REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0225.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Ethiopia; Geographic Information Systems; Land Use Land Cover; Remote Sensing
Online: 11 May 2021 (09:27:29 CEST)
Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes analysis is one of the most useful methodologies to understand how the land was used in the past years, what types of detections are to be expected in the future, as well as the driving forces and processes behind these changes. In Ethiopia, the rapidly changing of LULC is mainly due to population pressure, resettlement programs, climate change, and other human and nature-induced driving forces. Anthropogenic activities are the most significant factors adversely changing the natural status of the landscape and resources, which exerts unfavourable and adverse impacts on the environment and livelihood. The main goal of the present work is to review previous studies, discussing the spatio-temporal LULC changes in Ethiopian basins, to find out common points and gaps that exist in the current literature, to be eventually addressed in the future. Seventeen articles, published from 2011 to 2020, were selected and reviewed, focusing on LULC classification using ArcGIS and ERDAS imagine software by unsupervised and maximum likelihood supervised classification methods. Key informant interview (KII), focal group discussions (FGDs) and collection of ground truth data using ground positioning systems (GPS) for data validation were the major approaches discussed in most of the studies. All the analysed research showed that, during the last decades, Ethiopian lands changed to agricultural land use, waterbody, commercial farmland and built-up/settlement. Some parts of forest land, grazing land, swamp/wetland, shrubland, rangeland and bare/ rock out cropland cover class were changed to other LULC class types, mainly as a consequence of increasing anthropogenic pressure. In summary, these articles confirmed that LULC changes are a direct result of both natural and human influences. However, most of the study provided details of LULC for the past decades within a specific spatial location, while they did not address the challenge of forecasting future LULC changes at the basin scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0069.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Fethiye-Göcek SEPA; Land use land cover change; Land surface temperature; Climate change
Online: 12 October 2022 (09:08:40 CEST)
Abstract: Increasing population and urbanization are affecting human health and comfort. In order to get rid of these affects, mankind is changing its enviroment and looking for new life areas. This study investigates the influence of Land Cover Change (LCC) and Normalisied Densly Vegetation Index (NDVI) on Land Surface Temperature (LST) of Fethiye-Göcek Specially Protected Area (SEPA) in easterm mediterranean basin. In the study LCC, NDVI and LST were drived from landsat 5, 7 and 8 satellite image of resolation at 30x30 m acquired between 1995-2020. LST were computed based on Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) types. The Corine Index were used for determination of land uses. The results indicated that water, forest and maquia lands decreasing while urban fabric and bare lands are increasing depend upon the urbanization and forest fires in the basin. These changes in LULC widened the temperature differences between the urban and rural areas. The change in LST is associated with changes in constructional materials in urban land and in vegetation abundance both in the urban and rural areas. Vegetation has an important factor in the temperature of different land covers. That produces warming trend in temperetaure in built-up areas it causes to keep other lands warmer in cold weather. Another important result is affective Urban Heat Island (UHI) on climate change based on the impact of urbanization and land cover changes. Significantly possitive correlation were found between the urbanization rate, population and built-up area and warming rate of average air temperature and so the LST.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: land cover maps; land cover scenario; Land Change Modeler (LCM); transition probabilities
Online: 15 June 2019 (16:13:07 CEST)
The results reveal CILSS as the most accurate data set with a Kappa coefficient of 68% and an overall accuracy of 83%. CILSS data shows a decrease of savanna and forest whereas an increase of cropland over the period 1975 to 2013. The increase of cropland area of 30.97% from 1975 to 2013 can be related to the increase in population and their food demand, while the losses of forest area and the decrease of savanna are further amplified by using wood as energy sources and the lack of forest management. The three datasets were used to simulate future LULC changes using the Terrset Land Change Modeler. The validation of the model using CILSS data for 2013 showed a quality of 50.94%, it is only 40.04% for ESA and 20.13% for Globeland30. CILSS data was utilized to simulate the LULC distribution for the years 2020 and 2027 because of its satisfactory performances. The results show that a high spatial resolution is not a guarantee of high quality. The results of this study can be used for impact studies and to develop management strategies for mitigating negative effects of land use and land cover change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0901.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land-use and land cover-change; monitoring ecosystem dynamics; remote sensing; Mangrove forests
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:47:29 CEST)
Detecting abrupt transitions in ecosystems, known as regime shifts, holds immense implications for conservation and management endeavors. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of developing an early warning system capable of identifying an upcoming critical transition within Mangrove Forest ecosystems. Employing a fusion of remote sensing analysis, time series analysis, and the critical slowing down theory, Mangrove Forests' state change was explored across two distinct study sites. One site has been adversely affected by disturbances stemming from land use and land cover changes, while the other serves as an unaffected reference ecosystem. The study uses data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite, quantifying three remotely sensed indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), and the Modified Vegetation Water Ratio (MVWR). Furthermore, temporal alterations in land-use and land cover are scrutinized using Landsat data from 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2014. To identify early warning signals of critical transitions, indicators such as autocorrelation, skewness, and standard deviation are applied. The results show the robust capabilities of remote sensing in generating early warning signals of critical transition in Mangrove Forests. NDVI outperformed MVWR and MNDWI as ecosystem state indicators. This study not only highlights the potential of remote in identifying the approaching regime shifts in Mangrove Forest ecosystems but also adds knowledge on ecosystem dynamics. This is the first report of the successful application of remote sensing in generating early warning signals for imminent critical transitions within Mangrove forests in the Middle East.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2000.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: spatial pattern; land use/land cover dynamic change; transition; remote sensing; driving factors
Online: 30 August 2023 (03:33:59 CEST)
Land use and land cover (LULC) datasets for Jinan in 1992, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2011, 2017, and 2022 were developed from Landsat images using the Random Forest (RF) classification approach. The relationships between social-economic, political factors and time-series LULC data were exam-ined for the periods between 1992 and 2022. The results showed the effectiveness of using the RF classification method for LULC classification with time series of Landsat images. Combined with driving forces analysis, our research can effectively explain the detailed LULC change tra-jectories corresponding to different stages and give new insights into Jinan LULC change pat-terns. The results show a significant increase in impervious surface which opposite change to bare land which experienced a huge decline declined by 95%, due to urbanization and rapid in-crease of population. The driving forces behind these changes are related to population growth, economic development, and climate change. Moreover, the present research employed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) methodology in order to understand the relative significance of disparate driving factors. The analysis results prove that the economy (population, GDP) and climate change were the primary factors that have an obvious impact on land use/land cover changes and that the driving factors for impervious surface, bare land, woodland, farmland, and water were distinct. Government policies also have a substantial impact on LULC change as well, such as the Construction of Harmonious Jinan (COHJ). The results were helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of LULC change and can provide useful knowledge for effective land resource management and planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0021.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: maximum surface air temperature; land surface temperature; statistical modeling; MODIS
Online: 3 March 2017 (08:38:19 CET)
Daily maximum surface air temperature (Tamax) is a crucial factor for understanding complex land surface processes under rapid climate change. Remote detection of Tamax has widely relied on the empirical relationship between air temperature and land surface temperature (LST), a product derived from remote sensing. However, little is known about how such a relationship is affected by the high heterogeneity in landscapes and dynamics in seasonality. This study aims to advance our understanding of the roles of land cover and seasonal variation in the estimation of Tamax using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) LST product. We developed statistical models to link Tamax and LST in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China for five major land-cover types (i.e., forest, shrub, water, impervious surface, cropland, and grassland) and two seasons (i.e., growing season and non-growing season). Results show that the performance of modeling the Tamax-LST relationship was highly dependent on land cover and seasonal variation. Estimating Tamax over grasslands and water bodies achieved superior performance; while uncertainties were high over forested lands that contained extensive heterogeneity in species types, plant structure, and topography. We further found that all the land-cover specific models developed for the plant non-growing season outperformed the corresponding models developed for the growing season. Discrepancies in model performance mainly occurred in the vegetated areas (forest, cropland, and shrub), suggesting an important role of plant phenology in defining the statistical relationship between Tamax and LST. For impervious surfaces, the challenge of capturing the high spatial heterogeneity in urban settings using the low-resolution MODIS data made Tamax estimation a difficult task, which was especially true in the growing season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0630.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Africa; Ethiopia; Landsat; Land Use Land Cover Change; Remote Sensing; SWAT model
Online: 28 July 2021 (12:20:13 CEST)
Land use land cover (LULC) changes are highly pronounced in African countries, as they are characterized by an agriculture-based economy and a rapidly growing population. Understanding how land use/cover change (LULCC) influence watershed hydrology will enable local governments and policymakers to formulate and implement effective and appropriate response strategies to minimize the undesirable effects of future land use/cover change or modification and sustain the local socio-economic situation. The hydrological response of the Ethiopia Fincha’a watershed to LULCC happened during the last 30 years was investigated comparing the situation in three reference years: 1994, 2004 and 2018. The information was derived from Landsat sensors, respectively Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS. The various LULC classes were derived via ArcGIS using a supervised classification system, and the accuracy assessment was done using confusion matrixes. For all the years investigated the overall accuracies and the kappa coefficients were higher than 80%, with 2018 as the more accurate year. The analysis of LULCC revealed that forest decreased by 19.99% between the years 1994-2004, and it decreased by 11.85% in the following period 2004-2018. Such decline in areas covered by forest is correlated to an expansion of cultivated land by 16.4% and 10.81%, respectively. After having evaluated the LULCC at the basin scale, the watershed was divided into 18 sub-watersheds, which contained 176 Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), having a specific LULC. Accounting for such a detailed subdivision of the Fincha’a watershed, the SWAT model was firstly calibrated and validated on past data, and then applied to infer information on the hydrological response of each HRU on LULCC. The modelling results pointed out a general increase of average water flow, both during dry and wet periods, as a consequence of a shift of land coverage from forest and grass towards settlements and build-up areas. The present analysis pointed out the need of accounting for past and future LULCC in modelling the hydrological responses of rivers at the watershed scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: land use/land cover; remote sensing and GIS; water allocation; water resource management
Online: 7 November 2023 (16:22:20 CET)
Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and human settlement areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. In sub-Saharan Africa, policies are implemented without critical consideration e.g., agricultural expansions impair ecosystem services of the several river basins. The current study has studied landuse/cover and associated rate of change for four-time epochs i.e., 1991, 2001, 2011 and 2021. This employed remote sensing and GIS techniques for LULC analysis while future projection was modelled using cellular automata and Markov chain. The Kappa coefficient statistics were used to assess the accuracy of final classified image while reference images for accuracy assessment were developed based on ground truthing. Overall change results between 1991 and 2021, showed that major percentage loss in area were experienced by water, forest, woodland and wetland which decreased by 8,222Ha (44.11%), 426,161Ha (35.72%), 399,584Ha (35.01%) and 105,186Ha (34.82%). On the other hand, percentage increase in area during the same period were experienced in cultivated land, built up areas and grasslands which increased by 659,346Ha (205.28%), 11,894Ha (159.93%) and 33,547Ha (98.47%). However, even with the expanding thirsty sectors water discharged out of the catchment is on increment at a rate of 498.6 m3/s/year. For dualistic benefits, agroforest practices are recommended along with participatory law enforcement and capacity building of local communities through their institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0526.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Social survey; Mago National Park; Landsat; GIS; Remote sensing; land use land cover
Online: 30 March 2023 (10:38:58 CEST)
Land use land cover change analysis is one of the most particular techniques to understand how land was used in the past, what types of changes are to be expected in the future, as well as the forces and processes behind the changes. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the land use land cover changes and its driving forces in Mago National Park, southern Ethiopia. Satellite image of Landsat5 TM (1988, 1998 and 2008) and Landsat8 OLI/TIRS (2018) with a time span of 30 years were employed. In addition, field observation, and social survey were conducted to study the drivers of land use land cover changes. QGIS 3.2 and SPSS (for social data analysis) software’s’ were used for satellite image processing, accuracy assessment, map preparation and descriptively analyze the driving forces of LULCC respectively. Supervised classification with maximum likelihood algorithm was conducted for satellite image analysis and generation of information using Quantum GIS 3.2 Post classification change detection method was applied to quantify the land use/land cover change. The result of the study indicated riverine forest, woodland, grassland, water body, degraded land and bare land as a major land use land cover class in the park. The result of land use land cover classification showed that in 1988 most of the study area was covered by woodland and grass land. In the first period (1988-1998), woodland, riverine forest, water body and bare land decreased by 6.76%, 37.98%, 22.37% and 70.14% respectively, while grass land, and degraded land increased by 16.11% and 85.67% respectively. In the second period, (1998 -2008), woodland, riverine forest and degraded land were decreased by 5.44%, 4.61%, and 80.74% respectively, while grass land, water body and bare land is increased by 14.74%, 3.76% and 52.58% respectively. From 2008-2018 riverine forest, grassland, water body and bare land decreased by 1.33%, 15.16% and 4.82% and 25.02% respectively, while woodland increased by 11.84%, and degraded land increased by 85.49% respectively. Riverine forest, water body, grass land and bare land showed decrement and that of woodland, degraded land indicated increment during study period. From 1988-2018, woodland, riverine forest, water body and bare land indicated decrement and the remaining grass land and bare land cover types indicated increment during study period. The result of social survey indicated that expansion of agriculture, human induced fire, overgrazing and hunting are proximate driving forces of the change in Mago National Park. Population pressure from a different area, poverty, decreased farmlands productivity; education, weak law enforcement and cultural factors are the major underlying causes of the observed changes. Therefore, proper land use planning, legal support, and strong law enforcement are the key recommendations to sustain natural resources of the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0157.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Land use and land cover; Classification; Object-based change detection; Multi-temporal image analysis; Landsat; Tiaoxi
Online: 7 June 2021 (09:27:22 CEST)
The changing of land use and land cover (LULC) are both affected by climate and human activity and affect climate, biological diversity, and human well-being. Accurate and timely information about the LULC pattern and change is crucial for land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring, and urban planning, especially in developing economies undergoing industrialization, urbanization, and globalization. Biodiversity degradation and urban expansion in eastern China are research hot-spots. However, the influence of LULC changes on the region remains largely unexplored. Here, an object-based and multi-temporal image analysis approach was developed to detect how LULC changes during 1985-2015 in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China) using Landsat TM and OLI data. The main objective of this study is to improve the accuracy of unsupervised change detection from object-based and multi-temporal images. To this end, a total of seven LULC maps are generated with multi-temporal images. A random stratified sample design was used for assessing change detection accuracy. The proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.86%, 92.14%, 92.00%, and 93.86% for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, respectively. Nevertheless, the proposed method, in conjunction with object-oriented and multi-temporal satellite images, offers a robust and flexible approach to LULC changes mapping that helps with emergency response and government management. Urbanization and agriculture efficiency are the main reasons for LULC changes in the region. We anticipate that this freely available data will improve the modeling for surface forcing, provide evidence of changes in LULC, and inform water-management decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0493.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Devolution; land cover change; semi-arod; food security; arable land; coservation; environment services
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:43:40 CET)
This study focuses on land cover and land management changes in relation to food security and environmental services in a semi-arid area of East Nusa Tenggara (ENT) – Indonesia. The study was conducted in Central Sumba District of ENT Province. Classification and regression tree (CART) for land cover classification has been analyzed using machine learning techniques using Google Earth Engine. A survey with Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and followed with in-depth interviews were conducted for primary data collection involving a total of 871 respondents. The Socio-economic data analyzed statistics descriptively and non-parametric tests. The study showed that: 1). There has been a substantial land use change during the devo-lution era that has both positive and negative implications for food security and envi-ronmental services. 2). There has been population pressure in the fertile or agricultur-al land as the direct impact of the development of city infrastructures; and 3). Nation-al intervention through the Food Estate program has fostered and shaped land use change and land management in Central Sumba District. The study highlights the importance that the devolution spirit should help to well manage the limited ara-ble/agricultural land in dominated semi-arid to ensure food security and environment services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0377.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover change detection; adaptive contextual information; bi-temporal remote sensing images
