ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0394.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: family caregivers; labour force; labour supply; employment; China
Online: 13 November 2020 (20:49:44 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers must consider the economic trade-off between caregiving and paid employment. Prior literature has suggested labour force participation (LFP) to decline with caregiving intensity, but no study has evaluated this relationship by accounting for the presence of both kinks and discontinuities. Here we used respondents of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study baseline survey who were non-farming, of working-age (aged 45-60) and had a young grandchild and/or a parent/parent-in-law. For women and men separately, a caregiving threshold-adjusted probit model was used to assess the association between LFP and weekly unpaid caregiving hours. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Of the 3,718 respondents in the analysis, for men, LFP was significantly and inversely associated with caregiving that involved neither discontinuities nor kinks. For women, a kink was identified at the caregiving threshold of 8 hours per week such that before 8 hours, each caregiving hour was associated with an increase of 0.0257 in the marginal probability of LFP, but each hour thereafter was associated with a reduction of 0.0014 in the marginal probability of LFP. These results have implications for interventions that simultaneously advance policies of health, social care and labour force.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0430.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: informal caregiving; unpaid family caregivers; labour force participation; income; labour supply
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:58:39 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers might suffer losses in income as a result of care provision. Here we used data from the baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study to assess the relationship between hours of weekly caregiving provided to grandchildren/parents/parents-in-law and individual’s monthly employment income. Our study sample comprised 3,718 middle-aged Chinese adults who were of working age (45-60 years). For women and men separately, we used a likelihood-based method to determine a caregiving threshold in a two-stage Heckman selection procedure. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Our analysis revealed a negative association between caregiving and income for women that depended on a caregiving threshold of 63-hours per week. There was an absence of caregiving-income relationship among men. These results offer new insights into the opportunity costs of unpaid caregiving and support tailored policies to protect the financial well-being of female caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2105.v1
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:49:09 CEST)
In an increasingly changing world, critical thinking is one of the key skills that ensure organisations' competitive advantage. Thus, in higher education institutions there is an accelerating emphasis on developing critical thinking (CT) among students. This paper presents the results of three experimental courses (Pedagogy and didactics of financial accounting, Virtual Learning Environments in Economics, Business Communication), using a blended learning method, aimed at improving students' CT skills. The three courses were delivered by both higher education teachers and trainers from the labour market. After analysing the data from the three experimental courses, it will be possible to assess whether the intervention of labour market trainers contributed to the improvement of students' critical thinking skills, and, in particularly at the level of which components improvements have been identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0464.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Remittances; democrac; election process; Bangladesh; labour migrants
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:41:25 CEST)
This paper examines how remittances contribute to the democratisation process in Bangladesh. The endogeneity issue between remittances and democracy is tackled by employing the Structural VAR (SVAR) approach. It is found that while remittances respond to innovations in the macro-political variables, remittances also have important impact on these variables. Our results build a synergy between two opposing findings in the politics literature where on one hand remittances flows stabilise autocracies, while on the other hand they foster the prospect for democratisation. In particular, we demonstrate that a shock in remittances flows will have a negative but transitory impact on democracy. Initially there will be a bout of autocratic episodes which will be eventually eliminated and democracy will be restored to its original level in three to five years. However, using an alternative measure for democracy with the aid of principal-component analysis, we find that after the fifth year following a shock in remittances flows, a small but positive permanent effect on democracy is observable that do not revert to zero at end of the ten period horizon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mental health; working population; labour; migration; depression
Online: 3 November 2020 (13:52:38 CET)
Background: Mental health is a growing concern worldwide. It is not well understood whether Nepali workers, including international labour migrants from Nepal, are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of our study is to determine the prevalence of and examine the risks factors for depression among returnee migrants and non-migrant working male adults in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a probability-based sample of 725 participants was conducted in February 2020. The sample was comprised of two groups based on migration status: returning migrants and non-migrants. Logistic regression was applied to investigate factors associated with symptoms depression.Results: The overall prevalence of depression was 10.1%. However, the prevalence of depression was lower (7%) among returnee migrants compared to non-migrants (13.7%). Participants in the lower income group were more at risk of depression (OR=5.38, 95% CI: 1.96-14.78) than those in the higher income group. Similarly, Buddhists and Christians were more likely to be depressed (OR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.02-4.64) than Hindus. Interestingly, participants having more than two children had a higher prevalence of depression (OR=5.14, 95% CI: 1.22-21.63) compared with those having no children. Unmarried participants were more likely to be depressed (OR=4.05, 95%, CI:1.10-14.93) than those who were married. Conclusion: The working Nepali adult male population in Nepal, including returning migrants, is at risk of depression, but this risk is lower in those in the higher income group, returnee migrants, married, Hindus and those with no children. This study highlights the need to monitor and develop national policies to ensure the mental health of Nepali male adult population, including returnee migrants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1798.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: COMT gene polymorphism; labour; pain; anxiety; nitrous oxide
