ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0069.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Fethiye-Göcek SEPA; Land use land cover change; Land surface temperature; Climate change
Online: 12 October 2022 (09:08:40 CEST)
Abstract: Increasing population and urbanization are affecting human health and comfort. In order to get rid of these affects, mankind is changing its enviroment and looking for new life areas. This study investigates the influence of Land Cover Change (LCC) and Normalisied Densly Vegetation Index (NDVI) on Land Surface Temperature (LST) of Fethiye-Göcek Specially Protected Area (SEPA) in easterm mediterranean basin. In the study LCC, NDVI and LST were drived from landsat 5, 7 and 8 satellite image of resolation at 30x30 m acquired between 1995-2020. LST were computed based on Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) types. The Corine Index were used for determination of land uses. The results indicated that water, forest and maquia lands decreasing while urban fabric and bare lands are increasing depend upon the urbanization and forest fires in the basin. These changes in LULC widened the temperature differences between the urban and rural areas. The change in LST is associated with changes in constructional materials in urban land and in vegetation abundance both in the urban and rural areas. Vegetation has an important factor in the temperature of different land covers. That produces warming trend in temperetaure in built-up areas it causes to keep other lands warmer in cold weather. Another important result is affective Urban Heat Island (UHI) on climate change based on the impact of urbanization and land cover changes. Significantly possitive correlation were found between the urbanization rate, population and built-up area and warming rate of average air temperature and so the LST.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0023.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Land Use Land Cover (LULC); Land Surface Temperature (LST); Google Earth Engine (GEE); relationship; remote sensing indices; MODIS; global
Online: 3 January 2020 (05:03:05 CET)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Land Use Land Cover (LULC) are the principal aspects of climate and environment studies. The object of the study is to assess spatial relationship between LST and remote sensing LULC indices at the global and continental scale. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua daytime LST and eight LULC MODIS indices of 2018 prepared and processed using Earth Engine Code Editor. R squared and significance of the relationship values of randomly selected points computed in R program. The research observed the relationship between examined indices and LST is significant at the 0.001 level. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Normalized Difference Snow Index (DSI) are the dominant drivers of LST in the world, Asia and North America. In Australia and Africa, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are the dominant drivers of LST. Albedo and Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI) have superior in Central America. In South America and Europe, the dominant driver of LST is NDWI. Relationship between albedo and LST is moderate inverse on a global scale. Observed relationship between LST and examined vegetation indices is positive in Europe and North America while inverse in Australia and Africa. All observed relationship between Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) and LST are positive. Association observed between NDSI and LST is positive in Australia, Africa and Central America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0413.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: Land Surface Temperature; Climate Change; Fractal Geometry; Discrete Wavelet Transform
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:01:24 CEST)
During few last years, climate change including global warming which is attributed to human activities and also its long-term adverse effects on the planet’s functions have been identified as the most challenging discussion topics which have arisen many concerns and efforts to find the possible solutions. Since the warmth arising from Earth’s landscapes affects the world’s weather and climate patterns, we decided to study the changes in the Land Surface Temperature (LST) patterns in different seasons through non-linear methods. Here, we particularly want to estimate the non-integer dimension and fractal structure of the land surface temperature. For this study, the (LST) data has been obtained during the daytime by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite. Depending on what time of the year data has been collected, temperatures change in different ranges. Since equatorial regions remain warm, and Antarctica and Greenland remain cold, and also because altitude affects temperature, we selected Riley County in the U.S. state of Kansas, which does not belong to any of this type locations and we are interested to observe the seasonal changes in temperature in this county. The results of the present study show that the Land Surface Temperature (LST) belongs to the class of fractal process with non-integer dimension.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0268.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: land surface temperature; remote rensing; reanalysis; ECMWF
Online: 24 September 2019 (05:18:26 CEST)
Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable in surface-atmosphere energy and water exchanges. The main goals of this study are to (i) evaluate the LST of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim and ERA5 reanalyses over Iberian Peninsula using the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) product and to (ii) understand the main drivers of the LST errors in the reanalysis. Simulations with the ECMWF land-surface model in offline mode (uncoupled) were carried out over the Iberian Peninsula and compared with the reanalysis data. Several sensitivity simulations were performed in a confined domain centered in Southern Portugal to investigate potential sources of the LST errors. The Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) fraction of green vegetation cover (FCover) and the European Space Agency’s Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) Land Cover dataset were explored. We found a general underestimation of daytime LST and slightly overestimation at night-time. The results indicate that there is still room for improvement in the simulation of LST in ECMWF products. Still, ERA5 presents an overall higher quality product in relation to ERA-Interim. Our analysis suggested a relation between the large daytime cold bias and vegetation cover differences between (ERA5 and CGLS FCocver) with a correlation of -0.45. The replacement of the low and high vegetation cover by those of ESA-CCI provided an overall reduction of the large Tmax biases during summer. The increased vertical resolution of the soil at the surface, has a positive impact, but much smaller when compared with the vegetation changes. The sensitivity of the vegetation density parameter, that currently depends on the vegetation type, provided further proof for a needed revision of the vegetation in the model, as there is a reasonable correlation between this parameter and the Tmax mean errors when using the ESA-CCI vegetation cover (while the same correlation cannot be reproduced with the original model vegetation). Our results support the hypothesis that vegetation cover is one of the main drivers of the LST summertime cold bias in ERA5 over Iberian Peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0238.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land surface temperature; all-weather; infrared; microwave; surface energy balance
Online: 20 November 2019 (11:12:02 CET)
An all-weather land surface temperature (LST) product derived at the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) is presented. The product is based on clear-sky LST retrieved from MSG/SEVIRI infrared (IR) measurements, complemented by LST estimated with a land surface energy balance (EB) model to fill gaps caused by clouds. The EB model solves the surface energy balance mostly using products derived at LSA-SAF. The new product is compared with in situ observations made at 3 dedicated validation stations, and with a Microwave (MW) based LST product derived from AMSR-E measurements. The validation against in-situ LST indicates an accuracy of the new product between -0.8 K and 1.1 K and a precision between 1.0 K and 1.4 K, generally showing a better performance than the MW product. The EB model shows some limitations concerning the representation of the LST diurnal cycle. Comparisons with MW LST generally show higher LST of the new product over desert areas, and lower LST over tropical regions. Several other imagers provide suitable measurements for implementing the proposed methodology, which offers the potential to obtain a global, nearly gap-free LST product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0664.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: radiative transfer equation; improved mono-window; generalized single-channel; split-window; LANDSAT-8; urban land surface temperature
Online: 27 September 2020 (04:59:36 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) estimation has been studied for several purposes, while the optimal method of estimating the LST has not been criticized yet. This research explores the optimum method in Land Surface Temperature (LST) estimation using LANDSAT-8 imagery data. Four different LST retrieval approaches, the Radiative Transfer Equation-based method (RTE), the Improved Mono-Window method (IMW), the Generalized Single-Channel method (GSC), and the Split-Window algorithm (SW), were calculated to present the LSTs over Buriram Town Municipality, Thailand. The calculated LSTs from these four methods were compared with the ground-based temperature data, taken on the same date and time of the employed LANDSAT-8 images. For this reason, the optimum method of the LST calculation was justified by considering the lowest normalized root means square error (NRMSE) values. As a result, the SW algorithm presents an optimum method in LST estimation. Regarding the SW, this algorithm requires not only the atmospheric profiles during satellite acquisition but also the retrieval of several coefficients. Besides, the LST retrieval method based on the SW algorithm is sensitive to water vapor content and coefficients. Although the SW algorithm is an optimum method explored in this study, it is emphasized that the adjustable values of coefficient response to the atmospheric state may be recommended. With these conditions, the SW algorithm can generate the land-surface temperature over the mixed land-use and land cover on the LANDSAT-8 images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land use and cover; land surface temperature; built-up land; agricultural land; gradient analysis; Nuwara Eliya; Sri Lanka
Online: 26 August 2019 (05:07:33 CEST)
Although urbanization has contributed to improving living conditions, it has had negative impacts on the natural environment in the urbanized areas. Urbanization has changed the urban landscape and resulted in increasing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, studies related to LST in various urban environments have become a popular research topic. However, few LST studies focusing on the mountain landscapes (i.e. hill stations) have been carried out. The primary objective of this study is to investigate changes in the landscape and their impacts on LST intensity (LSTI) in the tropical mountain city of Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka. The study utilized annual median temperatures extracted from Landsat data collected from 1996 to 2017 based on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) interface. The fractions of built-up (BL), forest (FL), and agricultural (AL) land were calculated using land use and cover maps based on the urban-rural zone (URZ) analysis. The urban-rural margin was demarcated based on the fraction of BL (<10%) and LSTI was measured using the mean LST difference in the urban-rural zone. In addition, the mixture of land use types was calculated using the AL/FL and BL/FL fraction ratios, and grid-based density analysis. The result shows that the BL in all URZ rapidly developed, while AL decreased during the period 1996 to 2017. There was minimal change in the forest area of the Nuwara Eliya owing to the government forest preservation policies. The fraction of the BL increased from 32.4% in 1996 to 58.7% in 2017 in the city center zone (URZ1) resulting in increased mean LST by 4.7 °C. Furthermore, the increase of the BL/FL fraction ratio and the decrease of the AL/FL fraction ratio were positively correlated with the mean LST. Grid-based analysis showed an increasing positive relationship between mean LST and density of BL. This indicated that BL density has been a crucial element in increasing LST in the study area. The results of this study will be a useful indicator to introduce improved landscape and urban planning in the future to minimize the negative impact of LST on urban sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0248.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Landsat; urban growth; Land Use Land Cover (LULC); remote sensing; urbanisation; NDVI
Online: 7 September 2023 (04:05:46 CEST)
The rapid growth of urban areas is a major challenge facing cities around the world. This growth can have a significant impact on the local climate, leading to higher temperatures and other changes. In desert climates, the effects of urban expansion can be particularly pronounced. This study investigated the impact of urban expansion on land surface temperature (LST) in Baghdad, Iraq. Notably, this study employs a sophisticated artificial intelligence method known as Random Forest for Land Use Land Cover (LULC) classification, utilizing three Landsat images spanning the temporal spectrum from 1985 to 2021 to meticulously monitor land use transformations and associated LST variations. The results showed that vegetated areas declined by 46.8% during the study period, while built-up areas increased by 124.7%. This decline in vegetation was accompanied by an increase in LST, with bare soil recording the highest temperatures. The study also found that LST has a strong inverse relationship with vegetation and moisture. This means that areas with more vegetation and moisture tend to have lower LSTs. These findings suggest that urban expansion can lead to higher LSTs in desert climates, which can have implications for the health and wellbeing of residents. The study has important implications for urban planners and policymakers in Baghdad and other cities in desert climates. By identifying the main factors that control LST, the study provides insights into strategies for mitigating the effects of urban expansion on temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1391.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land Surface Temperature; Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR); Downscaling; Random Forest; Convolutional Neural Networks
Online: 20 June 2023 (07:23:06 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is significant for climatological and environmental studies. LST products from satellites, however, suffer from the tradeoff between spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial downscaling has emerged as a well explored field aiming to overcome limitations arising from this tradeoff. Previous research on regression based LST downscaling models focused on utilizing predictors derived from optical imagery. Weather-dependency of optical imagery data, however, can influence downscaling models by the weather conditions. To cope this issue, in this study, we involve predictors derived from the weather-independent Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery to downscale Landsat-8 LST data. In this context, we propose to use machine learning techniques, namely Random Forest (RF) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). To demonstrate the applicability and performance of the proposed method, extensive experimental analyses were conducted over Zuid-Holland in the Netherlands. From the experiments, we found that the results obtained with radar predictors were comparable to those achieved using optical predictors. This confirms that the proposed method indeed paves a new way for mapping land surface temperature using SAR images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0647.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land surface temperature; downscaling; ERA5 reanalysis data; MODIS; temporal alignment
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:19:55 CEST)
Land surface temperature (LST) is a critical parameter for the dynamic simulation of land surface processes and for analyzing variations on regional or global scales. Obtaining LST with high spatiotemporal resolution is a subject of intensive and ongoing research. This study proposes a pixel-wise temporal alignment iterative linear regression model for downscaling based on MODIS LST products. This approach allows us to address the problem of high temporal resolution but low spatial resolution of the ERA5 reanalysis LST product, while remaining immune to pixel loss caused by clouds. The hourly ERA5 LST of the study area for 2012–2021 was downscaled to 1000 m resolution, and its accuracy was verified by comparison with measured data from meteorological stations. The downscaled LST offers intricate details and is faithful to the LST characteristics of distinct land-cover categories. In comparison with other downscaling techniques, the proposed technique is more stable and preserves the spatial distribution of ERA5 LST with minimal missing pixels. The pixel-wise average R-squared and mean absolute error for MODIS view times are 0.87 and 2.7 K, respectively, for cloud-free conditions at a 1000 m scale. Accuracy verification using data from meteorological stations indicates that the overall error is lower during cloudless periods rather than during overcast periods, during the night rather than during the day, and at MODIS view times rather than at non-view times. The maximum and minimum mean errors are 0.13 K for cloud-free periods and −0.98 K for cloudy periods, indicating a slight underestimation and overestimation, respectively. Conversely, the maximum and minimum mean absolute errors are 2.01 K for the daytime and 0.85 K for the nighttime. Therefore, the model ensures higher accuracy during cloudy periods with only clear sky LST as input data, making it suitable for long-term, all-weather ERA5 LST downscaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0073.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: land surface temperature; thermal infrared; calibration; generalized split-window; mono-window; database; radiative transfer
Online: 16 September 2016 (13:12:09 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is routinely retrieved from remote sensing instruments using semi-empirical relationships between top of atmosphere (TOA) radiances and LST, using ancillary data such as total column water vapor or emissivity. These algorithms are calibrated using a set of forward radiative transfer simulations that return the TOA radiances given the LST and the thermodynamic profiles. The simulations are done in order to cover a wide range of surface and atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries. This work analyses calibration strategies, considering some of the most critical factors that need to be taken into account when building a calibration dataset, covering the full dynamic range of relevant variables. A sensitivity analysis of split-windows and single channel algorithms revealed that selecting a set of atmospheric profiles that spans the full range of surface temperatures and total column water vapor combinations that are physically possible seems beneficial for the quality of the regression model. However, the calibration is extremely sensitive to the low-level structure of the atmosphere indicating that the presence of atmospheric boundary layer features such as temperature inversions or strong vertical gradients of thermodynamic properties may affect LST retrievals in a non-trivial way. This article describes the criteria established in the EUMETSAT Land Surface Analysis – Satellite Application Facility to calibrate its LST algorithms applied both for current and forthcoming sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0192.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land surface temperature; the Flexible Spatiotemporal Data Fusion method; Landsat-like; Building density; urban expansion
Online: 11 September 2018 (11:17:43 CEST)
Satellite-based remote sensing technologies are utilized extensively to investigate urban thermal environments under rapid urban expansion. Current MODIS data is, however, unable to adequately represent the spatially detailed information because of its relatively coarser spatial resolution, while Landsat data can’t explore temporally the refined analysis due to the low temporal resolution. In order to resolve this situation, we used MODIS and Landsat data to generate “Landsat-like” data by using the flexible spatiotemporal data fusion method (FSDAF), and then studied spatiotemporal variation of land surface temperature (LST) and its driving factors. The results showed that 1) The estimated “Landsat-like” data have high precision; 2) By comparing 2013 and 2016 datasets, LST increases ranging from 1.8°C to 4°C were measurable in areas where the impervious surface area (ISA) increased, while LST decreases ranging from -3.52°C to -0.70°C were detected in areas where ISA decreased; 3) LST has a strongly negative relationship with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and a strongly positive relationship with Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI) in summer; and 4) LST is well correlated with Building density (BD), in a complex conic mode, and LST may increase by 0.460°C to 0.786°C when BD increases by 0.1. Our findings can provide information useful for mitigating undesirable thermal conditions and for long-term urban thermal environmental management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land surface temperature; operational land imager; thermal infrared sensor; normalized difference vegetation Index; geospatial technology