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:52:26 CEST)
Land cover change detection (LCCD) based on bi-temporal remote sensing images plays an important role in the inventory of land cover change. Due to the benefit of having spatial dependency properties within the image space while using remote sensing images for detecting land cover change, many contextual information based change detection methods have been proposed during past decades. However, there is still a space for improvement in accuracies and usability of LCCD. In this paper, a LCCD method based on adaptive contextual information is proposed. First, an adaptive region is constructed by gradually detecting the spectral similarity surrounding a central pixel. Second, the Euclidean distance between pairwise extended regions is calculated to measure the change magnitude between the pairwise central pixels of bi-temporal images. While the whole bi-temporal images are scanned pixel-by-pixel, the change magnitude image (CMI) can be generated. Then, the Otsu or a manual threshold is employed to acquire the binary change detection map (BCDM). The detection accuracies of the proposed approach are investigated by two land cover change cases with Landsat bi-temporal remote sensing images. In comparison to several widely used change detection methods, the proposed approach can achieve a land cover change inventory map with a competitive accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0783.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Meteorological drought; Hydrological drought; Drought risk prediction; future climate and land use land cover change scenarios
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:41:43 CEST)
The assessment and prediction of drought risk under future climate change and land use land cover (LULC) scenarios is critically important for drought prevention and mitigation, as it enables a clearer understanding of potential shifts in drought patterns. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate sub-seasonal and seasonal meteorological and hydrological drought hazards across the Yellow River Basin (YRB) under projected future climate conditions and LULC patterns. The BCC-CSM1-1 climate model projections from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset are utilized to represent future climate for 2025-2060 under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The CA-Markov model is employed to predict future LULC distributions. Meteorological and hydrological drought risks across different YRB zones are evaluated through a copula-based risk assessment approach, based on the joint probability distribution of drought duration and severity. The results indicate that sub-seasonal meteorological and hydrological droughts will likely be the primary concern moving forward. Specifically, the upper YRB (zones A, B, C) exhibits greater vulnerability to sub-seasonal meteorological drought, while the Loess Plateau (zones C, E) shows higher susceptibility to sub-seasonal hydrological drought. Moreover, zone F in the downstream region may experience increased seasonal hydrological drought risk due to projected urban expansion in the middle and lower portions of the YRB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0103.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Climate change; Middle Andaman; Land use Land cover change analysis; Spectral indices; Support Vector Machine
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:16:10 CEST)
Natural ecosystem of Islands and coastal region are vulnerable to climate change phenomena such as increasing temperature, fluctuating rainfalls, ocean acidification and tsunami. Andaman and Nicobar group of islands lies in Bay of Bangal facing such extreme climate phenomena. A spatial-temporal analysis of forest cover of middle Andaman region of the Andaman and Nicobar group of islands was done from 1990 to 2019 with an interval of 5-10 years. Support vector machine classifier, spectral indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Water Index, and Normalized Difference Built-up Index were used for the analysis of greenery, water resources, and urban land. Land surface temperature was estimated using split window algorithm for Landsat 8 and mono window algorithm for Landsat 5. The data showed relative contribution of forest region toward rising temperature in the island region. The research also showed that subsurface hydrology linked to interconnected lineaments provides a stable zone for forest cover. The open forest showed maximum fluctuation while minimum change was observed in Evergreen Forest. The spectral characteristics analysis using indices showed significant change except in 2005 due to Tsunami occurred in 2005. The land surface temperature showed fluctuation near to 30° C from 1990 to 2019.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0090.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land cover change; vegetation dynamics; remote sensing; DPSIR; Kebbi state
Online: 19 September 2017 (17:24:13 CEST)
Assessment of the trends of land cover and vegetation dynamics (VD) using remote sensing (RS) and indicators such as anthropogenic activities and the socio-demographic information is essential in order to make proper planning for sustainable management. This paper attempts to evaluate land cover change (LCC) and VD in Kebbi State, Nigeria using historical Landsat data from 1986-2016 by means of remote sensing. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was later employed using both primary and secondary data for a better understanding of the drivers, the state of the environmental condition, the causes as well as the impact of the change. The images were classified into five thematic land cover classes as Dense Vegetation, shrubs/built area, farmland, bare/grassland and water body by means of Maximum likelihood supervised classification technique in accordance with Anderson classification scheme level 1, with acceptable accuracy. Pre-classification and post-classification change detection (CD) methodologies were executed using Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Image differencing respectively. The study illustrates a steady decline in dense vegetation and shrubs/build areas while farmland and bare/grassland increases, however, water bodies remain unchanged. The DPSIR pin-point that the major drivers of change in the study area have been the pressing need for farming land as the population grows and socioeconomic demands including fuelwood consumption and endemic poverty. Expansion of Farming land, fuelwood consumption and the need for construction materials are identified as the main key elements exerting pressure for the change. The state of the condition indicates a steady decline in dense vegetation and shrubs areas while farmland and bare/grassland are increasing significantly. The impacts include land degradation, the decline in the provision ecosystem goods and services, biodiversity loss through loss of habitats. The study, however, noted that many international and national policies in response to land degradation are channelled toward land restoration and remediating of the environment, through afforestation programs and improving the livelihood of the rural people through providing alternative income sources since they depend heavily on land for sustenance. However, the state governments, communities and individual commonly organized annual tree planting campaign with the main purpose of environmental protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0841.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: SWAT model; surface runoff; deforestation; land use change; Amazonia; Peru
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:29:17 CEST)
The watershed hydrologic conditions in the Madre de Dios (MDD) basin in the Peruvian Amazon have been irreversibly impacted by deforestation and changes in land use cover. These changes have also had detrimental effects on the geomorphology, water quality, and aquatic habitat within the basin. However, there is a scarcity of hydrological modeling studies in this area primarily due to the limited availability of hydrometeorological data. The primary objective of this study was to examine how deforestation impacts the hydrological conditions in the MDD basin. By implementing the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, this study determined that replacing 12% of the evergreen broadleaf forest area with bare land resulted in an significant increase in surface runoff by 38% monthly, a reduction of evapotranspiration by 1% annually, and an average monthly streamflow increase of 12%. Changes in spatial patterns reveal that the primary impacted watershed is the Inambari River subbasin, a significant tributary of the Madre de Dios River. This area experiences an annual average surge of 187% in surface runoff generation while witnessing an annual average reduction of 8% in evapotranspiration.These findings have important implications, as they can contribute to instances of flooding and extreme inundation events, which have already occurred in the MDD region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1624.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: anthropogenic; land cover change; mitigation; protected forest
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:51:58 CEST)
Mount Hamiding Protected Forest is located in North Halmahera Regency, North Maluku Province, the Wallace zone has an important role in providing protection functions, life support systems and regulating water management, preventing floods, preventing seawater intrusion, and controlling soil fertility. The protected forest area in the Wallace Zone is globally renowned for its endemic characteristics of flora and fauna. The condition of the protected forest of Mount Hamiding HMPF is currently experiencing anthropogenic damage as a result of forest encroachment, illegal logging, shifting cultivation, grazing and poaching to meet social needs. Anthropogenic damage has been in the spotlight for decades and has become a global issue. This study aims to determine damage to protected forests, changes in land cover, and mitigation of protected forest areas. This research uses quantitative and descriptive qualitative methods. Determination of research locations by purposive sampling. Parameters measured in this study were damage to protected forests, changes in land cover and area mitigation strategies. To identify forest damage, snowball sampling was carried out, and land cover changes through land cover data processing were obtained from the Ministry of Environment and Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia. Then using Imagery 7 ETM+ and 8 OLI to calculate changes in forested land to non-forested from 2006 -2021, analysis of land cover change using supervised classification, developing a strategy based on identity verification of forest damage and analysis of land cover change. The results showed that damage to protected forests was caused by anthropogenic disturbances in the form of forest encroachment, shifting cultivation, illegal logging, grazing and hunting of wild animals. Changes in land cover experienced the greatest damage in 2006-2021 amounting to 1,796.54 ha (16.17%). Strategic efforts are carried out using forest engineering, namely the agroforestry system and social engineering through community empowerment, namely training and outreach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0682.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land cover change detection; HRSIs; Deep learning neural network; Very Small training samples
Online: 9 June 2023 (08:10:25 CEST)
Change detection with heterogeneous remote sensing images (Hete-CD) plays an important role in practical applications, especially when homogenous remote sensing images are unavailable. However, bitemporal heterogeneous remote sensing images (HRSIs) cannot compare directly to measure change magnitude, and many deep learning methods require large amounts of samples to train the module. Moreover, labeling many samples for land cover change detection with HRSIs is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, acquiring satisfactory performance of Hete-CD remains a challenge for deep learning networks with very small training samples. In this study, we promote a novel deep-learning framework for Hete-CD to obtain satisfactory performance while the initial samples are very small. We initially design a multiscale network with select kernel-attention module to focus on capturing different change targets with various sizes and shapes. Then, a simple yet effective non-parametric sample-enhanced algorithm based on the Pearson correlation coeffi-cient is promoted to explore potential samples around each initial sample. Finally, the proposed network and sample-enhanced algorithm are fused into one iterative framework to improve the change detection performance with very small samples. Experimental results conducted on four pairs of actual HRSIs indicated that the proposed framework can achieve competitive accuracies with very small samples for initialization when compared with some state-of-the-art methods. For example, the improvement is approximately 3.38% and 1.99% when compared with the selected traditional methods and deep learning methods, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1875.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: ecosystem network connectivity; fragmentation; land cover change; Tesso Nilo National Park; forest
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:39:58 CEST)
Tesso Nilo National Park is one of the protected areas designated as KPA by the Decree of the Minister of Forestry No.225/Menhut-II/2004 dated July 19, 2004 covering an area of 38,576 ha, then expanded again through the Decree of the Minister of Forestry No.663/Menhut/2009 dated 19 October 2009 with an area of ± 83,068 ha. The Tesso Nilo National Park area is experiencing the dynamics of land cover changes, namely the conversion of forest land which causes the forest area to become increasingly narrow in this area. With the reduction in forest area in this area, it causes a decrease in ecosystem network connectivity due to forest fragmentation that occurs, so that forests are separated and further apart. This study aims to analyze changes in land cover in the Tesso Nilo National Park area to find out information on changes in habitat ecosystems in the last 20 years. the observations were made using satellite images in 1999, 2010 and 2019. so that it can be seen the effect of forest fragmentation on ecosystems in the Tesso Nilo National Park area. From the results of the analysis, it was found that the area of forest cover in the Tesso Nilo National Park decreased from 1999 to 2019 and caused changes in the connectivity network of forest ecosystems, which was found in the study, the weakest connectivity separated forest fragments as far as 17394.47 meters due to forest cover fragmentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0247.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: artificial neural network; land use land cover; Indonesia; land use prediction
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:43:54 CET)
Great Malang region is developing rapidly with the population increase and inhabitant`s activity, like migration and urbanization. Other activities like agricultural expansion as well as an uncontrolled residential development need to be monitored to avoid any negative impact in the future. The availability of free and open-source software, spatial high-resolution satellite imagery datasets, and powerful algorithms open the possibilities to map, monitor, and predict the future trend of land use land cover (LULC) changes. However, the accuracy and precision of this model is still in doubt, especially in the Great Malang region. Research is needed to provide a foundational basis and documentation on how the changes occur, where did the changes occur, and the accuracy of the predicted model. This study tries to answer those questions using the high spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 imageries. Combination of the fuzzy algorithm, artificial neural network, and cellular automata was utilized to process the datasets. We analysed four different scenarios of simulation and the result then compared. The different number of hidden layers and iteration was used and evaluated to understand the effect of different parameters in the prediction result. The best scenario was then used to predict future land use changes. This study has successfully produced the future LULC model of Great Malang region with high accuracy level (87%). The study also found that the land use transformation from agriculture to urban built-up area is relatively low, where changes of the built-up area over three periods of analysis are below than 5%. This is due to the physical condition of Great Malang region where mountainous areas are dominated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0023.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Land Use Land Cover (LULC); Land Surface Temperature (LST); Google Earth Engine (GEE); relationship; remote sensing indices; MODIS; global
Online: 3 January 2020 (05:03:05 CET)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Land Use Land Cover (LULC) are the principal aspects of climate and environment studies. The object of the study is to assess spatial relationship between LST and remote sensing LULC indices at the global and continental scale. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua daytime LST and eight LULC MODIS indices of 2018 prepared and processed using Earth Engine Code Editor. R squared and significance of the relationship values of randomly selected points computed in R program. The research observed the relationship between examined indices and LST is significant at the 0.001 level. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Normalized Difference Snow Index (DSI) are the dominant drivers of LST in the world, Asia and North America. In Australia and Africa, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are the dominant drivers of LST. Albedo and Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI) have superior in Central America. In South America and Europe, the dominant driver of LST is NDWI. Relationship between albedo and LST is moderate inverse on a global scale. Observed relationship between LST and examined vegetation indices is positive in Europe and North America while inverse in Australia and Africa. All observed relationship between Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) and LST are positive. Association observed between NDSI and LST is positive in Australia, Africa and Central America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0126.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: vision transformers; Mobile ViT; ShuffleNet; CNN; Land cover classification
Online: 3 October 2023 (10:39:42 CEST)
Image classification in Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) containing various land-cover classes is essential for efficient and sustainable land-use estimation, and other tasks like object detection, localization and segmentation. Deep Learning (DL) techniques have shown a tremendous potential in the GIS domain. While Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have dominated most of the image analysis domain, a new architecture called transformers have proved to be a unifying solution for several AI-based processing pipelines. Vision Transformers (ViT), a variant of transformers can have comparable and in some cases better accuracy than a CNN. However, they suffer from a significant drawback associated with an excessive use of training parameters. In this research we explore several modifications in the vision transformer architectures, especially MobileViT that can be optimized while boosting accuracy. To verify our proposed approach these new architectures are trained on four land-cover datasets AID, EuroSAT, UC-Merced, and WHU-RS19. Experiments reveal that combination of lightweight convolutional layers including ShuffleNet along with depthwise separable convolutions and average pooling can reduce the trainable parameters by 17.85% and yet achieve higher accuracy than the base MobileViT. It is also observed that utilizing a combination of convolution layers along with multi-headed self attention layers in MobileViT variants provide better performance in capturing local and global features unlike the standalone ViT architecture that utilizes almost 95% more parameters than the proposed MobileViT variant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0574.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover; land use; citizen science; mobile apps; in-situ data collection; LUCAS
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:26:29 CEST)