Online: 28 August 2023 (03:39:14 CEST)
Background: The COMT gene polymorphism is associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders and pain perception. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) gene polymorphism, pain perception in parturients with inhaled nitrous oxide during labour, and anxiety as a personality trait. Methods: A total number of 181 woman who chose vaginal birth were enrolled in this study. To present the difference in pain perception, the parturients were divided into one group (n=80) that chose labour analgesia with inhaled nitrous oxide (50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen) and one group without analgesia. The blood samples were taken during the pregnancy as a part of routine pregnancy controls in the hospital. The COMT gene polymorphism was detected with the PCR technique. Pain perception of labouring women was self-evaluated two times according to the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) and anxiety as a personality trait was determined with STAI-T (State Trait Anxiety Inventory). Pain perception as well as anxiety were compared according to COMT genotypes. Results: In the 181 pregnant women there were 40 women (22%) of wild homozygotes (GG) of COMT, 95 women (53%) of mutant heterozygotes (GA), and 46 women (25%) of mutant homozygote (AA). A negative association of pain perception with the GA (mutant heterozigote) polymorphism of the COMT gene versus the wild type (GG polymorphism) was observed. The GA polymorphism of the COMT gene was associated with 0.46 units lower pain perception compared to the wild type (GG). The anxiety trait score in group AA was lower than in groups GA and AA. The difference reached statistical significance only when comparing AA versus GA (P>0.042). Analgesic efficacy of nitrous oxide was noticed in 22% of labouring women who reported moderate pain (VAS score 4-7). Conclusions: The COMT gene polymorphism was associated with pain perception and anxiety among labouring women. The COMT gene polymorphism GA was associated with negative pain perception among labouring women. Nitrous oxide showed statistical significance in anxiolytic efficacy during labour in women with mild anxiety as a personality trait. Anxiolytic efficacy of nitrous oxide has shown better efficacy in labouring women with the COMT gene polymorphism AA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: occupational health services; mining; primary health clinics; labour
Online: 24 July 2020 (05:02:16 CEST)
Only 15% of the global population has access to occupational safety and health services. In Africa only 5% of employees working from major establishments, have access to occupational health services (OHS). Access to primary health care (PHC) services is addressed in many settings and inclusion of OHS in these facilities might increase efficiency in preventing occupational diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four SADC countries aiming at assessing the availability of OHS at PHC facilities and the organization of OHS. We conducted a literature review to assess the provision and organization of OHS services. In addition to the review, a total of 23 doctors from PHC facilities were interviewed using questionnaires in order to determine the availability of OHS and training. Consultations with heads of ministries were done in four SADC countries. Results showed that in the SADC region, OHS are fragmented and lack a comprehensive approach. In addition, out of 23 PHC facilities only two (13%) provided occupational health and PHC. However, OHS provided at PHC facilities were limited to TB screening and audiometric testing. Our study showed a huge inadequacy of trained occupational health practitioners. This study supports the World Health Organization’s advocacy of integrating OHS at PHC level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0198.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: labour challenges; climate change; Ukraine War; high fuel costs; sustainability
Online: 26 December 2022 (09:13:10 CET)
This exploratory study examined the impacts of COVID-19 and emerging challenges and opportunities from aviation recovery. Using archival and secondary data analysis, the study found that there are several challenges to aviation recovery chief among them are labour challenges and extreme weather events, which have been responsible for traffic disruptions in major aviation markets such as Europe and the USA. Other emerging challenges include high debt, inflation, interest rates, fuel, cost of labour, and general operational costs. The study recommends several interventions to address the sector’s challenges, including adopting risk disaster preparedness and management to foster sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Labour productivity; prestressed concrete floors; relative importance index (Smart-PLS. Ghana)
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:31:34 CEST)
The construction industries face several challenges related to productivity. Productivity mainly depends upon labour effort and performance. The poor productivity of labour is one of the major reasons of time over-runs and increasing cost in construction projects. Our study aims to build a comprehensive assessment on the relationship between various factors that affect labour productivity in the construction of prestressed concrete Buildings in Ghana. A sample of 200 re-spondents collected from workers of Construction Company in Ghana. The questionnaire was designed which comprises two parts; the first part contains background information of the staff of construction company while second section explores the opinion of the staff regarding factors af-fecting labour productivity. The Smart-PLS was utilized to analyze and estimate the relationship among construct variables. By utilizing relative importance index and multiple linear regressions, it is identified that the management factor such as inadequate incentives; material factor such as poor quality of material; labour factors such as poor quality and training of labors; supervision factor such as incompetence of site supervisor; equipment factor such as frequent damage of equipment have a negative and significant relationship with labour productivity in the construc-tion of prestressed concrete buildings in Ghana. The findings of this study recommend that in order to improve labour productivity, the construction industries must conduct labour productivity measurements by adopting schedule for procurement of materials, safety programs, motivational system, and frequent meeting with project professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0018.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: banana; cassava; potato; sweet potato; gender division-of-labour; decision-making