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:28:24 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature is a one of the key variable of Global climate changes and model which estimate radiating budget in heat balance as control of climate model. It is a major influenced factor by the ability of the surface emissivity. In this study, were used Landsat 8 satellite image that have Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor to calculate Land Surface Temperature through geospatial technology over Ampara district, Sri Lanka. The Land Surface Temperature was estimated with respect to Land Surface Emissivity and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values determined from the Red and Near Infrared channels. Land Surface Emissivity was processed directly by the thermal Infrared bands. Pixels based calculation were used to effort at LANDSAT 8 images that thermal Band 10 various dates in this study. The results were achievable to compute Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Land Surface Emissivity, and Land Surface Temperature with applicable manner to compare with land use/ land cover data. It determines and predicts the changes of surface temperature to favorable to decision making process for the society. Study area faces seasonal drought in Sri Lanka, the prediction method that how land can be efficiently used with the present condition. Therefore, the Land Surface Temperature estimation can prove whether new irrigation systems for agricultural activities or can transformed source of energy into useful form that introducing solar hubs for energy production in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0124.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: air pollutants; COVID-19; land surface temperature; road traffic
Online: 3 May 2023 (09:36:46 CEST)
Substantial reductions of the human and economic activities like road traffic for several months in 2020 were one of the consequences of the Coronavirus disease. This unprecedented change in urban metabolism also affected temperature and air pollutants. This study investigates the effects of the first COVID-19 lockdown over 43 cities in Europe. It determines the influence of anthropogenic activities on nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM2.5) as well as on land surface temperature (LST), and the surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII), using satellite, modelled, and mobility data. Our findings show that there are great temporal and spatial differences and distinct patterns between the cities regarding the magnitude of change of the variables under study. In general, the results indicate a significant decrease in NO2 concentrations in most of the studied cities compared to the reference period 2015-2019. However, reductions could not be attributed to mobility changes like less traffic at transit stations, contrary to the results of previous studies. O3 levels increased during the first lockdown mainly influenced by the decreasing NO2 concentrations. The PM pattern was inconsistent over time and space. Similar as the NO2 results, no relation to the altered mobility behavior was found. No clear signal could be detected for LST and the SUHII, likely due to dominating meteorological influences. Therefore, single city case studies may be misleading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Albedo; Biomass; Land cover; Regional heat capacity; Surface Temperature
Online: 20 July 2017 (13:35:01 CEST)
Regional heat capacity change is calculated from the ratio between the addition or subtraction of heat (ΔQ) with the increase or decrease in temperature (ΔT) region. The purpose of this study is to calculate the regional heat capacity change due to the changes of land cover composition with forest, shrubs, oil palm plantation and bare soil using Landsat-5 TM satellite data on 1994, 2000 and 2010. Total area that used on this study is 12971 ha. In 1994-2000, 4 % of forest area and 2% shrubs were increased, followed by additional of biomass forest 4.01 tons/ha and 2.83 tons/ha for shrubs. The increased of forest area and biomass (tons/ha) caused by forest and shrubs growth processing towards climax that added the canopy volume. So that, the regional heat capacity in 1994 amounted 19384 MJCo-1 increased to 19929 MJCo-1 in 2000. Data observation for 2000-2010 showed that forest area decreased by 66% due to forest’s clearing into oil palm plantations (47%), shrubs (8%) and bare soil (11%). But, plant’s biomass continue to increased, i.e 1.48 ton/ha for forest, 2.73 tons/ha for shrubs and 4.63 tons/ha for bare soil. Before 2000, there was no land cover by oil palm plantations, so the increasing rate from this land was the biggest than the three other lands, amounting to 122.29 tons/ha. Decreasing in the percentage of forest area does not cause a decrease in the heat capacity of the region. Intensive maintenance on oil plam plantation such as water management, fertilizer and planting space made it biomass productivity and ability to save the heat is greater than the forest. As the result, in 2010 regional heat capacity increased to 22508 MJCo-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0024.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: AWS; land cover; LDAPS; mean bias error; temperature; topography; wind speed
Online: 2 September 2020 (05:00:09 CEST)
We investigated the characteristics of surface wind speeds and temperatures predicted by the local data assimilation and prediction system (LDAPS) operated by the Korean Meteorological Administration. First, we classified automated weather stations (AWSs) into four categories [urban flat (Uf), rural flat (Rf), rural mountainous (Rm), and rural coastal (Rc) terrains] based on the surrounding land cover and topography, and selected 25 AWSs representing each category. Then we calculated the mean bias error of wind speed (WE) and temperature (TE) using AWS observations and LDAPS predictions for the 25 AWSs in each category for a period of 1 year (January–December 2015). We found that LDAPS overestimated wind speed (average WE = 1.26 m s–1) and underestimated temperature (average TE = –0.63°C) at Uf AWSs located on flat terrain in urban areas because it failed to reflect the drag and local heating caused by buildings. At Rf, located on flat terrain in rural areas, LDAPS showed the best performance in predicting surface wind speed and temperature (average WE = 0.42 m s–1, average TE = 0.12°C). In mountainous rural terrain (Rm), WE and TE were strongly correlated with differences between LDAPS and actual altitude. LDAPS underestimated (overestimated) wind speed (temperature) for LDAPS altitudes that were lower than actual altitude, and vice versa. In rural coastal terrain (Rc), LDAPS temperature predictions depended on whether the grid was on land or sea, whereas wind speed did not depend on grid location. LDAPS underestimated temperature at grid points on the sea, with smaller TE obtained for grid points on sea than on land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0219.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Bangladesh; Land surface temperature; Coastal build-up; Vegetation index; Mangrove ecosystem
Online: 14 October 2021 (14:21:53 CEST)
Mangrove vegetation plays a vital role in habitat and nursing ground for different organisms and prevents coastal erosion caused by wave and tide action. In recent years the mangrove vegetation in Chattogram coast, Bangladesh, has been interrupted by other infrastructural development, which has a destructing effect on the surrounding environment. Land surface temperature analysis of an area helps learn about different environmental conditions, weather, and climate. It is also essential to monitor the rising temperature and global warming, the biggest threat to humanity. NDBI and NDVI are the efficient process for monitoring vegetation and build up areas of a geographical location. This study focused on those analyses to understand the importance of mangrove vegetation in the Salimpur area and surrounding coastal areas of Chattogram by studying the relationship between NDVI and NDBI, NDVI and LST, NDBI, and LST. The outcome indicates that a higher vegetation index results in lower land surface temperature during different periods, negatively correlated. This study also found a strong positive correlation between buildup index (NDBI) and land surface temperature (LST), which means Land Surface temperature was found higher in Buildup areas. The vegetation areas are greatly affected by the buildup areas. The correlation between buildup areas and vegetation areas was strongly negative, which means an increase of NDBI decreases NDVI, and a decrease of NDBI increases NDVI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0244.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: land surface temperature (LST); NDVI; NDBaI; MNDWI; Satellite data
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:17:02 CET)
Analysis of the correlation between indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Barren Index and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index) and land surface temperature is used to natural resources and environmental studies. This research aimed to analysis of Land Surface Temperature due to dynamics of Different Indices (NDVI, NDBaI and MNDWI) Using Remote Sensing Data in three selected districts (Gida Kiremu, Limu and Amuru), western Ethiopia. From thermal and multispectral bands of landsat imageries (Landsat TM of 1990, landsat ETM+ of 2003 and landsat OLI/TIRS of 2020) Land surface temperature and NDVI, NDBaI and MNDWI were calculated. Correlation analysis was used to indicate relationships between LST with NDVI, NDBaI and MNDWI. The study found that Land Surface Temperature was increased by 50C from 1990 to 2020. Vegetation areas (NDVI) and Water bodies (MNDWI) have strong negative relationship with Land Surface Temperature (R2= 0.99, 0.95) whereas Barren land (NDBaI) has positive relationship with Land Surface Temperature (R2= 0.96). Finally, we recommend the decision makers and environmental analyst to emphasis the importance of vegetation cover and water body to minimize the potential impacts of land surface temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0486.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Land-surface modelling system; hydrology; carbon; surface energy balance; open water; snow
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:23:53 CEST)
The land-surface developments of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are based on the Carbon-Hydrology Tiled Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land (CHTESSEL) and form an integral part of the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), supporting a wide range of global weather, climate and environmental applications. In order to structure, coordinate and focus future developments and benefit from international collaboration in new areas, a flexible system named ECLand which would facilitates modular extensions to support numerical weather prediction (NWP) and society-relevant operational services, e.g. Copernicus, is presented . This paper introduces recent examples of novel ECLand developments on (i) vegetation, (ii) snow, (iii) soil, (iv) open water/lake (v) river/inundation, and (vi) urban areas. The developments are evaluated separately with long-range, atmosphere-forced surface offline simulations, and coupled land-atmosphere-ocean experiments. This illustrates the benchmark criteria for assessing both, process fidelity with regards to land surface fluxes and reservoirs of the water-energy-carbon exchange on the one hand, and on the other hand the requirements of ECMWF’s NWP, climate and atmospheric composition monitoring services using an Earth system assimilation prediction framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0029.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: snow depth; snow cover; soil moisture; snowmelt; seasonal prediction; land-atmosphere feedbacks
Online: 23 August 2017 (08:05:47 CEST)
Subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) weather forecasting has improved in recent years, thanks partly to better representation of physical variables in models. For instance, realistic initializations of snow and soil moisture in models yield enhanced predictability on S2S time scales. Snow depth and soil moisture also mediate month-to-month persistence of near-surface air temperature. Here the role of snow depth as predictor of temperature one month ahead in the Northern Hemisphere is probed via two causal pathways. Through the first pathway, snow depth anomalies in month 1 cause snow depth anomalies in month 2, which then cause temperature anomalies in month 2. This pathway represents the snow–albedo feedback, as well as cooling due to insulation, emissivity and heat loss. It is active from fall to summer, and its effect peaks in March/April in the midlatitudes and in May/June at high latitudes. A complementary second pathway, where snow depth anomalies in month 1 cause soil moisture anomalies in month 2, which then cause temperature anomalies in month 2 through soil moisture–temperature feedbacks, is only active in spring and summer. Its effect peaks later in the warm season than the effect of the first pathway. Geographically, snow depth mediates north of, and soil moisture south of, the areas with the highest temperature predictability from snow depth. These results indicate that the two pathways describe complementary physical mechanisms. The first pathway embodies month-to-month persistence of snow depth, and the second pathway represents melting of snow from one month to the next.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0051.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urbanization; land surface phenology; urban heat island; Northeast China
Online: 10 January 2017 (10:30:26 CET)
The urbanization effects on land surface phenology (LSP) have been investigated by many studies, but few studies focused on the temporal variations of urbanization effects on LSP. In this study, we used the MODIS EVI, MODIS LST data and China’s Land Use/Cover Datasets (CLUDs) to investigate the temporal variations of urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP in Northeast China during 2001–2015. Land surface temperature (LST) and phenology differences between urban and rural areas represented the urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP, respectively. Mann-kendall nonparametric test and Sen's slope were used to evaluating the trends of urbanization effects on LSP and urban heat island intensity. The results indicated that the average land surface phenology (LSP) during 2001–2015 was characterized by high spatial heterogeneity. The start of the growing season (SOS) in old urban area had become earlier and earlier than rural area and the differences of SOS between urbanized area and the rural area changed greatly during 2001–2015 (−0.79 days/year, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, the length of the growing season (LOS) in urban and adjacent areas had become increasingly longer than rural area especially in urbanized area (0.92 days/year, p < 0.01), but the differences of the end of the growing season (EOS) between urban and adjacent areas did not change significantly. Next, the UHII increased in spring and autumn during the whole study period. Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that the increasing urban heat island intensity in spring contributed greatly to the increases of urbanization effects on SOS, but the increasing urban heat island intensity in autumn did not lead to the increases of urbanization effects on EOS in Northeast China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0119.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: mediterranean lagoon complex; surface water dynamic; land use and land cover; landscape metrics; remote sensing
Online: 10 May 2019 (10:40:14 CEST)
Mediterranean coastal lagoons and their peripheral areas often provide a collection of habitats for many species, and they often face significant threats from anthropogenic activities. Diverse human activities in such areas directly affect the spatio-temporal dynamic of surface water and its ecological characteristics. Monitoring the surface water dynamic, and understanding the impact of human activities are of great significance for coastal lagoon conservation. The Regional Natural Park of Narbonne includes a typical Mediterranean lagoon complex where surface water dynamic and its potential link with local diverse human activities has not yet been studied. In this context, based on all the available Landsat images covering the study area during 2002-2016, this study identified the water and non-water classes for each satellite observation by comparing three widely used water indices (i.e., NDVI, NDWI and MNDWI) and using the Otsu method. The yearly water frequency index was then computed to present the spatio-temporal dynamic of surface water for each year, and three water dynamic scenarios were also identified for each year: permanent water (PW), non-permanent water (NPW) and non-water (NW). The spatial and inter-annual variation in the patterns of the three water scenarios were characterized by computing the landscape metrics at scenario-level quantifying area/edge, shape, aggregation and fragmentation. Finally, the quantitative link between different land use and land cover (LULC) types derived from the LULC maps of 2003, 2012 and 2015 and the surface water dynamic scenarios was established in each of the 300 m x 300 m grid cells covering the study area to determine the potential impact of human activities on the surface water dynamic. In terms of the inter-annual variation during 2002-2016, PW presented an overall stability, and NPW occupied only a small part of the water surface in each year and presented an inter-annual fluctuation. NPW had a smaller patch size, with lower connectivity degree and higher fragmentation degree. In terms of spatial variation during 2002-2016, NPW often occurred around PW, and its configurational features varied from place to place. Moreover, PW mostly corresponded to natural lagoon, and salt marsh (as a part of lagoons), and NPW had a strong link with arable land (agricultural irrigation) and salt marsh (salt production), sand beach/dune, coastal wetlands and lagoon for the LULC maps of 2003, 2012 and 2015. However, more in-depth analysis is required for understanding the impact of sand beach/dune, coastal wetlands and lagoon on surface water dynamics. This study covers the long-term variations of surface water patterns in a Mediterranean lagoon complex having intense and diverse human activities, and the potential link between LULC types and the water dynamic scenarios was investigated on different dates. The results of the study should be useful for environmental management and protection of coastal lagoons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0021.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: maximum surface air temperature; land surface temperature; statistical modeling; MODIS
Online: 3 March 2017 (08:38:19 CET)
Daily maximum surface air temperature (Tamax) is a crucial factor for understanding complex land surface processes under rapid climate change. Remote detection of Tamax has widely relied on the empirical relationship between air temperature and land surface temperature (LST), a product derived from remote sensing. However, little is known about how such a relationship is affected by the high heterogeneity in landscapes and dynamics in seasonality. This study aims to advance our understanding of the roles of land cover and seasonal variation in the estimation of Tamax using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) LST product. We developed statistical models to link Tamax and LST in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China for five major land-cover types (i.e., forest, shrub, water, impervious surface, cropland, and grassland) and two seasons (i.e., growing season and non-growing season). Results show that the performance of modeling the Tamax-LST relationship was highly dependent on land cover and seasonal variation. Estimating Tamax over grasslands and water bodies achieved superior performance; while uncertainties were high over forested lands that contained extensive heterogeneity in species types, plant structure, and topography. We further found that all the land-cover specific models developed for the plant non-growing season outperformed the corresponding models developed for the growing season. Discrepancies in model performance mainly occurred in the vegetated areas (forest, cropland, and shrub), suggesting an important role of plant phenology in defining the statistical relationship between Tamax and LST. For impervious surfaces, the challenge of capturing the high spatial heterogeneity in urban settings using the low-resolution MODIS data made Tamax estimation a difficult task, which was especially true in the growing season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0469.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: forest canopy parameters; UAV-based photogrammetric; land surface modelling