There are many new land use and land cover (LULC) products emerging yet there is still a lack of in-situ data for training, validation, and change detection purposes. The LUCAS (Land Use Cover Area frame Sample) survey is one of the few authoritative in-situ field campaigns, which takes place every three years in European Union member countries. More recently, a study has considered whether citizen science and crowdsourcing could complement LUCAS survey data, e.g., through the FotoQuest Austria mobile app and crowdsourcing campaign. Although the data obtained from the campaign were promising when compared with authoritative LUCAS survey data, there were classes that were not well classified by the citizens, and the photographs submitted through the app were not always of sufficient quality. For this reason, in the latest FotoQuest Go Europe 2018 campaign, several improvements were made to the app to facilitate interaction with the citizens contributing and to improve their accuracy in LULC identification. In addition to extending the locations from Austria to Europe, a change detection component (comparing land cover in 2018 to the 2015 LUCAS photographs) was added, as well as an improved LC decision tree and a near real-time quality assurance system to provide feedback on the distance to the target location, the LULC classes chosen and the quality of the photographs. Another modification was the implementation of a monetary incentive scheme in which users received between 1 to 3 Euros for each successfully completed quest of sufficient quality. The purpose of this paper is to present these new features and to compare the results obtained by the citizens with authoritative LUCAS data from 2018 in terms of LULC and change in LC. We also compared the results between the FotoQuest campaigns in 2015 and 2018 and found a significant improvement in 2018, i.e., a much higher match of LC between FotoQuest Go Europe and LUCAS. Finally, we present the results from a user survey to discuss challenges encountered during the campaign and what further improvements could be made in the future, including better in-app navigation and offline maps, making FotoQuest a model for enabling the collection of large amounts of land cover data at a low cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0653.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover; sentinel-2 images; random forest; boreal forest; alpine tundra
Online: 20 April 2023 (10:51:55 CEST)
A land cover map of two arctic catchments, nearby the Abisko Scientific Research Station, was obtained from a classification of a Sentinel-2 satellite image and a ground survey performed in July 2022. The two contiguous catchments, Miellajokka and Stordalen, are covered by various ecotypes, from boreal forest to alpine tundra and peatland. The Random Forest algorithm correctly identified 83% of polygon pixels reserved for testing. The developed workflow relied solely on open source software and acquired ground observations. Space organization was directed by the altitude as shown by the intersection of the land cover with the topography. Comparison between this new land cover map and previous ones based on data acquired between 2008 and 2011 demonstrates some trends of vegetation cover evolution in response to climate change in the considered area. The potential applications in terms of permafrost modeling (hiperborea.omp.eu) are finally discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia, Landsat images, Lake, land use/land cover
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:49:16 CET)
LULC changes are major environmental challenges in many parts of the world which are adversely affecting ecosystem services. This study was aimed to analyze LULC changes in the ecological landscape of Ethiopia CRV areas from 1985 to 2015. Satellite images were accessed and pre-processing and classification is done. Major LULC types were detected and change analysis was executed. Nine LULC changes were successfully evaluated. The classification result revealed that in 1985, 44.34% of the land was covered with small scale farming followed by mixed cultivated/acacia (21.89%), open woodland (11.96%), and water bodies (9.77%). Whereas for the same study year open grazing land, forest, degraded savannah and settlements accounted the smallest proportion. Though the area varied among land use classes, the trend of share occupied by the LULC types in the study area remained the same in 1995 and 2015. Increase in small and large scale farming, settlements and mixed cultivation/acacia while a decrease in water bodies, forest, and open woodlands is noted. About 86.11% of the land showed major changes in land use/cover. Lastly, DPSIR framework analysis was done and integrated land use and development planning and policy reform are suggested for sustainable land use planning and management.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land cover; Scale effect; Uncertainty; Spatial Heterogeneity
Online: 6 May 2023 (03:04:48 CEST)
Land cover data are important basic data for earth system science and other fields. Multi-source remote sensing images have become the main data source for land cover classification. There are still many uncertainties in the scale effect of image spatial resolution on land cover classification. Since it is difficult to obtain multiple spatial resolution remote sensing images of the same area at the same time, the main current method to study the scale effect of land cover classification is to use the same image resampled to different resolutions, however errors in the resampling process lead to uncertainty in the accuracy of land cover classification. To study the land cover classification scale effect of different spatial resolutions of multi-source remote sensing data, we selected 1 m and 4 m of GF-2, 6 m of SPOT-6, 10 m of Sentinel-2 and 30 m of Landsat-8 multi-sensor data, and explored the scale effect of image spatial resolution on land cover classification from two aspects of mixed image element decomposition and spatial heterogeneity. For the study area, we compared the classification obtained from GF-2, SPOT-6, Sentinel-2, and Landsat-8 images at different spatial resolutions based on GBDT and RF. The results show that (1) GF-2 and SPOT-6 had the best classification results, and the optimal scale based on this classification accuracy was 4–6 m; (2) the optimal scale based on linear decomposition depended on the study area; (3) the optimal scale of land cover was related to spatial heterogeneity, i.e., the more fragmented and complex was the space, the smaller the scale needed; and (4) the resampled images were not sensitive to scale and increase the uncertainty of the classification. These findings have implications for land cover classification and optimal scale selection, scale effects and landscape ecology uncertainty studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land Cover; High-performance computing; Remote sensing; Workflow; Automation
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:50:07 CEST)
Large-scale land cover plays a crucial role in global resource monitoring and management, as well as research on sustainable development. However, the complexity of the mapping process, coupled with significant computational and data storage requirements, often leads to delays between data processing and product publication, creating challenges for dynamic monitoring of large-scale land cover. Therefore, improving the efficiency of each stage in large-scale land cover mapping and automating the mapping process is currently an urgent and critical issue that needs to be addressed. We propose a high-performance automated large-scale land cover mapping framework(HALF) that introduces high-performance computing technology to the field of land cover production. HALF optimizes key processes, such as automated sample point extraction, sample-remote sensing image matching, and large-scale classification result mosaic and update. We selected several 10°×10° regions globally and the research makes several significant contributions:(1)We design HALF for land cover mapping based on docker and CWL-Airflow, which solves the heterogeneity of models between complex processes in land cover mapping and simplifies the model deployment process. By introducing workflow organization, this method achieves a high degree of decoupling between the production models of each stage and the overall process, enhancing the scalability of the framework. (2)HALF propose an automatic sample points method that generates a large number of samples by overlaying and analyzing multiple prior products, thus saving the cost of manual sample selection. Using high-performance computing technology improved the computational efficiency of sample-image matching and feature extraction phase, with 10 times faster than traditional matching methods.(3)HALF propose a high-performance classification result mosaic method based on the idea of grid division. By quickly establishing the spatial relationship between the image and the product and performing parallel computing, the efficiency of the mosaicking in large areas is significantly improved. The average processing time for a single image is around 6.5 seconds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; remote sensing; land cover map
Online: 6 February 2023 (10:53:10 CET)
The application of machine learning techniques to satellite imagery has been the subject of interest in recent years. The increase in quality and quantity of images, made available by Earth observation programs, such as the Copernicus program, led to the generation of large amounts of data. Among the various applications of this data is the creation of land cover maps. The present work aimed to create machine learning models capable of accurately segment and classify satellite images, to automatically generate a land cover map of the Portuguese territory. Several experiments were carried out with the spectral bands of the Sentinel-2 satellite, with vegetation indices, and with several sets of land cover classes. Three machine learning architectures were evaluated, which adopt two different techniques for image classification. One of the classification techniques follows an object-oriented approach, and in this case the architecture adopted in our models was a U-Net artificial neural network. The other classification technique is pixel-oriented, and the machine learning models tested were random forest and support vector machine. The overall accuracy of the results obtained ranged from 68.6% to 94.75%, depending strongly on the number of classes into which the land cover is classified. The result of 94.75% was obtained when classifying the land cover only into 5 classes. However, a very interesting accuracy of 92.37% was achieved by the model when trained to classify 8 classes. These results are superior to those reported in the related bibliography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0061.v1
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:05:06 CET)
This paper proposes a method to utilize weather and land cover models to generate future environmental scenarios, and presents the watershed models to simulate the hydrological impact on watershed-scale hydrology. The Weather Generator model and General Circulation Model were applied to produce rainfall and local temperature under different climate conditions, and the Conservation and Land Use and its Effects model was incorporated to simulate future land cover variability. The circumstances of future climate and land cover changes were used as inputs to drive the HEC-HMS rainfall runoff model for obtaining surface runoff in a mountainous area. The WASH123D model was then utilized for the entire watershed simulation. Modeling results were then examined to discuss hydrological impacts on three different time periods: near future (2020-2039), future (2050-2069), and distant future (2080-2099). The Fengshan Creek basin in northern Taiwan was selected as study site. Simulations results indicated that the influence of climate change revealed more relevant effects when compared to local land cover changes. The ground water levels tended to diminish as the land cover area changed. In addition, both river and groundwater levels reveal that it is drier in dry season and wetter in wet season in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1751.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Lightning; Land Cover and Land Use; Topographic Effects, Itacaiúnas River Hydrographic Basin
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:52:52 CET)
Keywords: Lightning; Land Cover and Land Use; Topographic Effects, Itacaiúnas River Hydrographic Basin
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0347.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Multi Modal Fusion; Channel Attention; Land Cover Mapping
Online: 25 July 2022 (04:51:46 CEST)
Land cover mapping provides spatial information on the physical properties of the Earth’s surface, for various classes of wetlands, artificial surface and constructions, vineyards, water bodies, etc. Having reliable information on land cover is crucial to developing solutions to a variety of environmental problems such as destruction of important wetlands/forests, and loss of fish and wildlife habitats. This has made land cover mapping one of the most widespread application areas in remote sensing computational imaging. However, due to the differences between modalities in terms of resolutions, content, and sensors, integrating complementary information that multi-modal remote sensing imagery exhibits into a robust and accurate system still remains challenging, and classical segmentation approaches generally do not give satisfactory results for land cover mapping. In this paper, we propose a novel dynamic deep network architecture, AMM-FuseNet, that promotes the use of multi-modal remote sensing images for the purpose of land cover mapping. The proposed network exploits the hybrid approach of the Channel Attention mechanism and Densely Connected Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling (DenseASPP). In the experimental analysis, in order to to verify the validity of the proposed method, we test AMM-FuseNet applied to four datasets whilst comparing it to the 6 state-of-the-art models of DeepLabV3+, PSPNet, UNet, SegNet, DenseASPP, and DANet. In addition, we also demonstrate the capability of AMM-FuseNet under minimal training supervision (reduced number of training samples) compared to the state-of-the-art, achieving less accuracy loss even for the case with 1/20 of the training samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0173.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land use; management; woody cover determinants; human-environment; Sahel
Online: 22 March 2017 (15:55:14 CET)
Woody vegetation in farmland acts as a carbon sink and provides ecosystem services for local people, but no macro-scale assessments of the impact of management and climate on woody cover exists for drylands. Here we make use of very high spatial resolution satellite imagery to derive wall-to-wall woody cover patterns in tropical West African drylands. In arid and semi-arid Sahel, areas of more people are associated with more trees: mean woody cover is greater in farmlands (12%) than in savannas (6%), and likewise it is higher close to villages than further away. In sub-humid savannas of West Africa, woody cover is generally above 20% and decreases with increasing population density, but remains around 15% in farmlands, independent of rainfall. In the region as a whole, rainfall, terrain and soil are the most important (80%) determinants of woody cover, while management factors play a smaller (20%) role. We conclude that agricultural expansion cannot generally be claimed to cause woody cover losses, and that observations in Sahel contradict simplistic ideas of a high negative correlation between population density and woody cover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1382.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land Use and Land Cover (LULC); in-water optical properties; bio-optics; suspended particulate matter; coloured dissolved organic matter; chlorophyll-a; catchment area; water discharge; land-sea interactions.
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:48:00 CEST)
The optical complexity of coastal waters is mostly caused by the water discharged from land carrying optical components (such as dissolved and particulate matter) into coastal bays and estuaries, and increasing the attenuation of light. This paper aims to investigate the links between in-water optical properties in four Swedish bays (from the northern Baltic proper up to the Bothnian bay) and the land use and land cover (LULC) and the hydrology in the respective catchment of each bay. The optical properties were measured in situ over the last two decades by various research and monitoring groups while the LULC in each bay was classified using the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service based on Landsat 8 and Sentinel-3 data. The absorption coefficient of coloured dissolve organic matter at 440 nm, aCDOM (440), and its spectral slope factor, SCDOM, were mostly correlated to natural land cover classes (Wetland, Meadow) acting as sources of CDOM, while Agricultural and Urban classes seem to act as sinks. The Agricultural class was also found to be a sink for suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) whilst Coniferous and Mixed Forests as well as Meadows acted as a sources. SPOM seems to mostly originate from Natural classes, possibly due to the release of pollen and other organic matter. Overall, the methods applied here allow for a better understanding of effects of land used and land cover on the bio-optical properties, and thus coastal water quality, on a macroscopic scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0251.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: sustainability development; land use change; Corine Land Cover
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:21:51 CET)
The article presents the author's method of land use change assessment in the context of sustainable development and the results of its application based on the transformations that occurred in individual areas of Europe in the years 2012–2018. This method is based on data from the CORINE Land Cover program and local government units presenting the degree of urbanization (DEGURBA). The authors evaluate the transformations taking place in space, reducing them to economic, social and environmental dimensions. They then analyse the results in terms of space (covering the entire Europe) and in terms of division into: large cities, small towns as well as suburbs and rural areas. It has been shown that: development of the economic dimension most often takes place at the expense of natural resources; the higher the population density and more important function in the functional system of a given country, the greater the sustainable development differentiation level in the analysed dimensions, of which the social dimension is characterized by the lowest differentiation and the economic dimension is the highest; development of rural areas is less sustainable than in case of large urban centres. The result interpretation also leads to the conclusion that the areas of Europe are very diverse in terms of sustainable development. However, the method itself, despite the imperfections observed by the authors, may be used in further or similar studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Change detection; NDVI; Landsat; Land cover land use change; Urban environment
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:44:21 CET)
Urban cities are the major drivers of economic growth and development. Economic growth and development however results in considerable land cover land use dynamics. This study assessed the dynamics in land cover land use that have occurred in New Braunfels, Texas in the last 7 years (2013 - 2020) to observe areas in the city that had experienced considerable shifts in land cover and land use. A 30-meter resolution Landsat images were used to examine possible changes in land cover land use. New Braunfels was observed to have experienced significant changes in land use especially in developed areas. This change can be attributed to the influx of people into the city, contributing to the need for increased urban development. Analysis of this study shows that about 16% (about 553 hectares) of forest land cover class and 28% (about 1,139 hectares) of grassland class in time 1 (August 31, 2013) changed to built-up land use class in time 2 (November 5, 2020). A limitation to this study was that of the spatial resolution of images used. Higher spatial resolution images could impact the producers, users, and overall accuracy assessment. Results from this study can aid in supporting better decision-making for sustainable urban development and climate change mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0356.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land-use change; forest conversion; species loss; fragmentation; deforestation
Online: 17 August 2021 (10:10:09 CEST)
Remote sensing/GIS techniques are a versatile tool for x-raying serial forest structural changes in retrospect. It would be impossible to evaluate past occurrences and changes in forest extents in past decades at Effan Forest Reserve without non-conventional means. Therefore, we adopted remote sensing technology using Landsat images to evaluate land-use change and degradation rates in the area with a view to ascertaining causal factors for possible minimization of forest degradation in Effan Forest Reserve. Land-use/land-cover changes were analyzed using USGS-Landsat TM and ETM images of 1987, 2002, 2014 and 2019. Field-data were collected using handheld GPS receiver and spatial statistical analyses were conducted using the ground control points (GCPs). For inventory data, a systematic sampling technique was adopted using ten 1.05 km-transects at 500 m intervals. A total of 50 sample plots of 50 × 50 m were used. All tree species with Dbh ≥10 cm were enumerated. Nineteen tree species in ten families were encountered with Vitellaria paradoxa as the most-frequently occurring species in the area. IUCN-listed endangered Pterocarpus erinaceus, hitherto abundant in the area, was rarely encountered during the survey, while Vitellaria paradoxa is gradually shrinking, going the relative abundance in the area. The result further showed that primary and secondary forests decreased considerably by 258.03 ha (46.72%) and 9.18 ha (3.63%), respectively, with a total forest loss of 50.3% in 32 years (8.4 hayr-1, 1.6% per annum). While forest plantation size doubled by 369.72 ha within the period. This is worrisome as the remaining fragmented forests appeared to be on the decline, except the riparian vegetation, due to inaccessibility to the riparian by loggers. It thus appeared that forest protection approaches were ineffective. Increased protection efforts could save this forest reserve, and the concerned authority should consider a focused-enrichment planting involving indigenous species for ecosystem-repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1043.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Image classification; Land use/land cover mapping; Accuracy assessment; Landsat-8; Snetinel-2