Online: 3 June 2019 (10:14:15 CEST)
This paper evaluates the determinants of decision making in relation to the production of four crops (banana, cassava, potato and sweet potato). Understanding the division of labour and decision-making in crop management may lead to designing better interventions targeted at improving efficiency in smallholder agriculture. A household quantitative survey with heads of households involving 261 women and 144 men in Burundi and 184 women and 222 men in Rwanda was conducted in 2014. Most of the decisions and labour provision during production of both cash crops (potato and banana) and food crops (sweet potato and cassava) were done jointly by men and women in male-headed households. Higher values for ‘credit access’, ‘land size’ and ‘farming as the main occupation of the household head’ increased the frequency of joint decision-making in male-headed households. A decline in the amount of farm income reduced the participation of men as decision makers. A reduction in total household income and proximity to the market was correlated with joint decision making. Gender norms also contributed to the lower participation of women in both decision-making and labour provision in banana and potato cultivation. Although a large proportion of decisions were made jointly, women perceived that men participate more in decision-making processes within the household during the production of cash crops. Increased participation by women in decision-making will require an active and practical strategy which can encourage adjustments to existing traditional gender norms that recognise men as the main decision-makers at both the household and community levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0184.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Land deal; Land grab; Oil Palm; Labour; Farmworkers; Plantation; Everyday politics
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:04:36 CET)
This study presents empirical evidence on the nature of the political struggles for inclusion on an oil palm land deal in Ghana. It examines the employment dynamics and the everyday politics of workers on an oil palm plantation in a predominantly migrant and settler society of the north-eastern part of Ghana, where large-scale production has only been introduced within the past decade. It shows that by the nature of labour organization, as well as other structural issues, workers do not benefit equally from the land deals and therefore express everyday forms of resistance against exploitation, and for better terms of incorporation. Particularly, they express agency through absenteeism and non-compliance, which especially, enables them to maintain their basic food sovereignty/security. Nonetheless, these everyday politics is not necessarily liberating in confronting the everyday peasant problems and unfavourable agrarian transitions associated with capitalist agriculture. Overall, this paper contributes to the land grab literature by providing context-specific dynamics of impacts and politics and how are they are shaped by a multiplicity of factors- beyond class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: graduate; employer; competencies; employment; labour market; emigration; economic development; educational policies
Online: 27 June 2018 (10:08:33 CEST)
The quality of an educational system is reflected not only in the instructive performances of the educational actors, but also in the degree in which it ensures an adequate professional integration. The undergraduate of today, the graduate of tomorrow needs an as accurate as possible information regarding the labour market, which cannot be achieved only by individual means, but also by resorting to carrier counselling services. The motivation of this research is closely connected to the improvement of the level of communication between the two aspects – on the one hand the academic one, by its finite products, and the economic one, on the other hand – and the opportunities that the cooperation between the two aspects might offer: adjusting the demand-supply ratio on the labor market and above all, stopping massive emigration of young graduates of higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0017.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: financial performance; flexible employment; labour productivity; teleworking; workplace employment relations survey
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:00:05 CET)
There is an increasing concern on the quality of jobs and productivity witnessed in the flexible employment arrangements. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between various employment arrangements and the workplace performance. Home-based working-teleworking, flexible timing and compressed hours are the main employment types examined using the Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) in years 2004 and 2011. The workplace performance is measured by two outcomes- the financial performance and labour productivity. First, the determinants of those flexible employment types are explored. Second, the ordinary least squares (OLS) method is followed. Third, an instrumental variable (IV) approach is applied to account for plausible endogeneity and to estimate the causal effects. The findings reveal a significant and positive relationship between these types of flexible employment arrangements and the workplace performance. Education, age, wage, quality of relations between managers-employees, years of experience, the area of the market the workplace is operated and the competition are significant factors and are positively associated with the propensity of the flexible employment arrangements implementation. This can have various profound policy implications for employees, employers and the society overall, including family-work balance, coping with family demands, improving the firm performance, reducing traffic congestion and stress among others. It is the first study that explores the relationship between flexible employment types and workplace performance using an IV approach. This allows us to estimate the causal effects of flexible employment types and the possible associated social implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0400.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human capital; educational signal; education; labour market; social mobility; social reproduction; China