Online: 22 October 2020 (22:08:17 CEST)
Taking a typical forest underlying surface as the research area, this study employed the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry to explore more accurate canopy parameters including tree height and canopy radius, which were used to improve the Noah-MP land surface model conducted in Dinghushan Forest Ecosystem Research Station (CN-Din). While the canopy radius was fitted as a Burr distribution, the canopy height of CN-Din forest followed a Weibull distribution. The replacement of the parameters by these observed UAV would result in the Noah-MP model. It was found that the influence on the simulation of the energy fluxes could not be negligible, and the main influence of these canopy parameters was on the latent heat flux which could decrease up to -11% in the midday while increase up to 15% in the nighttime. Additionally, this work indicated that the description of the canopy characteristics for the land surface model should be improved to accurately deliver the heterogeneity for the underlying surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0071.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land surface reanalysis, remote sensing, data assimilation,
Online: 7 February 2019 (11:31:26 CET)
This study focuses on the ability of the global land data assimilation system LDAS-Monde to improve the representation of land surface variables (LSVs) over Burkina Faso through the joint assimilation of satellite derived Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) from January 2001 to June 2018. The LDAS-Monde offline system is forced by the latest European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis ERA5, leading to a 0.25° x 0.25° spatial resolution reanalysis of the LSVs. Within LDAS-Monde, SSM and LAI observations from the Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) are assimilated using the CO2-responsive version of the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere) land surface model (LSM). First, it is shown that ERA5 better represents precipitation and incoming solar radiation than ERA-Interim former reanalysis from ECMWF. Results of two experiments are compared: open-loop simulation (i.e. no assimilation) and analysis (i.e. joint assimilation of SSM and LAI). After jointly assimilating SSM and LAI, it is noticed that the assimilation is able to impact soil moisture in the first top soil layers (the first 20 cm), and also in deeper soil layers (from 20 cm to 60 cm and below). The assimilation is able to improve the simulation of both SSM and LAI. For LAI in particular, the southern region of the domain (dominated by a Sudan-Guinean climate) highlights a strong impact of the assimilation compared to the other two sub-regions of Burkina Faso (dominated by Sahelian and Sudan-Sahelian climates). In the southern part of the domain, differences between the model and the observations are the largest, prior to any assimilation. These differences are linked to the model failing to represent the behavior of some specific vegetation species, which are known to put on leaves before the first rains of the season. The LDAS-Monde analysis is very efficient at compensating for this model weakness. Evapotranspiration estimates from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) project as well as upscaled carbon uptake from the FLUXCOM project are used in the evaluation process, again demonstrating improvements in the representation of evapotranspiration and gross primary production after assimilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0105.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land Surface Data Assimilation, remote sensing, ERA5
Online: 6 September 2018 (00:24:47 CEST)
LDAS-Monde, an offline land data assimilation system with global capacity, is applied over the CONtiguous US (CONUS) domain to enhance monitoring accuracy for water and energy states and fluxes. LDAS-Monde ingests satellite-derived Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) estimates to constrain the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) Land Surface Model (LSM) coupled with the CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques) version of the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (CTRIP) continental hydrological system (ISBA-CTRIP). LDAS-Monde is forced by the ERA-5 atmospheric reanalysis from the European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) from 2010 to 2016 leading to a 7-yr, quarter degree spatial resolution offline reanalysis of Land Surface Variables (LSVs) over CONUS. The impact of assimilating LAI and SSM into LDAS-Monde is assessed over North America, by comparison to satellite-driven model estimates of land evapotranspiration from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) project, and upscaled ground-based observations of gross primary productivity from the FLUXCOM project. Also, taking advantage of the relatively dense data networks over CONUS, we also evaluate the impact of the assimilation against in-situ measurements of soil moisture from the USCRN network (US Climate Reference Network) are used in the evaluation, together with river discharges from the United States Geophysical Survey (USGS) and the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC). Those data sets highlight the added value of assimilating satellite derived observations compared to an open-loop simulation (i.e. no assimilation). It is shown that LDAS-Monde has the ability not only to monitor land surface variables but also to forecast them, by providing improved initial conditions which impacts persist through time. LDAS-Monde reanalysis has a potential to be used to monitor extreme events like agricultural drought, also. Finally, limitations related to LDAS-Monde and current satellite-derived observations are exposed as well as several insights on how to use alternative datasets to analyze soil moisture and vegetation state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: distance from coast; air temperature; land use; city size; Japan; Germany
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:57:14 CEST)
The relationship between city size, coastal land use and air temperature rise with distance from coast during summer day is analyzed using the meso-scale Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in five coastal cities in Japan with different sizes and coastal land use (Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Hiroshima and Sendai) and inland cities in Germany (Berlin, Essen and Karlsruhe). Air temperature increased as distance from the coast increased, reached its maximum, and then decreased slightly. In Nagoya and Sendai, the number of urban land use in coastal areas is less than the other three cities, where air temperature is a little lower. As a result, air temperature difference between coastal and inland urban area is small and the curve of air temperature rise is smaller than those in Tokyo and Osaka. In Sendai, air temperature in the inland urban area is the same as in the other cities, but air temperature in the coastal urban area is a little lower than the other cities, due to about one degree lower sea surface temperature influenced by the latitude. In three German cities, the urban boundary layer may not develop sufficiently because the fetch distance is not enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0010.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Land surface temperature; Surface urban heat island, Local climate zone; Retrieval algorithms
Online: 3 June 2019 (09:02:15 CEST)
Surface urban heat island (SUHI) depicts the deteriorating thermal environment in high-density cities and local climate zone (LCZ) classification provides a universal protocol for SUHI identification. In this study, taking the central urbanized area of Guangzhou in the humid subtropical region of China as the study area, the maps or images of LCZ, land surface temperature (LST), SUHI and urban design factors were achieved by using Landsat satellite data, GIS database and a series of retrieval and classification algorithms, and the urban design factors influencing SUHI were investigated based on 625 samples of LCZs. The results show that in the summer daytime under the clear sky condition, the LST varied greatly from 26 °C to 40 °C and the SUHI changed in a wide range of -6 °C to 8 °C in the LCZs of the study area. Seven and five urban design factors influencing the summer daytime SUHI were identified for the two dominant LCZ of LCZs 1-5 (LCZ 1 to LCZ 5) and the mixed LCZ (containing at least three types of LCZs), respectively. The summer daytime SUHI prediction models were obtained by using the step-wise multiple linear regression, with the performance of R2 of 0.697, RMSE of 1.21 °C, and the d value of 0.81 for the model of LCZs 1-5, and the values of 0.666, 1.66 °C, and 0.76 for the model of the mixed LCZ, indicating that the models can predict the changes of SUHI with LCZs to a large and satisfactory extent. This study presents a methodology to efficiently achieve a large sample of SUHI and urban design factors of LCZs in the largely urbanized cities, and provides information beneficial to the urban designs and regenerations in the humid subtropical region.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: solar radiation; meteosat second generation; validation; land surface modelling
Online: 27 October 2019 (04:25:31 CET)
High frequency knowledge of the spatio-temporal distribution of the Downwelling Surface Shortwave Flux (DSSF) and its diffuse fraction (fd) at the surface is nowadays essential for understanding climate processes at the surface-atmosphere interface, plant photosynthesis and carbon cycle, and for the solar energy sector. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis operationally delivers estimation of the MDSSFTD (Downwelling Surface Short-wave radiation Fluxes – Total and Diffuse fraction) product with an operational status since the year 2019. The method for the retrieval was presented in the companion paper . The part 2 now focuses on the evaluation of the MDSSFTD algorithm and presents the comparison of the corresponding outputs, i.e. total DSSF and diffuse fraction (fd) components, against in-situ measurements acquired at four BSRN stations over a seven-month period. The validation is performed on an instantaneous basis. We show that the satellite estimates of DSSF and fd meet the target requirements defined by the user community for all-sky (clear and cloudy) conditions. For DSSF, the requirements are 20Wm-2 for DSSF<200Wm-2, and 10% for DSSF>=200Wm-2. The MBE and rMBE compared to the ground measurements are 3.618Wm-2 and 0.252%, respectively. For fd, the requirements are 0.1 for fd<0.5, and 20% for fd>=0.5. The MBE and rMBE compared to the ground measurements are -0.044 and -17.699%, respectively. The study also provides a separate analysis of the product performances for clear sky and cloudy sky conditions. The importance of representing the cloud-aerosol radiative coupling in the MDSSFTD method is discussed. Finally, it is concluded that the quality of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) forecasts currently available is enough accurate to obtain reliable diffuse solar flux estimates. This quality of AOD forecasts was still a limitation a few years ago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1928.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Deforestation; Land-use change; Surface albedo; Diurnal thermal range; Temperate region; México.
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:04:10 CEST)
Deforestation is an important environmental problem in México and a key promoter of regional climate change through modifying the surface albedo. The objective of this research was to characterize the impact of deforestation and land use changes on surface albedo (α) and climate patterns in the Municipality of Tapalpa, Jalisco, México between the years 2014 and 2021. The main land cover types are coniferous forests (CF), oak and gallery woodlands (OGW), and annual agriculture (AA); which represent more than 88% of the regional territory (1066.03 km2). We used 2014 and 2021 Landsat 8 OLI images with topographic and atmospheric correction, in order to develop an inventory of albedo values for each land cover type in both time scenarios. Albedo images were generated by using the equation proposed by Liang in 2001, which is based on the reflectance of the bands 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. Differences in albedo values were calculated between the years 2014 and 2021, and those differences were correlated with variations in climate parameters, for which we used climate data derived from the WRF model. In addition, the different land use changes found were classified in terms of triggers for increasing or decreasing surface albedo. Results showed that between 2014 and 2021, at least 38 events of land use change or deforestation occurred, with albedo increments between 1 and 11%, which triggered an average increment of 0.57% of the regional surface albedo in comparison to 2014 scenario. From 2014 to 2021, the albedo for CF, OGW, and AA, increased significantly (p<0.001; Mann-Whitney U Test) by 79, 12, and 9%, respectively. In addition, the regional albedo increment was found to be significant and negatively correlated (p<0.01 Spearman’s coefficient) with relative humidity (RH), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and diurnal thermal range (DTR). The decrease in the regional values of relative humidity in 2021, occurred even when in that year the annual precipitation levels were higher than those of 2014, hence, reinforcing the fact of a possible climatic effect of the regional albedo changes. Conversion of CF and OGW into AA, perennial agriculture (PA), or grassland (GR) always yielded an albedo increment, whilst the conversion of AA to irrigation agriculture or PA triggered a decrease in albedo, and finally, the pass from GR or AA to protected agriculture caused albedo increase or decrease, depending on the greenhouse covers materials. Reducing deforestation of CF and OGW, conversion of AA or GR into PA, and selecting adequate greenhouse covers could help to mitigate regional climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0604.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land surface temperature; urban spatial form; building form; gravity index; thermal adaptiveness; quadrant analysis; spatial regression
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:26:57 CEST)
Climate change is expected to result in rising temperatures, leading to increased occurrences of extreme weather events like heat waves and cold spells. Urban planning responses are crucial for improving the adaptive capacity of cities and communities in dealing with significant temperature variations across seasons. This study aims to investigate the relationship between urban temperature fluctuations and urban morphology throughout the four seasons. Through quadrant and statistical analyses, the study identifies built-environment factors that contribute to moderate seasonal land surface temperatures (LST). The research focuses on Seoul, South Korea as a case study and calculates seasonal LST values at both the grid level (100m×100m) and street-block level, incorporating factors such as vegetation density, land use patterns, albedo, two- and three-dimensional building forms, and gravity indices for natural reserves. The quadrant analysis reveals spatial segregation between areas demonstrating high LST adaptability (cooler summers and warmer winters) and those displaying LST vulnerability (hotter summers and colder winters), with significant differences in vegetation and building forms. The spatial regression analysis demonstrates that higher vegetation density and proximity to water bodies play key roles in moderating LST, leading to cooler summers and warmer winters. Building characteristics have an invariant impact on LST across all seasons, where horizontal expansion contributes to higher LST, while vertical expansion reduces LST. These findings are consistent for both grid- and block-level analyses. The study emphasizes the flexible role of the natural environment in moderating temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agricultural land conversion; land economic value; urbanization; land rent
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:18:09 CEST)
Agricultural land conversion (ALC) is an incentive–driven process. In this paper we further investigate the inter–relationship between land economic value (LEV) and ALC. To achieve this goal, we calculated LEV for agricultural and non-agricultural (housing) uses in two areas in East Java, Indonesia. The first area represents suburban agriculture, facing rapid urbanization and experiencing high rate of ALC. The second area represents rural agriculture with zero ALC. Furthermore, we identified factors affecting LEV in both areas for both uses. The resut of this study show that agricultural land yielded higher economic benefit in rural area. Conversely, comparing to agricultural land, housing creates 7 times higher value in urban area. Moreover, agricultural land shown to create higher profit after converted. Ironically, the similar comparison doesn’t exists in rural area. Agricultural land only yielded 19% more value, indicate that agricultural land can be easily converted. It is also proven by the growing number of new urban core in the periphery area. There are several factors affecting land economic value, for agricultural use, soil fertility, accessibility, and cropping pattern are important variables. While accessibility and location in urban area increases land value for housing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0040.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Asian monsoon; black carbon; long-range transport; land and sea breeze; sulfate; surface area; surface coating of particles
Online: 8 June 2017 (08:26:27 CEST)
Observation of the ambient aerosol surface area concentrations is important to understand the aerosol toxicity because an increased surface area may be able to act as an enhanced reaction interface for certain reactions between aerosol particles and biological cells, as well as an augmented carrier surface for co-pollutants. In this study, the concentration of aerosol surface area was measured from April 2015 to March 2016 in Fukuoka, Japan. We investigated the monthly and diurnal variations in the correlations between the aerosol surface area and black carbon (BC) and sulfate concentrations. Throughout the year, aerosol surface area concentration was strongly correlated with the concentrations of BC, which has relatively large surface area since BC particles are usually submicron agglomerates consisting of much smaller (tens of nanometers) sized primary soot particles. The slopes of the regression between the aerosol surface area and BC concentrations was highest in August and September 2015. This appears to have been the results of an increase in the proportion of the airmass that originated on the main islands of Japan. This may enhance the introduction of the BC from the main islands of Japan that is relatively fresh (or “uncoated”), thereby maintaining its larger surface area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0105.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: urban air temperature; land surface temperature; multiple independent variables; urban heat; remote sensing data; machine learning (ML); ML-driven partial least squares regression (PLSR)
Online: 7 April 2023 (03:34:33 CEST)
Machine Learning (ML) was used to assess and predict urban air temperature (Tair) considering the complexity of the terrain features in Yerevan (Armenia). The estimation was performed based on the PLSR model with a high number (30) of input variables. The relevant parameters include a newly purposed modification of spectral index IBI-SAVI, which turned out to be strongly impacting on Tair prediction together with land surface temperature (LST). Cross-validation analysis on temperature predictions across a station-centered 1000m circular area revealed quite a high correlation (R2Val = 0.77, RMSEVal = 1.58) between predicted and measured Tair from the test set. It was concluded the remote sensing is an effective tool to estimate Tair distribution where a dense network of weather stations is not available. However, further developments will include incorporation of additional weather parameters from the weather stations such as precipitation and wind speed, and the use of non-parametric ML techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0247.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: artificial neural network; land use land cover; Indonesia; land use prediction
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:43:54 CET)
Great Malang region is developing rapidly with the population increase and inhabitant`s activity, like migration and urbanization. Other activities like agricultural expansion as well as an uncontrolled residential development need to be monitored to avoid any negative impact in the future. The availability of free and open-source software, spatial high-resolution satellite imagery datasets, and powerful algorithms open the possibilities to map, monitor, and predict the future trend of land use land cover (LULC) changes. However, the accuracy and precision of this model is still in doubt, especially in the Great Malang region. Research is needed to provide a foundational basis and documentation on how the changes occur, where did the changes occur, and the accuracy of the predicted model. This study tries to answer those questions using the high spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 imageries. Combination of the fuzzy algorithm, artificial neural network, and cellular automata was utilized to process the datasets. We analysed four different scenarios of simulation and the result then compared. The different number of hidden layers and iteration was used and evaluated to understand the effect of different parameters in the prediction result. The best scenario was then used to predict future land use changes. This study has successfully produced the future LULC model of Great Malang region with high accuracy level (87%). The study also found that the land use transformation from agriculture to urban built-up area is relatively low, where changes of the built-up area over three periods of analysis are below than 5%. This is due to the physical condition of Great Malang region where mountainous areas are dominated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0456.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Land dispute; land alienation; communal grant; native customary land; institutional approach