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:01:24 CEST)
Satellite-based data classification performance remains a challenge for research community in the field of land use/land cover mapping. Here we investigated supervised per-pixel classifications performance under different scenarios, based on single and seasonal multispectral data combi-nations of different sensors (Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI). In case of Landsat, seasonal spectral indices (EVI and NDMI) were included. A typical Mediterranean watershed with a complex landscape comprised of various forest and wetland ecosystems, crops, artificial surfaces, and lake water was selected to test our approach. All available geospatial data from national databases (Forest Map, LPIS, Natura2000 habitats, cadastral parcels, etc.) are used as ancillary data for clas-sification training and validation. We examined and compared the performance of ML, RF, KNN and SVM classifiers under different scenarios for land use/land cover mapping, according to Copernicus Land Cover (CLC2018) nomenclature. In total, eight land use/land cover classes were identified in Landsat-8 OLI and nine in Sentinel-2a MSI for an acceptable overall accuracy over 85%. A comparison of the overall classification accuracies shows that Sentinel-2a overall accuracy was slightly higher than Landsat-8 (96.68% vs. 93.02%). Respectively, the best-performed algorithm was ML in Sentinel-2 while in Landsat-8 was KNN. However, machine-learning algorithms have similar results regardless the type of sensor. We concluded that best classification performances achieved using seasonal multispectral data. Future research should be oriented towards inte-grating time-series multispectral data of different sensors and geospatial ancillary data for land use/land cover mapping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0119.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: mediterranean lagoon complex; surface water dynamic; land use and land cover; landscape metrics; remote sensing
Online: 10 May 2019 (10:40:14 CEST)
Mediterranean coastal lagoons and their peripheral areas often provide a collection of habitats for many species, and they often face significant threats from anthropogenic activities. Diverse human activities in such areas directly affect the spatio-temporal dynamic of surface water and its ecological characteristics. Monitoring the surface water dynamic, and understanding the impact of human activities are of great significance for coastal lagoon conservation. The Regional Natural Park of Narbonne includes a typical Mediterranean lagoon complex where surface water dynamic and its potential link with local diverse human activities has not yet been studied. In this context, based on all the available Landsat images covering the study area during 2002-2016, this study identified the water and non-water classes for each satellite observation by comparing three widely used water indices (i.e., NDVI, NDWI and MNDWI) and using the Otsu method. The yearly water frequency index was then computed to present the spatio-temporal dynamic of surface water for each year, and three water dynamic scenarios were also identified for each year: permanent water (PW), non-permanent water (NPW) and non-water (NW). The spatial and inter-annual variation in the patterns of the three water scenarios were characterized by computing the landscape metrics at scenario-level quantifying area/edge, shape, aggregation and fragmentation. Finally, the quantitative link between different land use and land cover (LULC) types derived from the LULC maps of 2003, 2012 and 2015 and the surface water dynamic scenarios was established in each of the 300 m x 300 m grid cells covering the study area to determine the potential impact of human activities on the surface water dynamic. In terms of the inter-annual variation during 2002-2016, PW presented an overall stability, and NPW occupied only a small part of the water surface in each year and presented an inter-annual fluctuation. NPW had a smaller patch size, with lower connectivity degree and higher fragmentation degree. In terms of spatial variation during 2002-2016, NPW often occurred around PW, and its configurational features varied from place to place. Moreover, PW mostly corresponded to natural lagoon, and salt marsh (as a part of lagoons), and NPW had a strong link with arable land (agricultural irrigation) and salt marsh (salt production), sand beach/dune, coastal wetlands and lagoon for the LULC maps of 2003, 2012 and 2015. However, more in-depth analysis is required for understanding the impact of sand beach/dune, coastal wetlands and lagoon on surface water dynamics. This study covers the long-term variations of surface water patterns in a Mediterranean lagoon complex having intense and diverse human activities, and the potential link between LULC types and the water dynamic scenarios was investigated on different dates. The results of the study should be useful for environmental management and protection of coastal lagoons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spatial scale; CCA; indicator species analysis; land use; SWAT; bioassessment
Online: 17 February 2017 (07:33:16 CET)
We evaluated the potential of using fish species and functional traits as indicators of land use impacts to fish assemblages. We used environmental data collected at multiple spatial scales (local, reach, and upstream catchment) for 19 tributary and main stem sites in the Nolichucky River watershed in Tennessee. Canonical correspondence analyses showed that temperature, elevation, specific conductivity, sediment yield, impervious surfaces, and row crop cover at the catchment scale were strongly associated with fish assemblage structure, as well as forest cover from all three spatial scales. Blocked indicator species analysis, with stream size as the block, showed that significantly strong indicators of the least-impacted riparian land use condition (≥60% forest cover) were Saffron Shiner (Notropis rubricroceus), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss), Longnose Dace (Rhynichthys cataractae), Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), and Mottled Sculpin (Cottus bairdi). Traits indicative of the least-impacted sites were the herbivorous trophic guild, mean female age-at-maturity, longevity, rock-gravel spawners, montane geology and pelagic swimmers. Specific conductivity was strongly related to multiple catchment-scale land use variables, and was a strong local-scale influence on fish assemblage structure. Our results show promise for using a relatively common but endemic southern Appalachian fish species, the Saffron Shiner, as an indicator for land-use related impacts to these streams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0104.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: GEOBIA; canga ecosystem; Carajás National Forest; mine land revegetation; satellite images; environmental assessment
Online: 8 August 2019 (12:00:50 CEST)
Remote sensing technologies may play a fundamental role in the environmental assessment of open-cast mining and the accurate quantification of mine land rehabilitation efforts. Here, we developed a systematic geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) approach to map the amount of revegetated area and to quantify the land-use changes in open-cast mines in the Carajás region situated in the eastern Amazon. Based on high-resolution satellite images from 2011 to 2015 from different sensors (GeoEye, WorldView-3 and Ikonos), we quantified forests, cangas (natural metalliferous savanna ecosystems), mine land, revegetated areas and water bodies. Based on the GEOBIA approach, threshold values were established to discriminate land cover classes using spectral bands, and the NDVI and NDWI indices and LiDAR digital ground and slope models. The overall accuracy was higher than 90%, and the Kappa indices varied between 0.82 and 0.88. During the observation period, the mining complex expanded; for that, canga and forest vegetation was converted to mine land. At the same time, the amount of revegetated area increased. Thus, we conclude that our approach is capable of providing consistent information regarding land cover changes in mines, with a special focus on the amount of revegetation necessary to fulfill environmental liabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0167.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: spatio-temporal pattern; land cover; mountainous city; Chongqing
Online: 10 May 2018 (14:59:19 CEST)
The urban heat island (UHI) becomes more and more serious with the acceleration of urbanization. Many researchers have shown interest in studying the UHI by using remote sensing data. But these studies rarely examine the mountainous cities. The studies on UHI in mountainous cities often used empirical parameters to estimate the land surface temperature (LST), and lacked satellite-ground synchronous experiment to test the accuracy. This paper revised the parameters in mono-window algorithm used to retrieve the LST according to the characteristics of mountainous cities. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the UHI intensity in Chongqing, a typical mountainous city, and its relationship with land cover from 2007 to 2011 based on the Landsat TM data and the improved method. The accuracy of the LST derivation increased by about 1°C compared to the traditional method. The high LST areas increased and extended from the downtown to suburban area each year, but the rate of change decreased. The UHI is dramatically impacted by the rivers. There is a good relationship between the urban sprawl and the UHI. The LST was reduced by about 1°C within a 300m distance from large urban fringe green spaces. The urban landscape parks had a strong effect relieving the UHI at a 100m distance. The LST was reduced by about 0.5°C. The study greatly improves the accuracy of LST derivation, and provides a reliable parameters for the UHI researched in mountainous city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0533.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: driving forces; landscape change; landscape dynamics; forest landscape; land use; land cover; landscape change index
Online: 30 August 2018 (14:49:28 CEST)
Abstract: Changes in forest landscapes have been connected with human activity for centuries, which can be considered as one of the main driving forces of change in the global perspective. The spatial distribution of forests changes along with the geopolitical situation, demographic changes, intensification of agriculture, urbanization or changes in the land use policy. However, due to the limited availability of historical data, the driving forces of changes in forest landscapes are most often considered in relation to recent decades, without taking into account long-term analyzes. The aim of this paper is to determine the impact of natural and socio-economic factors on changes in forest landscapes within the protected area – Ślęża Landscape Park and its buffer zone in the aspect of long-term analyzes covering the period of 140 years (1883-2013). The comparison of historical and current maps, demographic data on 4 different periods as well as natural and location factors by using the ArcGIS software allowed analyzing selected driving forces of forest landscape transformations. We took into account natural factors like altitude, slope, exposure of the hillside and socio-economic drivers like population changes, distances to centers of municipalities, main roads and built-up areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0270.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land cover mapping; Convolutional neural networks; UNET; Sentinel-2
Online: 9 August 2019 (11:54:37 CEST)
The Sentinel-2 satellite mission offers high resolution multispectral time series image data, enabling the production of detailed land cover maps globally. At this scale, the trade-off between processing time and result quality is a central design decision. Currently, this machine learning task is usually performed using pixelwise classification methods. The radical shift of the computer vision field away from hand engineered image features and towards more automation by representation learning comes with many promises, including higher quality results and less engineering effort. In this paper we assess fully convolutional neural networks architectures as replacements for a Random Forest classifier in an operational context for the production of high resolution land cover maps with Sentinel-2 time series at the country scale. Our contributions include a framework for working with Sentinel-2 L2A time series image data, an adaptation of the U-Net model for dealing with sparse annotation data while maintaining high resolution output, and an analysis of those results in the context of operational production of land cover maps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0282.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land-use/land-cover; multi-decadal change analysis; irrigation ponds; textural features; supervised classification; multi-source data
Online: 18 June 2018 (16:40:31 CEST)
A multi-decadal change analysis of the irrigation ponds in Taoyuan, Taiwan was conducted by using multi-source data including digitized ancient maps, declassified single-band CORONA satellite images, and multispectral SPOT images. Supervised LULC classifications were conducted using four textural features derived from the single-band CORONA images and spectral features derived from SPOT images. Post-classification analysis revealed that the number of irrigation ponds in the study area decreased during the post-World War II farmland consolidation period (1945 – 1965) and the subsequent industrialization period (1970 – 2000). However, efforts on restoration of irrigation ponds in recent years have resulted in gradual increases in the number (9%) and total area (12%) of irrigation ponds in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0204.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Ecosystem service values; Land cover change; Proximate causes; Underlying causes
Online: 12 December 2022 (13:21:24 CET)
Land use/cover (LULC) change is one of the most important environmental phenomena that have affected the earths’ systems and its ecosystem services. Hence, this study was conducted with the main objective of assessing LULC change, its drivers andimpactson ecosystem services in Jimma Rare district for the year 1974–2019. In order to understand the spatial and temporal changes of LULC and its drivers four satellite images for the year1974, 1991, 2005 and 2019 were obtained and respondent interviews, focus group discussions (FGD) and field observations were employed. Moreover, the ecosystem service value coefficients developed at a global level were used to assess the impacts of LULC on ecosystem service provision of the study area. The results of the study revealed that grass land and forest land decreased from 4518.87ha (13.09%) to 902.42ha (2.61%) and 3287.79ha (9.52%) to 2506.63ha (7.26%) from 1974-2019 respectively. Similarly, wetland declined from1182.08ha (3.42%) to 562.37ha (1.63%) in the stated period.The greatest expansion of cultivated land and settlement area occurred during the year 1974-1991. Agricultural expansion, deforestation, overgrazing and expansion of rural and urban settlement were among the major proximate causes. Likewise, the major underlying drivers of LULC dynamics include population increase, the presence of weak policy and institutions, poverty and lack of awareness were identified by respondents and focus group discussants. The total natural capital value reduced from 662.75 (million $/ha/yr) to 577.03 (million $/ha/yr) in the study period indicating the impacts of LULC on ecosystem services. From this study, it is possible to conclude that Jimma Rare District has experienced a significant change in LULC and ecosystem service values over the past 45 years. Hence, appropriate policy packages of land use are required to curb the negative impacts of such changes in the study district in the provision of the required services for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0164.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land use/land cover; nighttime light (NTL); NDEUI; landscape metrics; random Forests; urban growth mode
Online: 9 October 2018 (03:31:38 CEST)
Rapid urbanization has dramatically spurred the economic development over the past three decades, especially in China, but has nevertheless had negative impacts on natural resources since it is an irreversible process. Thus, it is essential to timely monitor and quantitatively analysis the changes in land use over time and to identify the landscape pattern variation related to growth mode in different period. This study aims at inspecting spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape pattern respond to land use changes in Xuzhou city during the period from 1985 to 2015. In this connection, we proposed a new spectral index, named the Normalized Difference Enhanced Urban Index (NDEUI), which combines data from NTL (Nighttime light) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) with annual maximum Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to reduce the detection confusion between urban areas and barren land, as well as follows. NDEUI-assisted Random Forests algorithm was implemented to obtain the land use/land cover (LULC) maps of Xuzhou in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015, respectively. Here, four different periods viz. 1985–1995, 1995–2005, 2005–2015 and 1985–2015 are chosen for the change analysis of land use and landscape pattern. The results indicated that the urban area has increased by about 30.65%, 10.54%, 68.77%, and 143.75% during the four periods mentioned above at the main expense of agricultural land, respectively. The spatial trend maps revealed that continuous transition from other land use types into urban land has appeared a dual-core development mode throughout the urbanization process, located at the new city region and the Jiawang district, mainly affected by the construction of new city region, freeway and the high railway station. Furthermore, we quantified the patch complexity, aggregation, connectivity and diversity of landscape employing a number of landscape metrics to represent the changes of landscape pattern at both class and landscape level, affected by urbanization during the study period. The results showed that with regard to the four aspects of landscape pattern, there were considerable differences among the four years, mainly owing to the increasing dominance of urbanized land. Spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern was also conducted on the basis of subgrids in 900 m × 900 m. Combined with the land use changes and spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern, it can be concluded that different urbanization modes and intensity result in variously the spatiotemporal evolution of landscape patterns. For Xuzhou city, the urban growth mainly appeared a leapfrog mode alone both sides of the roads during the period of 1985 to 1995, and then shifted into edge-expansion mode during the period from 1995 to 2005, whereas the edge-expansion and leapfrog modes coexisted for the period from 2005 to 2015. The high valuable spatiotemporal information generated utilizing RS and GIS in this study may give assistance to urban planners and policymakers to well understand urban dynamics and evaluate their spatiotemporal and environmental impacts at a local level for the sake of sustainable urban planning in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0244.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Remote sensing, classification, Al-Ahsaa, Saudi Arabia, Land cover
Online: 25 January 2018 (15:56:02 CET)
Accurate, detailed and recent Information about land cover/use is important and much more needed for different aspects of sustainable development and environmental management. As remote sensing datasets are becomes one of the most important and effective tools to generate such information, this study aimed to generating land cover map for sub area in Al-Ahasaa Oasis, Saudi Arabia, by using and classifying a subset of Landsat-ETM+ image of the selected study area, as bases and required input for future studies and researches. Different image preprocessing techniques in addition to a will-known and widely used classification method (i.e., Maximum Likelihood classifier) were applied. To be reliable with the final product, accuracy assessment was carried out with 89% agreement and accepted according to the applied method. Different land cover classes were found in the study area, which includes (Sand dunes, Water bodies, Sabakha, Bare soil, Urban, and Agricultural lands). The study also revealed that the dominant land cover class is sand dunes with approximately ± 70% in area. The study strongly indicated that the area has long been affected by sand movement. Finally, the study suggested that, further researches with more advanced methods rather than traditional methods are needed in the future to support the findings of this study, with high degree of accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0110.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate change; Land cover; Land use; Conversion; Sand dunes; Environment; Degradation; Poverty.