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:37:08 CEST)
Exisitng studies argue life chances are, in part, vertically reproduced. Such a statement is applicable to the Chinese contexts as, but not limited to, parental hukou status, to some extent, determines the life chances their children receive. In this essay, the author would like to introduce human capital theory (HCT) and educational signalling theory (EST), and assess how the applications of each of these two models can enrich the understanding of vertical reproduction of individuals’ social mobility opportunities. The author would also present the limitations of each of these two models when addressing relevant Chinese contexts.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: universal basic income (UBI); labour supply; inequality; poverty; sustainability of social policies
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:33:41 CEST)
The objective of this article is to determine as conclusively as possible if the implementation of a UBI (universal basic income) would lead to a significant reduction in the working age population labour supply. If this were true, implementation of a UBI would be unsustainable. To do this, we will compile empirical evidence from studies over the last few decades on the effects of implementation of a UBI on employment. We apply the PRISMA methodology to better judge their validity, which ensures maximum reliability of the results by avoiding biases and making the work reproducible. Given that the methodologies used in these studies are diverse, they are reviewed to contextualize the results taking into account the possible limitations detected in these methodologies. While many authors have been writing about this issue citing experiences or experiments, the added value of this article is that it performs a systematic review following a widely tested scientific methodology. Over 1,200 documents that discuss the UBI/employment relationship have been reviewed. We found a total of 50 empirical cases, of which 18 were selected, and 38 studies with contrasted empirical evidence on this relationship. The results speak for themselves: despite a detailed search, we have not found any evidence of a significant reduction in labour supply; instead we found evidence that labour supply increases globally among adults, men and women, young and old; and the existence of some insignificant and functional reductions to the system such as a decrease in workers from the following categories: children, the elderly, the sick, those with disabilities, women with young children to look after, or young people who continued studying. These reductions do not reduce overall supply because it is largely offset by increased supply from other members of the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0001.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: discrete-time hazard models; labour market transitions; duration of unemployment spells; immigration
Online: 1 August 2016 (09:47:20 CEST)
This paper studies the duration patterns of unemployment spells for immigrants and the determinants of unemployment’s completion into one of a number of studied labour market states in Finland. We estimate a duration model for unemployment with competing risks of its terminating into employment, labour market training or economic inactivity. Taking into account the wide period of observation and opportunities to analyse processes of labour market integration during various periods of economic development in Finland, in combination with the individualistic character of the labour careers of immigrants, this research is beneficial owing to the many various findings concerning labour market integration of immigrants. The approach undertaken in this research has a dualistic “descriptive-dynamic” character under which integration is understood as a never-ending process, which is conditioned by a time period of long-term existence and a context of solitary action. We find that transitions out of unemployment spells have a cyclical character; after every new “cycle” in unemployment, the probability of terminating unemployment decreases further. We also find that ascriptive factors make sense in the process of job-placement of immigrants from unemployment. Therefore, the gender, education and age of immigrants, as well as the effect of the period in which first unemployment occurred, potentially predict transitions out of unemployment and further labour market integration of immigrants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1900.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: sitting position during the second stage of labour; maternal and neonatal outcomes; childbirth experience
Online: 28 September 2023 (05:16:37 CEST)
Existing research concerning the effects of the sitting birth position during the second stage of labour on maternal and neonatal outcomes remains controversial, and there is a lack of studies to explore its effect on the childbirth experience. The objective of this study is to explore whether the sitting birth position would influence maternal and neonatal outcomes, as well as the childbirth experience reported by Chinese women using the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ). A total of 296 women (including primiparous women and multiparous women) were enrolled in our study, and they were divided into the sitting position cohort (n=106) or the lithotomy position cohort(n=116). The study found that primiparous women in the sitting position cohort had a shorter duration of the second stage of labour, higher spontaneous vaginal birth rates, lower episiotomy rates and better childbirth experience (p<0.01). There was no significant difference for perineal lacerations, 2h-postpartum haemorrhage (P>0.05) between the two cohorts of primiparous women. After adjusting for confounding factors through multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, the results remained consistent with those reported above. No neonate in each cohort had Apgar scores at 1min and 5 min postpartum less than 7 or the Cord artery pH less than 7.00, regardless of parity. In addition, among multiparous women, there was no significant difference in any maternal and neonatal outcomes and women’s CEQ scores (p>0.05) between two cohorts. Based on the findings, we recommend that women could take the sitting birth position into account when giving birth for a positive childbirth experience, especially for primiparous women. The study could also serve as a reference for healthcare providers in the management of childbirth positions and the development of high-quality maternal care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1674.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: Late Middle Ages 1; Northern Iberia 2; Labour 3; Seamen’s guilds 4; Town ports 5; Social protest 6.