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:40:17 CET)
Land management and community involvement are two main elements in ensuring the absence of conflict between landowners and agencies. Disputes between owners and agencies will be the biggest obstacle in the land development effort. Therefore, this article aims to address the cause of landowners’ objections against land alienation using the institutional approach. To enable the researchers to understand the root causes of landowners' objections against the alienation of land using the Communal Grant method, the institutional approach has been adopted to identify the issue of the objection. Therefore, questionnaires for 100 landowners were distributed in two villages in Semporna district in Sabah. The purpose is to obtain their views on the cause leading to the dispute of land alienation using the Communal Grant method. The Likert scale was used to enable community rankings on issues that can be understood according to the level of seriousness of the population's views on the issue of using Communal Grants in native customary land alienation. The study results explain that there are four factors that drive objection of the Communal Grant land alienation which involves the formal factors. The findings explained that there are 4 formal provisions which lead to the community's objection against Communal Grants, namely the native customary lands (NCR) act, provision of Communal Grants, provisions in the land ownership and land allocation in Sabah Land Ordinance.Due to numerous objections among native customary peoples concerning the native customary land alienation using Communal Grants, the government has acted in substitution with a fair method of individual ownership for the native customary peoples. This situation explains that disputes in land ownership can be a threat to the country if it cannot be resolved in ways and methods acceptable to the native customary community. This study will benefit the government and NGO’s to alert and focusing on barriers in the context of local community land laws. Communal grants are intended to address land issues in Sabah.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: land cover maps; land cover scenario; Land Change Modeler (LCM); transition probabilities
Online: 15 June 2019 (16:13:07 CEST)
The results reveal CILSS as the most accurate data set with a Kappa coefficient of 68% and an overall accuracy of 83%. CILSS data shows a decrease of savanna and forest whereas an increase of cropland over the period 1975 to 2013. The increase of cropland area of 30.97% from 1975 to 2013 can be related to the increase in population and their food demand, while the losses of forest area and the decrease of savanna are further amplified by using wood as energy sources and the lack of forest management. The three datasets were used to simulate future LULC changes using the Terrset Land Change Modeler. The validation of the model using CILSS data for 2013 showed a quality of 50.94%, it is only 40.04% for ESA and 20.13% for Globeland30. CILSS data was utilized to simulate the LULC distribution for the years 2020 and 2027 because of its satisfactory performances. The results show that a high spatial resolution is not a guarantee of high quality. The results of this study can be used for impact studies and to develop management strategies for mitigating negative effects of land use and land cover change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0312.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land use; land cover; drivers; change; Sahel
Online: 20 October 2022 (13:31:37 CEST)
Land includes vegetation and water bodies and provides the basis for human livelihoods through primary production, the supply of food, freshwater, and multiple other ecosystem goods and services. The last three decades have recorded frequent drought events as well as rapid population growth, which has resulted in often negative land use and land cover change (LULCC) in the Sahel of Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to propose sustainable land management strategies, it is important to investigate the rate of LULCC and its driving factors in specific locations. This study investigated the case of Wocoro municipality in Mali using a combined approach of remote sensing, Geographical Information System, and focus group discussions. Satellite images and local people's perceptions on LULCC and drivers were collected and analyzed for the years 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020. We found that the study area faced a severe decrease in wooded savannah with an increase in farmland and settlement directly or indirectly related to the rapid population growth, high cotton price (which encouraged cropland expansion), drought, firewood extraction, and charcoal production, which was exacerbated by poverty. There is a need to promote integrated land management strategies that consider current and future livelihoods needs and preserve the health of the environment for the benefits of future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0388.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Satellite Image Fusion, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Permeability, Landuse and Landcover, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Urban Heat Island, Fast Growing City, Remote sensing
Online: 21 August 2018 (16:58:09 CEST)
Rapid and extensive urbanization has adversely impacted humans and ecological entities in the recent decades through a decrease in surface permeability and the emergence of urban heat islands (UHI). While detailed and continuous assessments of surface permeability and UHI are crucial for urban planning and management of landuse zones, they have mostly involved time consuming and expensive field studies, and single sensor derived large scale aerial and satellite imageries. We demonstrated the advantage of fusing imageries from multiple sensors for landuse and landcover (LULC) change assessments as well as for assessing surface permeability and UHI emergence in Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India. Cartosat-2 and Landsat-7 ETM+ imageries from 2007 and 2017 were fused and classified using a Rotation Forest (RF), while surface permeability and temperature were quantified using Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) index, respectively. Fused images exhibited higher classification accuracies than non-fused images, i.e. overall kappa coefficient values 0.83 and 0.75, respectively. We observed an overall increase of 20 km2 (45%) in the coverage of urban (dry, real estate plots and built-up) areas, while a decrease of 27 km2 (37%) for vegetated (cropland and forest) areas in Tirunelveli between 2007 and 2017. The SAVI values indicated an extensive decrease in surface permeability for Tirunelveli overall (0.4) and also for almost all LULC zones. The LST values exhibited an associated overall increase (1.30C) of surface temperature in Tirunelveli with the highest increase (2.40C) for urban built-up areas between 2007 and 2017. The SAVI-LST combined metric depicted the Southeastern built-up areas in Tirunelveli as a potential UHI hotspot, while a caution for the Western riparian zone for UHI emergence in 2017. Our results provide important metrics for surface permeability and UHI monitoring, and inform urban and zonal planning authorities about the advantages of satellite image fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0671.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Land Suitability Analysis; Major crops; Land Management practice
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:07:23 CEST)
This study to assess the Physical Land Suitability Analysis for Cultivation of Selected Cool Weather Cereal Crops, Misha District, Hadiya Zone, South Central Ethiopia of major cereal crops of barley and teff in Misha district. Each of the criteria was separately reclassified and analyzed for their suitability for supporting barley and teff crops based on the FAO crop requirements specified for them. The major data sources were climatic data, soil, LGP and topographic data as well as key informant interview, questioner observation of crop requirements which have been considered to undertake suitability assessments of the study area. The factor maps like land use /land cover, temperature, rain fall, soil type and altitude were classified based on suitability evaluation methods of FAO and experts’ opinion. At final stage these were reclassified and standardized in GIS software extension tools, which led to the preparation of suitability analysis map of the major crops plant suitability classes. As part of spatial MCDM, AHP pair wise comparison module was used to derive internal and external weights for each individual factors and parameters respectively. Consequently, suitability analysis was done and weighted overlay suitability map was visualized with integration of GIS. The findings show that among total area of land suitability maps for both barley and teff cops were using weighted overlay techniques. The suitability map of teff crop shows that 12,038.22 hectare of the investigated area are highly suitable (S1), 19,646.07 hectare moderately suitable (S2) and 4,501.71 hectare marginally suitable (S3) and 112 hectare not suitable. On the other hand, the suitability map of barley crop shows that 7,898.52 hectare of the investigated area are highly suitable (S1), 22,830.08 hectare moderately suitable (S2), and 5,466.4 hectare marginally suitable (S3) and 103 hectare not suitable for economic reasons (N1). This was done for barley and Teff crops separately. Results of the study revealed that most of the lands in the study area are suitable for the cultivation of the selected crops and other crops. Based on finding, it could be recommended that this work would be used as policy guide for planners; investment could be successful in the District, further suitability research works should be carried out in order to optimize the major crop cultivation and production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0251.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: sustainability development; land use change; Corine Land Cover
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:21:51 CET)
The article presents the author's method of land use change assessment in the context of sustainable development and the results of its application based on the transformations that occurred in individual areas of Europe in the years 2012–2018. This method is based on data from the CORINE Land Cover program and local government units presenting the degree of urbanization (DEGURBA). The authors evaluate the transformations taking place in space, reducing them to economic, social and environmental dimensions. They then analyse the results in terms of space (covering the entire Europe) and in terms of division into: large cities, small towns as well as suburbs and rural areas. It has been shown that: development of the economic dimension most often takes place at the expense of natural resources; the higher the population density and more important function in the functional system of a given country, the greater the sustainable development differentiation level in the analysed dimensions, of which the social dimension is characterized by the lowest differentiation and the economic dimension is the highest; development of rural areas is less sustainable than in case of large urban centres. The result interpretation also leads to the conclusion that the areas of Europe are very diverse in terms of sustainable development. However, the method itself, despite the imperfections observed by the authors, may be used in further or similar studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Regulation Effectiveness; Land Use Plan; Construction Land; China
Online: 20 March 2017 (18:42:46 CET)
Nowadays the relationship between planning land use and actual land use is not so clear in general. A lot of efforts have been put in the failures of regulation for the expansion of construction land. However, it still lacks an integrated approach to study the effectiveness of land use regulation in terms of different land use types. Furthermore, the existing evaluation of land use plan mainly focuses on a general level, a detailed research on the regulation effectiveness of each construction land use type is absent. Therefore, this research tries to evaluate regulation effectiveness of land use plan, which takes Cangwu country, Guangxi Province as an example. The finding by analysis is that the total area of construction land expansion was about 3494.73 ha, nearly 1.1 times of the plan quota. Moreover, the effectiveness differs greatly in various construction land use types. Town, industrial/mining sites can be well regulated through the quota of land use plan. While, the quota regulation system is not as effective for other type of construction land. Thus, we suggest to improve the regulation effectiveness of construction land through different plan instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Land dispute, customary land tenure, statutory land tenure, tenure security, Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:31:29 CET)
Despite the ongoing land administration reforms being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including Ghana as viable pathway to achieve tenure security and greater efficiency in land administration, the subject of land dispute resolution has received relatively less attention. Whereas customary tenure institutions play a central role in land administration (controlling ~80% of all land in Ghana), they remain at the fringes of the formal land dispute adjudicatory process. Recognizing the pivotal role traditional institutions as development agents and potential vehicles for promoting good land governance, recent discourse on land tenure have geared towards mainstreaming traditional land disputes institutions into the architecture of formal judicial process via alternative dispute resolution pathways. Yet little is known at least empirically as to the operations of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the contemporary context. This study therefore explores the importance of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the management of land-related disputes in southcentral and western Ghana. Drawing on data collated from 380 farming households operating 746 plots. The results show that contrary to the conventional thinking that traditional institutions are anachronistic and not fit for purpose, they remain strong and preferred forum for land dispute resolution (proving resilient and adaptable) given the changing socio-economic and tenurial conditions. Yet these forums have differing implications for different actors within the customary spheres accessing them. The results highlight practical ways for incorporating traditional dispute resolution in the overall land governance setup in Ghana and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. This has implications for redesigning context-specific and appropriate land-use policy interventions that address local land dispute resolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1495.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Urban spatial plan; urban street width, land value; land price; space syntax; street network; land use distribution; land marketing; real estate.
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:39:24 CEST)
Overcoming the issue of land value and cost in urban areas will not provide a miraculous solution to the problems there. Appropriate land use cost, especially for residential and commercial land, is just one of the issues to be settled in the debate. Therefore, this study aims to build a new urban land price determination model by investigating the urban syntactical analysis, street width, and their economic effects on land value. The study attempts to determine the impact of syntactic analysis of streets and street width on land prices; it also seeks to identify the factor most affected by the land cost. Ultimately, the study built a model for urban land price prediction. The case selected is evaluated and compared in three aspects of the analysis, including; the urban axial assessments and urban street width, to find out their impacts on the real estate’s land price in the context of the land use distributions, which are predominantly residential and commercial types of uses. Depth map X8, SPSS, and QGIS 3.16 were used for the study evaluations and assessments. The result showed a significant impact of the urban street network on the price of land; this result can be used to enhance future urban design regarding urban economy improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: land actions; political will; cadastral project; land management; Benin
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:29:12 CEST)
Land registry is one of the instruments most mentioned by public actors in land management in Benin to solve land problems faced by the country. Its implementation and functioning depend not only on technical actions but also on political will. Through a methodology based on participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus group, as well as on the theory of "change in public action" by P. Muller (2005), legal and institutional changes have been observed in the implementation of the cadastral project. It is a project whose political component is readable through government action and the legal reforms carried out. At the technical level, the land data collected are processed by computer systems that can facilitate the mass production of land titles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: adoption; land degradation; poisson regression; sustainable land management practices
Online: 1 May 2017 (08:33:17 CEST)
Land degradation is a serious impediment to improving rural livelihoods in Eastern Africa. This paper identifies major land degradation patterns and causes, and analyzes the determinants of sustainable land management (SLM) in three countries (Ethiopia, Malawi and Tanzania). The results show that land degradation hotspots cover about 51%, 41%, 23% and 23% of the terrestrial areas in Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia respectively. The analysis of nationally representative household surveys shows that the key drivers of SLM in these countries are biophysical, demographic, regional and socio-economic determinants. Secure land tenure, access to extension services and market access are some of the determinants incentivizing SLM adoption. The implications of this study are that policies and strategies that facilities secure land tenure and access to SLM information are likely to incentivize investments in SLM. Local institutions providing credit services, inputs such as seed and fertilizers, and extension services must also not be ignored in the development policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0408.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: surface albedo; remote sensing; geostationary satellites; climate data records; essential climate variables; near real-time; operational processing; climate; land surface modeling
Online: 26 June 2018 (10:31:10 CEST)
Land surface albedo determines the splitting of downwelling solar radiation into components which are either reflected back to the atmosphere or absorbed by the surface. Land surface albedo is an important variable for the climate community and therefore was defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV). Within the scope of the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis (LSA SAF) of EUMETSAT, a near-real time (NRT) daily albedo product was developed in the last decade from observations provided by the SEVIRI instrument on board the geostationary satellites of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series. In this study we present a new collection of albedo satellite products based on the same satellite data. The MSG Ten-day ALbedo (MTAL) product incorporates MSG observations over 31 days with a frequency of NRT production of 10 days. The MTAL collection is more dedicated to climate analysis studies compared to the daily albedo that was initially designed for the weather prediction community. For this reason, a homogeneous reprocessing of MTAL was done in 2018 to generate a Climate Data Record (CDR). The resulting product is called MTAL-R and has been made available to the community in addition to the NRT version of the MTAL product which has been available for several years. The retrieval algorithm behind the MTAL products comprises three distinct modules: one for atmospheric correction, one for daily inversion of a semi-empirical model of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function, and one for monthly composition that also determines surface albedo values. In this study the MTAL-R CDR is compared to ground surface measurements and concomitant albedo products collected by sensors on-board polar-orbiting satellites (SPOT-VGT and MODIS). We show that MTAL-R meets the quality requirements if MODIS or SPOT-VGT are considered as reference. This work leads to 14 years of production of geostationary land surface albedo products with a guaranteed continuity in the LSA SAF for the future years with the forthcoming third generation of European geostationary satellites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; land conflicts; land tenure security; Uganda