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:26:22 CET)
In Nigeria, desertification has become one of the most pronounced ecological disasters, with the impacts mostly affecting eleven frontline States. This has been attributed to a range of both nat-ural and man-made factors. This study applied a remote sensing-based change detection and indicator analysis to explore land use/land cover changes and detect major conversions from ecologically active land covers to sand dunes. Results indicate that areas covered by sand dunes (a major indicator of desertification) have doubled over the 25 years under consideration (1990 to 2015). Although about 0.71 km2 of dunes have been converted to vegetation, indicative of the success of various international, national, local, and individual afforestation efforts, conversely about 10.1 km2 of vegetation were converted to sand dunes, implying around 14 times more de-forestation compared to afforestation. Juxtaposing the progression of sand dune with climate records of the study area and examining the relationship between indicators of climate change and desertification suggested a mismatch between both processes as increasing rainfall and lower temperatures observed in 1994, 2005, 2012, and 2014 did not translated into positive feedbacks for desertification in the study area. On average, our results reveal that sand dune is progressing at a mean annual rate of about 15.2 km2 in the study area. Based on this study’s land cover change, trend and conversion assessment, visual reconciliation of climate records with land cover data, statistical analysis, observations from ground-truthing, as well as previous literature, it can be inferred that desertification in Nigeria is less a function of climate change, but more a product of human activities driven by poverty, population growth and failed government policies. Further projections by this study also reveal a high probability of more farmlands being converted to sand dunes by the year 2030 and 2045 if current practices prevail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0428.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ALOS-3; Land Cover; Vegetation; Machine learning; Classification; Mapping; Ge-nus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem level
Online: 13 May 2022 (14:45:48 CEST)
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is going to launch Advanced Land Observing Satellite 3 (ALOS-3) after 2022. ALOS-3 satellite is capable of observing global land areas with wide swath (4000 km along-track direction and 70 km cross-track direction) at high spatial resolution (panchromatic: 0.8m, multispectral: 3.2m). Maintenance and updating of land cover and vegetation information at national level is one of the major goals of the ALOS-3 mission. This paper presents the potential of simulated ALOS-3 images for the classification and mapping of land cover and vegetation types at Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem (GPE) level. We acquired and simulated WorldView-3 images according to the configuration of the ALOS-3 satellite sensor and the simulated ALOS-3 images were utilized for the classification and mapping of land cover and vegetation types in three sites (Hakkoda, Zao, and Shiranuka) in northern Japan. This research dealt with 17 land cover and vegetation types in Hakkoda site, 25 land cover and vegetation types in Zao site, and 12 land cover and vegetation types in Shiranuka site. Ground truth data were newly collected in three sites, and we employed eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) classifier with the implementation of 10-fold cross-validation method for assessing the potential of ALOS-3S images. The classification accuracies obtained in Hakkoda, Zao, and Shiranuka sites in terms of f1-score were 0.810, 0.729, and 0.805 respectively. The fine scale (3.2m) land cover and vegetation maps produced in the study sites showed clear and detailed view of the distribution of plant communities. Regardless of the limited number of the temporal images, ALOS-3S images showed high potential (at least 0.729 F1-score) for the land cover and vegetation classification in all three sites. The availability of more cloud free temporal scenes is expected for improved classification and mapping in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0595.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Hydrological responses; global environmental changes; Dhidhessa Subbasin; Land cover change; Climate change; Combined impacts.
Online: 23 December 2020 (15:48:06 CET)
Land cover and climate changes greatly influence hydrologic responses of a basin. However, the response vary from basin to basin depending on the nature and severity of the changes and basin characteristics. Moreover, the combined impacts of the changes affect hydrologic responses of a basin in an offsetting or synergistic manner. This study quantified the separate and combined impacts, and the relative contributions of land cover and climate changes on multiple hydrological regimes (i.e., surface runoff, streamflow, groundwater recharge evapotranspiration) for the Dhidhessa Subbasin. Land cover and climate change data were obtained from a recent study completed for the basin. Calibrated Soil and Water Analysis Tool (SWAT) was used to quantify the impacts. The result showed that SWAT model performed well for the Dhidhessa Subbasin in predicting the water balance components. Substantial land cover change as well as an increasing temperature and rainfall trends were reported in the river basin during the past three decades. In response to these changes, surface runoff, streamflow and actual evapotranspiration (AET) increased while groundwater recharge declined. Surface runoff was more sensitive to land cover than to climate changes whereas streamflow and AET were more sensitive to climate change than to land cover change. The combined impacts played offsetting effect on groundwater recharge and AET while inconsistent effects within study periods for other hydrologic responses. Overall, the predicted hydrologic responses will have negative impacts on agricultural production and water resources availability. Therefore, the implementation of integrated watershed management strategies such as soil and water conservation and afforestation could reverse the negative impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0024.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: AWS; land cover; LDAPS; mean bias error; temperature; topography; wind speed
Online: 2 September 2020 (05:00:09 CEST)
We investigated the characteristics of surface wind speeds and temperatures predicted by the local data assimilation and prediction system (LDAPS) operated by the Korean Meteorological Administration. First, we classified automated weather stations (AWSs) into four categories [urban flat (Uf), rural flat (Rf), rural mountainous (Rm), and rural coastal (Rc) terrains] based on the surrounding land cover and topography, and selected 25 AWSs representing each category. Then we calculated the mean bias error of wind speed (WE) and temperature (TE) using AWS observations and LDAPS predictions for the 25 AWSs in each category for a period of 1 year (January–December 2015). We found that LDAPS overestimated wind speed (average WE = 1.26 m s–1) and underestimated temperature (average TE = –0.63°C) at Uf AWSs located on flat terrain in urban areas because it failed to reflect the drag and local heating caused by buildings. At Rf, located on flat terrain in rural areas, LDAPS showed the best performance in predicting surface wind speed and temperature (average WE = 0.42 m s–1, average TE = 0.12°C). In mountainous rural terrain (Rm), WE and TE were strongly correlated with differences between LDAPS and actual altitude. LDAPS underestimated (overestimated) wind speed (temperature) for LDAPS altitudes that were lower than actual altitude, and vice versa. In rural coastal terrain (Rc), LDAPS temperature predictions depended on whether the grid was on land or sea, whereas wind speed did not depend on grid location. LDAPS underestimated temperature at grid points on the sea, with smaller TE obtained for grid points on sea than on land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Land-use change; Land-use planning; Ecosystem services; Erosion; Climate change; Agricultural policies; Soil tillage
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:40:53 CEST)
In the last two centuries, land use change (LUC) has been the most important direct changes driver for terrestrial ecosystems. To contrast the consequent ecosystems degradation, forward-looking spatial policies and target landscape and land-use planning processes, promoting a sustainable land use change, are needed. The present paper proposes a framework of action including different landscape planning and ecological approaches: from the spatial modelling to recognize the LUC and build different scenarios, to the ecosystem services (ESs) assessment to evaluate the possible environmental impacts. Three different scenarios were built: Trend, No-Tillage and Energy crops. The Sediment Delivery Ratio and Carbon Storage and Sequestration ESs were assessed and compared for each scenario. The aim of the paper is to support decision-makers and local communities into the landscape planning process. Results show that a regional development in line with past trend could lead to further land degradation. Instead, the two scenarios proposed in compliance with EU policies, could bring benefits only if related to moderate LUCs and respecting the naturally grass-vegetated land. From the local to global scale, a guided and shared LUC management allows implementing sustainable development, basing on a deep knowledge of physical-environmental but also social and economic issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0322.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land consolidation; social consciousness; modernization; governance; rural China
Online: 9 October 2023 (03:11:34 CEST)
With the changing relationship between urban and rural areas in China, the rural areas are experiencing rapid social transformation. To ensure successful implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, land consolidation has become a major measure of rural economic reform. Existing research focuses on quantitative studies exploring the relationship between land consolidation and rural economic development, but there is a lack of studies on the relationship between land consolidation and social change. In this study, Jin’an Village is selected as the research area, using semi-structured interviews and semi-participatory observation to obtain original materials, aiming to make a detailed description of the specific practice of land consolidation, and to analyze the impact of land consolidation on the transformation of rural social consciousness. The study found that rural land consolidation involves villagers in the land consolidation process, which can effectively stimulate villagers’ participation in public affairs. Concurrently, the interaction between villagers and outside investors disrupts the conventional socialization model in rural areas and motivates villagers to act in accordance with contractual agreements. The conclusion is that land consolidation in rural areas can enhance the political democracy and legal consciousness of local villagers, which can lead to a change in local social consciousness. Our findings also emphasize the crucial necessity to grant rural villagers with improved accessibility to professional services and information, coupled with the continued promotion of land consolidation to advance modernization in these areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: land use changes; zoning; community forest; resilience; Togo
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:57:57 CEST)
Affem Boussou community forest (AFC) abounds in important biological resources. This study, which contributes to its better management, examines the spatiotemporal dynamics of the vegetation and its ecological and structural characteristics to propose a zoning plan for the said forest. The analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use in the AFC from Google Earth images of 2015, 2018, and 2021 revealed a regressive trend of formations: crops and fallows (-33.98%), dense dry forests (-7.92%), gallery forests (-3.46%), plantations (-100%), grassy savannahs and meadows (-18.84%) except for tree/shrub savannahs (484.23%). The floristic inventory identified 163 species divided into 129 genera and 55 families. Fabaceae (14.02%), and Combretaceae (10.55%) are the most represented families. Anogeissus leiocarpa (5.19%) and Vitellaria paradoxa (4.72%) are the most frequent species. We note the dominance of individuals of small diameters. The regeneration potential of the AFC is 64 feet/ha due to 21 feet/ha of suckers, 29 feet/ha of seedlings, and 14 feet/ha of shoots. As a zoning plan, the AFC was subdivided into four series: the agroforestry zone (18.80%), the sustainable production forest zone (42.22%), the buffer zone (11%), and the biological conservation zone (28%). These results constitute a scientific basis for testing ecological indicators of sustainable management of community forests in Togo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0550.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Adaptation; Biodiversity; Climate Change; Conservation Planning; Land use; Netowrks; Optimization; Protected areas
Online: 29 November 2021 (15:44:44 CET)
Current species’ range displacements are mostly triggered by climate change but European landscapes are largely dominated by human activities. In this study we identify the most promising spatial adaptive trajectories (SATs) for the thirty most threatened non volant mammal species in Europe up to 2080 (under three climate and land change scenarios) and where/when SATs of each species synchronically converge. We found large contrasts on the persistence of species in SATs, with some species largely reliant on the functionality of areas where many SATs converge. Overall, SATs and convergence centers are not adequately covered by existing conservation areas and coincide with crop and arable lands, compromising species persistence. It is important to invest in the protection of SATs and convergence centers through a mix of conventional instruments and new collaborative forms with the socio-economy. Anticipative plans at long-term coupled with risk analysis offer decision–makers templates to prevent negative surprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0516.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land-cover classification; very high spatial resolution remote sensing image; adaptive majority vote; post-classification.
Online: 26 July 2018 (15:05:16 CEST)
Land-cover classification that uses very-high-resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is a topic of considerable interest. Although many classification methods have been developed, there is still room for improvements in the accuracy and usability of classification systems. In this paper, a novel post-processing approach based on a dual-adaptive majority voting strategy (D-AMVS) is proposed for improving the performance of initial classification maps. D-AMVS defines a strategy for refining each label of a classified map that is obtained by different classification methods from the same original image and fusing the different refined classification maps to generate a final classification result. The proposed D-AMVS contains three main blocks. 1) An adaptive region is generated by extending gradually the region around a central pixel based on two predefined parameters (T1 and T2) in order to utilize the spatial feature of ground targets in a VHR image. 2) For each classified map, the label of the central pixel is refined according to the majority voting rule within the adaptive region. This is defined as adaptive majority voting (AMV). Each initial classified map is refined in this manner pixel by pixel. 3) Finally, the refined classified maps are used to generate a final classification map, and the label of the central pixel in the final classification map is determined by applying AMV again. Each entire classified map is scanned and refined pixel by pixel based on the proposed D-AMVS. The accuracies of the proposed D-AMVS approach are investigated through two remote sensing images with high spatial resolutions of 1.0 and 1.3 m, respectively. Compared with the classical majority voting method and a relatively new post-processing method called general post-classification framework, the proposed D-AMVS can achieve a land-cover classification map with less noise and higher classification accuracies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0841.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover; sentinel-2 images; random forest; boreal forest; alpine tundra
Online: 12 July 2023 (13:39:19 CEST)
A land cover map of two arctic catchments, nearby the Abisko Scientific Research Station, was obtained from a classification of a Sentinel-2 satellite image and a ground survey performed in July 2022. The two contiguous catchments, Miellajokka and Stordalen, are covered by various ecotypes, from boreal forest to alpine tundra and peatland. The random forests algorithm correctly identified 88% of polygon pixels reserved for testing. The developed workflow relied solely on open source software and acquired ground observations. Space organization was directed by the altitude as demonstrated by the intersection of the land cover with the topography. Comparison between this new land cover map and previous ones based on data acquired between 2008 and 2011 shows some trends of vegetation cover evolution in response to climate change in the considered area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Malaria; Amazon biome; INLA; Land use/cover interactions; Bird and amphibian rich-ness-endemics; Landscape composition; Biological diversity; Spatio-temporal modeling
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:29:50 CEST)
Malaria is a prevalent disease in several tropical and subtropical regions, including Brazil, where remains a significant public health concern. Despite control efforts, reintroduction of endemics in areas without cases for decades poses a challenge. To assess factors influencing ma-laria risk, regional outbreak cluster analysis and a spatio-temporal models were developed for the Brazilian Amazon, incorporating climate, land use/cover interactions, endemic bird, and amphibian richness. Results showed that amphibian, bird richness and endemism correlated with a reduction in malaria risk. Presence of forest had a positive effect on risk, but it depended on its juxtaposition with anthropic land uses. Biodiversity and landscape composition, rather than forest formation presence alone, modulated malaria risk in the period. Areas with low en-demic species diversity and high human activity, predominantly anthropogenic landscapes posed high malaria risk. This study underscores the importance of considering the broader eco-logical context in malaria control efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1812.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land cover; sentinel-2 images; support vector machine; random forests; boreal forest; alpine tundra
Online: 28 August 2023 (04:09:58 CEST)
A land cover map of two arctic catchments, nearby the Abisko Scientific Research Station, was obtained from a classification of a Sentinel-2 satellite image and a ground survey performed in July 2022. The two contiguous catchments, Miellajokka and Stordalen, are covered by various ecotypes, from boreal forest to alpine tundra and peatland. Two classification algorithms, support vector machine and random forest, were tested and gave very similar results. The percentage of correctly classified pixels was over 88% in both cases. The developed workflow relies solely on open source software and acquired ground observations. Space organization was directed by the altitude as demonstrated by the intersection of the land cover with the topography. Comparison between this new land cover map and previous ones based on data acquired between 2008 and 2011 shows some trends of vegetation cover evolution in response to climate change in the considered area. This land cover map is key input data for permafrost modeling, and hence for the quantification of climate change impacts in the studied area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0468.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Pollinator; landscape; land use; urban rural gradient; Japanese honeybee; honey; pollen; nutrition.
Online: 16 July 2021 (13:04:52 CEST)
Pollinators are being threatened globally by urbanisation and agricultural intensification, driv-en by a growing human population. Understanding these impacts on landscapes and pollinators is critical to ensuring a robust pollination system. Remote sensing data on land use attributes have previously linked honeybee nutrition to land use in the Western Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Here, we instead focus on the less commonly studied Apis cerana japonica – the Japanese Honeybee. Our study presents preliminary data comparing forage (honey and pollen) with land use across a rural-urban gradient from 22 sites in Kyushu, southern Japan. Honey samples were collected from hives between June 2018 and August 2019. Pollen were collected and biotyped from hives in urban and rural locations (n = 4). Previous studies of honey show substantial vari-ation in monosaccharide content. Our analysis of A. cerana japonica honey found very little varia-tion in glucose and fructose (which accounted for 97% of monosaccharides), despite substantial differences in surrounding forage composition. As expected, we observed temporal variation in pollen foraged by A. cerana japonica, likely dependent on flowering phenology. These prelimi-nary results suggest that the forage and nutrition of A. cerana japonica may not be negatively af-fected by urban land use. This highlights the need for further comparative studies between A. cerana japonica and A. mellifera as it could suggest a resilience in pollinators foraging in their na-tive range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: streamflow; dynamic land-use change; ANN; SWAT; Dabus river
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:40:27 CEST)
Based on the recorded watershed characteristics, the future conditions on the basin system can be predicted using a different method. In this study, dynamic land-use change and its impacts on the streamflow for the Dabus watershed were predicted using ANN-CA based method. The model performance for accurate prediction of the future land-use change on the Dabus River watershed has been checked by validation of the simulated value with the actual value, hence the overall kappa value (k) = 0.83 for the simulated 2016-LULC validated with actual 2016-LULC. Then, 2026-LULC was predicted based on the 2004 and 2009-LULC. The streamflow for the case of 2004 and 2009-LULC has been simulated using the SWAT model. The value of NSE = 0.87 and 0.90 was attained during validation of simulated streamflow for 2004 and 2009-LULC data cases, respectively. The agreement of simulated value of streamflow with the observed data is indicated as R2 = 0.91 and 0.96 for 2004-LULC and 2009-LULC. The effects of the dynamic land-use change on streamflow for the predicted land use(2026-LULC) catchment were evaluated by T-test analysis. Hence, T-stat =0.04 and -0.002 in the case of simulated streamflow used 2004-LULC and 2009-LULC, respectively compared with simulated value using 2026-LULC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fit-for-purpose land administration; climate; resilience; pandemic.