Online: 26 October 2023 (10:24:50 CEST)
The craft guilds have been at the core of important historiographical debates on the economic, social and political history of medieval cities for twenty years. The aim of this article is to examine the seamen’s guilds in the town ports of Northern Peninsula in the late Middle Ages. This study analyzes fundamental aspects of the social assistance, labour organization and social identity of the town ports, located on the maritime border of the Kingdom of Castile. In contrast to the more classical view of the craft guilds as protectionist institutions, which only served the interests of a privileged group of masters, this analysis highlights the contribution of the seamen craft guilds to the organization of labor at sea, the training of sea workers, the ability to negotiate with merchants and avoid labor exploitation, the provision of social assistance to the most vulnerable population, and the ability to lead the social protest for the guilders’ representation in the urban government. In summary, it is concluded that the seafarers’ guilds were constituted as networks of mutual help between individuals in the labor, welfare and political spheres of the population of the town ports of Northern Iberia in the late Middle Ages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0265.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Local Productive Systems; Meat Industries for the Transformation of the Iberian Pig; business processes; territorial processes; labour processes.
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:46:19 CET)
Local Productive Systems (hereinafter LPS) based on agro-food industries constitute alternative models of development in peripheral rural areas that are subject to internal and external dynamics and processes. The main objective of the research is to investigate the processes and their consequences on four SPLs based on the Iberian Pig Transformation Industry (hereinafter LPS-IPTI) in SW Spain: Fregenal de la Sierra, Higuera la Real, Cumbres Mayores and Jabugo. Using secondary data, a comparison is made between 2002 and 2020 to establish the changes, causes and consequences on the LPS-IPTI studied. The results obtained indicate (1) business and territorial concentration of LPS-IPTI; (2) productive and territorial specialisation in standardised products and quality products; (3) simplification of industrial processes; (4) loss of employment, especially female; (5) external control of companies in the sector which, accordingly, results in the loss of prominence of local actors in favour of foreign companies, reduced social capital and the progressive loss of ownership of the LPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1992.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: university business collaboration; critical thinking; curriculum co-design, development and delivery; employability; research project; labour market; higher education; soft skills
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:07:19 CEST)
University-Business partnership for collaborative curriculum design, development and delivery is possibly the less explored dimension of University Business Collaboration (UBC). Even if some models for curricular design and development might be available, scarce information exists on how the partnership is constructed, the new curricula are designed, developed and how they are implemented. This article intends to present and discuss the experience obtained during a three-year European funded Project, namely Think4Jobs. This project exemplifies the significance and benefits of UBC in the design, development and delivery of curricula that meet the evolving demands of the labour market while promoting Critical Thinking (CT) as a foundational 21st century skill to contribute to graduates' employability. Think4Jobs project brought together a multidisciplinary team of researchers and business organisations from five European countries (Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Portugal and Romania) with interests in promoting and developing CT and mitigating eventual competence gaps. The project's success was attributed to key practices, including defining a common conceptualization of CT, employing participatory co-design, and providing common training for university and business partners. Clear objectives, explicit roles, effective communication, and ongoing evaluation further enhanced the collaboration. Experiential learning, real-work problems, and case studies reinforced the curricula, bridging the gap between academia and the labour market. By embracing these insights, future UBC initiatives can empower graduates with the necessary skills to stand out in an ever-changing labour market, contributing to enhanced education and successful careers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0230.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Poverty; Foreign direct investment inflows; Human capital; Trade openness; Export product diversification; Economic growth; Labour productivity; Financial development; Infrastructure development.