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:03:11 CEST)
Land tenure security is important for achieving a number Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of this paper was to investigate variation in land tenure security across three districts located in different geographical regions of Uganda. Using a quantitative cross-sectional survey data collected in early 2019. The findings show that Kanungu district found in South-Western Uganda had significantly higher levels of land tenure security as compared to Nakasongola (Central) and Nwoya (Northern). Research findings have implications on further study and benchmarking land governance systems in Kanungu. Furthermore, they have implications on implementation of government and donor land titling or registration programs in terms of priority areas. They further sheds light on the importance of accounting for geographical context in land tenure studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0225.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Ethiopia; Geographic Information Systems; Land Use Land Cover; Remote Sensing
Online: 11 May 2021 (09:27:29 CEST)
Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes analysis is one of the most useful methodologies to understand how the land was used in the past years, what types of detections are to be expected in the future, as well as the driving forces and processes behind these changes. In Ethiopia, the rapidly changing of LULC is mainly due to population pressure, resettlement programs, climate change, and other human and nature-induced driving forces. Anthropogenic activities are the most significant factors adversely changing the natural status of the landscape and resources, which exerts unfavourable and adverse impacts on the environment and livelihood. The main goal of the present work is to review previous studies, discussing the spatio-temporal LULC changes in Ethiopian basins, to find out common points and gaps that exist in the current literature, to be eventually addressed in the future. Seventeen articles, published from 2011 to 2020, were selected and reviewed, focusing on LULC classification using ArcGIS and ERDAS imagine software by unsupervised and maximum likelihood supervised classification methods. Key informant interview (KII), focal group discussions (FGDs) and collection of ground truth data using ground positioning systems (GPS) for data validation were the major approaches discussed in most of the studies. All the analysed research showed that, during the last decades, Ethiopian lands changed to agricultural land use, waterbody, commercial farmland and built-up/settlement. Some parts of forest land, grazing land, swamp/wetland, shrubland, rangeland and bare/ rock out cropland cover class were changed to other LULC class types, mainly as a consequence of increasing anthropogenic pressure. In summary, these articles confirmed that LULC changes are a direct result of both natural and human influences. However, most of the study provided details of LULC for the past decades within a specific spatial location, while they did not address the challenge of forecasting future LULC changes at the basin scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Land price index; Land slope; Slope discount; Decomposition; Builder’s model
Online: 5 February 2021 (09:24:11 CET)
This paper focuses on the physical attributes of land that intrinsically limit land use and possibly affect land values. In particular, we investigate if the slope of a land does decrease its price and investigate the role of land slope in forming more reliable constant-quality land price indices and aggregate house price indices. We find that, while land slopes do decrease the land price per unit, they have a small effect on the quality-adjusted land price indices in selected neighborhoods in Auckland, New Zealand, where sloped terrain is common.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0344.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Landsat8; multi-temporal; crops statistics; land use land cover; Pakistan
Online: 21 August 2018 (12:25:17 CEST)
Developing countries like Pakistan is among those where lack of adoption to science and technology advancement is a major constraint for Satellite Remote Sensing use in crops and land use land cover digital information generation. Exponential rise in country population, increased food demand, limiting natural resources coupled with migration of rural community to urban areas had further led to skewed official statistics. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the possible use of freely available satellite data like Landsat8 under complex cropping system of Okara district of Punjab, Pakistan. An Integrated approach has been developed for the satellite data based crops and land use/cover spatial area estimation. The resultant quality was found above 96% with Kappa statistics of 0.95. Land utilization statistics provided detail information about cropping patterns as well as land use land cover status. Rice was recorded as most dominating crop in term of cultivation area of around 0.165 million ha followed by autumn maize 0.074 million ha, Fallow crop fields 0.067 million ha and Sorghum 0.047 million ha. Other minor crops observed were potato, fodder and cotton being cultivated on less than 0.010 million ha. Population settlements were observed over an area of around 0.081 million ha of land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0232.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cadastre; land registry; notary; cartography; geomatic; coordination; GML; land surveyors
Online: 28 March 2018 (04:45:38 CEST)
Ever since the Cadastre and Land Registry have existed in Spain, they have been completely separate organisations with very different objectives, which influence the real-estate reality. Their coordination is essential to better identify buildings and to more suitably render services to citizens and Administrations. To this end, Law 13/2015 was passed in 2015 for this desirable and pressing Cadastre-Land Registry coordination to come about. This law came into force on 1 November 2015, and coincided with the development of the technical aspects of the graphical information exchange among the Cadastre, Land Registries and Notaries. Several ministries and different organisations, like the Cadastre personnel, jurists, technicians, and even citizens, are implied in this law. Among the technical aspects, georeferenced graphical representations and GML exchange files adapted to the European INSPIRE directives stand out. Such technical aspects are a genuine revolution as they were transferred to the legal world. After more than 2 years after its application, it is still in its initial and adaptation stages because it is a long-standing law that allows land registry units-cadastral parcels to be coordinated while they are incorporated into real-estate trade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1263.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Deforestation; Forest Fires; Central Kalimantan; Land Use and Land Cover Change
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:32:11 CEST)
Deforestation brings vast and detrimental impact on the environment, economy, and social aspects of community. Thus, it is important to assess and analyze deforestation to inform the decision maker that oversees issued policy and development strategies. The present study aims to characterize deforestation in Central Kalimantan between 2006 - 2020. Utilized land cover map issued by Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry, we analyzed the change in natural forest cover using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) to find the rate the trend, location, and land cover replacement of deforestation in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The research found that during the period Central Kalimantan lost 1.5 million ha of natural forest with the rate of deforestation 117,000 ha/year. In general, the deforestation shown decrease trend and fluctuated during the period. Deforestation majority takes place at secondary swamp and dry forest that are located at south part of the island. Most of deforestation resulted shrubs, plantations, and agriculture land. The finding of this research could be used as a base to determine the target location for rehabilitation strategy and approach to prevent further deforestation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban development; land use/ land cover; Soviet Union; major cities; Afghanistan
Online: 9 August 2021 (10:00:02 CEST)
The rapid increase in population along with the economic activities led to rapid depletion of natural resources. Land use studies help us analyze the impacts of urban development on environment. Given the political upheavals in Afghanistan, this study aims to analyze how urban development evolved from 1978 to 2018 in six major cities- Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Herat, Mazar-e Sharif and Jalalabad- in Afghanistan using Landsat Satellite Images. This study is based on quantitative approach. ArcGIS 9.4 software was used to synchronize the Landsat Satellite Images within the area of study. The results of the study show that the Annual rate of urban land expansion in Afghanistan was the lowest (average 1.07 square kilometers per year) during the military presence of Soviet Union in Afghanistan while it was the highest (3.35 square kilometers per year) from 2001 to 2018 due to the military presence of US-led NATO forces, relative security and rapid economic activities in Afghanistan. The authors believe that this study could be further explored if other inter-connected factors, e.g., the role of culture, literacy, immigration etc., are incorporated into the study of urban development processes in Afghanistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0775.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Land Degradation; Land Productivity Dynamics; Vegetation Cover Change; Soil Organic Carbon
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:29:58 CEST)
Land degradation a serious and nationwide environmental concern in Ethiopia. The problem is its iterative relationship between land degradation, climate change, and agriculture, exacerbating one another via negative and positive feedback loops. Due to the need for an efficient response to land degradation in the country, different sustainable land management practices have been implemented since the late 1980s. The objective of this study was to analyze land degradation neutrality status using remote sensing data in the study area. We have studied the land degradation neutrality conditions of the North Wello Zone by using indicators data, namely land cover change, land productivity dynamics, and soil organic carbon stock. The result shows that the settlement areas consistently expanded at the fifth speed (2010-2018) from 1995 to 2010. Between 1995 and 2010, forestland declined by 18 percent, while an increasing trend of 26.8 percent from 2010 to 2018. The assessment results also indicate that 52.8 percent of the total area is stable and characterized by less stressed land productivity. The soil organic carbon is comparatively abundant in the high and midland vegetation areas but very thin in lowland areas. Most of the highland and midland parts of the study areas are in the conditions of stable and increasing land productivity with high biomass and soil organic content. However, most lowland areas showed a decline in land productivity conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Change detection; NDVI; Landsat; Land cover land use change; Urban environment
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:44:21 CET)
Urban cities are the major drivers of economic growth and development. Economic growth and development however results in considerable land cover land use dynamics. This study assessed the dynamics in land cover land use that have occurred in New Braunfels, Texas in the last 7 years (2013 - 2020) to observe areas in the city that had experienced considerable shifts in land cover and land use. A 30-meter resolution Landsat images were used to examine possible changes in land cover land use. New Braunfels was observed to have experienced significant changes in land use especially in developed areas. This change can be attributed to the influx of people into the city, contributing to the need for increased urban development. Analysis of this study shows that about 16% (about 553 hectares) of forest land cover class and 28% (about 1,139 hectares) of grassland class in time 1 (August 31, 2013) changed to built-up land use class in time 2 (November 5, 2020). A limitation to this study was that of the spatial resolution of images used. Higher spatial resolution images could impact the producers, users, and overall accuracy assessment. Results from this study can aid in supporting better decision-making for sustainable urban development and climate change mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0271.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: geographic information system; land demand; land use; universal soil loss erosion
Online: 12 August 2020 (05:09:55 CEST)
The information on the land use and soil conservation practice based on year 2006, 2010 and 2014, hence offering an opportunity to model the impacts of land use change on erosion, deposition and surface water runoff. Limitation in the use of hydrological models had been their inability to handle the large amount of input data that describe the heterogeneity of the natural system. In this study, a procedure that takes into account soil conservation practice based on the land use change, the response of soil erosion and sediment export from the George Town Conurbation catchment area, and average annual sediment yields were estimated for each grid cell of the watershed to identify the critical erosion areas of rural and urban planning proposes. Average annual sediment yield and data on a grid basis estimated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and an emerging technology represented by Geographic Information System (GIS) used as a tool to produce a map for erosion rate. The changing of the land use from forest to agriculture and then to an urban area is a challenging task to research on land use demand for population, and environmental impact assessment is important for the planning of natural resources management, allowing research the modification of land use properly and implement more sustainable for long term management strategies. The challenge is to formulate strategies that would promote an integrated approach to the land use planning at an appropriate level as to address the issues that arose. Modelling for creating urban growth boundary for the George Town Conurbation must have to be controlled surface runoff and soil loss and sediment export from land use of the George Town Conurbation catchment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0184.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Land deal; Land grab; Oil Palm; Labour; Farmworkers; Plantation; Everyday politics
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:04:36 CET)
This study presents empirical evidence on the nature of the political struggles for inclusion on an oil palm land deal in Ghana. It examines the employment dynamics and the everyday politics of workers on an oil palm plantation in a predominantly migrant and settler society of the north-eastern part of Ghana, where large-scale production has only been introduced within the past decade. It shows that by the nature of labour organization, as well as other structural issues, workers do not benefit equally from the land deals and therefore express everyday forms of resistance against exploitation, and for better terms of incorporation. Particularly, they express agency through absenteeism and non-compliance, which especially, enables them to maintain their basic food sovereignty/security. Nonetheless, these everyday politics is not necessarily liberating in confronting the everyday peasant problems and unfavourable agrarian transitions associated with capitalist agriculture. Overall, this paper contributes to the land grab literature by providing context-specific dynamics of impacts and politics and how are they are shaped by a multiplicity of factors- beyond class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia, Landsat images, Lake, land use/land cover
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:49:16 CET)
LULC changes are major environmental challenges in many parts of the world which are adversely affecting ecosystem services. This study was aimed to analyze LULC changes in the ecological landscape of Ethiopia CRV areas from 1985 to 2015. Satellite images were accessed and pre-processing and classification is done. Major LULC types were detected and change analysis was executed. Nine LULC changes were successfully evaluated. The classification result revealed that in 1985, 44.34% of the land was covered with small scale farming followed by mixed cultivated/acacia (21.89%), open woodland (11.96%), and water bodies (9.77%). Whereas for the same study year open grazing land, forest, degraded savannah and settlements accounted the smallest proportion. Though the area varied among land use classes, the trend of share occupied by the LULC types in the study area remained the same in 1995 and 2015. Increase in small and large scale farming, settlements and mixed cultivation/acacia while a decrease in water bodies, forest, and open woodlands is noted. About 86.11% of the land showed major changes in land use/cover. Lastly, DPSIR framework analysis was done and integrated land use and development planning and policy reform are suggested for sustainable land use planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1751.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Lightning; Land Cover and Land Use; Topographic Effects, Itacaiúnas River Hydrographic Basin
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:52:52 CET)
Keywords: Lightning; Land Cover and Land Use; Topographic Effects, Itacaiúnas River Hydrographic Basin
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Contractual choices; Land transfer; Expectations; Trust; Probit model; Market-oriented land reform
Online: 29 June 2023 (09:54:32 CEST)
This study investigates the influence of expectations and trust on farmers' decisions regarding contractual choices in land transfer. The dataset used for analysis consists of 1101 households in Guizhou Province. The research focuses on two aspects: the selection between written and oral contracts, and the decision to continue the contractual relationship. The findings reveal that farmers' choices are significantly affected by their expectations and levels of trust.Specifically, when farmers' expectations regarding the land transfer process are not met, they tend to prefer written contracts over oral ones. This preference can be attributed to the greater clarity and risk reduction offered by written contracts. On the other hand, higher levels of trust increase the likelihood of farmers continuing the land transfer contract, as trust fosters a sense of confidence and security in the ongoing relationship.Interestingly, trust also plays a moderating role. Farmers who have aligned expectations and high levels of trust are more inclined to opt for oral contracts. This preference for oral contracts can be attributed to their flexibility and emphasis on interpersonal relationships, allowing for better adaptation to the changing dynamics of land transfer.These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the factors influencing farmers' decision-making processes regarding contractual choices in land transfer. They provide valuable insights for policymakers involved in land transfer, enabling them to optimize policies and facilitate farmers' decision-making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0456.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Rural land right; farmers’ income; farm income; non-farm income; land transfer
Online: 26 August 2022 (09:44:58 CEST)
Based on data from the Yunnan Province farm household survey, we examine the effect of rural land rights policy on farmers’ income. The regression results show that right significantly raises the total income of farmers, with farm income serving as the primary source of total income. After performing numerous robustness tests, using instrumental variables to handle endogeneity and arriving at the same conclusion, the result is still valid. According to the heterogeneity analysis, in the sample of households with long-term migrant workers, the confirmation of rural land rights significantly increases total and nonfarm income while decreasing farm income. Furthermore, total income includes nonfarm income, which reflects the effect of different farmers' optimal labor allocation based on the external market environment. According to the impact mechanism anal-ysis, right can increase farmers' total income by promoting land transfer, and farmers in less developed areas are more willing to increase their income by land transfer out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0110.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate change; Land cover; Land use; Conversion; Sand dunes; Environment; Degradation; Poverty.