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:34:53 CEST)
The major global pressures of rapid urbanization and urban growth are compounded by climate impacts resulting in increased vulnerability for urban dwellers, with these vulnerabilities exacerbated during COVID-19. Much of this is concentrated in urban and peri-urban areas where urban development spreads into hazard-prone areas. Often this development is dominated by poor quality homes in informal settlements or slums with poor tenure security. Lessons from a current resilience-building project shows that the fit-for-purpose (FFP) approach to land administration can provide a solution to increase the number of households with security of tenure and improve resilience outcomes as informal settlements grow. This paper discusses the influence of FFP land administration on vulnerabilities to multiple shocks related to climate change and COVID-19. This paper proposes ways the growth of human settlements can be better managed through responsible governance of land tenure rights, and effective land-use planning to improve resilience to different shocks and stresses and provide adequate access to safe land and shelter. Land administration systems can support improved resilience to the multiple stressors of climate and pandemics through improving tenure security and enhancing land use planning controls. Climate change adaptation and risk management need to be better mainstreamed into two major elements of land governance: (i) securing and safeguarding of land rights, and (ii) planning and control of land-use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0153.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Eco-security; Land use and cover change (LUCC); Sustainability development and assessment
Online: 15 August 2016 (12:41:51 CEST)
Land use and cover change (LUCC) is an important method to investigate the causes of global environment change. We utilized the emergy ecological footprint (EEF) model to construct a land-use change model to be used as a systematic measuring tool for monitoring sustainable development trends. In particular, we estimated the eco-security of the Cing-jing region as a case study so that responsible agencies can use it to maintain a balance between ecological preservation and tourism development. The results indicated the following: First, the ecological environment of the Cing-jing region satisfied the safety standard in 2008–2014; however, the related indices increased considerably. Second, the grey model predicted a decrease in 2015–2024 ecological carrying capacities of Cing-jing and a large increase in capita EFs, resulting in a larger ecological deficit and higher EFI. The eco-security from 2015–2024 was higher compared to 7 years ago and is predicted to reach the Grade 2 intermediate level in 2022; thus the Cing-jing region is gradually becoming ecologically unsustainable. Strengths of our study included the use of EEF theory in a quantitative analysis of slope lands for the effective evaluation of ecological security. Finally, we expanded our research to include ecological security issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0315.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: climate change; exotic invasive species; extinction; islands; land snails; Seychelles; sighting record
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:33:32 CET)
Several extinctions have already been attributed, at least in part, to global warming, as climate change constitutes a serious threat for species living in isolated ecosystems and thus unable to track habitat changes. However, in all these cases extinction was due to human impacts, often directly but generally also through exotic invasive species. For two arboreal land snails in Indian Ocean islands a link has been proposed with decreasing rainfall. The decline (but probably not extinction) of Pachnodus velutinus, a specialist of moist forests on the summits of northwestern Mahé, was most likely caused instead by invasive plants altering its habitat and alien predators decimating the population in the small remaining moist forests. An alternative explanation assuming genetic swamping through hybridization with a species from lower elevations has no basis, as the presumed hybrid constitutes a distinct species able to survive in the altered, dryer habitat. On Aldabra Atoll, the endemic Rhachistia aldabrae was claimed to have been the first extinction due to climate change, but is still extant. No relationship can be detected between number of sightings and annual rainfall, although a weighted measure that takes into account rainfall in previous years suggests a limited impact of weather. Analysis of the sighting record in various ways yields a probability of survival over time that never dropped below 0.3. The decline was caused instead by intense impacts of exotic invasive species. Alternative shortcuts to evaluate extinction rates among poorly known species are shown to be unreliable. Although no contemporary extinction can still be attributed to climate change, indirect and synergistic impacts on biodiversity are expected, especially through promoting biological invasions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: CLC 2018 level of detail; comparison of remote sensing and geodetic data; settlement; land use monitoring; urban sprawl
Online: 9 May 2020 (08:22:55 CEST)
The article describes the results of comparison of occurence of buildings (and address points) in Poland with delimitations of land use belonging to particular classes in the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) 2018 dataset. Large discrepancies have been identified, which reach on average approx. 34% of addresses and 35% of buildings located outside class 1 (artificial surfaces), mainly on terrains of class 2 (agricultural areas). Among single-family buildings it was 37% and among new addresses (forecasted or ‘under construction’ buildings) – as much as 50%. This puts a question mark over the possibility of using CLC data with resolution of 25 ha for monitoring of spatial planning and development in Poland for purposes of the diagnosis and assessment of the scale of dispersion of built-up areas. It is worth carrying out similar analyses in other countries, known for the deconcentration processes and a relatively large share of dispersed settlement e.g. other CEE countries, Spain, Portugal, Italy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0530.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: land use/cover; ecosystem; dynamic changes; upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River; NDVI; spatial-temporal evolution
Online: 8 September 2023 (05:14:02 CEST)
The composition and pattern of ecosystems are important factors determining the overall status and spatial differences of ecosystem service functions. However, under the background of differential land policies and ecological protection policies, research on the trend of ecological system pattern changes in the Fenhe River Basin is insufficient. Taking the upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River Basin as the study area, based on long-term NDVI index and multi-period LUCC remote sensing images, this study used spatial statistics and time trend analysis methods to analyze the spatio-temporal dynamic changes of vegetation, land use, landscape pattern, and explored the impact of major driving factors on ecosystem changes. The results show that: (1) From 2010 to 2020, the vegetation cover in the upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River Basin increased, with an annual NDVI increment of 0.003 (P<0.001). NDVI showed an increasing trend spatially, with significant statistics (P<0.001) and significant changes (P<0.05) in vegetation in high-altitude mountain areas, and the vegetation cover was mostly forests or grasslands. There was no significant change in vegetation cover in the low-lying urban agglomeration area. (2) From 2010 to 2020, the area of water bodies or wetlands in the study area significantly decreased, with 51.3% converted to arable land and 33.9% transferred to construction land, while only 2.2% remained as water bodies or wetlands. From 2015 to 2020, the trend of water body changes slowed down, with the proportions of conversion to arable land and construction land being 44.0% and 18.4% respectively, while the area of wetlands or water bodies remained at 16.3%. During the period of 2015-2020, the area of water bodies or wetlands converted to other land types increased by more than 14% compared to 2010-2015. This proportion reached more than 30% compared to the 13th Five-year Plan Period. (3) From 2010 to 2020, the spatial changes of landscape diversity (SHDI) and evenness (SHEI) of LUCC showed heterogeneous characteristics. In the high-altitude areas near the river basin boundary, the values of SHDI and SHEI were below 1.0. While in the low-altitude plain areas and urban areas with relatively frequent human activities, the values of SHDI and SHEI were above 1.0, and the values in urban areas could reach above 1.5. The evolution of ecosystem patterns in the upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River Basin in the past decade has been clarified, providing a scientific basis for the construction and management of ecological environment governance and restoration projects in the Fenhe River Basin, and providing practical references for ecological protection and high-quality development practice in the Yellow River Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Africa/Ghana; climate change; farming/farmers; food security; gender inequality; global South/North; hunger; justice; land
Online: 24 June 2020 (14:31:37 CEST)
Can investing in women’s agriculture increase productivity? This paper argues that it can. We assess climate impacts and gender bias on women’s production in the global South and North and challenge the male model of agricultural development to argue further that women’s farming approaches can be more sustainable. Level-based analysis (global, regional, local) draws on literature review, including authors’ published longitudinal field research in Ghana and the United States. Women farmers are shown to be undervalued and to work harder, with fewer resources, for less compensation; gender bias challenges are shared globally while economic disparities differentiate; breaches of distributive, gender, and intergenerational justices as well as compromise of food sovereignty affect women everywhere. We conclude that investing in women’s agriculture needs more than standard approaches of capital and technology investment. Effective ‘investment’ would include systemic interventions into agricultural policy, governance, education, and industry; be directed at men as well as women; and use gender metrics, e.g. quotas, budgets, vulnerability and impacts assessments, to generate assessment reports and track gender parity in agriculture. Increasing women’s access, capacity, and productivity cannot succeed without men’s awareness and proactivity. Systemic change can increase productivity and sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010009.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: land cover; landscape change; habitat fragmentation; conservation planning; Oti-Keran-Mandouri; Togo
Online: 14 February 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Biodiversity conservation planning is highly important in the current context of global change. Biodiversity conservation can be achieved by understanding changes in land use at the landscape scale. Such understanding is needed to reverse the unprecedented pressure on natural resources that has been reported by many studies conducted on biodiversity conservation within the Oti-Keran-Mandouri protected areas. Land cover maps reflecting different dates (1987, 2000, and 2013) and depicting different management systems, with overall accuracy ranging from 73% to 79%, were analyzed to understand the processes that lead to habitat degradation within these protected areas. The nature of change, within a given land cover class, was determined by comparing land cover maps on different dates using a decision tree algorithm that compares the number of patches, their areas, and their perimeters at different time periods (T1 and T2). Specifically, two time-periods were considered for this analysis: 1987–2000 and 2000–2013. Croplands and settlements increased at an average of 108.13% and 5.45%, respectively, from 1987 to 2000. From 2000 to 2013, croplands gained from all other land categories and continued to increase at a rate of 11.77% per year, whereas forests and savannas decreased at an annual average rate by 5.79% and 2.32%, respectively. The dominant processes of habitat change from 1987 to 2000 were the creation of forests, dissection of savannas, attrition of wetlands, and creation of croplands. Meanwhile, from 2000 to 2013, there was attrition of forests, as well as attrition of savannas, dissection of wetlands, and aggregation of croplands. In general, from 1987 to 2013, natural habitats regressed and were replaced by croplands; forests, savannas, and wetlands decreased at an average annual percentage 5.74%, 3.94%, and 2.02%, respectively, whereas croplands increased at an average annual rate of 285.39% of their own area. Aggregation, attrition, dissection, and creation were the main habitat change processes identified for the overall period from 1987 to 2013. There was habitat loss in forests and savannas and habitat fragmentation in wetland due to attrition and dissection, respectively. Identifying and understanding habitat change processes would enable the taking of appropriate biodiversity conservation actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0098.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: farming-pasture ecotone; TM image; remote sensing; vegetation cover factor; scale conversion; land use; high resolution image
Online: 21 September 2017 (16:33:49 CEST)
The key to simulating soil erosion is to calculate the vegetation cover (C) factor. Methods that apply remote sensing to calculate C factor at regional scale cannot directly use the C factor formula. That is because the C factor formula is obtained by experiment, and needs the coverage ratio data of croplands, woodlands and grasslands at standard plot scale. In this paper, we present a C factor conversion method from a standard plot to a km-sized grid based on large sample theory and multi-scale remote sensing. Results show that: 1) Compared with the existing C factor formula, our method is based on the coverage ratio of croplands, woodlands and grasslands on a km-sized grid, takes the C factor formula obtained from the standard plot experiment and applies it to regional scale. This method improves the applicability of the C factor formula, and can satisfy the need to simulate soil erosion in large areas. 2) The vegetation coverage obtained by remote sensing interpretation is significantly consistent (paired samples t-test, t = −0.03, df = 0.12, 2-tail significance p < 0.05) and significantly correlated with the measured vegetation coverage. 3) The C factor of the study area is smaller in the middle, southern and northern regions, and larger in the eastern and western regions. The main reason for that is the distribution of woodlands, the Hunshandake and Horqin sandy lands and the valleys affected by human activities. 4) The method presented in this paper is more meticulous than the C factor method based on the vegetation index, improves the applicability of the C factor formula, and can be used to simulate soil erosion on large scale and provide strong support for regional soil and water conservation planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agricultural land conversion; land economic value; urbanization; land rent
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:18:09 CEST)
Agricultural land conversion (ALC) is an incentive–driven process. In this paper we further investigate the inter–relationship between land economic value (LEV) and ALC. To achieve this goal, we calculated LEV for agricultural and non-agricultural (housing) uses in two areas in East Java, Indonesia. The first area represents suburban agriculture, facing rapid urbanization and experiencing high rate of ALC. The second area represents rural agriculture with zero ALC. Furthermore, we identified factors affecting LEV in both areas for both uses. The resut of this study show that agricultural land yielded higher economic benefit in rural area. Conversely, comparing to agricultural land, housing creates 7 times higher value in urban area. Moreover, agricultural land shown to create higher profit after converted. Ironically, the similar comparison doesn’t exists in rural area. Agricultural land only yielded 19% more value, indicate that agricultural land can be easily converted. It is also proven by the growing number of new urban core in the periphery area. There are several factors affecting land economic value, for agricultural use, soil fertility, accessibility, and cropping pattern are important variables. While accessibility and location in urban area increases land value for housing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0456.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Land dispute; land alienation; communal grant; native customary land; institutional approach
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:40:17 CET)
Land management and community involvement are two main elements in ensuring the absence of conflict between landowners and agencies. Disputes between owners and agencies will be the biggest obstacle in the land development effort. Therefore, this article aims to address the cause of landowners’ objections against land alienation using the institutional approach. To enable the researchers to understand the root causes of landowners' objections against the alienation of land using the Communal Grant method, the institutional approach has been adopted to identify the issue of the objection. Therefore, questionnaires for 100 landowners were distributed in two villages in Semporna district in Sabah. The purpose is to obtain their views on the cause leading to the dispute of land alienation using the Communal Grant method. The Likert scale was used to enable community rankings on issues that can be understood according to the level of seriousness of the population's views on the issue of using Communal Grants in native customary land alienation. The study results explain that there are four factors that drive objection of the Communal Grant land alienation which involves the formal factors. The findings explained that there are 4 formal provisions which lead to the community's objection against Communal Grants, namely the native customary lands (NCR) act, provision of Communal Grants, provisions in the land ownership and land allocation in Sabah Land Ordinance.Due to numerous objections among native customary peoples concerning the native customary land alienation using Communal Grants, the government has acted in substitution with a fair method of individual ownership for the native customary peoples. This situation explains that disputes in land ownership can be a threat to the country if it cannot be resolved in ways and methods acceptable to the native customary community. This study will benefit the government and NGO’s to alert and focusing on barriers in the context of local community land laws. Communal grants are intended to address land issues in Sabah.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0312.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land use; land cover; drivers; change; Sahel
Online: 20 October 2022 (13:31:37 CEST)
Land includes vegetation and water bodies and provides the basis for human livelihoods through primary production, the supply of food, freshwater, and multiple other ecosystem goods and services. The last three decades have recorded frequent drought events as well as rapid population growth, which has resulted in often negative land use and land cover change (LULCC) in the Sahel of Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to propose sustainable land management strategies, it is important to investigate the rate of LULCC and its driving factors in specific locations. This study investigated the case of Wocoro municipality in Mali using a combined approach of remote sensing, Geographical Information System, and focus group discussions. Satellite images and local people's perceptions on LULCC and drivers were collected and analyzed for the years 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020. We found that the study area faced a severe decrease in wooded savannah with an increase in farmland and settlement directly or indirectly related to the rapid population growth, high cotton price (which encouraged cropland expansion), drought, firewood extraction, and charcoal production, which was exacerbated by poverty. There is a need to promote integrated land management strategies that consider current and future livelihoods needs and preserve the health of the environment for the benefits of future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land use and cover; land surface temperature; built-up land; agricultural land; gradient analysis; Nuwara Eliya; Sri Lanka
Online: 26 August 2019 (05:07:33 CEST)