Online: 6 November 2020 (09:03:02 CET)
The present paper investigates the effect of poverty on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in developing countries. It complements the important extant literature on the effect of FDI inflows on poverty by examining the issue the other way around. The analysis is conducted using a sample of 117 countries over the period 1980-2017, and the two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) technique. It has relied on two indicators of poverty, namely poverty headcount ratio and poverty gap. Findings indicate that over the full sample, poverty influences negatively FDI inflows, including through its adverse effect on human capital (that is, both education and health). Unsurprisingly, low-income countries (considered as poorest countries in the full sample) experience a higher negative effect of poverty on FDI inflows than other countries. On another note, participation in international trade matters for the effect of poverty on FDI inflows. In fact, an increase in poverty levels results in lower FDI inflows in countries that experience low workers' productivity, a less developed financial sector, and a low level of infrastructure development. Furthermore, the effect of poverty on FDI inflows does not depend on the prevailing economic growth rate. Finally, the analysis has revealed the existence of a non-linear effect of poverty on FDI inflows for the poverty headcount indicator, but not for the poverty gap indicator. The non-linear effect of poverty headcount on FDI inflows is such that a rise in poverty headcount ratio results in lower FDI inflows, but an additional increase in poverty more than further discourages FDI inflows. The conclusion discusses the implications of these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0093.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: nanotechnology applications in road maintenance; preventative road surface maintenance; nanotechnology clear-seals; New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME); pot-hole repairs; modified binder slurry seals; hydrophobic slurries; hydrophobic road surface sealants; labour intensive maintenance; rapid employment creation through nanotechnology usage in road maintenance
Online: 25 January 2022 (17:34:49 CET)
: Nanotechnology options to road surface maintenance offers several advantages compared to traditionally used materials. The small particle sizer of hydrophobic Nano-Silane modified Nano-Polymers (NSNP) enables these nanotechnology products to deeply penetrate existing road surfaces, sealing micro-cracks and render surfacings to be water-resistant for extended periods of time. In comparison, traditionally used products contain minimum partial sizes of about 1 – 5 microns, that provide a superficial protection that wears off in a relatively short period of time. These traditional products are often associated with vehicle contamination while drying and requires the re-instatement of road markings. None of these disadvantages are associated with applicable NSNP technologies that are quick drying, with no vehicle contamination risks and is equivalent to a “clear-seal” requiring no reinstatement of road markings. In a similar vein, pot-hole repairs can be done using applicable, easy to use, pre-packed and treated pot-hole repair kits that are water-repellent and quick-drying at a fraction of the costs of conventional cold-mix products. Resurfacing using NME binder slurries can be done labour-intensively on a pre-treated NSNP surfacing, restoring cracked surfacing and providing a water-resistant long-lasting protective layer without the removal of existing cracked areas. The implementation of nanotechnology solutions for road surface maintenance operations is directly associated with ease of use, labour-intensive operations, prevention of considerable deterioration in riding quality due to removal and manual re-instatement of cracked surfaces, time and cost savings and a reduction in the risk of water damage to the sub-structure. TRANSLATE with x English ArabicHebrewPolish BulgarianHindiPortuguese CatalanHmong DawRomanian Chinese SimplifiedHungarianRussian Chinese TraditionalIndonesianSlovak CzechItalianSlovenian DanishJapaneseSpanish DutchKlingonSwedish EnglishKoreanThai EstonianLatvianTurkish FinnishLithuanianUkrainian FrenchMalayUrdu GermanMalteseVietnamese GreekNorwegianWelsh Haitian CreolePersian TRANSLATE with COPY THE URL BELOW Back EMBED THE SNIPPET BELOW IN YOUR SITE Enable collaborative features and customize widget: Bing Webmaster Portal Back TRANSLATE with x English ArabicHebrewPolish BulgarianHindiPortuguese CatalanHmong DawRomanian Chinese SimplifiedHungarianRussian Chinese TraditionalIndonesianSlovak CzechItalianSlovenian DanishJapaneseSpanish DutchKlingonSwedish EnglishKoreanThai EstonianLatvianTurkish FinnishLithuanianUkrainian FrenchMalayUrdu GermanMalteseVietnamese GreekNorwegianWelsh Haitian CreolePersian TRANSLATE with COPY THE URL BELOW Back EMBED THE SNIPPET BELOW IN YOUR SITE Enable collaborative features and customize widget: Bing Webmaster Portal Back