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:26:22 CET)
In Nigeria, desertification has become one of the most pronounced ecological disasters, with the impacts mostly affecting eleven frontline States. This has been attributed to a range of both nat-ural and man-made factors. This study applied a remote sensing-based change detection and indicator analysis to explore land use/land cover changes and detect major conversions from ecologically active land covers to sand dunes. Results indicate that areas covered by sand dunes (a major indicator of desertification) have doubled over the 25 years under consideration (1990 to 2015). Although about 0.71 km2 of dunes have been converted to vegetation, indicative of the success of various international, national, local, and individual afforestation efforts, conversely about 10.1 km2 of vegetation were converted to sand dunes, implying around 14 times more de-forestation compared to afforestation. Juxtaposing the progression of sand dune with climate records of the study area and examining the relationship between indicators of climate change and desertification suggested a mismatch between both processes as increasing rainfall and lower temperatures observed in 1994, 2005, 2012, and 2014 did not translated into positive feedbacks for desertification in the study area. On average, our results reveal that sand dune is progressing at a mean annual rate of about 15.2 km2 in the study area. Based on this study’s land cover change, trend and conversion assessment, visual reconciliation of climate records with land cover data, statistical analysis, observations from ground-truthing, as well as previous literature, it can be inferred that desertification in Nigeria is less a function of climate change, but more a product of human activities driven by poverty, population growth and failed government policies. Further projections by this study also reveal a high probability of more farmlands being converted to sand dunes by the year 2030 and 2045 if current practices prevail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0630.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Africa; Ethiopia; Landsat; Land Use Land Cover Change; Remote Sensing; SWAT model
Online: 28 July 2021 (12:20:13 CEST)
Land use land cover (LULC) changes are highly pronounced in African countries, as they are characterized by an agriculture-based economy and a rapidly growing population. Understanding how land use/cover change (LULCC) influence watershed hydrology will enable local governments and policymakers to formulate and implement effective and appropriate response strategies to minimize the undesirable effects of future land use/cover change or modification and sustain the local socio-economic situation. The hydrological response of the Ethiopia Fincha’a watershed to LULCC happened during the last 30 years was investigated comparing the situation in three reference years: 1994, 2004 and 2018. The information was derived from Landsat sensors, respectively Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS. The various LULC classes were derived via ArcGIS using a supervised classification system, and the accuracy assessment was done using confusion matrixes. For all the years investigated the overall accuracies and the kappa coefficients were higher than 80%, with 2018 as the more accurate year. The analysis of LULCC revealed that forest decreased by 19.99% between the years 1994-2004, and it decreased by 11.85% in the following period 2004-2018. Such decline in areas covered by forest is correlated to an expansion of cultivated land by 16.4% and 10.81%, respectively. After having evaluated the LULCC at the basin scale, the watershed was divided into 18 sub-watersheds, which contained 176 Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), having a specific LULC. Accounting for such a detailed subdivision of the Fincha’a watershed, the SWAT model was firstly calibrated and validated on past data, and then applied to infer information on the hydrological response of each HRU on LULCC. The modelling results pointed out a general increase of average water flow, both during dry and wet periods, as a consequence of a shift of land coverage from forest and grass towards settlements and build-up areas. The present analysis pointed out the need of accounting for past and future LULCC in modelling the hydrological responses of rivers at the watershed scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: land engineering; development stage; discipline uniqueness; theory system; subject matter; land science
Online: 14 September 2019 (12:14:38 CEST)
Land engineering is a specific new academic discipline in China. Although the undergraduate major of land engineering was officially approved and established lately since 2017, the birth of land engineering as an academic discipline dates back 40 years ago. It has passed through four development stages: the incubation stage in 1978-1985, the initial stage in 1986-1997, the growth stage in 1998-2011, and the expanding stage from 2012 to present. However, land engineering as an academic discipline remains immature and seriously lags behind practice. There are still no unified academic community and broad academic consensus. After a historical overview of the four development stages, this study gave a strategic consideration to five key questions. We argue that the study object of the discipline is land engineering activity, which is defined as the artificial transformation of a land complex combined by various natural and human elements. The uniqueness of the discipline is rooted in its ability to study the comprehensive and integrated reorganization or rebuilding of various elements of land as a complex, with the theory of land complex reconstruction being the core theory. The discipline of land engineering is based on land pure science and land technology, and is one basis of land management. It consists of two modules (rural land engineering and urban land engineering), five secondary disciplines of each module (land development, land rearrangement, land improvement, land protection, and land remediation), and more than 30 research directions. Various technologies are only instrumental but not essential components of land engineering as an academic discipline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0610.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land price map; land use development; GIS; spatio-temporal changes; sustainability; Olomouc
Online: 25 October 2018 (14:23:11 CEST)
Land price sustainability issues have been addressed by many authors in the past. Most of these researchers used land prices (from land price maps) as the primary data source in their studies. Only a few papers analysed official land price maps, which are available very rarely. For this reason, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of land prices in the city of Olomouc based on an analysis of official land price maps from 1993 to 2017. We proposed several research hypotheses to confirm some general statements about land price development. We concluded that some macroeconomic indicators had a significant impact on changes in land prices. In the residential and commercial areas and historical centre, land prices are significantly higher than in other monitored aspects (land-use types). We also concluded that no link existed between land-use stability and land price stability. Surprisingly, no long-term stable areas were found in the area of interest. The analysis also confirmed that land price and its change over time varied in different spatial aspects. Surprisingly, the smallest influence was reflected in the economic aspect. Regarding natural events in recent decades, we observed a significant drop in land prices in the vicinity of watercourses threatened by flooding. These findings can assist in better understanding local development and changes in land price.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: land use/land cover; remote sensing and GIS; water allocation; water resource management
Online: 7 November 2023 (16:22:20 CET)
Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and human settlement areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. In sub-Saharan Africa, policies are implemented without critical consideration e.g., agricultural expansions impair ecosystem services of the several river basins. The current study has studied landuse/cover and associated rate of change for four-time epochs i.e., 1991, 2001, 2011 and 2021. This employed remote sensing and GIS techniques for LULC analysis while future projection was modelled using cellular automata and Markov chain. The Kappa coefficient statistics were used to assess the accuracy of final classified image while reference images for accuracy assessment were developed based on ground truthing. Overall change results between 1991 and 2021, showed that major percentage loss in area were experienced by water, forest, woodland and wetland which decreased by 8,222Ha (44.11%), 426,161Ha (35.72%), 399,584Ha (35.01%) and 105,186Ha (34.82%). On the other hand, percentage increase in area during the same period were experienced in cultivated land, built up areas and grasslands which increased by 659,346Ha (205.28%), 11,894Ha (159.93%) and 33,547Ha (98.47%). However, even with the expanding thirsty sectors water discharged out of the catchment is on increment at a rate of 498.6 m3/s/year. For dualistic benefits, agroforest practices are recommended along with participatory law enforcement and capacity building of local communities through their institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0901.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land-use and land cover-change; monitoring ecosystem dynamics; remote sensing; Mangrove forests
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:47:29 CEST)
Detecting abrupt transitions in ecosystems, known as regime shifts, holds immense implications for conservation and management endeavors. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of developing an early warning system capable of identifying an upcoming critical transition within Mangrove Forest ecosystems. Employing a fusion of remote sensing analysis, time series analysis, and the critical slowing down theory, Mangrove Forests' state change was explored across two distinct study sites. One site has been adversely affected by disturbances stemming from land use and land cover changes, while the other serves as an unaffected reference ecosystem. The study uses data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite, quantifying three remotely sensed indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), and the Modified Vegetation Water Ratio (MVWR). Furthermore, temporal alterations in land-use and land cover are scrutinized using Landsat data from 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2014. To identify early warning signals of critical transitions, indicators such as autocorrelation, skewness, and standard deviation are applied. The results show the robust capabilities of remote sensing in generating early warning signals of critical transition in Mangrove Forests. NDVI outperformed MVWR and MNDWI as ecosystem state indicators. This study not only highlights the potential of remote in identifying the approaching regime shifts in Mangrove Forest ecosystems but also adds knowledge on ecosystem dynamics. This is the first report of the successful application of remote sensing in generating early warning signals for imminent critical transitions within Mangrove forests in the Middle East.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1670.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Flood detection; Satellite imagery; drainage; urban land use plan; land cover; slope; elevation
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:38:47 CEST)
In several Indonesian tropical cities, such as Makassar City, frequent flooding during the peak rainy season poses a significant challenge. This study seeks to address this issue by devising effective policies to reduce flood exposure. The main obstacle lies in accurately determining the flood inundation area. To overcome this, the study utilizes multiple satellite data sources on a cloud platform, integrating them with land use data, and DEM data, aligning these with the local government's urban land use plan and existing drainage networks. The research aims to quantify the affected area, identify the predominant inundated land cover, and assess the efficiency of Makassar's drainage system and urban land use plan. The study reveals that an uncoordinated drainage system in the Tamalanrea, Biringkanaya, and Mangala sub-districts results in severe flooding, encompassing a total area of 35.28 km². The most affected land use type is cultivation, constituting approximately 43.5% of the flooded area. Furthermore, 82.26% of the urban land use plan, covering 29.02 km², is submerged. It is imperative for the local government and stakeholders to prioritize the enhancement of drainage systems and urban land use plans, particularly in low-lying and densely populated regions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2000.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: spatial pattern; land use/land cover dynamic change; transition; remote sensing; driving factors
Online: 30 August 2023 (03:33:59 CEST)
Land use and land cover (LULC) datasets for Jinan in 1992, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2011, 2017, and 2022 were developed from Landsat images using the Random Forest (RF) classification approach. The relationships between social-economic, political factors and time-series LULC data were exam-ined for the periods between 1992 and 2022. The results showed the effectiveness of using the RF classification method for LULC classification with time series of Landsat images. Combined with driving forces analysis, our research can effectively explain the detailed LULC change tra-jectories corresponding to different stages and give new insights into Jinan LULC change pat-terns. The results show a significant increase in impervious surface which opposite change to bare land which experienced a huge decline declined by 95%, due to urbanization and rapid in-crease of population. The driving forces behind these changes are related to population growth, economic development, and climate change. Moreover, the present research employed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) methodology in order to understand the relative significance of disparate driving factors. The analysis results prove that the economy (population, GDP) and climate change were the primary factors that have an obvious impact on land use/land cover changes and that the driving factors for impervious surface, bare land, woodland, farmland, and water were distinct. Government policies also have a substantial impact on LULC change as well, such as the Construction of Harmonious Jinan (COHJ). The results were helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of LULC change and can provide useful knowledge for effective land resource management and planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1043.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Image classification; Land use/land cover mapping; Accuracy assessment; Landsat-8; Snetinel-2
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:01:24 CEST)
Satellite-based data classification performance remains a challenge for research community in the field of land use/land cover mapping. Here we investigated supervised per-pixel classifications performance under different scenarios, based on single and seasonal multispectral data combi-nations of different sensors (Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI). In case of Landsat, seasonal spectral indices (EVI and NDMI) were included. A typical Mediterranean watershed with a complex landscape comprised of various forest and wetland ecosystems, crops, artificial surfaces, and lake water was selected to test our approach. All available geospatial data from national databases (Forest Map, LPIS, Natura2000 habitats, cadastral parcels, etc.) are used as ancillary data for clas-sification training and validation. We examined and compared the performance of ML, RF, KNN and SVM classifiers under different scenarios for land use/land cover mapping, according to Copernicus Land Cover (CLC2018) nomenclature. In total, eight land use/land cover classes were identified in Landsat-8 OLI and nine in Sentinel-2a MSI for an acceptable overall accuracy over 85%. A comparison of the overall classification accuracies shows that Sentinel-2a overall accuracy was slightly higher than Landsat-8 (96.68% vs. 93.02%). Respectively, the best-performed algorithm was ML in Sentinel-2 while in Landsat-8 was KNN. However, machine-learning algorithms have similar results regardless the type of sensor. We concluded that best classification performances achieved using seasonal multispectral data. Future research should be oriented towards inte-grating time-series multispectral data of different sensors and geospatial ancillary data for land use/land cover mapping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0526.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Social survey; Mago National Park; Landsat; GIS; Remote sensing; land use land cover
Online: 30 March 2023 (10:38:58 CEST)
Land use land cover change analysis is one of the most particular techniques to understand how land was used in the past, what types of changes are to be expected in the future, as well as the forces and processes behind the changes. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the land use land cover changes and its driving forces in Mago National Park, southern Ethiopia. Satellite image of Landsat5 TM (1988, 1998 and 2008) and Landsat8 OLI/TIRS (2018) with a time span of 30 years were employed. In addition, field observation, and social survey were conducted to study the drivers of land use land cover changes. QGIS 3.2 and SPSS (for social data analysis) software’s’ were used for satellite image processing, accuracy assessment, map preparation and descriptively analyze the driving forces of LULCC respectively. Supervised classification with maximum likelihood algorithm was conducted for satellite image analysis and generation of information using Quantum GIS 3.2 Post classification change detection method was applied to quantify the land use/land cover change. The result of the study indicated riverine forest, woodland, grassland, water body, degraded land and bare land as a major land use land cover class in the park. The result of land use land cover classification showed that in 1988 most of the study area was covered by woodland and grass land. In the first period (1988-1998), woodland, riverine forest, water body and bare land decreased by 6.76%, 37.98%, 22.37% and 70.14% respectively, while grass land, and degraded land increased by 16.11% and 85.67% respectively. In the second period, (1998 -2008), woodland, riverine forest and degraded land were decreased by 5.44%, 4.61%, and 80.74% respectively, while grass land, water body and bare land is increased by 14.74%, 3.76% and 52.58% respectively. From 2008-2018 riverine forest, grassland, water body and bare land decreased by 1.33%, 15.16% and 4.82% and 25.02% respectively, while woodland increased by 11.84%, and degraded land increased by 85.49% respectively. Riverine forest, water body, grass land and bare land showed decrement and that of woodland, degraded land indicated increment during study period. From 1988-2018, woodland, riverine forest, water body and bare land indicated decrement and the remaining grass land and bare land cover types indicated increment during study period. The result of social survey indicated that expansion of agriculture, human induced fire, overgrazing and hunting are proximate driving forces of the change in Mago National Park. Population pressure from a different area, poverty, decreased farmlands productivity; education, weak law enforcement and cultural factors are the major underlying causes of the observed changes. Therefore, proper land use planning, legal support, and strong law enforcement are the key recommendations to sustain natural resources of the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0493.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Devolution; land cover change; semi-arod; food security; arable land; coservation; environment services
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:43:40 CET)
This study focuses on land cover and land management changes in relation to food security and environmental services in a semi-arid area of East Nusa Tenggara (ENT) – Indonesia. The study was conducted in Central Sumba District of ENT Province. Classification and regression tree (CART) for land cover classification has been analyzed using machine learning techniques using Google Earth Engine. A survey with Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and followed with in-depth interviews were conducted for primary data collection involving a total of 871 respondents. The Socio-economic data analyzed statistics descriptively and non-parametric tests. The study showed that: 1). There has been a substantial land use change during the devo-lution era that has both positive and negative implications for food security and envi-ronmental services. 2). There has been population pressure in the fertile or agricultur-al land as the direct impact of the development of city infrastructures; and 3). Nation-al intervention through the Food Estate program has fostered and shaped land use change and land management in Central Sumba District. The study highlights the importance that the devolution spirit should help to well manage the limited ara-ble/agricultural land in dominated semi-arid to ensure food security and environment services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0226.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Biodiversity loss; driving forces; Global Biodiversity Framework; hemeroby; Land Use Intensity index LUI
Online: 23 March 2023 (13:05:35 CET)
Biodiversity loss has been identified as one of the environmental impacts where humankind has been tres-passing planetary boundaries most significantly. Going beyond the pressures causing damages (calling them ‘direct drivers’) and analysing their underlying driving forces, IPBES, the Intergovernmental Sci-ence-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, also identified a series of indirect drivers. The Montreal-Kunming Global Biodiversity Framework GBF including its suggested monitoring approach is intended to and claims to be a policy response to such analyses. However, to assess the human impact on ecosystems as a basis for planning conservation and restoration, as foreseen in the GBF, monitoring ecosystem typologies (in the GBF with reference to the UN statistical standard SEEA ES, which in turn refers to the IUCN ecosystem classification) is not enough. It needs to be complemented with data on the severity of human impacts, and on the history of places, i.e. how and when the current ecosystem status was brought about. In this conceptual paper we suggest LUI, a deliberately simple ordinal scale index for land use intensity changes, to address these two gaps. It is based on the hemeroby concept, measuring the human impact as deviation from naturalness. This makes it an information collection and presentation tool for those working in landscape planning and management. LUI’s simple and intuitively understandable structure makes it suitable for citizens’ science applications, and thus for participative monitoring when extensive statistical data gathering is not feasible, and past data are not available. Of course is can also be used as a simple too for communicating when detailed statistical data series are available. While the aggregate index is expected to communicate well, its components are more relevant to motivate and help policy makers to prioritise their decisions according to the severity of recent anthropogenic ecosystem disturabances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0574.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover; land use; citizen science; mobile apps; in-situ data collection; LUCAS