Although urbanization has contributed to improving living conditions, it has had negative impacts on the natural environment in the urbanized areas. Urbanization has changed the urban landscape and resulted in increasing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, studies related to LST in various urban environments have become a popular research topic. However, few LST studies focusing on the mountain landscapes (i.e. hill stations) have been carried out. The primary objective of this study is to investigate changes in the landscape and their impacts on LST intensity (LSTI) in the tropical mountain city of Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka. The study utilized annual median temperatures extracted from Landsat data collected from 1996 to 2017 based on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) interface. The fractions of built-up (BL), forest (FL), and agricultural (AL) land were calculated using land use and cover maps based on the urban-rural zone (URZ) analysis. The urban-rural margin was demarcated based on the fraction of BL (<10%) and LSTI was measured using the mean LST difference in the urban-rural zone. In addition, the mixture of land use types was calculated using the AL/FL and BL/FL fraction ratios, and grid-based density analysis. The result shows that the BL in all URZ rapidly developed, while AL decreased during the period 1996 to 2017. There was minimal change in the forest area of the Nuwara Eliya owing to the government forest preservation policies. The fraction of the BL increased from 32.4% in 1996 to 58.7% in 2017 in the city center zone (URZ1) resulting in increased mean LST by 4.7 °C. Furthermore, the increase of the BL/FL fraction ratio and the decrease of the AL/FL fraction ratio were positively correlated with the mean LST. Grid-based analysis showed an increasing positive relationship between mean LST and density of BL. This indicated that BL density has been a crucial element in increasing LST in the study area. The results of this study will be a useful indicator to introduce improved landscape and urban planning in the future to minimize the negative impact of LST on urban sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0671.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Land Suitability Analysis; Major crops; Land Management practice
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:07:23 CEST)
This study to assess the Physical Land Suitability Analysis for Cultivation of Selected Cool Weather Cereal Crops, Misha District, Hadiya Zone, South Central Ethiopia of major cereal crops of barley and teff in Misha district. Each of the criteria was separately reclassified and analyzed for their suitability for supporting barley and teff crops based on the FAO crop requirements specified for them. The major data sources were climatic data, soil, LGP and topographic data as well as key informant interview, questioner observation of crop requirements which have been considered to undertake suitability assessments of the study area. The factor maps like land use /land cover, temperature, rain fall, soil type and altitude were classified based on suitability evaluation methods of FAO and experts’ opinion. At final stage these were reclassified and standardized in GIS software extension tools, which led to the preparation of suitability analysis map of the major crops plant suitability classes. As part of spatial MCDM, AHP pair wise comparison module was used to derive internal and external weights for each individual factors and parameters respectively. Consequently, suitability analysis was done and weighted overlay suitability map was visualized with integration of GIS. The findings show that among total area of land suitability maps for both barley and teff cops were using weighted overlay techniques. The suitability map of teff crop shows that 12,038.22 hectare of the investigated area are highly suitable (S1), 19,646.07 hectare moderately suitable (S2) and 4,501.71 hectare marginally suitable (S3) and 112 hectare not suitable. On the other hand, the suitability map of barley crop shows that 7,898.52 hectare of the investigated area are highly suitable (S1), 22,830.08 hectare moderately suitable (S2), and 5,466.4 hectare marginally suitable (S3) and 103 hectare not suitable for economic reasons (N1). This was done for barley and Teff crops separately. Results of the study revealed that most of the lands in the study area are suitable for the cultivation of the selected crops and other crops. Based on finding, it could be recommended that this work would be used as policy guide for planners; investment could be successful in the District, further suitability research works should be carried out in order to optimize the major crop cultivation and production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Regulation Effectiveness; Land Use Plan; Construction Land; China
Online: 20 March 2017 (18:42:46 CET)
Nowadays the relationship between planning land use and actual land use is not so clear in general. A lot of efforts have been put in the failures of regulation for the expansion of construction land. However, it still lacks an integrated approach to study the effectiveness of land use regulation in terms of different land use types. Furthermore, the existing evaluation of land use plan mainly focuses on a general level, a detailed research on the regulation effectiveness of each construction land use type is absent. Therefore, this research tries to evaluate regulation effectiveness of land use plan, which takes Cangwu country, Guangxi Province as an example. The finding by analysis is that the total area of construction land expansion was about 3494.73 ha, nearly 1.1 times of the plan quota. Moreover, the effectiveness differs greatly in various construction land use types. Town, industrial/mining sites can be well regulated through the quota of land use plan. While, the quota regulation system is not as effective for other type of construction land. Thus, we suggest to improve the regulation effectiveness of construction land through different plan instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Land dispute, customary land tenure, statutory land tenure, tenure security, Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:31:29 CET)
Despite the ongoing land administration reforms being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including Ghana as viable pathway to achieve tenure security and greater efficiency in land administration, the subject of land dispute resolution has received relatively less attention. Whereas customary tenure institutions play a central role in land administration (controlling ~80% of all land in Ghana), they remain at the fringes of the formal land dispute adjudicatory process. Recognizing the pivotal role traditional institutions as development agents and potential vehicles for promoting good land governance, recent discourse on land tenure have geared towards mainstreaming traditional land disputes institutions into the architecture of formal judicial process via alternative dispute resolution pathways. Yet little is known at least empirically as to the operations of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the contemporary context. This study therefore explores the importance of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the management of land-related disputes in southcentral and western Ghana. Drawing on data collated from 380 farming households operating 746 plots. The results show that contrary to the conventional thinking that traditional institutions are anachronistic and not fit for purpose, they remain strong and preferred forum for land dispute resolution (proving resilient and adaptable) given the changing socio-economic and tenurial conditions. Yet these forums have differing implications for different actors within the customary spheres accessing them. The results highlight practical ways for incorporating traditional dispute resolution in the overall land governance setup in Ghana and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. This has implications for redesigning context-specific and appropriate land-use policy interventions that address local land dispute resolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1495.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Urban spatial plan; urban street width, land value; land price; space syntax; street network; land use distribution; land marketing; real estate.
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:39:24 CEST)
Overcoming the issue of land value and cost in urban areas will not provide a miraculous solution to the problems there. Appropriate land use cost, especially for residential and commercial land, is just one of the issues to be settled in the debate. Therefore, this study aims to build a new urban land price determination model by investigating the urban syntactical analysis, street width, and their economic effects on land value. The study attempts to determine the impact of syntactic analysis of streets and street width on land prices; it also seeks to identify the factor most affected by the land cost. Ultimately, the study built a model for urban land price prediction. The case selected is evaluated and compared in three aspects of the analysis, including; the urban axial assessments and urban street width, to find out their impacts on the real estate’s land price in the context of the land use distributions, which are predominantly residential and commercial types of uses. Depth map X8, SPSS, and QGIS 3.16 were used for the study evaluations and assessments. The result showed a significant impact of the urban street network on the price of land; this result can be used to enhance future urban design regarding urban economy improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: land actions; political will; cadastral project; land management; Benin
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:29:12 CEST)
Land registry is one of the instruments most mentioned by public actors in land management in Benin to solve land problems faced by the country. Its implementation and functioning depend not only on technical actions but also on political will. Through a methodology based on participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus group, as well as on the theory of "change in public action" by P. Muller (2005), legal and institutional changes have been observed in the implementation of the cadastral project. It is a project whose political component is readable through government action and the legal reforms carried out. At the technical level, the land data collected are processed by computer systems that can facilitate the mass production of land titles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: adoption; land degradation; poisson regression; sustainable land management practices
Online: 1 May 2017 (08:33:17 CEST)
Land degradation is a serious impediment to improving rural livelihoods in Eastern Africa. This paper identifies major land degradation patterns and causes, and analyzes the determinants of sustainable land management (SLM) in three countries (Ethiopia, Malawi and Tanzania). The results show that land degradation hotspots cover about 51%, 41%, 23% and 23% of the terrestrial areas in Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia respectively. The analysis of nationally representative household surveys shows that the key drivers of SLM in these countries are biophysical, demographic, regional and socio-economic determinants. Secure land tenure, access to extension services and market access are some of the determinants incentivizing SLM adoption. The implications of this study are that policies and strategies that facilities secure land tenure and access to SLM information are likely to incentivize investments in SLM. Local institutions providing credit services, inputs such as seed and fertilizers, and extension services must also not be ignored in the development policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; land conflicts; land tenure security; Uganda
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:03:11 CEST)
Land tenure security is important for achieving a number Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of this paper was to investigate variation in land tenure security across three districts located in different geographical regions of Uganda. Using a quantitative cross-sectional survey data collected in early 2019. The findings show that Kanungu district found in South-Western Uganda had significantly higher levels of land tenure security as compared to Nakasongola (Central) and Nwoya (Northern). Research findings have implications on further study and benchmarking land governance systems in Kanungu. Furthermore, they have implications on implementation of government and donor land titling or registration programs in terms of priority areas. They further sheds light on the importance of accounting for geographical context in land tenure studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Land price index; Land slope; Slope discount; Decomposition; Builder’s model
Online: 5 February 2021 (09:24:11 CET)
This paper focuses on the physical attributes of land that intrinsically limit land use and possibly affect land values. In particular, we investigate if the slope of a land does decrease its price and investigate the role of land slope in forming more reliable constant-quality land price indices and aggregate house price indices. We find that, while land slopes do decrease the land price per unit, they have a small effect on the quality-adjusted land price indices in selected neighborhoods in Auckland, New Zealand, where sloped terrain is common.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0344.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Landsat8; multi-temporal; crops statistics; land use land cover; Pakistan
Online: 21 August 2018 (12:25:17 CEST)
Developing countries like Pakistan is among those where lack of adoption to science and technology advancement is a major constraint for Satellite Remote Sensing use in crops and land use land cover digital information generation. Exponential rise in country population, increased food demand, limiting natural resources coupled with migration of rural community to urban areas had further led to skewed official statistics. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the possible use of freely available satellite data like Landsat8 under complex cropping system of Okara district of Punjab, Pakistan. An Integrated approach has been developed for the satellite data based crops and land use/cover spatial area estimation. The resultant quality was found above 96% with Kappa statistics of 0.95. Land utilization statistics provided detail information about cropping patterns as well as land use land cover status. Rice was recorded as most dominating crop in term of cultivation area of around 0.165 million ha followed by autumn maize 0.074 million ha, Fallow crop fields 0.067 million ha and Sorghum 0.047 million ha. Other minor crops observed were potato, fodder and cotton being cultivated on less than 0.010 million ha. Population settlements were observed over an area of around 0.081 million ha of land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0232.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cadastre; land registry; notary; cartography; geomatic; coordination; GML; land surveyors
Online: 28 March 2018 (04:45:38 CEST)
Ever since the Cadastre and Land Registry have existed in Spain, they have been completely separate organisations with very different objectives, which influence the real-estate reality. Their coordination is essential to better identify buildings and to more suitably render services to citizens and Administrations. To this end, Law 13/2015 was passed in 2015 for this desirable and pressing Cadastre-Land Registry coordination to come about. This law came into force on 1 November 2015, and coincided with the development of the technical aspects of the graphical information exchange among the Cadastre, Land Registries and Notaries. Several ministries and different organisations, like the Cadastre personnel, jurists, technicians, and even citizens, are implied in this law. Among the technical aspects, georeferenced graphical representations and GML exchange files adapted to the European INSPIRE directives stand out. Such technical aspects are a genuine revolution as they were transferred to the legal world. After more than 2 years after its application, it is still in its initial and adaptation stages because it is a long-standing law that allows land registry units-cadastral parcels to be coordinated while they are incorporated into real-estate trade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1263.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Deforestation; Forest Fires; Central Kalimantan; Land Use and Land Cover Change
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:32:11 CEST)
Deforestation brings vast and detrimental impact on the environment, economy, and social aspects of community. Thus, it is important to assess and analyze deforestation to inform the decision maker that oversees issued policy and development strategies. The present study aims to characterize deforestation in Central Kalimantan between 2006 - 2020. Utilized land cover map issued by Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry, we analyzed the change in natural forest cover using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) to find the rate the trend, location, and land cover replacement of deforestation in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The research found that during the period Central Kalimantan lost 1.5 million ha of natural forest with the rate of deforestation 117,000 ha/year. In general, the deforestation shown decrease trend and fluctuated during the period. Deforestation majority takes place at secondary swamp and dry forest that are located at south part of the island. Most of deforestation resulted shrubs, plantations, and agriculture land. The finding of this research could be used as a base to determine the target location for rehabilitation strategy and approach to prevent further deforestation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban development; land use/ land cover; Soviet Union; major cities; Afghanistan
Online: 9 August 2021 (10:00:02 CEST)
The rapid increase in population along with the economic activities led to rapid depletion of natural resources. Land use studies help us analyze the impacts of urban development on environment. Given the political upheavals in Afghanistan, this study aims to analyze how urban development evolved from 1978 to 2018 in six major cities- Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Herat, Mazar-e Sharif and Jalalabad- in Afghanistan using Landsat Satellite Images. This study is based on quantitative approach. ArcGIS 9.4 software was used to synchronize the Landsat Satellite Images within the area of study. The results of the study show that the Annual rate of urban land expansion in Afghanistan was the lowest (average 1.07 square kilometers per year) during the military presence of Soviet Union in Afghanistan while it was the highest (3.35 square kilometers per year) from 2001 to 2018 due to the military presence of US-led NATO forces, relative security and rapid economic activities in Afghanistan. The authors believe that this study could be further explored if other inter-connected factors, e.g., the role of culture, literacy, immigration etc., are incorporated into the study of urban development processes in Afghanistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0775.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Land Degradation; Land Productivity Dynamics; Vegetation Cover Change; Soil Organic Carbon
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:29:58 CEST)
Land degradation a serious and nationwide environmental concern in Ethiopia. The problem is its iterative relationship between land degradation, climate change, and agriculture, exacerbating one another via negative and positive feedback loops. Due to the need for an efficient response to land degradation in the country, different sustainable land management practices have been implemented since the late 1980s. The objective of this study was to analyze land degradation neutrality status using remote sensing data in the study area. We have studied the land degradation neutrality conditions of the North Wello Zone by using indicators data, namely land cover change, land productivity dynamics, and soil organic carbon stock. The result shows that the settlement areas consistently expanded at the fifth speed (2010-2018) from 1995 to 2010. Between 1995 and 2010, forestland declined by 18 percent, while an increasing trend of 26.8 percent from 2010 to 2018. The assessment results also indicate that 52.8 percent of the total area is stable and characterized by less stressed land productivity. The soil organic carbon is comparatively abundant in the high and midland vegetation areas but very thin in lowland areas. Most of the highland and midland parts of the study areas are in the conditions of stable and increasing land productivity with high biomass and soil organic content. However, most lowland areas showed a decline in land productivity conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0271.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: geographic information system; land demand; land use; universal soil loss erosion
Online: 12 August 2020 (05:09:55 CEST)
The information on the land use and soil conservation practice based on year 2006, 2010 and 2014, hence offering an opportunity to model the impacts of land use change on erosion, deposition and surface water runoff. Limitation in the use of hydrological models had been their inability to handle the large amount of input data that describe the heterogeneity of the natural system. In this study, a procedure that takes into account soil conservation practice based on the land use change, the response of soil erosion and sediment export from the George Town Conurbation catchment area, and average annual sediment yields were estimated for each grid cell of the watershed to identify the critical erosion areas of rural and urban planning proposes. Average annual sediment yield and data on a grid basis estimated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and an emerging technology represented by Geographic Information System (GIS) used as a tool to produce a map for erosion rate. The changing of the land use from forest to agriculture and then to an urban area is a challenging task to research on land use demand for population, and environmental impact assessment is important for the planning of natural resources management, allowing research the modification of land use properly and implement more sustainable for long term management strategies. The challenge is to formulate strategies that would promote an integrated approach to the land use planning at an appropriate level as to address the issues that arose. Modelling for creating urban growth boundary for the George Town Conurbation must have to be controlled surface runoff and soil loss and sediment export from land use of the George Town Conurbation catchment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0184.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Land deal; Land grab; Oil Palm; Labour; Farmworkers; Plantation; Everyday politics
