vs. HL75 at days 3, 7, and 28. In conclusion, our study suggests that laying hens performed and responded equally when they were exposed to equal THI environment conditioned from either 26ºC and 70% RH or 30ºC and 30% RH. The results of this study will be served as a scientific basis for management decisions and handling under thermally challenging conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0067.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: practice-led, innovation, networks, laying hen
Online: 2 November 2018 (14:33:15 CET)
The Hennovation project, an EU H2020 funded thematic network, aimed to explore the potential value of practice-led multi-actor innovation networks within the laying hen industry. The project proposed that husbandry solutions can be practice-led and effectively supported to achieve durable gains in sustainability and animal welfare. It encouraged a move away from the traditional model of science providing solutions for practice, towards a collaborative approach where expertise from science and practice were equally valued. During the 32-month project, the team facilitated 19 multi-actor networks in 5 countries through 6 critical steps in the innovation process: problem identification, generation of ideas, planning, small scale trials, implementation and sharing with others. The networks included farmers, processors, veterinarians, technical advisors, market representatives and scientists. The interaction between the farmers and the other network actors, including scientists, was essential for farmer innovation. New relationships emerged between the scientists and farmers, based on experimental learning and the co-production of knowledge for improving laying hen welfare. The project demonstrated that a practice-led approach can be a major stimulus for innovation with several networks generating novel ideas and testing them in their commercial context. The Hennovation innovation networks not only contributed to bridging the science-practice gap by application of existing scientific solutions in practice but more so by jointly finding new solutions. Successful multi-actor, practice-led innovation networks appeared to depend upon the following key factors: active participation from relevant actors, professional facilitation, moderate resource support and access to relevant expertise. Farmers and processors involved in the project were often very enthusiastic about the approach, committing significant time to the network’s activities. It is suggested that the agricultural research community and funding agencies should place greater value on practice-led multi-actor innovation networks alongside technology and advisor focused initiatives to improve animal welfare and embed best practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0363.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Automatic Fiber Laying; Thermoplastic composites; Process simulation; Digital twin
Online: 25 November 2021 (15:55:01 CET)
As use of composite materials increases, the search for suitable automated processes gains relevance to guarantee production quality by ensuring uniformity of the process, minimizing the amount of generated scrap and reducing time and energy consumption. Limitations on production by traditional means such as hand lay-up, vacuum bagging and in-autoclave methods, tend not to be as efficient when the size and shape complexity of the part being produced increases, motivating the search for alternative processes such as the Automated Tape Laying (ATL). This work aims to describe the process of modelling and simulating a composite ATL with in situ consolidation by characterizing the machine elements, using the finite differences method in conjunction with energy balances, in order to create a digital twin of the process for further control design. The modelling approach implemented is able to follow the process dynamics when changes to the heating element are imposed as well as to predict the composite material temperature response, making it suitable to work as a digital twin of a production process using an ATL machine.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: laying hen; social stress; injurious behavior; microbiota; probiotic; bacillus subtilis
Online: 17 January 2020 (12:37:53 CET)
Some management practices, such as maintaining birds under high group density, used in the poultry industry may cause birds stress, leading to injurious behaviors, such as injurious pecking, aggression, and cannibalism. In addition, some management practices used to prevent severe injuries in birds may cause pain. Beak trimming (BT), removal of 1/3 to 1/2 of a beak, is a routine husbandry procedure practiced in laying hens to prevent or reduce injurious behaviors. However, BT causes tissue damage, which may increase somatosensory sensitization of the damaged nerve tissues, resulting in pain (acute, chronic or both) in the treated birds because the beak is a complex, functional organ with an extensive nerve supply. BT has already been heavily regulated or prohibited in several European countries and, in time, this trend will impact the practice used in the United States poultry industry. With the growing public concern for poultry welfare there is a pressing need to identify and develop alternatives to BT. Probiotics defined “as a source of live (viable) naturally occurring microorganisms (direct-fed microbials)” have been used as dietary supplements or functional foods to target gut microbiota (microbiome) for prevention or therapeutic treatment of mental diseases including social stress-induced psychiatric disorders in humans and various experimental animals. In our studies, chickens were used as an animal model to assess if dietary supplementation of probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, reduces injurious behaviors following social challenge. Hens of Dekalb XL strain, an aggressive line, were used in the studies. Our results indicate that dietary supplementation of the Bacillus subtilis based probiotic reduces aggressive behaviors in chickens. These results suggest dietary probiotics could be a suitable strategy for increasing hosts’ health status and welfare conditions.