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:26:29 CEST)
There are many new land use and land cover (LULC) products emerging yet there is still a lack of in-situ data for training, validation, and change detection purposes. The LUCAS (Land Use Cover Area frame Sample) survey is one of the few authoritative in-situ field campaigns, which takes place every three years in European Union member countries. More recently, a study has considered whether citizen science and crowdsourcing could complement LUCAS survey data, e.g., through the FotoQuest Austria mobile app and crowdsourcing campaign. Although the data obtained from the campaign were promising when compared with authoritative LUCAS survey data, there were classes that were not well classified by the citizens, and the photographs submitted through the app were not always of sufficient quality. For this reason, in the latest FotoQuest Go Europe 2018 campaign, several improvements were made to the app to facilitate interaction with the citizens contributing and to improve their accuracy in LULC identification. In addition to extending the locations from Austria to Europe, a change detection component (comparing land cover in 2018 to the 2015 LUCAS photographs) was added, as well as an improved LC decision tree and a near real-time quality assurance system to provide feedback on the distance to the target location, the LULC classes chosen and the quality of the photographs. Another modification was the implementation of a monetary incentive scheme in which users received between 1 to 3 Euros for each successfully completed quest of sufficient quality. The purpose of this paper is to present these new features and to compare the results obtained by the citizens with authoritative LUCAS data from 2018 in terms of LULC and change in LC. We also compared the results between the FotoQuest campaigns in 2015 and 2018 and found a significant improvement in 2018, i.e., a much higher match of LC between FotoQuest Go Europe and LUCAS. Finally, we present the results from a user survey to discuss challenges encountered during the campaign and what further improvements could be made in the future, including better in-app navigation and offline maps, making FotoQuest a model for enabling the collection of large amounts of land cover data at a low cost.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0217.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate; land-atmosphere interaction; clouds; diurnal cycle; snow cover; Prairies; land-use; hydrometeorology
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:13:53 CET)
Analysis of the hourly Canadian Prairie data for the past 60 years has transformed our quantitative understanding of land-atmosphere-cloud coupling. The key reason is that trained observers made hourly estimates of opaque cloud fraction that obscures the sun, moon or stars, following the same protocol for 60 years at all stations. These 24 daily estimates of opaque cloud data are of sufficient quality that they can be calibrated against Baseline Surface Radiation Network data to give the climatology of the daily short-wave, longwave and total cloud forcing (SWCF, LWCF and CF). This key radiative forcing has not been available previously for climate datasets. Net cloud radiative forcing reverses sign from negative in the warm season to positive in the cold season, when reflective snow reduces the negative SWCF below the positive LWCF. This in turn leads to a large climate discontinuity with snow cover, with a systematic cooling of 10°C or more with snow cover. In addition, snow cover transforms the coupling between cloud cover and the diurnal range of temperature. In the warm season, maximum temperature increases with decreasing cloud, while minimum temperature barely changes; while in the cold season with snow cover, maximum temperature decreases with decreasing cloud and minimum temperature decreases even more. In the warm season, the diurnal ranges of temperature, relative humidity, equivalent potential temperature and the pressure height of the lifting condensation level are all tightly coupled to opaque cloud cover. Given over 600 station-years of hourly data, we are able to extract, perhaps for the first time, the coupling between cloud forcing and the warm season imbalance of the diurnal cycle; which changes monotonically from a warming and drying under clear skies to a cooling and moistening under cloudy skies with precipitation. Because we have the daily cloud radiative forci, which is large, we are able to show that the memory of water storage anomalies, from precipitation and the snowpack, goes back many months. The spring climatology shows the memory of snowfall back through the entire winter, and the memory in summer goes back to the months of snowmelt. Lagged precipitation anomalies modify the thermodynamic coupling of the diurnal cycle to the cloud forcing, and shift the diurnal cycle of mixing ratio which has a double peak. The seasonal extraction of the surface total water storage is a large damping of the interannual variability of precipitation anomalies in the growing season. The large land-use change from summer fallow to intensive cropping, which peaked in the early 1990s, has led to a coupled climate response that has cooled and moistened the growing season, lowering cloud-base, increasing equivalent potential temperature, and increasing precipitation. We show a simplified energy balance of the Prairies during the growing season and its dependence on reflective cloud.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0129.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: emissivity; land cover; land surface temperature; surface urban heat island; thermal environment; mitigation
Online: 29 January 2017 (10:38:44 CET)
In urban area, one of the great problem is the rise of temperature, which leads to form the urban heat island effect. This paper refers to the trend of the urban surface temperature extracted from the Landsat images from which to consider changes in the formation of surface urban heat island for the north of Ho Chi Minh city in period 1995-2015. Research has identified land surface temperature from thermal infrared band, according to the ability of the surface emission based on characteristics of normalized difference vegetation index NDVI. The results showed that temperature fluctuated over the city with a growing trend and the gradual expansion of the area of the high-temperature zone towards the suburbs. Within 20 years, the trend of the formation of surface urban heat island with two typical locations showed a clear difference between the surface temperature of urban areas and rural areas with space expansion of heat island in 4 times in 2015 compared to 1995. An extreme heat island located in the inner city has an area of approximately 18% compared to the total area of the region. Since then, the solution to reduce the impact of urban heat island has been proposed, in order to protect the urban environment and the lives of residents in Ho Chi Minh City becoming better
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0396.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Indigenous; toponomy; land tenure; cartography
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:51:47 CEST)
In recent years, many libraries and archives have started digitizing their collections thus making maps by Indigenous peoples more easily available for scholars to study. While a number of these maps were discussed by G. Malcolm Lewis in the History of Cartography series (volume 2, book 3, Chapter 4: 1984), more have since been found and disseminated. These maps are critical in understanding the historic and current land tenure of Indigenous groups. Further, Indigenous claims to land can be seen in their connections via toponymy. European concepts of territory and political boundaries did not coincide with First Nation/American Indian views resulting in the mistaken view that Natives did not have formal concepts of their territories. Further, Tribes/First Nations with cross-border territory have special jurisdictional problems. This paper will illustrate how many Native residents were very spatially cognizant of their own lands, as well as neighboring nations’ lands, overlaps between groups, hunting territories, populations, and trade networks. Currently, the Sinixt First Nation provides a perfect example of how an Aboriginal people are inputting and using a GIS representation of their territory with proper toponymy and use areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0604.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Indonesia, biofuel, land restoration, pongamia
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:20:35 CET)
Indonesia has a large area of degraded land, i.e. 30 million ha, which could potentially be utilized for biofuel plantations. The leguminous tree pongamia (Pongamia pinnata syn. Milettia pinnata) could be utilized to produce biofuel while restoring degraded land. Here, we explore the potential of pongamia as a source of biofuel and for restoring degraded land in Indonesia. Pongamia occurs across Indonesia, in Sumatra, Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. It grows to a height of 15–20 m and can grow in a range of environmental conditions. Its seeds can generate up to 40% crude oil by weight. It can help to restore degraded land and improve soil properties. Pongamia also provides wood, fodder, medicine, fertilizer and biogas. Therefore, as a multipurpose species, pongamia holds great potential to combat Indonesia’s energy crisis and to restore much of the degraded land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0406.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land-use; satellite imagery; agriculture
Online: 30 May 2018 (17:21:00 CEST)
The natural and man-made landscape settings in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Northern Pakistan have significantly changed in the last decade due to increasing demands of urbanized populace, migration, two major natural disasters, and climate change. The aim of this study is to analyze land possession, income and land-use diversification of KPK administered Charsadda district. Field data is collected through a sample survey. Furthermore, freely available Landsat 7 satellite images are used to classify land-use classes (e.g. vegetation, built-up) for two different years (e.g. 2005 and 2017) for cross-verification and comparison. The highest 45% of 80% land-owners occupy land-area between 1-10 hectares. Annually, the highest 57.5% of the total farmers / employed in-habitants of surveyed regions earn more than Rs. 100,000 or ~ $ 970 from agriculture activities. About 41.9% land-area covered by agricultural-land is transformed into built-up area since 2007, which is attributed to the increasing demand for buildings and commercial markets. The highest diversification is reported in Naguman area of Charsadda district followed by Rajjar and Niami. Population growth and huge migration of displaced persons from neighboring tribal areas are likely to be few factors which contributed to such a drastic change in land-use pattern since 2007 to 2017. Urgent attention of the policy makers, agricultural experts and society is required to minimize land degradation and to thwart further agricultural-land loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0383.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land-use; satellite imagery; agriculture
Online: 28 May 2018 (05:20:28 CEST)
The natural and man-made landscape settings in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Northern Pakistan have significantly changed in the last decade due to increasing demands of urbanized populace, migration, two major natural disasters, and climate change. The aim of this study is to analyze land possession, income and land-use diversification of KPK administered Charsadda district. Field data is collected through a sample survey. Furthermore, freely available Landsat 7 satellite images are used to classify land-use classes (e.g., vegetation, built-up) for two different years (e.g., 2005 and 2017) for cross-verification and comparison. The highest 45% of 80% land-owners occupy land-area between 1–10 hectares. Annually, the highest 57.5% of the total farmers / employed in-habitants of surveyed regions earn more than Rs. 100,000 or ~$970 from agriculture activities. About 41.9% land-area covered by agricultural-land is transformed into built-up area since 2007, which is attributed to the increasing demand for buildings and commercial markets. The highest diversification is reported in Naguman area of Charsadda district followed by Rajjar and Niami. Population growth and huge migration of displaced persons from neighboring tribal areas are likely to be few factors which contributed to such a drastic change in land-use pattern since 2007 to 2017. Urgent attention of the policy makers, agricultural experts and society is required to minimize land degradation and to thwart further agricultural-land loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1914.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: multi-objective optimization; land-use; land-use allocation; saltwater intrusion; Mekong Delta; Soc Trang
Online: 30 November 2023 (07:29:37 CET)
Land-use planning plays an important role in agricultural development, however it lacks tools to support planner in proposing land-use planning solutions especially, under saltwater intrusion condition in the coastal regions. This study aims to apply optimization in analyzing land-use solutions for agricultural land-use planning. In which a multi-objective optimization model is developed to optimize land-use area including land-use allocation taking into account socio-economic and environmental factors. The model has been applied in three districts of Soc Trang province, Vietnam (Long Phu, My Xuyen and Tran De) representing three ecological regions including salt water, brackish water and freshwater in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The results showed that two multi-objective optimization scenarios (in terms of profit, labor, environment benefits and risk reduction) have been implemented: (i) Multi-objective optimization of agricultural land-use until 2030 under normal conditions; (ii) Optimizing agricultural land-use until 2030 under climate change conditions similar to the 2016 drought and saltwater intrusion phenomenon in the Mekong Delta. The results showed that the second scenario is the option considered for implementing land-use plan thanks to the balance between good profits and minimizing economic and environmental risk. The land allocation was carried out taking into account household economic, the influence of adjacent production types, local traffic and canal systems factors to allocate optimal land-use areas. The combination of land-use optimization and spatial allocation process can help planners improve the quality of agricultural land-use planning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1608.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: literature path; land use optimization methods; land use allocation theories and concepts; bibliometric method
Online: 25 September 2023 (05:47:19 CEST)
Land-use planning review seems relatively lower in publication rate and in coverage of content. This review contributes its part in two dimensions. First, it assesses ability of the popularly growing bibliometric method in tracking the real contribution of publications. Then it summarizes developments in the land use planning literature in three themes - general literature path building, land use planning context, and development of methods. It is observed that bibliometric method rewards information carriage paper more than the original contributors. Key planning context gaps include detachment of the general goal-oriented objective formulations from the basic land use allocation theories and models and certain urban land use optimization objectives even contradict the original though of sustainable city. Key research frontiers include: linking basic land use allocation and utility theories in urban land use planning; shifting the current urban land use planning from spatial optimization to activities into optimizing flow resources to available spatial configurations; evaluating existing built environment for optimality; transferring knowledge from rural land-use planning to urban land use planning. In method development, the key frontier would be advancing the current loosely coupled methods into more integrated systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0424.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land use; greening; land-surface thermal properties; residential environments; central coast region of China
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:47:16 CEST)
The central coast is one of the importantly livable regions in China, and green land plays a meaningful role in improving human settlements through regulating ecosystem services. However, the research on spatiotemporal heterogeneity of green land in different urbanized areas are still lacking in this region, which limits the timeliness of reporting on the land-surface thermal properties of residential environment from green land perspective. To address this issue, the synergistic methodology of “artificial numerical technology -- urban interior mixed pixel classification -- surface radiation energy balance model” was applied to investigate the green land change and its impact on human settlements in Rizhao region, which is known for its coastal ecology and greenery in China and obtained the United Nations habitat award. Main conclusions of this study are below: (1) Although total green land decreased by 474.05 km2, resulting in a decrease of 9.17% in its share of the entire study area from 2000-2022 during the urbanization process, but the greening levels improved within the built-up area, with the greening proportion of 25.34% in 2000 and 42.98 km2 in 2022. (2) Differences in green land at different urbanized regions were first observed, namely, urban greening rate was 37.78% in the old urban areas of 2022, while it was up to 46.43% in new urban areas. More attention was paid to the construction of urban green space during urban expansion, which will inevitably bring better visual and comfort experience to residents. (3) Thermal comfort indicators for urban residents were evaluated in latent heat flux (0-457.83 W/m2), sensible heat flux (0-645.09 W/m2), total available energy (254.07-659.42 W/m2) and others. (4) The lowered cooling temperature effect in the middle, high green land density region was 1.05 ℃ and 2.12 ℃ compared to the low-density region, and the average air temperature was 25.86 ℃. Also, spatial patterns of hot and cold uncomfortable areas were displayed in this study. Overall, this study provides the meaningfully practical reference for exploring the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of green land and its impact on residents' environments from the perspective of land-surface thermal properties in coastal areas of China and around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0381.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Physico-chemical parameters; water quality index; land use land cover; GIS integration; special correlation
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:24:29 CEST)
The water quality of the river is becoming deteriorated due to human interference. It is essential to understand the relationship between human activities and land-use types to assess the water quality of a region. GIS has the latest tool for analyzing the spatial correlation. Land use land cover and change detection is the best illustration to show the human interactions on land features. The study assessed water quality index of upper Ganga River near Haridwar, Uttarakhand and spatially correlated them with changing land use to reach a logical conclusion. At the upper course of Ganga along 78 Km long from Kaudiyala to Bhogpur, water samples were collected from five stations. For water quality index the physicochemical parameters like pH, EC, DO, TDS, CaCO3-, CaCO3, Cl¯, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, F-, Fe2+ were considered. The result of the spatial analysis was evaluated through error estimation and spatial correlation. The root mean square error between spatial land use and water quality index of selected sampling sites was estimated as 0.1443. The spatial correlation between land-use change and site-wise differences in water quality index has also shown a high positive correlation with R² = 0.8455. The degree of positive correlation and root mean square error has strongly indicated that the water quality of the river at the upper course of Ganga is highly impacted through human activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0302.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: land tenure in Mexico; ejido system; land expropriation; gated-communities; San Andrés Cholula; Ocoyucan
Online: 26 July 2019 (16:40:05 CEST)
The ejido system in Mexico based on communal land was transformed for private ownership due to neoliberal trends during 1990. This research describes the evolution of Mexican land policies that changed the ejido system into private development to answer why land tenure change is shaping urban growth. To demonstrate this, municipalities of San Andrés Cholula and Ocoyucan were selected as a case study. Within this context, we evaluated how much ejido land is being urbanized due to real estate market forces and what type of urbanization model is created. These two areas represent different development scales: S.A. Cholula where its ejidos were expropriated as part of a regional urban development plan; and Ocoyucan where its ejidos and rural land were reached by private developers without local planning. To analyze both municipalities, historical satellite images from Google Earth were used with GRASS GIS 7.4 and corrected with QGIS 2.18. We found that privatization of ejidos fragmented and segregated the rural world for the construction of massive gated-communities. Therefore, a disturbing land tenure change occurred during the last 30 years, hence this research questions the role of local authorities in permitting land use change without regulations or local planning. The resulting urbanization model is a private sector development that isolates rural communities in their own territories, for which we provide recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Land-use change; Land-use planning; Ecosystem services; Erosion; Climate change; Agricultural policies; Soil tillage
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:40:53 CEST)
In the last two centuries, land use change (LUC) has been the most important direct changes driver for terrestrial ecosystems. To contrast the consequent ecosystems degradation, forward-looking spatial policies and target landscape and land-use planning processes, promoting a sustainable land use change, are needed. The present paper proposes a framework of action including different landscape planning and ecological approaches: from the spatial modelling to recognize the LUC and build different scenarios, to the ecosystem services (ESs) assessment to evaluate the possible environmental impacts. Three different scenarios were built: Trend, No-Tillage and Energy crops. The Sediment Delivery Ratio and Carbon Storage and Sequestration ESs were assessed and compared for each scenario. The aim of the paper is to support decision-makers and local communities into the landscape planning process. Results show that a regional development in line with past trend could lead to further land degradation. Instead, the two scenarios proposed in compliance with EU policies, could bring benefits only if related to moderate LUCs and respecting the naturally grass-vegetated land. From the local to global scale, a guided and shared LUC management allows implementing sustainable development, basing on a deep knowledge of physical-environmental but also social and economic issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0103.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Climate change; Middle Andaman; Land use Land cover change analysis; Spectral indices; Support Vector Machine