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:04:36 CET)
This study presents empirical evidence on the nature of the political struggles for inclusion on an oil palm land deal in Ghana. It examines the employment dynamics and the everyday politics of workers on an oil palm plantation in a predominantly migrant and settler society of the north-eastern part of Ghana, where large-scale production has only been introduced within the past decade. It shows that by the nature of labour organization, as well as other structural issues, workers do not benefit equally from the land deals and therefore express everyday forms of resistance against exploitation, and for better terms of incorporation. Particularly, they express agency through absenteeism and non-compliance, which especially, enables them to maintain their basic food sovereignty/security. Nonetheless, these everyday politics is not necessarily liberating in confronting the everyday peasant problems and unfavourable agrarian transitions associated with capitalist agriculture. Overall, this paper contributes to the land grab literature by providing context-specific dynamics of impacts and politics and how are they are shaped by a multiplicity of factors- beyond class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0248.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Landsat; urban growth; Land Use Land Cover (LULC); remote sensing; urbanisation; NDVI
Online: 7 September 2023 (04:05:46 CEST)
The rapid growth of urban areas is a major challenge facing cities around the world. This growth can have a significant impact on the local climate, leading to higher temperatures and other changes. In desert climates, the effects of urban expansion can be particularly pronounced. This study investigated the impact of urban expansion on land surface temperature (LST) in Baghdad, Iraq. Notably, this study employs a sophisticated artificial intelligence method known as Random Forest for Land Use Land Cover (LULC) classification, utilizing three Landsat images spanning the temporal spectrum from 1985 to 2021 to meticulously monitor land use transformations and associated LST variations. The results showed that vegetated areas declined by 46.8% during the study period, while built-up areas increased by 124.7%. This decline in vegetation was accompanied by an increase in LST, with bare soil recording the highest temperatures. The study also found that LST has a strong inverse relationship with vegetation and moisture. This means that areas with more vegetation and moisture tend to have lower LSTs. These findings suggest that urban expansion can lead to higher LSTs in desert climates, which can have implications for the health and wellbeing of residents. The study has important implications for urban planners and policymakers in Baghdad and other cities in desert climates. By identifying the main factors that control LST, the study provides insights into strategies for mitigating the effects of urban expansion on temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Contractual choices; Land transfer; Expectations; Trust; Probit model; Market-oriented land reform
Online: 29 June 2023 (09:54:32 CEST)
This study investigates the influence of expectations and trust on farmers' decisions regarding contractual choices in land transfer. The dataset used for analysis consists of 1101 households in Guizhou Province. The research focuses on two aspects: the selection between written and oral contracts, and the decision to continue the contractual relationship. The findings reveal that farmers' choices are significantly affected by their expectations and levels of trust.Specifically, when farmers' expectations regarding the land transfer process are not met, they tend to prefer written contracts over oral ones. This preference can be attributed to the greater clarity and risk reduction offered by written contracts. On the other hand, higher levels of trust increase the likelihood of farmers continuing the land transfer contract, as trust fosters a sense of confidence and security in the ongoing relationship.Interestingly, trust also plays a moderating role. Farmers who have aligned expectations and high levels of trust are more inclined to opt for oral contracts. This preference for oral contracts can be attributed to their flexibility and emphasis on interpersonal relationships, allowing for better adaptation to the changing dynamics of land transfer.These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the factors influencing farmers' decision-making processes regarding contractual choices in land transfer. They provide valuable insights for policymakers involved in land transfer, enabling them to optimize policies and facilitate farmers' decision-making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0456.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Rural land right; farmers’ income; farm income; non-farm income; land transfer
Online: 26 August 2022 (09:44:58 CEST)
Based on data from the Yunnan Province farm household survey, we examine the effect of rural land rights policy on farmers’ income. The regression results show that right significantly raises the total income of farmers, with farm income serving as the primary source of total income. After performing numerous robustness tests, using instrumental variables to handle endogeneity and arriving at the same conclusion, the result is still valid. According to the heterogeneity analysis, in the sample of households with long-term migrant workers, the confirmation of rural land rights significantly increases total and nonfarm income while decreasing farm income. Furthermore, total income includes nonfarm income, which reflects the effect of different farmers' optimal labor allocation based on the external market environment. According to the impact mechanism anal-ysis, right can increase farmers' total income by promoting land transfer, and farmers in less developed areas are more willing to increase their income by land transfer out.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: land engineering; development stage; discipline uniqueness; theory system; subject matter; land science
Online: 14 September 2019 (12:14:38 CEST)
Land engineering is a specific new academic discipline in China. Although the undergraduate major of land engineering was officially approved and established lately since 2017, the birth of land engineering as an academic discipline dates back 40 years ago. It has passed through four development stages: the incubation stage in 1978-1985, the initial stage in 1986-1997, the growth stage in 1998-2011, and the expanding stage from 2012 to present. However, land engineering as an academic discipline remains immature and seriously lags behind practice. There are still no unified academic community and broad academic consensus. After a historical overview of the four development stages, this study gave a strategic consideration to five key questions. We argue that the study object of the discipline is land engineering activity, which is defined as the artificial transformation of a land complex combined by various natural and human elements. The uniqueness of the discipline is rooted in its ability to study the comprehensive and integrated reorganization or rebuilding of various elements of land as a complex, with the theory of land complex reconstruction being the core theory. The discipline of land engineering is based on land pure science and land technology, and is one basis of land management. It consists of two modules (rural land engineering and urban land engineering), five secondary disciplines of each module (land development, land rearrangement, land improvement, land protection, and land remediation), and more than 30 research directions. Various technologies are only instrumental but not essential components of land engineering as an academic discipline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0610.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land price map; land use development; GIS; spatio-temporal changes; sustainability; Olomouc
Online: 25 October 2018 (14:23:11 CEST)
Land price sustainability issues have been addressed by many authors in the past. Most of these researchers used land prices (from land price maps) as the primary data source in their studies. Only a few papers analysed official land price maps, which are available very rarely. For this reason, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of land prices in the city of Olomouc based on an analysis of official land price maps from 1993 to 2017. We proposed several research hypotheses to confirm some general statements about land price development. We concluded that some macroeconomic indicators had a significant impact on changes in land prices. In the residential and commercial areas and historical centre, land prices are significantly higher than in other monitored aspects (land-use types). We also concluded that no link existed between land-use stability and land price stability. Surprisingly, no long-term stable areas were found in the area of interest. The analysis also confirmed that land price and its change over time varied in different spatial aspects. Surprisingly, the smallest influence was reflected in the economic aspect. Regarding natural events in recent decades, we observed a significant drop in land prices in the vicinity of watercourses threatened by flooding. These findings can assist in better understanding local development and changes in land price.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1670.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Flood detection; Satellite imagery; drainage; urban land use plan; land cover; slope; elevation
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:38:47 CEST)
In several Indonesian tropical cities, such as Makassar City, frequent flooding during the peak rainy season poses a significant challenge. This study seeks to address this issue by devising effective policies to reduce flood exposure. The main obstacle lies in accurately determining the flood inundation area. To overcome this, the study utilizes multiple satellite data sources on a cloud platform, integrating them with land use data, and DEM data, aligning these with the local government's urban land use plan and existing drainage networks. The research aims to quantify the affected area, identify the predominant inundated land cover, and assess the efficiency of Makassar's drainage system and urban land use plan. The study reveals that an uncoordinated drainage system in the Tamalanrea, Biringkanaya, and Mangala sub-districts results in severe flooding, encompassing a total area of 35.28 km². The most affected land use type is cultivation, constituting approximately 43.5% of the flooded area. Furthermore, 82.26% of the urban land use plan, covering 29.02 km², is submerged. It is imperative for the local government and stakeholders to prioritize the enhancement of drainage systems and urban land use plans, particularly in low-lying and densely populated regions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0226.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Biodiversity loss; driving forces; Global Biodiversity Framework; hemeroby; Land Use Intensity index LUI
Online: 23 March 2023 (13:05:35 CET)
Biodiversity loss has been identified as one of the environmental impacts where humankind has been tres-passing planetary boundaries most significantly. Going beyond the pressures causing damages (calling them ‘direct drivers’) and analysing their underlying driving forces, IPBES, the Intergovernmental Sci-ence-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, also identified a series of indirect drivers. The Montreal-Kunming Global Biodiversity Framework GBF including its suggested monitoring approach is intended to and claims to be a policy response to such analyses. However, to assess the human impact on ecosystems as a basis for planning conservation and restoration, as foreseen in the GBF, monitoring ecosystem typologies (in the GBF with reference to the UN statistical standard SEEA ES, which in turn refers to the IUCN ecosystem classification) is not enough. It needs to be complemented with data on the severity of human impacts, and on the history of places, i.e. how and when the current ecosystem status was brought about. In this conceptual paper we suggest LUI, a deliberately simple ordinal scale index for land use intensity changes, to address these two gaps. It is based on the hemeroby concept, measuring the human impact as deviation from naturalness. This makes it an information collection and presentation tool for those working in landscape planning and management. LUI’s simple and intuitively understandable structure makes it suitable for citizens’ science applications, and thus for participative monitoring when extensive statistical data gathering is not feasible, and past data are not available. Of course is can also be used as a simple too for communicating when detailed statistical data series are available. While the aggregate index is expected to communicate well, its components are more relevant to motivate and help policy makers to prioritise their decisions according to the severity of recent anthropogenic ecosystem disturabances.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0217.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate; land-atmosphere interaction; clouds; diurnal cycle; snow cover; Prairies; land-use; hydrometeorology
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:13:53 CET)
Analysis of the hourly Canadian Prairie data for the past 60 years has transformed our quantitative understanding of land-atmosphere-cloud coupling. The key reason is that trained observers made hourly estimates of opaque cloud fraction that obscures the sun, moon or stars, following the same protocol for 60 years at all stations. These 24 daily estimates of opaque cloud data are of sufficient quality that they can be calibrated against Baseline Surface Radiation Network data to give the climatology of the daily short-wave, longwave and total cloud forcing (SWCF, LWCF and CF). This key radiative forcing has not been available previously for climate datasets. Net cloud radiative forcing reverses sign from negative in the warm season to positive in the cold season, when reflective snow reduces the negative SWCF below the positive LWCF. This in turn leads to a large climate discontinuity with snow cover, with a systematic cooling of 10°C or more with snow cover. In addition, snow cover transforms the coupling between cloud cover and the diurnal range of temperature. In the warm season, maximum temperature increases with decreasing cloud, while minimum temperature barely changes; while in the cold season with snow cover, maximum temperature decreases with decreasing cloud and minimum temperature decreases even more. In the warm season, the diurnal ranges of temperature, relative humidity, equivalent potential temperature and the pressure height of the lifting condensation level are all tightly coupled to opaque cloud cover. Given over 600 station-years of hourly data, we are able to extract, perhaps for the first time, the coupling between cloud forcing and the warm season imbalance of the diurnal cycle; which changes monotonically from a warming and drying under clear skies to a cooling and moistening under cloudy skies with precipitation. Because we have the daily cloud radiative forci, which is large, we are able to show that the memory of water storage anomalies, from precipitation and the snowpack, goes back many months. The spring climatology shows the memory of snowfall back through the entire winter, and the memory in summer goes back to the months of snowmelt. Lagged precipitation anomalies modify the thermodynamic coupling of the diurnal cycle to the cloud forcing, and shift the diurnal cycle of mixing ratio which has a double peak. The seasonal extraction of the surface total water storage is a large damping of the interannual variability of precipitation anomalies in the growing season. The large land-use change from summer fallow to intensive cropping, which peaked in the early 1990s, has led to a coupled climate response that has cooled and moistened the growing season, lowering cloud-base, increasing equivalent potential temperature, and increasing precipitation. We show a simplified energy balance of the Prairies during the growing season and its dependence on reflective cloud.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0129.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: emissivity; land cover; land surface temperature; surface urban heat island; thermal environment; mitigation
Online: 29 January 2017 (10:38:44 CET)
In urban area, one of the great problem is the rise of temperature, which leads to form the urban heat island effect. This paper refers to the trend of the urban surface temperature extracted from the Landsat images from which to consider changes in the formation of surface urban heat island for the north of Ho Chi Minh city in period 1995-2015. Research has identified land surface temperature from thermal infrared band, according to the ability of the surface emission based on characteristics of normalized difference vegetation index NDVI. The results showed that temperature fluctuated over the city with a growing trend and the gradual expansion of the area of the high-temperature zone towards the suburbs. Within 20 years, the trend of the formation of surface urban heat island with two typical locations showed a clear difference between the surface temperature of urban areas and rural areas with space expansion of heat island in 4 times in 2015 compared to 1995. An extreme heat island located in the inner city has an area of approximately 18% compared to the total area of the region. Since then, the solution to reduce the impact of urban heat island has been proposed, in order to protect the urban environment and the lives of residents in Ho Chi Minh City becoming better
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0396.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Indigenous; toponomy; land tenure; cartography
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:51:47 CEST)
In recent years, many libraries and archives have started digitizing their collections thus making maps by Indigenous peoples more easily available for scholars to study. While a number of these maps were discussed by G. Malcolm Lewis in the History of Cartography series (volume 2, book 3, Chapter 4: 1984), more have since been found and disseminated. These maps are critical in understanding the historic and current land tenure of Indigenous groups. Further, Indigenous claims to land can be seen in their connections via toponymy. European concepts of territory and political boundaries did not coincide with First Nation/American Indian views resulting in the mistaken view that Natives did not have formal concepts of their territories. Further, Tribes/First Nations with cross-border territory have special jurisdictional problems. This paper will illustrate how many Native residents were very spatially cognizant of their own lands, as well as neighboring nations’ lands, overlaps between groups, hunting territories, populations, and trade networks. Currently, the Sinixt First Nation provides a perfect example of how an Aboriginal people are inputting and using a GIS representation of their territory with proper toponymy and use areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0604.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Indonesia, biofuel, land restoration, pongamia
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:20:35 CET)
Indonesia has a large area of degraded land, i.e. 30 million ha, which could potentially be utilized for biofuel plantations. The leguminous tree pongamia (Pongamia pinnata syn. Milettia pinnata) could be utilized to produce biofuel while restoring degraded land. Here, we explore the potential of pongamia as a source of biofuel and for restoring degraded land in Indonesia. Pongamia occurs across Indonesia, in Sumatra, Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. It grows to a height of 15–20 m and can grow in a range of environmental conditions. Its seeds can generate up to 40% crude oil by weight. It can help to restore degraded land and improve soil properties. Pongamia also provides wood, fodder, medicine, fertilizer and biogas. Therefore, as a multipurpose species, pongamia holds great potential to combat Indonesia’s energy crisis and to restore much of the degraded land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0406.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land-use; satellite imagery; agriculture
Online: 30 May 2018 (17:21:00 CEST)
The natural and man-made landscape settings in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Northern Pakistan have significantly changed in the last decade due to increasing demands of urbanized populace, migration, two major natural disasters, and climate change. The aim of this study is to analyze land possession, income and land-use diversification of KPK administered Charsadda district. Field data is collected through a sample survey. Furthermore, freely available Landsat 7 satellite images are used to classify land-use classes (e.g. vegetation, built-up) for two different years (e.g. 2005 and 2017) for cross-verification and comparison. The highest 45% of 80% land-owners occupy land-area between 1-10 hectares. Annually, the highest 57.5% of the total farmers / employed in-habitants of surveyed regions earn more than Rs. 100,000 or ~ $ 970 from agriculture activities. About 41.9% land-area covered by agricultural-land is transformed into built-up area since 2007, which is attributed to the increasing demand for buildings and commercial markets. The highest diversification is reported in Naguman area of Charsadda district followed by Rajjar and Niami. Population growth and huge migration of displaced persons from neighboring tribal areas are likely to be few factors which contributed to such a drastic change in land-use pattern since 2007 to 2017. Urgent attention of the policy makers, agricultural experts and society is required to minimize land degradation and to thwart further agricultural-land loss.