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:16:10 CEST)
Natural ecosystem of Islands and coastal region are vulnerable to climate change phenomena such as increasing temperature, fluctuating rainfalls, ocean acidification and tsunami. Andaman and Nicobar group of islands lies in Bay of Bangal facing such extreme climate phenomena. A spatial-temporal analysis of forest cover of middle Andaman region of the Andaman and Nicobar group of islands was done from 1990 to 2019 with an interval of 5-10 years. Support vector machine classifier, spectral indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Water Index, and Normalized Difference Built-up Index were used for the analysis of greenery, water resources, and urban land. Land surface temperature was estimated using split window algorithm for Landsat 8 and mono window algorithm for Landsat 5. The data showed relative contribution of forest region toward rising temperature in the island region. The research also showed that subsurface hydrology linked to interconnected lineaments provides a stable zone for forest cover. The open forest showed maximum fluctuation while minimum change was observed in Evergreen Forest. The spectral characteristics analysis using indices showed significant change except in 2005 due to Tsunami occurred in 2005. The land surface temperature showed fluctuation near to 30° C from 1990 to 2019.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0243.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: digital farming; remote sensing; land management; multispectral image processing; land cover mapping; agricultural field boundary
Online: 14 December 2021 (15:01:03 CET)
This paper considered the issue of agricultural fields boundary recognition in satellite images. A novel algorithm based on the aggregated history of vegetation index data obtained via open satellite data, Sentinel-2, was proposed. The proposed algorithm included several basic steps, namely the detection of parcel regions on aggregated index data; the calculation of aggregated edge maps; the segmentation of parcel regions using the edges obtained; the computation of connected components and their contour extraction. In this paper, we showed that the use of aggregated vegetation index data and boundary maps allow for much more accurate agricultural field segmentation compared to the instant vegetation index approach. The quality of segmentation within regions of Russia and the Ukraine was estimated. The dataset that was used and Python implementation of the proposed algorithm were provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0275.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: flood; Geodesign; urban growth; development; land use/land cover; green infrastructure; drainage; stormwater; runoff; underground storage
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:35:14 CEST)
The consequences of growing urbanization can be perceived in multiple levels around the globe: overpopulated living conditions, water and air pollution, loss of open space, costly transportation infrastructure, food shortages, fires and floods. The Houston metropolitan area is an example of fast urban growth, with a population increase of more than sixteen percent in seven years, going from 5.8 million people in 2010 to 6.9 million in 2017 . By 2045, the robust growth of the region is projected to lead to the addition of approximately five hundred square miles of developed area, including an estimated six million parking spaces, seven hundred eighty million square feet of non-residential uses, and three and a half billion square feet of residential use . The accelerated development, in addition to physical features, geomorphic processes and human activities in the region are believed to have caused Houston to suffer through over fifty devastating floods since its settlement, despite some successful flood damage reduction projects. The present study focused on the potential outcomes of an increased use of green infrastructure in comparable urban areas, and its effects on flooding volume. Results from the research revealed that not only these measures would likely improve the performance of existing urban drainage systems and attenuate flood incidence in the area, but would also promote connectivity between areas otherwise detached or only accessible by car, improving walkability and incentivizing engagement in outdoor activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0164.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land use/land cover; nighttime light (NTL); NDEUI; landscape metrics; random Forests; urban growth mode
Online: 9 October 2018 (03:31:38 CEST)
Rapid urbanization has dramatically spurred the economic development over the past three decades, especially in China, but has nevertheless had negative impacts on natural resources since it is an irreversible process. Thus, it is essential to timely monitor and quantitatively analysis the changes in land use over time and to identify the landscape pattern variation related to growth mode in different period. This study aims at inspecting spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape pattern respond to land use changes in Xuzhou city during the period from 1985 to 2015. In this connection, we proposed a new spectral index, named the Normalized Difference Enhanced Urban Index (NDEUI), which combines data from NTL (Nighttime light) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) with annual maximum Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to reduce the detection confusion between urban areas and barren land, as well as follows. NDEUI-assisted Random Forests algorithm was implemented to obtain the land use/land cover (LULC) maps of Xuzhou in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015, respectively. Here, four different periods viz. 1985–1995, 1995–2005, 2005–2015 and 1985–2015 are chosen for the change analysis of land use and landscape pattern. The results indicated that the urban area has increased by about 30.65%, 10.54%, 68.77%, and 143.75% during the four periods mentioned above at the main expense of agricultural land, respectively. The spatial trend maps revealed that continuous transition from other land use types into urban land has appeared a dual-core development mode throughout the urbanization process, located at the new city region and the Jiawang district, mainly affected by the construction of new city region, freeway and the high railway station. Furthermore, we quantified the patch complexity, aggregation, connectivity and diversity of landscape employing a number of landscape metrics to represent the changes of landscape pattern at both class and landscape level, affected by urbanization during the study period. The results showed that with regard to the four aspects of landscape pattern, there were considerable differences among the four years, mainly owing to the increasing dominance of urbanized land. Spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern was also conducted on the basis of subgrids in 900 m × 900 m. Combined with the land use changes and spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern, it can be concluded that different urbanization modes and intensity result in variously the spatiotemporal evolution of landscape patterns. For Xuzhou city, the urban growth mainly appeared a leapfrog mode alone both sides of the roads during the period of 1985 to 1995, and then shifted into edge-expansion mode during the period from 1995 to 2005, whereas the edge-expansion and leapfrog modes coexisted for the period from 2005 to 2015. The high valuable spatiotemporal information generated utilizing RS and GIS in this study may give assistance to urban planners and policymakers to well understand urban dynamics and evaluate their spatiotemporal and environmental impacts at a local level for the sake of sustainable urban planning in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0533.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: driving forces; landscape change; landscape dynamics; forest landscape; land use; land cover; landscape change index
Online: 30 August 2018 (14:49:28 CEST)
Abstract: Changes in forest landscapes have been connected with human activity for centuries, which can be considered as one of the main driving forces of change in the global perspective. The spatial distribution of forests changes along with the geopolitical situation, demographic changes, intensification of agriculture, urbanization or changes in the land use policy. However, due to the limited availability of historical data, the driving forces of changes in forest landscapes are most often considered in relation to recent decades, without taking into account long-term analyzes. The aim of this paper is to determine the impact of natural and socio-economic factors on changes in forest landscapes within the protected area – Ślęża Landscape Park and its buffer zone in the aspect of long-term analyzes covering the period of 140 years (1883-2013). The comparison of historical and current maps, demographic data on 4 different periods as well as natural and location factors by using the ArcGIS software allowed analyzing selected driving forces of forest landscape transformations. We took into account natural factors like altitude, slope, exposure of the hillside and socio-economic drivers like population changes, distances to centers of municipalities, main roads and built-up areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0560.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Urbanization growth prediction; Sustainable development, Land Change Modeler; IDRISI Selva; Land use land cover; Coastal cities; Lagos; Markov Chain; Multi-Layer Perceptron; Sustainability; Agenda 2063
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:32:04 CEST)
The most extensive urban growths in the next 30 years are expected to occur in developing countries. Lagos, Nigeria - Africa’s second most populous megacity- is a prime example. To achieve more sustainable and resilient cities, there is a need for modeling the urban growth patterns of major cities and analyzing their implications. In this study, the urban growth of Lagos state was modeled using the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network for the transition modeling and the Markov Chain analysis for the change prediction, achieving a model accuracy of 81.8%. An innovative visual validation of the model results using the ArcGIS was combined with kappa correlation statistics. The results show that by 2031, built-up areas will be the most spatially extensive LULC class in the study area with percentage coverage of 34.1% as opposed to 9% in 1986. The coverage of bare areas is also expected to increase by 53% between 2016 and 2031. Conversely, 24.9% and 68.3% loss of forestlands and wetlands respectively, are expected between 2016 and 2031. In view of the 11th goal of SDGs which focuses on achieving sustainable cities and communities, the objectives of African Union’s Agenda 2063, and based on the urban growth trends observed, the study recommends a prioritization of vertical expansion as opposed to the current horizontal urban growth trends in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0341.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: population loss; wetland loss; land cover
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:01:07 CEST)
Despite increased hurricane intensity, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast has experienced dramatic coastal population increase of 24.5% from 2000 to 2016. However, in coastal Louisiana areas with dramatic wetland loss, parishes have experienced population declines and lower rates of population growth. Therefore, understanding the magnitude of the effect of wetland loss as a main driver in population loss in coastal Louisiana is critical. Using regression analysis, this study finds that wetland loss has a significant and persistent negative effect on population growth in coastal Louisiana. This effect resulted in a reduction in the population growth rate in coastal parishes over time. A counterfactual simulation was conducted to estimate the potential population size in the absence of wetland loss from 1990 to 2021. On average, the effect of 1 hectare of wetland lost causes a reduction of approximately 1000 persons. This indicates that for the year 2021, the population was approximately 18% lower than the population that would have existed in the absence of wetland loss. This research underscores the role of wetlands in providing direct and indirect benefits to people in coastal Louisiana that are ultimately reflected in its population levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0715.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: energy crops; land use; biomass; bioenergy
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:38:38 CEST)
Research Highlights: (1) Reed canary grass (RCG) is analysed in Sweden compared to willow and poplar for 2001-2020 (2) Each crop presents a different land-use and climatic profile (3) Average yield records of reed canary grass are similar to willow and poplar (4) There are divergences between trial-based and commercial yields (5) Existing LUC patterns suggest meadow>RCG and RCG>cereal (6) RCG land area is very sensitive to policy incentives. Background and objectives: RCG is an alternative crop for biomass-to-energy due to high yield and frost tolerance. We assess the cultivation in Sweden by using an extensive compilation of data, with emphasis on the extension of the cultivation, areas planted, climatic profile, land use patterns and yield levels. Material and methods: All RCG plantations are analysed for 2001-2020. A geostatistical analysis is performed to characterize where is cultivated and the land uses associated. Climatic, productivity and yield profiles are compared to willow and poplar plantations, from experiments and from commercial plantations. Results: The results show that the cultivation of reed canary grass expanded after 2005, with a maximum of 800 ha in 2009 to then decrease to the current levels of about 550 ha. It is mainly grown in colder climatic areas, with lower agricultural productivity than willow and poplar. Mean yields from trials are 6 odt ha-1 yr-1; commercial yields are 3.5 odt ha-1 yr-1. RCG replace meadow land and is replaced by cereals, when abandoned. Conclusions: Reed canary grass is an interesting alternative, growing on colder areas but on similar yield levels than other energy crops. The cultivation is more sensitive to policy incentives
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: degraded land; biodiesel; biomass; energy; Indonesia
Online: 13 November 2018 (05:17:34 CET)
This study spatially estimates degraded lands in Indonesia that have limited functions for food production, carbon storage, and conservation of biodiversity and native vegetation, and examines their suitability to grow biodiesel species (Calophyllum inophyllum, Pongamia pinnata and Reutealis trisperma) and biomass species (Calliandra calothyrsus and Gliricidia sepium). Results showed that Indonesia has ∼3.5 million ha of degraded lands potentially suitable for these species. With the all-five-species scenario, these lands had the potential to produce 1105 PJ yr−1 of biomass and 3 PJ yr−1 of biodiesel. With the biodiesel-only-species scenario, these lands showed the potential to produce 10 PJ yr−1 of biodiesel. Despite this energy potential, however, the land sizes were too small to support economies of scale for biofuel production. The study findings contribute to identifying lands with limited functions, modeling biofuel-species growth on regional lands and estimating carbon stocks of restored degraded lands in Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: institutional, land, alternate, mastery and sustainable
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:54:08 CEST)
The community of farmers in land tenure have different institutional in terms of mastery of the land. In Indonesia there were generally institutional governing the utilization of land for mastery permanently, but there were also institutional governing dominion land in turn. This research aimed to chart institutional pattern characteristic mastery of the land inheritance system passes in, andanalyzeits contribution to sustainability of agriculture in the economic, social and ecological. Research method using case studies, with unit case a subdistrict in Gowa, South Sulawesi province, Indonesia. The results showed that institutional land pattern mastery system passes the inheritance patterns of alternation that has in effect hereditary, pattern rotation established by the heir land management patterns, depending on the number of beneficiaries, as well as not having managed to land fragmentation, so the scale of farming land, conditions can be maintained , the land was slanted so given a terracing, planting process was carried out by means of mutual. Neither found that institutional land pattern mastery system passes the inheritance had been contributing the sustainability of agriculture in social and ecological, but have yet to fully contribute to the sustainability of agriculture in economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0061.v1
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:05:06 CET)
This paper proposes a method to utilize weather and land cover models to generate future environmental scenarios, and presents the watershed models to simulate the hydrological impact on watershed-scale hydrology. The Weather Generator model and General Circulation Model were applied to produce rainfall and local temperature under different climate conditions, and the Conservation and Land Use and its Effects model was incorporated to simulate future land cover variability. The circumstances of future climate and land cover changes were used as inputs to drive the HEC-HMS rainfall runoff model for obtaining surface runoff in a mountainous area. The WASH123D model was then utilized for the entire watershed simulation. Modeling results were then examined to discuss hydrological impacts on three different time periods: near future (2020-2039), future (2050-2069), and distant future (2080-2099). The Fengshan Creek basin in northern Taiwan was selected as study site. Simulations results indicated that the influence of climate change revealed more relevant effects when compared to local land cover changes. The ground water levels tended to diminish as the land cover area changed. In addition, both river and groundwater levels reveal that it is drier in dry season and wetter in wet season in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0783.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Meteorological drought; Hydrological drought; Drought risk prediction; future climate and land use land cover change scenarios
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:41:43 CEST)
The assessment and prediction of drought risk under future climate change and land use land cover (LULC) scenarios is critically important for drought prevention and mitigation, as it enables a clearer understanding of potential shifts in drought patterns. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate sub-seasonal and seasonal meteorological and hydrological drought hazards across the Yellow River Basin (YRB) under projected future climate conditions and LULC patterns. The BCC-CSM1-1 climate model projections from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset are utilized to represent future climate for 2025-2060 under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The CA-Markov model is employed to predict future LULC distributions. Meteorological and hydrological drought risks across different YRB zones are evaluated through a copula-based risk assessment approach, based on the joint probability distribution of drought duration and severity. The results indicate that sub-seasonal meteorological and hydrological droughts will likely be the primary concern moving forward. Specifically, the upper YRB (zones A, B, C) exhibits greater vulnerability to sub-seasonal meteorological drought, while the Loess Plateau (zones C, E) shows higher susceptibility to sub-seasonal hydrological drought. Moreover, zone F in the downstream region may experience increased seasonal hydrological drought risk due to projected urban expansion in the middle and lower portions of the YRB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0934.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land use change; land use conflict; PLUS model; SSPs-RCP scenario; habitat quality; Qin-Ba Mountains
Online: 13 July 2023 (13:32:02 CEST)
In the future, the pursuit of high-quality economic development and a focus on ecological environmental protection in China will inevitably result in significant conflicts between land use and ecological land use. The challenge lies in achieving sustainable high-quality development while simultaneously protecting the ecological environment, optimizing the land use structure, and promoting a harmonious relationship between humans and the land. These challenges are faced by all regions. Land use conflicts primarily occur in peri-urban areas characterized by prominent economic development and urban agglomeration. Previous studies have mainly focused on analyzing the effects of land use on habitat quality during intense urbanization. However, it is important to recognize that land pressure encompasses economic, ecological, and social aspects. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the spatial conflict of land use and the impact on habitat quality in Ankang, a city that has been advocating ecological protection for the past two decades, this study aims to objectively analyze the spatial trends in land use changes in such cities. Additionally, it aims to provide insights for the harmonious development of land use in eco-region-oriented cities. Using the SSP-RCP scenarios provided by CMIP6, this paper employs a system analysis method, PLUS model, InVEST model, and land use conflict measurement model to dynamically simulate the future habitat quality and spatial conflict patterns of land use in Ankang City. The study explores the spatial coupling effect of both factors under different scenarios. The results indicate the following:(1) Under different future shared socio-economic path scenarios, land use intensity and land conflict levels follow the order of SSP585 (high forcing scenario), SSP370 (medium to high forcing scenario), SSP245 (medium forcing scenario), and SSP126 (low forcing scenario), with intensity and conflict decreasing accordingly. (2) The overall development trend in Ankang City reveals an intensification of land use conflicts and a decrease in habitat quality. The expansion rate of construction land is increasing and exhibiting aggregation, while agricultural land area is expanding and forest land area is continuously decreasing. (3) Land use intensity exhibits a significant positive correlation with land conflict levels, while land conflict levels demonstrate a significant negative correlation with habitat quality. These findings suggest that land use has had some impact on the ecological environment, with indications of habitat degradation. Even in Ankang, where ecological development is highly valued, the city will gradually face conflicts between ecological protection and economic development in future scenarios. The study highlights that Ankang's future development space will be constrained within the context of environmental protection, leading to greater land use conflicts in urban and surrounding areas. Consequently, the quality of habitats will inevitably decline. Therefore, it is crucial to allocate sufficient space for economic development while simultaneously prioritizing ecological protection. This approach will ensure a healthy economic development trajectory and foster a harmonious relationship between humans and the land.